# Calculations i.

Disruptive critical voltage

Pressure: 760Hgmm Temperature: 30C The correction factor =

Assuming that the conductor is smooth and polished so then m0=1 r = 0.05cm and d = 13.5 cm, where r = radius of the rod and d = distance to the wire mesh from center of the rod ( ( ) ) ( ) ( )

ii. Visual critical voltage ( ) [ ( √ )] ( )

[

( √

)]

(

)

iii. Power loss due to corona Phase Voltage (line to neutral) (kV) = E = 100kV Frequency of supply (Hz) = 50Hz ( ) √ (
0, rms)

kW/Km/phase

(

)

(

)

PC = 101.795 kW/Km/phase

EE 3092 Laboratory Practice 5

CORONA CHARACTERISTICS

Instructed by :- Mr : C.K.S Hapuarachchi.

Name :-J.A.T. Jayaweera Index no :- 090231N Department :-Electrical Engineering Date of practical :-17/02/2012 Date of submission :- 23/03/2012

Gap Distance Vs Breakdown Voltage

Gap Distance (cm) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5

Practical Voltage (V) 17.0 20.5 25.0 36.5 41.5 47.0 50.5 55.0 58.5 61.0 62.0 65.0 69.5 72.0

Actual Voltage(kV) (Pr. Value × ) 7.39 8.91 10.87 15.87 18.04 20.43 21.96 23.91 25.43 26.52 26.96 28.26 30.22 31.30

Air Gap Vs Breakdown Voltage
35 30

Break Down Voltage (kV)

25

20

15

10

5

0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Air Gap (cm)

Discussion a) Explain the phenomenon of corona formation based on your observations. What is the impact of this phenomenon for high voltage overhead transmission lines? In order to observe corona effect we use a special type of instrument (a metal conductor surrounded with cylindrical shape metal net). We connect high voltage terminal to the metal conductor and ground terminal to cylindrical net. Then we start to increase the terminal voltage. First observation was a hissing noise. As we increased the terminal voltage further, noise was also increased. Then we able to see bluish patches in the conductor wire. As the voltage increased the bluish patches spread all over the conductor. When we increased voltage further flash over occurred. The above observations can be explained as follows. As we increased the voltage, air around the conductor gets ionized. In the certain voltage level the energy is starts dissipate as a sound. This is the sound which we heard as a hissing noise. The noise is generally very low in practical situations (i.e. 220 kV lines) provided that the moisture (i.e. water bubbles) is not present. This voltage is named as Disruptive Critical Voltage. As voltage is further increased energy is starts to dissipate as light. It starts in the points where the electric field intensive is high. Those are the points where we saw the bluish laminas. This dissipation of energy gradually increased with the voltage. This phenomenon will cause the power losses in all the transmission lines. But especially in high voltage transmission lines, generally above 345 kV, this happens more noticeably. Besides of the power loss this can cause following effects on transmission lines.  Corona effect will produced the radio noises which can cause interference to the communication lines  Sometimes corona effect will cause destructions of lines and other equipments in over the time.  Air around the corona region will becomes converted to Ozone which most likely disrupts the balance in the nature.  Erosion of transmission lines caused by the ions created by corona effect  Formation of ionization path may lead to harmful sparks  Corona effect may lead to introduce harmonics to the system causing a power loss
 There are some possibilities to fuel ignition happens due to corona effect. But this

needs to fulfil special set of requirements.

b) The importance of the liquid resistor used in this experiment setup? In this practical we used the liquid resistor to limit and protect the device in case of complete breakdown. In such a case liquid resistor absorbed that energy and preventing the flow of high frequency current through the circuit. Also there is no need for precise resistor value in this practical. We use liquid resistor over the other available types due to the following reasons.  Liquid resistors can absorb large amount of energy and relatively inexpensive over the other resistors  Ability to handle high levels of voltage levels without breakdown  Fairly less expensive than other types and also fulfil the requirements of the practical

c) Comment on the theoretical values and practical values (for corona characteristics) obtained during the experiment giving reasons.

Theoretical value Disruptive critical voltage. Visual corona voltage. 5.744 kV 13.578 kV

Practical value 12.273 kV 19.091 kV

We can clearly see that the practical values are differ from the theoretical values obtain above. Reasons for the differences would be identified as follows      When measuring the diameter of conductor and radius of the wire mesh, there will be a measuring errors and reading errors The conductor and wire mesh are most likely not uniform where in calculations we are assumed to be uniform. Instance where we take the values will most probably not the exact time where the flash over happens The conductor will not smooth and polished as we assumed when doing the theoretical calculations. Differences in air density, impurities in the conductor and variations in high voltage output of the transformer etc will also contribute to the differences of two values

d) How you differentiate the breakdown of non-uniform fields from uniform fields? Comment on the features of non-uniform fields using rod-plate gap breakdown characteristics. In non uniform fields there are particular places where intensity of field is high (as name implies). The field intensity is higher at the places such as sharp points and where the electrodes are curved. Before breakdown happens in non uniform fields, corona discharge will be visible in the places where mentioned above. On the other hand in the uniform fields, field intensity is same in everywhere. So in such cases no corona discharge will be visible and break down occurs directly.

Rod- plate breakdown characteristics (Features of non uniform fields)   Because of surface of two electrode is not same this can be considered as non uniform field Breakdown voltage is considerably high and negative polarity is on the rod

The breakdown voltage will depend on the plate which is grounded. If we ground rod we get different breakdown voltage than that of plate

REFERANCE     High Voltage Engineering by Prof. J R Lucas Non uniform breakdown of gases by J.F Darpeau http://ethesis.nitrkl.ac.in/2875/1/Full_Thesis_Print_04.07.2011.pdf http://www.wseas.us/e-library/transactions/power/2008/25-485.pdf