Submitted By. Sanket Chothe PGDM Ebiz 2 Roll No. 74 Question No. 1.

How do you see the role of HRM changing in the present day context of business? What are the new mandates of HRM? Explain with the example of the organization you have been working for or familiar with. Quote specific situations to explain your point. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to. Answer: - Human Resource Management is much discussed in today‘s business world. But how well is
it understood? In a world where people‘s competencies and skill sets are described in paragraphs rather than in a few words and where media reports of salaries make us do a double-take to ensure that seeing indeed believes, it is becoming increasingly challenging to manage this high potential we consider as the country‘s asset. Today, managing the expectations and motivations of a skilled workforce has brought with it attendant complexities in terms of the need for robust HR practices and organizational procedures. The shift in focus from traditional HRM to strategic HRM was inevitable. Competitive advantage for an organization lies not just in differentiating a product or service or in becoming the low cost leader but in also being able to tap the company‘s special skills or core competencies and rapidly respond to customer‘s needs and competitor‘s moves. HR management can play a role in identifying and analyzing external opportunities and threats that may be crucial to the company‘s success. It is in a unique position to supply competitive intelligence that may be useful in the strategic planning process. Human Resource Accounting Over the years, some of the traditional HR practices have been revisited and analyzed to evaluate their suitability in today‘s world. One such major practice is the concept of Human Resource Accounting (HRA). Initially, one might hesitate to accept a concept which tries to put a monetary value to human beings. How does one attach a number to a person‘s capabilities? However, HRA represents a way to gauge how strong and profitable an organization‘s workforce is. Organizations have been claiming that their employees are their most valuable assets. The spate of downsizings and increasing job insecurity notwithstanding, the resurgence of interest in the area of HRA is perhaps testimony to this approach, where investments in human resources are now included as assets in a company‘s balance sheet, rather than expense heads in their profit and loss statements. The signals are clear — the employee is an asset who can be groomed to bring in future profitability — an asset which can define the company‘s image in the market today. HRA also involves accounting for investment in people and their replacement costs, as also the economic value of people in an organization. A trend yet to catch up in the Indian industry, with a few exceptions such as BHEL, Infosys, SBI and Reliance industries, it has been extensively embraced in the West. Competency mapping

In these cases. Disability determination is. This would entail that every manager. therefore. To make sure that a company selects the right person for the right job. factual evidence of the degree of strength required for job performance is needed to justify that a disabled worker is legitimately qualified for disability status. Accurate. internal change agent. often a fairly "high-stakes" decision. competency development and mapping still remains in the nascent stages of implementation. observation. human talent is undoubtedly the most important asset today. and manages him/her carefully. or both). And finally. the time has perhaps come where it needs to be treated as a line function with every manager having HR activities as part of his line responsibilities. 2 What are the methods of Job Analysis and techniques of writing Job Description? Take example of a few job descriptions and explain its components as techniques of writing it. The analyst may then meet with a group of workers or incumbents. in order to train their students to meet the changed expectations of the industry.With the growth of the industries in the `knowledge-verticals‘. it is common to use more than one of these methods. irrespective of his/her functional area of specialization. open-ended. however. performance management. As far as the HR function is concerned. In the context of vocational rehabilitation. Explain the organization and the context of the job adequately to support your answers. counselor. a survey may be administered. Today‘s manager is expected to wear multiple hats — that of a leader. and gathering background information such as duty statements or classification specifications. recruitment. and are acting under the supervision of an industrial psychologist. In conjunction with the balanced scorecard. would have to have a thorough grounding in concepts and processes of HR. this can be an extremely robust tool to manage an organization‘s performance. In job analysis conducted by HR professionals. in India. Question No. Despite the growing level of awareness. It has become fashionable among organizations to use terms such as HRD (Human Resource Development) and HCM (Human Capital Management) as being representative of the changing trends in HR practices. and then using it for job-evaluation. Job . IITs as well as other professional institutions to rise to the occasion and re-design their curriculum and pedagogical methods in consultation with the industry. billions of dollars are paid to disabled workers by private insurers and the federal government (primarily through the Social Security Administration). mentor — in addition to his/her `technical‘ responsibilities. the primary method is direct observation and may even include video recordings of incumbents involved in the work. and succession planning. including: interviews with incumbents and supervisors. coach. rather than treating HR as a separate. The need of the hour is for premier institutes such as the IIMs. job analysts typically are industrial/organizational psychologists or Human Resource Officers who have been trained by. training and development. questionnaires (structured. Merely renaming the function is however not going to be sufficient. Competency mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for a particular position in an organization. There are several ways to conduct a job analysis. critical incident investigations. It is common for such job analysts to use scales and other apparatus to collect precise measures of the amount of strength or force required for various tasks. In the United States. support-providing activity only. processes like competency mapping are gaining ground.

Answer: . Common Steps In Competency Mapping . and where the pain is being felt.. Question No. then start there. its own customers. Such list should be used for recruitment. it should be sorted. and how potential alternative formats for the models may or may not fit the needs of the business. and also against external research relevant and analogous to the organizations situation-not as a driver. Start with small.Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for a company or institution and the jobs and functions within it. From that. Competency mapping is important and is an essential exercise. promotions. It is advisable to begin with a ‗horizontal‘ slice of the management or senior-most team as the benefits will percolate down to the whole organization. appraisals and training yield much better results. and the competencies that bring success in that specific context (including national culture). more or less at the same organizational level. management development. This is a common error…the Universalist. all the HR processes like talent induction. categorized and leveled carefully to create models that are concise and comprehensive. It has to be specific to the user organization. simple and sophisticated. discrete groups or teams. Briefly describe the organization and the context leading to mapping. Developing BEI skills within the organization has the added benefit that once the model is complete. It is important to focus on one or two key areas of implementation rather than the whole HRD agenda in one scoop. International organizations must ensure that the methodology does not screen-out those competencies that do not match the culturally-influenced pre-conceptions of the head office (wherever it is situated) of what high-performance competencies are. This data should be triangulated against clear top-down input in terms of organizational strategy and business objectives. its own market. using behavioral interview methods so that the organization creates a model that reflects its own strategy. placement and training needs identification. the organization can learn about the process of competency modeling. Every well managed firm should: have well defined roles and list of competencies required to perform each role effectively. It is better to develop models that draw from but are not defined by existing research. Competency Mapping Process The competency mapping process does not fit the one-size-fits all formula. The competency framework serves as the bedrock for all HR applications. and a ‗vertical slice‘ taking in one whole department or team from top to bottom. it can be used more effectively by transferring these skills to selection interviewing. Methodology for designing: The most effective route to employ recognized best-practice internal research methodology using behavioral event interview (BEI) techniques to selectively sample the target population (supplemented with expert panels and ‗Competency Requirement Questionnaires‘ to engage wider population samples) and so build up the models from the data that emerges. all-powerful ‗global leadership model‘. As a result of competency mapping. Once the behavioral data is collected. and so on. So if recruitment and selection or performance management is the key strategic needs of the business. ideally in two directions-a ‗horizontal slice‘ across the business that takes in a multi-functional or multi-site group. but as a reference point. 3 what are the methods of Competency Mapping? Explain briefly with organizational example of the organization you are working for or familiar with.analysts in these contexts typically come from a health occupation such as occupational or physical therapy. development assessments. performance management.

Question No. There are several index points within the responsibility level. and their potential effectiveness in the roles they perform. A win-win situation for everyone. How do you see your role fitting into Role set and Role space. An almost (but not quite) arbitrary level of attainment is noted against each benchmark indicating the areas where the assesses is in terms of personal development and achievement. managerial skills. depends on their technical competence. attitudes and abilities they need to have to perform it well. 4 Explain the concept of Role and Role systems. Role efficacy It is important to understand that the performance of people working in a programme or in an organization. . It is the merging of the two (the person and the role) that ensures the individual‘s effectiveness in an organization. Answer:ROLE The actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group in an organization. People with high role efficacy seem to experience less role stress and work-related tension. interact with people and the environment. A participatory environment provides staff higher satisfaction and contributes to role efficacy. Second: Having discovered the similarities in the questionnaires. An environment characterized by control seems to lower role efficacy. a competency-based job description is crafted and presented to the personnel department for their agreement and additions if any. he moves on to the next and begins there at the bottom – in short. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to. one starts mapping the capability of the employees to the benchmarks. Role efficacy means the potential effectiveness of an individual occupying a particular position in an organization. Once the employee `tops‘ every indicator at his level. and show commitment to their work. persist in solving problems (mostly by themselves). thus making it behavioral as well as skill-based. explain. Third: Having agreed on the job requirements and the skills and attitudes needed to progress within it and become more productive. These give an adept HR manager a fairly good picture of the employee to see whether he (or she) needs to perform better or to move up a notch on the scale. Explain them with the help of organizational example. This reasonably simple though initially (the first year only) tedious method helps everybody to know what the real state of preparedness of an organization to handle new business (or its old one) because it has a clear picture of every incumbent in the organization. They rely on their own strengths to cope with problems. It helps in determining the training and development needs and importantly it helps to encourage the best and develop the rest. use more focused behaviour.First: A job analysis is carried out by asking employees to fill in a questionnaire that asks them to describe what they are doing. and what skills. he is promoted. There would be a bit that requests them to list down attributes needed to make it up to the next level.

i. special skills. depends on their technical competence. the ability to gain the respect of others and handle threats and bullying. use more focused behaviour. namely. Influence and power at work come about from personal competence.e. One factor that makes roles in the public sector or in civil services more effective is the opportunity to influence a large section of the community. The roles that people play should provide an opportunity to utilize these skills and strengths to ensure a high level of role efficacy. Role efficacy means the potential effectiveness of an individual occupying a particular position in an organization. experience. ―Role making‖ is an active attitude towards the role. . interact with people and the environment. the higher their efficacy is likely to be. -role making. leadership style. and their potential effectiveness in the roles they perform.The Ten Aspects of Role Efficacy Role efficacy has ten aspects. When their role provides them with greater opportunity for using their special strengths. managerial skills. The three dimensions have been further sub-divided into the ten aspects of role efficacy Role making Self-role integration All people have strengths. ―Role centering‖ is concerned with increasing the power of the role. It is the merging of the two (the person and the role) that ensures the individual‘s effectiveness in an organization. role efficacy is likely to be low. These aspects can be classified into three groups or dimensions. and some unique contributions to make. and show commitment to their work. -role centering and -role linking. persist in solving problems (mostly by themselves). A participatory environment provides staff higher satisfaction and contributes to role efficacy. Influence The more influence and power people have in their roles. People with high role efficacy seem to experience less role stress and work-related tension. their role efficacy is likely to be higher. Role efficacy It is important to understand that the performance of people working in a programme or in an organization. position in the work place. They rely on their own strengths to cope with problems. If there is a gap between people and their roles. often highly respected by the community. defining and making the role one likes to take on. Health care providers have more influence because they treat people who are sick and are therefore. making it more important. technical expertise. An environment characterized by control seems to lower role efficacy. ―Role linking‖ is concerned with extending the relationship of the role with other roles and groups.

None can deny the fact that most people seek employment and expect fair compensation for the work they have done. Answer: . Question No.possibly none . which contributes to role efficacy. Helping relationship There are two kinds of helping relationships . they are likely to have a low role efficacy. The opportunity for staff to receive and give help increases their role efficacy. Staff must be made to understand that helping is a two-way interchange. greater communication. determinants and objectives of compensation in an organizational context? Explain with example whether the compensation structures are essentially based on evaluation programme? Briefly describe the organization. The feeling of role isolation (that a person works without any linkage with other roles) reduces role efficacy. There are several instances of people leaving one position and becoming very effective in another. usually with some collaboration. and an effort to understand problems and devise solutions etc. due to the role they play in that position. Super-ordination is working to serve large causes or groups. is likely to help larger sections of the community and society. If there is an exchange of ideas. Maximize the potential of compensation impact on organizational effectiveness by giving fair and just pay. especially those working at the grass roots level is the feeling that their contribution to people they deal with. If people feel that they are stagnating in a position without any opportunity to grow. is the perception that the position provides the individual with an opportunity to grow and develop.5 What are the functions. If there is a feeling that no help is available when asked for. Super-ordination when people performing a particular role feel that what they do is likely to be of value to a larger group. . their efficacy is likely to be high.who are willing and readily do work for free.Pay satisfaction results in positive work attitude and behavior among employees. Those involved in charitable activities are possibly the exceptions.feeling free to ask for help and expecting that help will be available when it is needed. This happens primarily because they have greater opportunity to grow in the second position. This has positive impact on organizational effectiveness and performance. role efficacy will be low. One major motivating factor for health personnel.Personal growth Another factor. There are very few people . the efficacy of the various roles involved is likely to be high. discussions. you are referring to. or that the other person is hostile. Inter-role linkage Linking one‘s role with that of others in the programme increases efficacy. as well as willingness to give help and respond to the needs of others..

Employees must not only feel that they are compensated fairly but that they . Benefits which are non-cash compensation are also important to employees. compensation . They also want to know the formula for calculating pay increases whether given annually or on the occurrence of certain events such as upon promotion or when additional responsibilities are given. An organization can lose its capability but only to the degree that negative attitude and behavior are shared by the majority of employees. 1. The quality of their work will become worse 2. Even if this is so."Employees are interested to know their commencing pay and the pay structure indicating the minimum and maximum pay range. charitable organizations have full-time employees." These people will feel that they have not used their time.Money is one of the things that can motivate workers. profitability. They are motivated more by the good resulting from their contribution than by monetary gains. The level of absenteeism and turnover is higher. Fairness in compensation systems is important. Surely.that is. "pay is one of the most important job attributes to job seekers. Their good feeling and joy in giving help freely is a form of "compensation. and thus. When employees are dissatisfied. They feel happy that they have participated for the general good and want to continue as long as they possibly can.Motivated people perform well. They tend to be late or do things other than their core tasks. it has its limit in maintaining employee motivation. It has impact on employee attitude and behavior. energy and talent in vain. These have negative impacts on organizational performance. Delivery of products or services of the required quality and number on time will suffer a setback. and 3.has different effect on different people. of organizations. Profit-Oriented Organizations Maslow's Theory of Needs indicates how compensation impact on organizational effectiveness may apply. pay is an important motivation for them.must perceive that the compensation is fair in the circumstances. However. In this way they have impact on the productivity. Pay allows people to satisfy their needs at the lower levels. well as others . Compensation and Job Satisfaction There are surveys that indicate compensation affects job satisfaction.According to Barber and Bretz (2000). You can say that people who involve themselves in charitable works have different motivation in life. Charitable Organizations You may want to know the compensation impact on organizational effectiveness in charitable organizations. every employee will perform the necessary required work for as long as he or she is fairly compensated. Money . .

Since pay is one of the important attributes of work. . in turn. However. They tend to perform better. Strategic Compensation Since compensation impact on organizational effectiveness is a reality. can spell disaster for organizations. Some surveys had been conducted on this. for example. It is important to remember that different outcomes may result in different organizations. the real possibility that fairness in compensation is perceived differently by different people. Again. Take for example. understanding and perception of what constitutes "fair and just" compensation. This. Employees who are satisfied with their union's action tend to be satisfied with their pay. employees tend to perform poorly. many factors come into play including union membership. impacts on organizational performance and effectiveness. if the union's performance and the negotiated pay is not satisfactory. present conditions. You may have noticed that there are other factors involved. If you manage to strike a good balance between pay and work.Rampant absenteeism and high turnover. you will surely achieve some degree of compensation impact on organizational effectiveness. Employee performance has a corresponding effect on the organization's performance. among other things. You can conclude that compensation impact on organizational effectiveness is playing a role here. it is only logical that you optimize its potential by giving your people fair and just compensation for works well done or to motivate employees to perform better. and so on. employees will perform well for a fair pay. Union officials who negotiated a poor pay for members can have negative impact on employees satisfaction with their pay. There are also external forces that influence employees' understanding of what constitutes fairness. Employee unions can sway members' thinking. A fair compensation framework has the potential of making employees more satisfied.