Computer network

Internet map. The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide.

Distributed processing A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information.[1] Where at least one process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at least one process residing in a remote device, then the two devices are said to be in a network. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics such as the medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, and organizational scope. Communications protocols define the rules and data formats for exchanging information in a computer network, and provide the basis for network programming. Well-known communications protocols are Ethernet, a hardware and Link Layer standard that is ubiquitous in

local area networks, and the Internet Protocol Suite, which defines a set of protocols for internetworking, i.e. for data communication between multiple networks, as well as host-to-host data transfer, and application-specific data transmission formats. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of these disciplines.

Contents
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1 History 2 Properties 3 Communication media o 3.1 Wired technologies o 3.2 Wireless technologies o 3.3 Exotic technologies 4 Communications protocols and network programming o 4.1 Ethernet o 4.2 Internet Protocol Suite o 4.3 SONET/SDH o 4.4 Asynchronous Transfer Mode o 4.5 Network programming 5 Scale o 5.1 Personal area network o 5.2 Local area network o 5.3 Home network o 5.4 Storage area network o 5.5 Campus network o 5.6 Backbone network o 5.7 Metropolitan area network o 5.8 Wide area network o 5.9 Enterprise private network o 5.10 Virtual private network o 5.11 Internetwork 6 Organizational scope o 6.1 Intranets and extranets o 6.2 Internet 7 Network topology o 7.1 Common layouts o 7.2 Overlay network 8 Basic hardware components o 8.1 Network interface cards o 8.2 Repeaters and hubs o 8.3 Bridges o 8.4 Switches o 8.5 Routers

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o 8.6 Firewalls 9 Network performance 10 Network security 11 Network resilience 12 Views of networks 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

History
Before the advent of computer networks that were based upon some type of telecommunications system, communication between calculation machines and early computers was performed by human users by carrying instructions between them. Many of the social behaviors seen in today's Internet were demonstrably present in the 19th century and arguably in even earlier networks using visual signals.

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In September 1940, George Stibitz used a Teletype machine to send instructions for a problem set from his Model at Dartmouth College to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and received results back by the same means. Linking output systems like teletypewriters to computers was an interest at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) when, in 1962, J.C.R. Licklider was hired and developed a working group he called the "Intergalactic Network", a precursor to the ARPANET. Early networks of communicating computers included the military radar system SemiAutomatic Ground Environment (SAGE), started in the late 1950s. The commercial airline reservation system semi-automatic business research environment (SABRE) went online with two connected mainframes in 1960.[2][3] In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer to route and manage telephone connections. Throughout the 1960s Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently conceptualized and developed network systems which used packets that could be used in a network between computer systems. 1965 Thomas Merrill and Lawrence G. Roberts created the first wide area network (WAN). The first widely used telephone switch that used true computer control was introduced by Western Electric in 1965. In 1969 the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were connected as the beginning of the ARPANET network using 50 kbit/s circuits.[4]

25 were deployed in 1972. although not necessarily the public Internet. video telephone calls. authorized users may access data and information stored on other computers on the network. and other types of information In a network environment. e. chat rooms. May interfere with other technologies Power line communication strongly disturbs certain forms of radio communication. It may also be very costly to set up an effective computer network in a large organization or company.[5] It may also interfere with last mile access technologies such as ADSL and VDSL. and the technologies needed to connect and communicate through and between them. . computer networks are the core of modern communication. instant messaging. and telephony increasingly runs over the Internet Protocol. This expansion is mirrored by growth in the numbers and types of users of networks.[6] May be difficult to set up A complex computer network may be difficult to set up. and later used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding TCP/IP networks. and video conferencing.. and peripherals industries. The capability of providing access to data and information on shared storage devices is an important feature of many networks. Commercial services using X. from the researcher to the home user. Share network and computing resources In a networked environment. All modern aspects of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) are computer-controlled. May be insecure A computer network may be used by computer hackers to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network. and this boom in communications would not have been possible without the progressively advancing computer network. Permit sharing of files. amateur radio. telephone. Today. Computer networks. Properties Computer networks: Facilitate communications Using a network. people can communicate efficiently and easily via email. Distributed computing uses computing resources across a network to accomplish tasks. each computer on a network may access and use resources provided by devices on the network. The scope of communication has increased significantly in the past decade. software. or to prevent these devices from normally accessing the network (denial of service).g. such as printing a document on a shared network printer. continue to drive computer hardware. data.

Each form comes in several category ratings. roughly. Wireless LAN technology is designed to connect devices without wiring. Wired technologies The order of the following wired technologies is. and very fast tramission speed. Coaxial cable is widely used for cable television systems. office buildings.  Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for telecommunication. Twisted pair cabling comes in two forms: unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair (STP).hn). Transmission speed ranges from 200 million bits per second to more than 500 million bits per second. ITU-T G. The insulation helps minimize interference and distortion.Communication media Computer networks can be classified according to the hardware and associated software technology that is used to interconnect the individual devices in the network.hn technology uses existing home wiring (coaxial cable. The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. these are located at levels 1 and 2.    Wireless technologies . An optical fiber is a glass fiber. In the OSI model. up to trillions of bits per second.3) consists of 4 pairs of copper cabling that can be utilized for both voice and data transmission. One can use different colors of lights to increase the number of messages being sent over a fiber optic cable. A well-known family of communication media is collectively known as Ethernet. phone lines and power lines) to create a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network. immunity from electromagnetic radiation. Ordinary telephone wires consist of two insulated copper wires twisted into pairs. It is defined by IEEE 802 and utilizes various standards and media that enable communication between devices. These devices use radio waves or infrared signals as a transmission medium. power line communication. The cables consist of copper or aluminum wire surrounded by an insulating layer (typically a flexible material with a high dielectric constant). which itself is surrounded by a conductive layer. It uses pulses of light to transmit data. and other work-sites for local area networks. such as electrical cable (HomePNA. and radio waves (wireless LAN). designed for use in various scenarios. G. optical fiber. from slowest to fastest transmission speed. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per second to 10 billion bits per second. Some advantages of optical fibers over metal wires are less transmission loss. Computer networking cabling (wired Ethernet as defined by IEEE 802. Twisted-pair cabling consist of copper wires that are twisted into pairs.

11 defines a common flavor of open-standards wireless radiowave technology.[8] Extending the Internet to interplanetary dimensions via radio waves. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area.[9]  Both cases have a large round-trip delay time. Infrared communication can transmit signals for small distances. typically no more than 10 meters. etc. and TV signals. satellite coverage areas. issued as RFC 1149. Communications protocols and network programming Main article: Communications protocol A communications protocol is a set of rules for exchanging information over a network. Terrestrial microwaves are in the low-gigahertz range. in which each . which is a "stack" of protocols. In most cases. which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Communications satellites – The satellites communicate via microwave radio waves. It was implemented in real life in 2001. A global area network (GAN) is a network used for supporting mobile across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs. which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere. The key challenge in mobile communications is handing off user communications from one local coverage area to the next. Terrestrial microwave – Terrestrial microwave communication uses Earth-based transmitters and receivers resembling satellite dishes. Wireless LANs – Wireless local area network use a high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology.[7]      Exotic technologies There have been various attempts at transporting data over more or less exotic media:  IP over Avian Carriers was a humorous April fool's Request for Comments. Relay stations are spaced approximately 48 km (30 mi) apart. The systems divide the region covered into multiple geographic areas. line-of-sight propagation is used. The satellites are stationed in space. It is typically a protocol stack (also see the OSI model).000 mi) above the equator. typically in geosynchronous orbit 35. data. which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices. this involves a succession of terrestrial wireless LANs. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. IEEE 802.400 km (22. In IEEE Project 802. These Earthorbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice. Cellular and PCS systems use several radio communications technologies. which prevents useful communication.

but it is also found in WLANs – it is what the home user sees when the user has to enter a "wireless access key". An important example of a protocol stack is HTTP running over TCP over IP over IEEE 802. It offers connection-less as well as connection-oriented services over an inherently unreliable network traversed by datagram transmission at the Internet protocol (IP) level. and IEEE 802. They were originally designed to transport circuit mode communications from a variety of different sources. Asynchronous Transfer Mode . is the foundation of all modern internetworking. the most well-known member of this protocol family is IEEE 802. which forms the basis for the authentication mechanisms used in VLANs. the next generation of the protocol with a much enlarged addressing capability. identification. MAC bridging (IEEE 802. Internet Protocol Suite The Internet Protocol Suite. This stack is used between the wireless router and the home user's personal computer when the user is surfing the web. or whether they use hierarchical or flat addressing. often also called TCP/IP. Communication protocols have various properties. the complete protocol suite deals with a multitude of networking aspects not only for home use.11 is a member of the Ethernet protocol suite).1D) deals with the routing of Ethernet packets using a Spanning Tree Protocol. whether they use circuit mode or packet switching. circuit-switched voice encoded in PCM format. For home users today. Ethernet Ethernet is a family of connectionless protocols used in LANs.11. otherwise known as Wireless LAN (WLAN). due to its protocol neutrality and transport-oriented features. the protocol suite defines the addressing. However. and IEEE 802. described by a set of standards together called IEEE 802 published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. uncompressed. such as whether they are connection-oriented or connectionless. It has a flat addressing scheme and is mostly situated at levels 1 and 2 of the OSI model.11 (TCP and IP are members of the Internet Protocol Suite. However. IEEE 802.1X defines a port-based Network Access Control protocol. primarily to support real-time. At its core. but especially when the technology is deployed to support a diverse range of business needs.protocol uses the protocol below it. a few of which are described below. and routing specification in form of the traditional Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and IPv6.1Q describes VLANs. SONET/SDH also was the obvious choice for transporting Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) frames. SONET/SDH Synchronous Optical NETworking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers. There are many communication protocols.

which initiates the communication.[10] Network programming Computer network programming involves writing computer programs that communicate with each other across a computer network. ATM uses a connectionoriented model in which a virtual circuit must be established between two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins. Both endpoints of the communication flow are implemented as network sockets. hence network programming is basically socket programming. and real-time. and for the server process. While the role of ATM is diminishing in favor of next-generation networks. which waits for the communication to be initiated. including the deep stacking of communications protocols used. it still plays a role in the last mile. which is the connection between an Internet service provider and the home user. It uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing and encodes data into small. see. fixed-sized cells. low-latency content such as voice and video. For an interesting write-up of the technologies involved. Different programs must be written for the client process. This differs from other protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite or Ethernet that use variable sized packets or frames. Scale Computer network types by geographical scope  Near field (NFC)  Body (BAN)  Personal (PAN)  Near-me (NAN)  Local (LAN) o Home (HAN) o Storage (SAN)  Campus (CAN)  Backbone  Metropolitan (MAN)  Wide (WAN)  Internet  Interplanetary Internet This box:    view talk edit .Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a switching technique for telecommunication networks. This makes it a good choice for a network that must handle both traditional high-throughput data traffic. ATM has similarity with both circuit and packet switched networking.

hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing home wires (coaxial cables. phone lines and power lines). . Those inside the library. Usage. telephones. where the router at the top is a distribution router that connects to the Internet and academic networks' customer access routers.[11] A wired PAN is usually constructed with USB and Firewire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared communication typically form a wireless PAN.3 LAN technologies operate at speeds up to 10 Gbit/s. Personal area network A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person. trust level. A PAN may include wired and wireless devices. which have only 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connections to the user device and a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the central router. because they are handling multiple subnets (the different colors). and access rights differ between these types of networks.Networks are often classified by their physical or organizational extent or their purpose. Current wired LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. and even video game consoles. or closely positioned group of buildings. fax machines. The defining characteristics of LANs. in contrast to WANs (Wide Area Networks). Local area network A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal computers. although new standards like ITU-T G. Each computer or device on the network is a node. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802. in a branching tree topology and controlled access to resources All interconnected devices must understand the network layer (layer 3). office building. It would be more correct to call them access routers. PDAs. include their higher data transfer rates. could be called "layer 3 switches" because they only have Ethernet interfaces and must understand IP. computer laboratory.[12] Typical library network. and no need for leased telecommunication lines. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters. school. smaller geographic range. printers. scanners.

and student residence halls. university. if a server cluster needs to be accessed by different departments of a company which are located at different geographical locations.This is the data transfer rate. usually a small number of personal computers and accessories. Cat5 cabling etc. SANs are primarily used to make storage devices. and optical jukeboxes.). . tape libraries. the backbone's capacity is greater than that of the networks connected to it. academic colleges or departments. Backbone network A backbone network is part of a computer network infrastructure that interconnects various pieces of network. government etc. The equipment which ties these departments together constitute the network backbone.[13] LANs can be connected to Wide area network by using routers. such as printers and mobile computing devices. for example. Storage area network A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated. the university library. A backbone can tie together diverse networks in the same building. An important function is the sharing of Internet access. accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system. for example. IEEE has projects investigating the standardization of 40 and 100 Gbit/s. Normally. the network is likely to link a variety of campus buildings including. Network performance management including network congestion are critical parameters taken into account when designing a network backbone. in different buildings in a campus environment. block level data storage.) are almost entirely owned (by the campus tenant / owner: an enterprise. A large corporation which has many locations may have a backbone network that ties all of these locations together. often a broadband service through a cable TV or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) provider. or over wide areas. such as disk arrays. copper plant. The cost and complexity of SANs dropped in the early 2000s to levels allowing wider adoption across both enterprise and small to medium sized business environments. The networking equipment (switches. providing a path for the exchange of information between different LANs or subnetworks. Home network A home network is a residential LAN which is used for communication between digital devices typically deployed in the home. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally not accessible through the local area network by other devices. routers) and transmission media (optical fiber. Campus network A campus network is a computer network made up of an interconnection of LANs within a limited geographical area. In the case of a university campus-based campus network.

WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer. Metropolitan area network A Metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. the data link layer. such as telephone companies. cables. and the network layer.A specific case of a backbone network is the Internet backbone. Sample EPN made of Frame relay WAN connections and dialup remote access. which is the set of wide-area network connections and core routers that interconnect all networks connected to the Internet. or spans even intercontinental distances. and air waves. using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines. country. Sample VPN used to interconnect 3 offices and remote users Wide area network A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a city. . A WAN often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers.

Organizational scope Networks are typically managed by organizations which own them. That administrative entity closes the intranet to all but specific. for example.. usually a LAN. The Internet is an aggregation of many connected internetworks spanning the Earth. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet. a VPN has a topology more complex than point-to-point. A large intranet will typically have at least one web server to provide users with organizational information. Intranets and extranets Intranets and extranets are parts or extensions of a computer network. production sites.g. Most commonly. the Internet) instead of by physical wires. using the Internet Protocol and IP-based tools such as web browsers and file transfer applications. VPNs. or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. shops. Virtual private network A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e. networks are seen as intranets or extranets. The data link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. authorized users. which has no single owner but a distinct status when seen by an organizational entity – that of permitting virtually unlimited global connectivity for a great multitude of purposes. can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features. . According to the owner's point of view. An intranet is a set of networks. in order to share computer resources. A special case of network is the Internet.g. that is under the control of a single administrative entity. head offices. but a VPN need not have explicit security features. VPN may have best-effort performance.. an intranet is the internal network of an organization. remote offices. e. Internetwork An internetwork is the connection of multiple computer networks via a common routing technology using routers. Generally.Enterprise private network An enterprise private network is a network built by an enterprise to interconnect various company sites. such as authentication or content encryption.

it must have at least one connection with an external network. Service providers and large enterprises exchange information about the reachability of their address spaces through the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). protocols compatible with the Internet Protocol Suite and an addressing system (IP addresses) administered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and address registries. A mesh network: each node is connected to an arbitrary number of neighbours in such a way that there is at least one traversal from any node to any other. corporate. It is based on the networking technologies of the Internet Protocol Suite. A fully connected network: each node is connected to every other node in the network. such that all nodes are connected and that each node can reach each other node by traversing nodes left. the network topology is a ring (actually two counter- . This is the typical layout found in a Wireless LAN.An extranet is a network that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity and also has limited connections to the networks of one or more other usually. and often standardized. It is the successor of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) developed by DARPA of the United States Department of Defense. academic. and private computer networks. The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) made use of such a topology. where each wireless client connects to the central Wireless access point. Technically. [edit] Internet The Internet is a global system of interconnected governmental. Network topology Common layouts A network topology is the layout of the interconnections of the nodes of a computer network. called 10BASE5 and 10BASE2. Common layouts are:      A bus network: all nodes are connected to a common medium along this medium. public. This was the layout used in the original Ethernet. WAN. A star network: all nodes are connected to a special central node. although an extranet cannot consist of a single LAN. The Internet is also the communications backbone underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). an extranet may also be categorized as a CAN. Note that the physical layout of the nodes in a network may not necessarily reflect the network topology. MAN.or rightwards. or other type of network. but not necessarily. trusted organizations or entities—a company's customers may be given access to some part of its intranet—while at the same time the customers may not be considered trusted from a security standpoint. A ring network: each node is connected to its left and right neighbour node. forming a redundant worldwide mesh of transmission paths. with FDDI. As an example. Participants in the Internet use a diverse array of methods of several hundred documented.

and the overlay network is a table (actually a map) indexed by keys. Overlay networks have also been proposed as a way to improve Internet routing. Overlay network An overlay network is a virtual computer network that is built on top of another network. because all neighboring connections are routed via a central physical location. Address resolution and routing are the means which allows the mapping of the fully connected IP overlay network to the underlying ones. A sample overlay network: IP over SONET over Optical For example. DiffServ. many peer-to-peer networks are overlay networks because they are organized as nodes of a virtual system of links run on top of the Internet. The Internet was initially built as an overlay on the telephone network.[14] The most striking example of an overlay network. however. Previous proposals such as IntServ. is composed of a mesh-like interconnect of subnetworks of varying topologies (and. perhaps through many physical links. Nodes in the overlay are connected by virtual or logical links. which maps keys to nodes in the network. thereby creating a fully connected network. each of which corresponds to a path. and IP Multicast have not seen wide acceptance largely because they . Overlay networks have been around since the invention of networking when computer systems were connected over telephone lines using modems.rotating rings). The topology of the overlay network may (and often does) differ from that of the underlying one. such as through quality of service guarantees to achieve higher-quality streaming media. however. the underlying network. each node can reach any other by a direct connection to the desired IP address. before any data network existed. Another example of an overlay network is a distributed hash table. in fact. is the Internet itself: At the IP layer. but the physical topology is a star. technologies). in the underlying network. the underlying network is an IP network. In this case.

regenerates it. This can cause a propagation delay which can affect network communication when there are several repeaters in a row. such as network interface cards (NICs). Uniqueness is maintained by the IEEE. Ethernet's 5-43 rule). which manages the Ethernet address space by assigning 3-octet prefixes to equipment manufacturers. The list of prefixes is publicly available. for example. or NIC (network interface card) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to physically access a networking medium. bridges. Today. Basic hardware components Apart from the physical communications media themselves as described above. but it can control.require modification of all routers in the network. and routers. without cooperation from Internet service providers. and retransmits it at a higher power level. For example. The overlay has no control over how packets are routed in the underlying network between two overlay nodes.g. Ethernet MAC addresses are composed of six octets. efficient content delivery (a kind of multicast). cleans it of unnecessary noise. . switches. allowing any device to connect to the network without creating an address conflict. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations. Network interface cards A network card. A repeater with multiple ports is known as a hub. or to the other side of an obstruction. network adapter. so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. the sequence of overlay nodes a message traverses before reaching its destination. On the other hand. Repeaters work on the Physical Layer of the OSI model. Each manufacturer is then obliged to both use only their assigned prefix(es) and to uniquely set the 3-octet suffix of every Ethernet interface they produce. It provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses. Akamai Technologies manages an overlay network that provides reliable. Academic research includes end system multicast and overcast for multicast. Many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row (e. hubs. Each Ethernet network interface has a unique MAC address which is usually stored in a small memory device on the card. repeaters and hubs have been made mostly obsolete by switches (see below). repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters. and OverQoS for quality of service guarantees. RON (resilient overlay network) for resilient routing. Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal. an overlay network can be incrementally deployed on end-hosts running the overlay protocol software. networks comprise additional basic hardware building blocks interconnecting their terminals. among others. Repeaters and hubs A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal.

The term switch is used loosely in marketing to encompass devices including routers and bridges.g. Routers A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks by processing information found in the datagram or packet (Internet protocol information from Layer 3 of the OSI Model). no further processing is done for said data). Once the bridge associates a port and an address. Switches A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagrams (chunks of data communication) between ports (connected cables) based on the MAC addresses in the packets. as well as devices that may distribute traffic on load or by application content (e. A switch breaks the collision domain but represents itself as a broadcast domain. a Web URL identifier). Remote bridges. The first time that a previously unknown destination address is seen. Once a frame arrives through a port. Switches make forwarding decisions of frames on the basis of MAC addresses. its source address is stored and the bridge assumes that MAC address is associated with that port.[15] A switch is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the frames to the ports involved in the communication rather than all ports connected. however. these are called multi-layer switches. but learn which MAC addresses are reachable through specific ports. In many situations. Bridges come in three basic types:    Local bridges: Directly connect LANs Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs. bridges do not promiscuously copy traffic to all ports. Bridges learn the association of ports and addresses by examining the source address of frames that it sees on various ports. Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote stations to LANs. as hubs do. Firewalls . the bridge will forward the frame to all ports other than the one on which the frame arrived. this information is processed in conjunction with the routing table (also known as forwarding table). and cascading additional switches. where the connecting link is slower than the end networks. largely have been replaced with routers.[16] Some switches are capable of routing based on Layer 3 addressing or additional logical levels. A switch normally has numerous ports. However.Bridges A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model.. Routers use routing tables to determine what interface to forward packets (this can include the "null" also known as the "black hole" interface because data can go into it. facilitating a star topology for devices. Bridges broadcast to all ports except the port on which the broadcast was received. it will send traffic for that address to that port only.

as each network is different in nature and design. modulation technique and modem enhancements. one example of this is using state transition diagrams to model queuing performance in a circuitswitched network. both public and private that are used in everyday jobs conducting transactions and communications among businesses. or denial of the computer network and network-accessible resources.[19] Network security In the field of networking. ATM: In an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network. misuse. which is controlled by the network administrator. technology. The number of rejected calls is a measure of how well the network is performing under heavy traffic loads. stability. ensuring that the network will be optimally designed. Users are assigned an ID and password that allows them access to information and programs within their authority. etc. viz. ATM:  Circuit-switched networks: In circuit switched networks. Performance can also be modelled instead of measured. The vital role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in 'cyber' attacks for the purpose of stealing/corrupting data. Network resilience Main article: resilience (network) In computer networking: ―Resilience is the ability to provide and maintain an acceptable level of service in the face of faults and challenges to normal operation. These diagrams allow the network planner to analyze how the network will perform in each state. modification. network performance is synonymous with the grade of service. performance can be measured by line rate. data throughput. echo and so on.[17] Other types of performance measures can include noise.A firewall is an important aspect of a network with respect to security. Network Security covers a variety of computer networks. planting viruses. the area of network security[20] consists of the provisions and policies adopted by the network administrator to prevent and monitor unauthorized access. It typically rejects access requests from unsafe sources while allowing actions from recognized ones.[18]  There are many different ways to measure the performance of a network. government agencies and individuals. It should not be seen merely as an attempt to get "more through" the network. quality of service (QoS). Network security is the authorization of access to data in a network. connect time. Network performance Network performance refers to the service quality of a telecommunications product as seen by the customer.‖[21] . The following list gives examples of Network Performance measures for a circuit-switched network and one type of packet-switched network.

employees). enterprises. a common practice in a campus of buildings is to make a set of LAN cables in each building appear to be a common subnet. and is only accessible by authorized users (e. and should be thought of as a set of arbitrarily located users who share a set of servers.g.g.g. business-to-consumer (B2C) and consumer-to-consumer (C2C) communications. and aggregates of subnets. whereas a Network Administrator is responsible to keep that network up and running. the Internet is the set of subnets. Over the Internet. called. A community of interest has less of a connection of being in a local area. Network administrators can see networks from both physical and logical perspectives. Especially when money or sensitive information is exchanged.[22] Unofficially. Users can share printers and some servers from a workgroup. business partners. physical cabling. Again using TCP/IP architectural terminology. map onto one or more physical media. An extranet is an extension of an intranet that allows secure communications to users outside of the intranet (e. bridges and application layer gateways) that interconnect the physical media.. Typically. For example. transparently to users. From an engineering viewpoint. which usually means they are in the same geographic location and are on the same LAN. via the directory function of the Domain Name System (DNS). routers. of the trust and scope characteristics of a network.[22] Intranets do not have to be connected to the Internet.Views of networks Users and network administrators typically have different views of their networks. using virtual LAN (VLAN) technology. and content providers that are interconnected by Internet Service Providers (ISP). the communications are apt to be secured by some form of communications security mechanism. Intranets and extranets can be securely superimposed onto the Internet. The physical perspective involves geographic locations. in the TCP/IP architecture. Logical networks. without any access by general Internet users and administrators. customers). but generally have a limited connection. which share the registered IP address space and exchange information about the reachability of those IP addresses using the Border Gateway Protocol. the human-readable names of servers are translated to IP addresses. and possibly also communicate via peer-to-peer technologies. there can be business-to-business (B2B). using secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology. subnets. . the Internet is the set of users. to varying extents. Both users and administrators will be aware. an intranet is a community of interest under private administration usually by an enterprise. and the network elements (e.

include their usually higher data-transfer rates. smaller geographic area. computer laboratory. see LAN (disambiguation).[1] The defining characteristics of LANs. For other uses. and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. or office building. search "LAN" redirects here. and Wi-Fi are the two most common technologies currently used to build LANs.1 Standards evolution .Local area network From Wikipedia. in contrast to wide area networks (WANs). Computer network types by geographical scope  Near field (NFC)  Body (BAN)  Personal (PAN)  Near-me (NAN)  Local (LAN) o Home (HAN) o Storage (SAN)  Campus (CAN)  Backbone  Metropolitan (MAN)  Wide (WAN)  Internet  Interplanetary Internet This box:    view talk edit A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers in a limited area such as a home. Contents [hide]  1 History o 1. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from LAN) Jump to: navigation. school. but Ethernet over twisted pair cabling. Token Ring and other technology standards have been used in the past. ARCNET.

2 Cabling 2 Technical aspects 3 See also 4 References 5 External links [edit] History The increasing demand and use of computers in universities and research labs in the late 1960s generated the need to provide high-speed interconnections between computer systems. Cambridge Ring was developed at Cambridge University in 1974[4] but was never developed into a successful commercial product. Of the competitors to NetWare. and a much more sophisticated operating system than most of its competitors. There was much enthusiasm for the concept and for several years. from about 1983 onward."[6] ARCNET was developed by Datapoint Corporation in 1976 and announced in 1977. the concept was marred by proliferation of incompatible physical layer and network protocol implementations.    o 1.[9][10][11] In practice. cabling. meant that many sites grew to dozens or even hundreds of computers. and later DOS-based systems starting in 1981. Metcalfe and Boggs published a seminal paper. Typically.S.[8] [edit] Standards evolution The development and proliferation of personal computers using the CP/M operating system in the late 1970s. protocol. after the system was deployed at PARC. In 1976. Patent 4. each vendor would have its own type of network card. and a plethora of methods of sharing resources. and network operating system. Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC in 1973–1975.220. only Banyan Vines had comparable technical strengths. A 1970 report from the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory detailing the growth of their "Octopus" network[2][3] gave a good indication of the situation.[7] It had the first commercial installation in December 1977 at Chase Manhattan Bank in New York. Microsoft and 3Com worked together to create a simple . "Ethernet: Distributed Packet-Switching For Local Computer Networks. A solution appeared with the advent of Novell NetWare which provided even-handed support for dozens of competing card/cable types.063. which were both expensive at the time. but Banyan never gained a secure base. computer industry pundits would regularly declare the coming year to be ―the year of the LAN‖. Netware dominated[12] the personal computer LAN business from early after its introduction in 1983 until the mid 1990s when Microsoft introduced Windows NT Advanced Server and Windows for Workgroups.[5] and filed as U. The initial driving force for networking was generally to share storage and printers.

During the same period. Although this market segment is now much reduced. Larger LANs also contain a wide variety of network devices such as switches. Intergraph. Switched Ethernet has been for some time the most common Data Link Layer and Physical Layer implementation for local area networks. the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) has become the standard.but none of these were particularly successful. Larger LANs are characterized by their use of redundant links with switches using the spanning tree protocol to prevent loops. At the higher layers. and in 1984 StarLAN showed the potential of simple unshielded twisted pair by using Cat3—the same simple cable used for telephone systems. a LAN may also be classified as a metropolitan area network (MAN) or a wide area network (WAN) . the technologies developed in this area continue to be influential on the Internet and in both Linux and Apple Mac OS X networking—and the TCP/IP protocol has now almost completely replaced IPX. routers. cable modem. Depending on how the connections are established and secured in a LAN. NeXT and Apollo were using TCP/IP based networking. or by tunneling across the Internet using virtual private network technologies. As cabling is not always possible. However shielded twisted pair was used in IBM's Token Ring implementation. NBF. Microsoft's LAN Manager and IBM's LAN Server . Smaller LANs generally consist of one or more switches linked to each other. as the cabling required is minimal and it is well suited to mobile laptops and smartphones. firewalls. often at least one is connected to a router. [edit] Technical aspects Network topology describes the layout pattern of interconnections between devices and network segments.network operating system which formed the base of 3Com's 3+Share. wireless Wi-Fi is now the most common technology in residential premises[citation needed]. and sensors. Hewlett-Packard. Silicon Graphics.[13] LANs may have connections with other LANs via leased lines. load balancers. This led to the development of 10Base-T (and its successors) and structured cabling which is still the basis of most commercial LANs today. [edit] Cabling Early LAN cabling had always been based on various grades of coaxial cable. AppleTalk. and other protocols used by the early PC LANs. leased services. and to segregate traffic with VLANs. or ADSL modem for Internet access. Unix computer workstations from vendors such as Sun Microsystems. In addition. and the distance involved. fiber-optic cabling is increasingly used in commercial applications. their ability to manage differing traffic types via quality of service (QoS).

e.. buyers. any network that links across metropolitan. or national boundaries). regional. Business and government entities utilize WANs to relay data among employees. In essence this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily function regardless of location.[1] . clients. and suppliers from various geographical locations. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.Wide area network From Wikipedia. search Computer network types by geographical scope  Near field (NFC)  Body (BAN)  Personal (PAN)  Near-me (NAN)  Local (LAN) o Home (HAN) o Storage (SAN)  Campus (CAN)  Backbone  Metropolitan (MAN)  Wide (WAN)  Internet  Interplanetary Internet This box:    view talk edit A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a telecommunication network that covers a broad area (i.

campus area networks (CANs). countries. At each end of the leased line. Instead of using leased lines. for example. campus or specific metropolitan area (e. and is often considered to be the "grandfather" of Frame Relay as many of the underlying protocols and functions of X. This could be to facilitate higher bandwidth applications. Network protocols including TCP/IP deliver transport and addressing functions. and thus cannot transmit data over tens. WANs are often built using leased lines. a router connects the LAN on one side with a second router within the LAN on the other.g. provide connections from an organization's LAN to the Internet. hundreds or even thousands of miles or kilometres. or provide better functionality for users in the CAN. Protocols including Packet over SONET/SDH. X. may have a localised backbone of a WAN technology. Leased lines can be very expensive. However. Others. This distinction stems from the fact that common LAN technologies operating at Layer 1/2 (such as the forms of Ethernet or Wifi) are often geared towards physically localised networks. . WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together. Contents [hide]      1 Design options 2 Connection technology options 3 See also 4 References 5 External links [edit] Design options The textbook definition of a WAN is a computer network spanning regions. Many WANs are built for one particular organization and are private.25 are still in use today (with upgrades) by Frame Relay. which connects different LANs within a campus. built by Internet service providers. it may be best to view WANs as computer networking technologies used to transmit data over long distances. WANs necessarily do not just connect physically disparate LANs. ATM and Frame relay are often used by service providers to deliver the links that are used in WANs. WANs can also be built using less costly circuit switching or packet switching methods. a city) respectively. in terms of the application of computer networking protocols and concepts.. A CAN. MANs and other localised computer networking architectures. and between different LANs.This is in contrast with personal area networks (PANs). building.25 was an important early WAN protocol. or metropolitan area networks (MANs) which are usually limited to a room. or even the world. local area networks (LANs). MPLS. so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations.

Best example is dialup connections Devices transport packets via a shared single point-topoint or point-to-multipoint link across a carrier internetwork. ISDN Option: Description Point-to-Point connection between two computers or Local Area Networks (LANs) A dedicated circuit path is created between end points. network emulation and network simulation. Most secure Expensive SDLC.25 FrameRelay Cell relay Best for simultaneous use of voice and data Overhead can be considerable ATM Transmission rates usually range from 1200 bit/s to 24 Mbit/s. Variable length packets are transmitted over Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVC) or Switched Virtual Circuits (SVC) Similar to packet switching. but uses fixed length cells instead of variable length packets.144 kbit/s PPP. creating a WAN in that way. HNAS Less Expensive Call Setup 28 . HDLC. microwave links & satellite channels. Performance improvements are sometimes delivered via wide area file services or WAN optimization. Recently with the proliferation of low cost of Internet connectivity many companies and organizations have turned to VPN to interconnect their networks. Typical communication links used in WANs are telephone lines. although some connections such as ATM and Leased lines can reach speeds greater than 156 Mbit/s.Academic research into wide area networks can be broken down into three areas: mathematical models. . [edit] Connection technology options Several options are available for WAN connectivity:[2] Sample Bandwidth Advantages Disadvantages protocols range used PPP. Data is divided into fixed-length cells and then transported across virtual circuits Leased line Circuit switching Packet switching Shared media across link X.

Companies such as Cisco. New Edge Networks and Check Point offer solutions to create VPN networks. .

including telephones and personal digital assistants. or even Body Area Network. search This article may contain original research. or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink). Bluetooth. (September 2007) Computer network types by geographical scope  Near field (NFC)  Body (BAN)  Personal (PAN)  Near-me (NAN)  Local (LAN) o Home (HAN) o Storage (SAN)  Campus (CAN)  Backbone  Metropolitan (MAN)  Wide (WAN)  Internet  Interplanetary Internet This box:    view talk edit A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computerized devices. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) is a PAN carried over wireless network technologies such as IrDA. More details may be available on the talk page. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication). Wireless USB.1 Bluetooth . Z-Wave. The reach of a WPAN varies from a few centimeters to a few meters. A PAN may also be carried over wired computer buses such as USB and FireWire. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.Personal area network From Wikipedia. Contents [hide]  1 Wireless Personal Area Network o 1. ZigBee.

in which the connections are wireless. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. although ranges of up to 100 metres (330 ft) can be reached under ideal circumstances.2 Infrared Data Association 1. an archeologist on site in Greece might use a PDA to directly access databases at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. and network). pointing devices. A piconet typically has a range of 10 metres (33 ft). Infrared Data Association. The three kinds of wireless technologies used for WPAN are Bluetooth.15. printers may connect to Personal digital assistants (PDAs). audio head sets.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. In the ideal scenario." meaning very small or one trillionth. Bluetooth devices such as a keyboards. and is composed of up to 8 active devices in a master-slave relationship (a very large number of devices can be connected in "parked" mode).3 WiFi 1. and all other devices are slaves that communicate with the master. and Wi-Fi. The first Bluetooth device in the piconet is the master.   1. Wireless PAN is based on the standard IEEE 802. and to transmit findings to that database. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today .4 GHz in digital modes. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development. In addition.4 Body Area Network 2 See also 3 References 4 External links o o o [edit] Wireless Personal Area Network A wireless personal area network (WPAN) is a personal area network . A Bluetooth PAN is also called a piconet (combination of the prefix "pico. provided they are within physical range of one another. or computers wirelessly. For example. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. [edit] Bluetooth Bluetooth uses short-range radio waves over distances up to approximately 10 metres. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. WPANs worldwide will be interconnected. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information. for example. . Thus.a network for interconnecting devices centered around an individual person's workspace . cell phones. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in".

See the relevant discussion on the talk page. for instance. They used an antenna with a scope and Yagi antenna. A cable attached the antenna to a Bluetooth card in a computer. keyboards. (December 2011) Body Area Networks is the IEEE 802. Typical WPAN devices that use IrDA include printers.15. Please see the discussion on the talk page. to allow PC multimedia content to be stream to the TV (Wireless Multimedia Adapter).Recent innovations in Bluetooth antennas have allowed these devices to greatly exceed the range for which they were originally designed.[2] Skinplex implementation can detect and communicate up to 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) from a human body. usually in a local area network (LAN) environment. Please help to ensure that disputed facts are reliably sourced. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. . (December 2011) This section's factual accuracy is disputed. and other serial data interfaces.6 standard based on transmission via the capacitive near field of human skin allowing Near field communication of devices worn by and near the wearer. Wifi can be used to connect local area networks. and to connect video game consoles to their networks (Nintendo WiFi Connection). which has a frequency below the human eye's sensitivity. TV remotes and ps3 controllers."[citation needed] [edit] Infrared Data Association Infrared Data Association uses infrared light. to connect cellphones to the Internet to download music and other multimedia. a group of hackers known as "Flexilis" successfully connected two Bluetooth devices more than half a mile (800 m) away. At DEF CON 12. [edit] Body Area Network Main article: Body Area Network The neutrality of this section is disputed. It is used. in cell phones.[1] [edit] WiFi WiFi uses radio waves for connection over distances up to around 91 metres. It is already used for access control for door locks and jamming protection in convertible car roofs. all attached to a rifle stock. They later named the antenna "The BlueSniper.

the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Body Area Network) Jump to: navigation. this application of WPAN has been named as body area network (BAN) to represent the communications on. More details may be available on the talk page. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed.[6][7] A WBAN system can use WPAN wireless technologies as gateways to reach longer ranges.[1][2][3] This will enable wireless communication between several miniaturized body sensor units (BSU) and a single body central unit (BCU) worn at the human body.[4][5] The development of WBAN technology started around 1995 by considering wireless personal area network (WPAN) technologies for communications on. (August 2010) Computer network types by geographical scope  Near field (NFC)  Body (BAN)  Personal (PAN)  Near-me (NAN)  Local (LAN) o Home (HAN) o Storage (SAN)  Campus (CAN)  Backbone  Metropolitan (MAN)  Wide (WAN)  Internet  Interplanetary Internet This box:    view talk edit Body area network (BAN).Body area network From Wikipedia. in and near the body only. wireless body area network (WBAN) or body sensor network (BSN) are terms used to describe the application of wearable computing devices. search This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. near and around the human body. Later around 2001. Contents .

While the technology is still in its primitive stage it is being widely researched and once adopted. The body area network field is an interdisciplinary area which could allow inexpensive and continuous health monitoring with real-time updates of medical records via Internet. crops. which can be used for computer assisted rehabilitation or early detection of medical conditions. The implanted sensors in the human body will collect various physiological changes in order to monitor the patient's health status no matter their location. is expected to be a breakthrough invention in healthcare. A BAN network on a diabetic patient could auto inject insulin though a pump. as soon as their insulin level declines. infrastructure and health. especially for continuous monitoring and logging vital parameters of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as diabetes. The information will be transmitted wirelessly to an external processing unit.   A BAN network in place on a patient can alert the hospital. Currently the level of information provided and energy resources capable of powering the sensors are limiting. the physicians will immediately inform the patient through the computer system by sending appropriate messages or alarms. This area relies on the feasibility of implanting very small bio-sensors inside the human body that are comfortable and that don't impair normal activities. through measuring changes in their vital signs. asthma and heart attacks. low power integrated circuits and wireless communication has enabled a new generation of wireless sensor networks. . even before they have a heart attack. [edit] Applications Initial applications of BANs are expected to appear primarily in the healthcare domain. These wireless sensor networks are used to monitor traffic. This device will instantly transmit all information in real time to the doctors throughout the world. If an emergency is detected. A number of intelligent physiological sensors can be integrated into a wearable wireless body area network. leading to concepts like telemedicine and mHealth becoming real.[hide]        1 Concept 2 Applications 3 Components 4 Challenges 5 See also 6 References 7 External links [edit] Concept The rapid growth in physiological sensors.

to transmit vital sign and motion readings to medical practitioners or care givers. military.[10] . Further. It is of the utmost importance especially within a healthcare domain that all sensor readings are validated. plug and play device interaction. It would have to be made sure that the patient ‗‘secure‗‘ data is only derived from each patient's dedicated BAN system and is not mixed up with other patient's data. the storage devices need to facilitate remote storage and viewing of patient data as well as access to external processing and analysis tools via the Internet. ZigBee etc. Physiological sensors. or security. Further. vital patient datasets may be fragmented over a number of nodes and across a number of networked PCs or Laptops. Social acceptance would be key to this technology finding a wider application. ensure efficient migration across networks and offer uninterrupted connectivity. if the applications go beyond "secure" medical usage. If a medical practitioner′s mobile device does not contain all known information then the quality of patient care may degrade. to promote information exchange. interference and limited power reserves. or between individual and machines. motion detectors (through accelerometers) to help identify the location of the monitored individual and some form of communication. have been developed. Further. [edit] Components A typical BAN or BSN requires vital sign monitoring sensors. Sensor validation: Pervasive sensing devices are subject to inherent communication and hardware constraints including unreliable wired/wireless network links.[8] [edit] Challenges Problems with the use of this technology could include:       Interoperability: WBAN systems would have to ensure seamless data transfer across standards such as Bluetooth. the systems would have to be scalable. Extending the technology to new areas could also assist communication by seamless exchanges of information between individuals. A typical body area network kit will consist of sensors. a transceiver and a battery. such as ECG and SpO2 sensors. small in form factor. a Processor. power efficient.[9] Data consistency: Data residing on multiple mobile devices and wireless patient notes need to be collected and analysed in a seamless fashion. System and device-level security: Considerable effort would be required to make BAN transmission secure and accurate. Invasion of privacy: People might consider the WBAN technology as a potential threat to freedom. System devices: The sensors used in WBAN would have to be low on complexity. light in weight. This may result in erroneous datasets being transmitted back to the end user.Other applications of this technology include sports. the data generated from WBAN should have secure and limited access. This helps to reduce false alarm generation and to identify possible weaknesses within the hardware and software design. EEG sensor and a PDA for BSN interface are under development. easy to use and reconfigurable. Within body area networks. Other sensors such as a blood pressure sensor.

for example those at risk of cardiac ischemia may want their WBANs to function constantly. The wireless links should be robust and work under various user environments. These include [13]  Cost: Today's consumers expect low cost health monitoring solutions which provide high functionality.e. Sensor measurements should be accurate and calibrated.. The level of monitoring influences the amount of energy required and the life cycle of the BAN before the energy source is depleted. This is especially important for large scale implementation of WBAN systems. even when the WBAN is switched off and switched on again. Interference: The wireless link used for body sensors should reduce the interference and increase the coexistence of sensor node devices with other network devices available in the environment. Constrained Deployment: The WBAN needs to be wearable. It should not alter or encumber the user's daily activities. WBAN implementations will need to be cost optimized to be appealing alternatives to health conscious consumers.[11][12] Besides hardware-centric challenges. while others at risk of falls may only need WBANs to monitor them while they are walking or moving. The technology should ultimately be transparent to the user i. lightweight and non intrusive.    . the following human-centric challenges should be addressed for practical BAN development. it should perform its monitoring tasks without the user realising it. Consistent Performance: The performance of the WBAN should be consistent. Constant Monitoring: Users may require different levels of monitoring.