KINDS OF DISTRIBUTION LOSSES AND THRE REDUCTION INTRODUCTION Distribution losses is the electricity difference between of entering the

system and leaving it .There are two distinct classifications  Technical losses  Non technical losses Technical losses Circuits (underground cables and overhead) In overhead transmission we mostly use copper and aluminum wire .At ordinary they are consider good for the transmission .but due to the heating effect they will become less feasible to transfer maximum energy. H=I^2*R*T Which tells that due to increase in current heating effect will also increases .The increase in 0c to 100c is 40% of loss . Power factor is also contribute to losses METERS All the consumers have the meters .Although it consumes small electricity but millions of meters whose power loss is 2% to 3% of total technical losses or 400MWh per anum. TRANSFORMERS Transformer include the following losses

 Core losses
Core loss occurs as a result of eddy currents in the ferrite material and also as a result of moving around the non-linear B-H curve. Both of these loss mechanisms increase with operating frequency (F) and peak to peak flux density variation (B) as well as being dependant on operating temperature. The effects of eddy current and hysteresis loss can be combined and plotted as a function of frequency and peak to peak flux density variation. Using the curves, an empirical equation can be developed to aid calculation of the loss density:-

 Winding losses
Winding loss can be approximated as RMS losses. Use our rms equations to calculate the worst case RMS current in your winding. The required winding cross-sectional area can then be calculated by assuming a current density of around 5A/mm2. Higher current density than this will result in a less efficient winding which runs hotter whilst a lower current density will increase efficiency but also could increase the transformer size.

To avoid increased winding loss, the maximum conductor diameter should be limited to no more than twice the skin depth at the frequency your power converter is running at. If current density considerations require a thicker wire, consider using two or more parallel strands of wire.

Non-technical losses (NTL) in electricity distribution include mainly electricity theft, but also losses due to poor equipment maintenance, calculation errors and accounting mistakes. ILLEGAL TAPPING (PILFRAGE) Pilferage is defined in distribution utility as unaccounted (unmetered) uses of electricity mostly are intentionally done. This is like stealing electricity from the utility through many different means.

Another contributor to non-technical losses is by meter reading errors. Defective meters will either be beneficial to the utility or to the consumers that is why if it is beneficial to the consumers will mean losses to the utility and vice versa