Ciliophora

Phylum Example Asexual Sex Amount of Ovary Amount of Testis Fertilization Zygote’s Development Special Structures Ciliophora Paramecium Binary Fission ( divides body to two ) Cilia - hair like appendages that help the paramecium move food into the oral groove Gullet - forms food vacuoles Macronucleus - larger nucleus which performs normal cell functions Micronucleus - smaller nucleus which is responsible for cell division. Contractile Vacuole - contracts and forces extra water out of the cell Food Vacuole - storage pocket for food 1. The micronucleus of each enters meiosis I. 2. Meiosis II follow result in 4 haploid micronuclei. 3. In each cell, 1 haploid micronucleus stays intact; other 3 degenerate. 4. Each haploid micronucleus divides. 5. Each cell swap a daughter micronucleus with its partner. 6. 2 micronuclei in each cell fuse, forming a diploid micronucleus. 7. Each cell now contains genetic material from each other. 8. The micronucleus of each divides. 9. The macronucleus of each cell degenerate. 10. Each cell 4 micronuclei, 2 develop into macronuclei. 1. Each daughter cell contains 1 micronucleus and 1 macronucleus. -

Process Occur During Copulation

Process Occur During Separation Pathway of Sperm’s Movement Pathway of Ovum’s Movement Location of Embryo

3. 1. Nematocysts . The zygote protected by cyst. Gastrula is enclosed in a protective capsule and released into the water.approximately cylindrical in shape and elongated at the axis of the body. From one Hydra to another Hydra. Process Occur During Copulation Process Occur During Separation Pathway of Sperm’s Movement Pathway of Ovum’s Movement Location of Embryo . Testis contains sperms. 1. 2. Testis  water  ovum of another Hydra  fertilize with Ovum Ovaries  fertilize with only one sperm from another Hydra 1. Fertilization produces zygote ( 2n ) subsequently develops into an blastula. Eggs in ovary mature one at a time and fertilized by sperms when released into the water. When condition are suitable.Cnidaria Phylum Example Asexual Sex Amount of Ovary Amount of Testis Fertilization Zygote’s Development Special Structures Cnidaria Hydra Budding Haemephrodite ( most ) Bisexual ( least ) One One Internal Fertilization Oviparity Medusa . 2. A young Hydra develops in each capsule.a form of cnidarian in which the body is shaped like an umbrella. 2. Polyps .to sting their prey and any threatening enemy. Blastula further develops into a gastrula. Sperms and egg cells from interstitial cells which aggregate locally in the body wall to form testis and ovaries. the gastrula will be escape from the capsule and develops into a mature hydra. 4.

which will fill with an albuminous fluid. The male and female sex organs can produce sperm and egg respectively in each earthworm. 3.closes off and a few eggs hatch Seminal vesicle .store own sperm Seminal receptacles . 1. 3.Annelida Phylum Example Asexual Sex Amount of Ovary Amount of Testis Fertilization Zygote’s Development Special Structures Annelida Scientific Name : Pheretime Local Name : Earthworm Haemephrodite One pair Two pairs External Fertilization Oviparity Clitelum .receive and temporary store the sperm 1. 2. The slime tube will form an “egg cocoon” and be put into the soil. 5.secrete mucus cocoon Cocoon . the tube will pass over the female pore picking up eggs. The earthworm will move forward out of the slime tube. The fertilized eggs will develop and become young worms. 7. Testes  seminal vesicle  seminal receptacles  sperm duct Ovaries  egg sac  cocoon Protected by cocoon Process Occur During Copulation Process Occur During Separation Pathway of Sperm’s Movement Pathway of Ovum’s Movement Location of Embryo . As the earthworm passes through the slime tube. During mating. 4.The tube will continue to move down the earthworm and pass over the male pore called the spermatheca which has the stored sperm called the spermatozoa. The clitellum will form a slime tube around it. which take in the sperm from another mate. 6. It need a mate to reproduce. The earthworms each have two male openings and two sperm receptacles. The eggs will fertilize and the slime tube will close off as the worm moves completely out of the tube. two worms line up inverted from each other so sperm can be exchanged by the mucus secreted by clitellum. 4. The earthworms have a pair of ovaries that produce eggs. 2.

2. Sperms stored in spermatheca are then released to fertilize the eggs. Nymphs emerge from the eggs. During mating. Fertilised eggs cemented together by the female in a sausageshape egg case known as ootheca. Eggs from ovary are carried in the oviducts into the genital chamber. it produces pheromone to attract males. 6. Ootheca drop by mother in dark place. 1. Testis  vas deferens  seminal vesicle  ejaculatory duct  spermatheca Ovaries  calyx  lateral oviduct  common oviduct  gonopore Protected by ootheca Process Occur During Copulation Process Occur During Separation Pathway of Sperm’s Movement Pathway of Ovum’s Movement Location of Embryo . 4. 3. Sperms are collected and stored in spermatheca. 2.Arthropoda Phylum Example Asexual Sex Amount of Ovary Amount of Testis Fertilization Zygote’s Development Special Structures Arthropoda Scientific Name : Periplaneta Local Name : cockroach Separate sexes One pair ( 16 ovarioles ) One pair Internal Fertilization Oviparity Accessory glands ( male ) – secrete fluid to mix with sperms before ejaculation Accessory glands ( female ) – secrete a shell to cover the eggs Pheromone – one type of hormone release by female body to attract males Ootheca – egg case Gonapophyses – to shape the ootheca Seminal Vesicle – store sperms 1. The male will release sperm though penis into the female body by the fluid secrete from accessory glands. 5.

genital and intestinal tracts of a frog. 2. simultaneously to fertilize the eggs. The eggs covered in thick jelly-like skin which is a mucoprotein that will absorb large quantities of water and expands to avoid overcrowding of eggs.Amphibia Phylum Example Asexual Sex Amount of Ovary Amount of Testis Fertilization Zygote’s Development Special Structures Process Occur During Copulation Amphibia Scientific Name : Rana Local Name : Frogs Some spcies Separate sexes One pair One pair External Fertilization Oviparity Cloaca – orifice shared by the urinary. Testes  vasa efferentia  wolffian duct  seminal vesicle  cloaca Ovaries  oviducts  cloaca 1. 4. Process Occur During Separation Pathway of Sperm’s Movement Pathway of Ovum’s Movement Location of Embryo . sperms are produced in testes and stored in the seminal vesicle. 1. Fertilized eggs would develop into tadpoles and then young Frogs. In water. 1. Eggs moving through the oviduct are covered in jelly-like skin secreted by oviduct walls. 2. sperm ejaculated into water. 6. The female will releases the eggs into water. In males body. During mating season. vocal calls of a male frog would attract the female frog to mate with it. 3. matured oocytes in the ovary are released into the oviduct and deposited in ovisac until it release during mating season. The male will climb onto the female’s back and squeezes. In females body. 5.

The process begins with the ovaries. 3. In male body. and then a shell is placed around the yolk and white. The hemipenes are often grooved. or spined in order grip the walls of the female’s cloaca. stored inverted in the male’s tail. Chorion – gas exchange iii. The fertilized egg goes out of mother’s body. Amniotic : consist 4 extra membrane layer i. 2. 5. can fertilize subsequent cluthes of eggs without additional contact by a male. hooked. 1. To deliver sperms into female’s cloaca. Yolk sac – nourishment iv. where eggs are stored and developed. 2. Testes  vasa effentia  vas deferens  seminal vesicle  cloaca Ovaries  oviducts  cloaca Protected by leathery shell which are amniotic. Allantois – store nitrogenous waste Process Occur During Separation Pathway of Sperm’s Movement Pathway of Ovum’s Movement Location of Embryo . The follicle then detach and move into the oviducts where the egg white is added. incubate until hatch. Sperms can be retained in the female body for years. Amnion – amniotic fluid ii. has a penis like organ ( hemipenes ).Reptilia Phylum Example Asexual Sex Amount of Ovary Amount of Testis Fertilization Zygote’s Development Special Structures Process Occur During Copulation Reptilia Scientific Name : Naja Local Name : Snakes Separate sexes One pair One pair Internal Fertilization Oviparity ( lay eggs ) Hemipenis – transfer sperm into female cloaca 1. 3. Each follicle is composed of a tiny egg and a sac filled with yolk. 4.

the male ejaculate sperms into the cloaca of the female. Testes  vasa effentia  vas deferens  seminal vesicle  cloaca Ovaries  oviducts  cloaca 1. 1. 2. Eggs are released into water to fertilized with sperms. The eggs covered by mucous which is secreted by oviducal gland. For internal fertilization. 3. Ova released into water. Male and female paired before the female release eggs into water. 4.Osteichthyes Phylum Example Asexual Sex Amount of Ovary Amount of Testis Fertilization Zygote’s Development Special Structures Process Occur During Copulation Osteichthyes Scientific Name : Tilapia Local Name : Fishes Separate sexes One pair One pair External Fertilization Oviparity 1. Ova released by ovaries are collected by oviducts. 2. Oviducal gland maybe be present to secret mucous to cover the eggs. Testes produce sperms and channeled out via vas efferens to seminal vesicle then into cloaca then out to water. Process Occur During Separation Pathway of Sperm’s Movement Pathway of Ovum’s Movement Location of Embryo . The male secrete sperms to fertilize the eggs. Sperm independently fertilize the ovum to form zygote.

3. Sperms are ejaculated into the cloaca of the female. Allantois – store nitrogenous waste Process Occur During Separation Pathway of Sperm’s Movement Pathway of Ovum’s Movement Location of Embryo . Amniotic : consist 4 extra membrane layer v. Chorion – gas exchange vii. 1. goes out of mother’s body.During mating. incubate until hatch. 2. male pigeon mouths on the female and presses its cloaca opening on the cloaca opening of the female. The fertilized egg coated with hard shell. Sperms swim from the cloaca into the oviduct to fertilize the eggs . Amnion – amniotic fluid vi. Fertilized egg is covered in egg yolk and albumin before being enclosed within hard shell. Protected by calcareous shell which are amniotic. When oocyte mature. Yolk sac – nourishment viii. 1. it breaks out of the ovary and enters the oviduct that opens into the cloaca. 2. 2. Testes  vasa effentia  vas deferens  seminal vesicle  cloaca Ovaries  oviducts  cloaca 1.Aves Phylum Example Asexual Sex Amount of Ovary Amount of Testis Fertilization Zygote’s Development Special Structures Process Occur During Copulation Aves Scientific Name : Columba Local Name : Birds Separate sexes One One pair Internal Fertilization Oviparity Testes reduce in size during non-mating season.

During mating. Sperms produced in the seminiferous tubules of the seminiferous tubules of the testis and channeled into the epididymis to be stored. Sperms will swim to the Fallopian tube to fertize ovum. male penis is used to introduce sperms in the vagina. 1. 2. Sperms will activated by seminal fluid secreted from prostate gland. sperms will be delivered by vas deferens into the urethra. From the epididymis. 3.Mammalia Phylum Example Asexual Sex Amount of Ovary Amount of Testis Fertilization Zygote’s Development Special Structures Mammalia Scientific Name : Rattus Local Name : Rat Separate sexes One pairs One pair Internal Fertilization Viviparity ( Majority ) Oviparity ( porcupine & platypus ) Oviducts – fertilization of egg and sperm Uterus – implantation of zygote Vagina – passage of unfertilize eggs to outside environment – passage of baby out of mother’s baby 1. Testes  vasa efferentia  vas deferens  seminal vesicle  penis Ovaries  oviducts / fallopian tube  uterus In the female’s body Process Occur During Copulation Process Occur During Separation Pathway of Sperm’s Movement Pathway of Ovum’s Movement Location of Embryo . 4.