1 The Importance of having a transport system in some multicellular organisms Large multicellular organisms: -increased need in obtaining their cellular requirements and getting rid of their waste products - the TSA/V ratio decreases - the cells are often located far away from the external surface of the body - exchange of substances by simple diffusion is too slow to sustain cellular activities Compared to unicellular organisms -large TSA/V ratio -enabling substances and waste products to diffuse easily through the organism -directly from their external environment -these organisms do not need an internal transport system How the problem is overcome in multicellular organisms? Developed circulatory system to transport substances in their bodies 1.2 Synthesising the concept of circulatory system Circulatory system: 3 components:    Medium – blood, haemolymph Vessels - arteries, veins and capillaries Pump - muscular heart

Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Small biconcave disc – increase the surface area for gaseous exchange through the thin cell membrane No nucleus Contains haemoglobin- transport oxygen Produced in the bone marrow Destroyed by the phagocytes in the liver and spleen Live for 120 days

but migrate to the thymus gland and lymph nodes for their growth and development stages 2 basic types: (a) Granulocytes – granular cytoplasm and lobed nuclei Granulocytes Explanation Neutrophils Phagocytes.clear cytoplasm and their nuclei are not lobed Agranulocytes Explanation Monocytes The largest Phagocytic macrophages Engulf dead cells and bacteria that enter the body Lymphocytes Smallest Produces antibodies that destroy pathogens or to neutralize toxins Platelets Small irregularly shaped fragments of large cells in the bone marrow Blood clotting - Plasma -pale yellow liquid part of the blood -90% water and 10% dissolved solutes.gases. Engulf foreign materials.hormones.Leucocytes (white blood cells) Defence against disease Have nuclei No haemoglobin Larger than red blood cells Do not have fixed shape Manufactured in the bone marrow. Bacteria by phagocytosis and destroy them Eosinophils Control allergic responses Basophils Secrete heparin to prevent blood from clotting (b) Agranulocytes. for eg.minerals.nutrients.plasma protein and excretory wastes Blood serum – same as plasma except that clotting factors such as fibrin have been removed .

Transport of absorbed food Transport of excretory waste products Transport of heat Transport of hormones Transport of water to tissues Function of haemolymph in transport: -bathes the tissues and internal organs directly -nutrients such as digested food substances and hormones diffuse from the haemolymph into the cells -waste products diffuse out from the cells into the surrounding haemolymph.Function of blood in transport Transport of oxygen Transport of CO2 O2 combines with haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin 70% of carbon dioxide is transported in the form of HCO. 23% combines with haemoglobin and forms carbaminohaemoglobin and 7% dissolves directly in the blood plasma Soluble digested food materials are absorbed into capillaries of the villi in the small intestine Urea is transported by the blood to the kidneys to be excreted Help to regulate body temperature by distributing heat from heat-producing sites (skeletal muscles) to areas of heat loss(skin) Transports hormones such as insulin and glucagon produced by pancreas to the target organs Component of protoplasm and is transported by blood to provide a medium for biochemical reaction. .

Myogenic cardiac muscles. The blood in the veins also has to flow against gravitational pull.5 Impulses from the AVN are conducted to the ventricular walls by bundle of His and Purkinje fibres.smooth muscle and connective tissue) Valves present to prevent back flow of blod No pulses. causing them to contract simultaneously.smooth muscle and connective tissue) No valves except semilunar valve at the base of the aorta and pulmonary artery. SAN generate impulses from atria to ventricles AVN is stimulated spread to both atria both atria contract blood flow generate impulses spread to both ventricles Both ventricles contract to pump blood out of the heart Blood can circulate in humans because: Pumping of the heart Generates sufficient force to move blood through the arteries. 2. 2. 2. Blood flows in pulses under high pressure Capillaries Connects arteriols to venules Act as the sites for exchange of substances with the cells Thinnest wall.Blood flows under lower pressure than arteries No pulses.1 Sino-atrial node(SAN) acts like a pacemaker which intiates the heartbeat. .6 Causes both ventricles to contract simultaneously to pump blood out of the heart.Pressure lower than arteries but higher than veins. one cell in thickness(only epithelium) No valves Veins Transport blood to the heart Transport deoxygenated blood(except the pulmonary vein) Thinner wall (epithelium.arterioles and capillaries.4 Atrio-ventricular node(AVN) is then stimulated. 2.heart muscles contract and relax automatically throughout life and are not controlled by the nervous system.Arteries Transport blood away from the heart Transport oxygenated blood except pulmonary artery Thick muscular wall (epithelium. When the blood reaches the veins.2 SAN generates a wave of impulses which spread to the 2 atria. How? 2. 2. 2. however the pressure produced by the heart is insufficient to force it back into the heart. How blood is propelled through the human circulatory system? 1.3 Blood is forced from the atria into the ventricles.

Impulses are sent to the cardiovascular control centre in the medulla oblongata of the brain. 2. monitor the pressure of blood flowing to the body and to the brain. 5. Sympathetic nerve carrying impulses to the heart can increase the heart rate. Regulatory mechanism of blood pressure: 1. Secretion of hormone adrenaline cause the heart to beat faster. The valves in the veins prevent the blood from flowing backwards Heart rate may be modified by certain external factors: 1. 4. Impulses are sent via the parasympathetic nerve to the heart. An increase in blood pressure stretches the baroreceptors. resulting in a decrease in blood pressure. 3. 2. The blood pressure increases. Baroreceptors located in the walls of the aorta and carotid arteries that branch out from the aorta. Blood pressure increases and returns to its normal level. 8. forces open the valves pushes the blood towards the heart. This slows down the heartbeat. 4. . This increases the contraction of the cardiac muscles of the heart and the smooth muscles of the arteries. Increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in the blood also increases the heart rate. Parasympathetic nerve can slow it down. 3. 6. the skeletal muscles around the veins contract and press on the veins. Increase in body temperature also can increase the heart rate. A decrease in blood pressure increases stimulation of the sino-atrial node by the sympathetic nerve.Contraction of skeletal muscles around veins When the body moves. 7. 5.

Blood flows through the heart only once in a complete cycle.amphibians and humans: 1. Closed circulatory system.(single circulatory system) .blood flows under pressure through closed vessels in a continuous circuit around the body - Fish Deoxygenated blood enters the atrium and then the ventricle. Ventricle pumps the blood to the capillaries in the gills where gaseous exchange occurs The pressure drops as the oxygenated blood leaves the gills and flows back to the heart.Circulatory systems in fish.

a pulmonary circulation system (from heart to the lung and back to the heart) and a systemic circulation system ( from the heart to the other parts of the body and back to the heart) Atria and ventricle not separated by septum Oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood mixes in the ventricle Lower levels of oxygen but is sufficient to meet the cellular requirements of amphibians .- - Amphibians: Have double closed circulatory system.

Right ventricle is smaller and its wall less muscular as it only has to generate sufficient pressure to pump blood a short distance from the heart to the lungs The blood enters the heart twice during one complete cycle .- Humans: Prevents mixing of the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood Blood can be maintained at a relatively high pressure by the contraction of the thick muscular left ventricle.

Impaired clotting mechanism iii. haemophiliacs may die of internal or external bleeding . Necessity for blood clotting: (a) preventing serious blood loss – when there is damage to the blood vessels (b) preventing the entry of microorganisms and foreign particles – seals wound (c) maintaining blood pressure – prevents blood pressure from falling to a low level . for example factor VIII ii. Mechanism of blood clotting: Injury/rupture in blood vessels ↓ Platelets clump at the wound ↓ Release of thrombokinase (platelet releases) ↓ Thrombin ____________ prothrombin ← Vitamin K a.pressure is needed to maintain proper blood circulation (d) maintaining circulation of blood in a closed circulatory system 2. Thrombokinase in the presence of factor VIII (clotting factor) converts prothrombin into thrombin b. Lack of gene for the production of certain clotting factors. Thrombin converts fibrinogen(soluble plasma protein) into insoluble fibrin fibres which form a meshwork of threads over the wound. Causes serious bleeding particularly in the joints iv. In severe cases.3 Understanding the mechanism of blood clotting 1. It dries to form a scab which covers the wound. Erythrocytes and platelets are trapped in the fibrin fibres and blood clot forms.1. Haemophilia i. c. d. Consequences of blood clotting related problems: a.

stroke 1.4 THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 1. heart attack . Thrombosis i. When the thrombus dislodges and is carried away by blood circulation it is known as embolus iv. (d) Once the fluid leaves the capillary walls. platelets or large protein molecules because they are too large to pass Through the capillary wall 3. (c) Materials(amino acid. May cause blockage of artery(thrombosis) iii.hormone. A local blood clot(thrombus) is formed on the damaged rough inner wall of artery ii.b. Angina .glucose. it is called interstitial or tissue fluid 2. Composition of interstitial fluid: (a) similar in composition to blood plasma (b) But it has no erythrocytes. Embolus may be trapped in a small artery where it blocks the blood flow(embolism) c.nutrients) from blood capillaries enter these spaces. Formation of interstitial fluid: (a) there is higher hydrostatic pressure at the arterial end of the capillaries. Importance of interstitial fluid: (a) it forms the internal environment of the body (b) bathes the cell and supplies them with their requirements (c) O2 and nutrients diffuse from the blood through the interstitial fluid and into the cells (d) Excretory waste products( co2 and urea) diffuse out of the cells into the interstitial fluid . (b) This high pressure forces some fluid(plasma) out through the capillary walls into the intercellular Spaces(spaces between cells) between the cells.

Lymph is similar in composition to blood plasma but has no erythrocytes. valves present in larger vessels to prevent backflow iii. 10% of the interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic capillaries and is called lymph c. fate of interstitial fluid a. Lymph contains a higher number of lymphocytes than blood d. vii. Thoracic duct carries lymph to the left subclavian vein and back into the bloodstream vi. platelets or large protein molecules c. vessels from the left side of the body. Lymph is colourless b. Lymph from the right side of the head and chest flow into the right lymphatic duct. if excess interstitial fluid is unable to return to the blood circulatory system it will accuulate and cause tissue swelling – oedema 5. one end of the vessel is closed ii. the alimentary canal and the right side of the lower part of the body flow into the thoracic duct(largest lymphatic vessel in the body) v. smaller lymphatic vessels join to form larger vessels iv.4. Lymph travels through the lymphatic vessels by the contraction of the surrounding skeletal muscles e. 90% of the interstitial fluid flows back into the venous end of the capillary system where the hydrostatic pressure is low b. Right lymphatic duct carries lymph to the right subclavian vein and back into the bloodstream . structure of the lymphatic system: a. Lymph flows in 1 direction: i.

interstitial fluid and lymph: a. armpits and the groin. Lacteals are lymphatic capillaries in the villi of the ileum . Lymphocytes in the lymphatic tissues produce antibodies which aid in the destruction of pathogens and the neutralization of toxins 6. Lymph nodes are mainly found at the neck. Filter out bacteria and other foreign particles 2. Role of lymphatic system in transport: a. Lymphatic system collects the interstitial fluid and returns it to the circulatory system b.viii. Similarities: * all of them transport dissolve substances such as o2 and waste products * all of them have white blood cells glucose blood lymph Interstitial fluid Protein molecules O2 Waste materials Erythrocytes Leucocytes platelets . Phagocytes present in the nodes engulf and destroy these foreign particles ix. Comparison between the content of blood. 1.absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins and transport them to the blood circulatory system 7.

antibody is a protein produced by lymphocytes in response to the presence of an antigen c. 2nd line of defence: a. When microorganisms enter the stomach. some lymphocytes remain in the body as memory cells f. The memory lymphocytes help to defend the body against further infection by the same antigen g.1. 3rd line of defence: a. Mucus secreted by mucous membranes in the nasal cavity and trachea trap dust particles and bacterial spores e. Phagocytic white blood cells (neutrophils) act as phagocytes 3. antigen : foreign substance(bacteria) which stimulates the body to produce an immune response d. skin and mucous membrane b. lymphocytes –produce b. 1 st line of defence: a. antibodies are specific in action and promote the destruction of antigens in different ways: e. they are killed by the HCI acid in the gastric juices 2. the body is said to be immune against the particular disease .made up of dead keratinized layer which is difficult to penetrate c.5 role of circulatory system in the body’s defence mechanism 1. skin acts as a physical barrier . tears secreted by tear glands and acidic sebum secreted by sebaceous gland contains lysozymes which destroy bacteria d. after an infection.

Depends on : i. Salk vaccine for poliomyelitis. i. Antibodies are transport from the mother across the placenta to the foetus or through the mother’s milk to the young infact for a few months The baby can only get protection against certain diseases for a few months after the baby is born. Eg. Lymphocytes are not stimulated to produce a…………. Passive natural immunity. Immunity . where the concentration of antibodies in the blood increases beyond the level of immunity. such as chicken pox or measles The body has the ability to produce more antibodies rapidly against further attack by the same type of invading antigen Active artificial immunity: i.body receive antibody Active natural immunity: i. ii. iii. yellow fever. Hepatitis B and cholera. ii. vaccine for tuberculosis(tibi). Active immunity(natural and artificial). Vaccine is injected into bloodstream.C. A booster is needed after a few years when the antibody wears off.a. v. . Types : i. B. Is acquired after a person recovers from an infection. hepatitis A. More than 1 vaccine is needed. Some vaccine can induce immunity for a few years only. Natural passive immunity is short-lived because the immunity response is not stimulated by the antigen. vii. produced s………w and insufficient The booster(second) injection stimulates a quicker and longer lasting response. vi.body produce antibody ii. eg. iv.refers to the ability of an organism to defend itself against infection by pathogens b.G. measles(cacar). Passive immunity(natural and artificial). Production of antibodies which give a specific immune response c. the lymphocytes in the body produce antibodies against that particular antigen. This because after first injection of vaccine the a…………. Presence of lymphocytes ii. iii.There also vaccine for small pox(demam campak). Vaccine contains killed or weakened antigen This process is known as immunization. hepatitis B and rubella. ii.

snakes) Treat patients who are already seriously ill. rabies and snke bite iv. /8526698/Temporary immunity. Artificial passive: Used during potentially fatal diseases. Provides an instant response but only temporary as antibodies are not the body's own so memory cells are not created.injection of antitoxins given. Memory cells are only produced in active immunity. Another injection serum is needed to induce the immunity again. Active immunity takes several weeks to become active but passive is immediate.mncc7266955/he level of antibody decreases rapidly.injection serum can only induce a short lived immunity because tpppopp.Passive artificial immunity i. tetanus . ii. Antigens are only encountered in active immunity.1/. E. Protection for active immunity is permanent whereas in passive immunity it is only temporary. Natural passive: Mother to child through placenta or milk. Takes time for T and B cells to be activated but gives long lasting immunity. Artificial active: Injecting or taking antigens by mouth. It is active because lymphocytes are activated by antigens on pathogen's surface. diphtheria. . Natural active: Occurs during infection.g. iii.. Serum(antibody) are injected directly into the body and react immediately. Eg diseases that can be treated by this type immunity – tetanus. Injecting serum containing specific antibodies prepared from the blood of humans or other animals(horses.

keeps the plant cool in hot weather iii. Water: . This creates an upward force called root pressure. Cell sap in root hairs is more concentrated than the surrounding soil solution.photosynthesis . Transport of soluble organic food materials( produce from the p_________) by the phloem from the leaves to other parts of the plant 2. Mineral ions are actively pumped from the root cells into the solution in the xylem vessels. from cell to cell . f. 3. Water enters the xylem from the root cells by osmosis h. To cells for metabolism iii. The cell sap of the adjacent cortex cell is hypotonic compared to the root hair cells. d. The entry of water into a root cell causes it to become hypotonic. These vessels found in the roots then become more concentrated. ROOT PRESSURE ALONE IS INSUFFICIENT TO FORCE WATER TO THE TOP PART OF A TALL TREE Capillary action is due to combined forces of cohesion(among H2O) and adhesion(among H2O and xylem wall) Water molecules form a continuous water column in the xylem vessels due to cohesion. 4. Importance: i. j. . HOWEVER. Creates a transpirational pull that draws water and dissolved mineral salts from the roots to the leaves ii.keep cells turgid to give support to the leaves and young stems . Water diffuses into the roots by osmosis. 2. Excess is stored in organs such as roots Transpiration: 1. which helps to push water up to a certain height in plants. g. (soil solution is more hypotonic than the root hair cell) b. c. Sugars and amino acids are transported to growing regions for growth and development ii.Transport of substances in plants Translocation: 1. causing water molecules to diffuse across the root. by osmosis e. Mineral salts: .used for cell activities(active transport) Pathway of water from the soil to the leaves: a. i. Most of the water lost lost through the stomata of leaves A small amount is lost through the cuticle or through the lenticels in woody stems Importance: i. Is the loss of water in the form of water vapour from a plant to the atmosphere.

The water vapour then diffuses from the intercellular air spaces through the open stomata into surrounding air. m. c. d. excess water absorbed from the soil is forced out through the hydathodes. Temperature i. and the transpiration rate increases. Adhesion forces between water molecules and the xylem walls enable water to move up along the narrow xylem vessels. causing them to move faster through the stomata c. n. Water evaporates from the mesophyll cells into the intercellular air spaces of the leaves. The loss of water from the mesophyll cells is replaced by water from the xylem vessels in the leaves. Higher light intensity stimulates stomatal opening and increases the rate of transpiration ii. b. Rate of transpiration increases in windy conditions iii. Sunlight also provides heat energy for the leaves and increase evaporation of water. Relative humidity i. photosynthesis takes place b. Light intensity i.k. Dry air increases the concentration gradient of water between the leaves and the surrounding air. Potassium ions are actively transported from the epidermal cells into guard cells . High temperature increases the rate of transpiration. ii. Relative atmospheric humidity is high. the air is saturated with water vapour and water is unable to evaporate from plant cells. Air movement i. Opening and closing of stomata: a. located at the leaf edge. ii. During the day. Glucose is produced and increases the osmotic pressure in the guard cells. water vapours accumulates around the stomata and the transpiration rate reduces. Increases the kinetic energy of water molecules. This creates a suction force called transpirational pull.increases the osmotic pressure in the guard cells . -at night. Moving air carries water vapour away rapidly outside the stomata so that more water molecules can diffuse to the surroundings ii. This process – guttation Factors affecting the rate of transpiration: a. When there is little air movement. o. l.

water diffuses out into surrounding epidermal cells by osmosis j.d. no photosynthesis g. at night. osmotic pressure in the guard cells decreases i. potassium ions move out of the guard cells into the epidermal cells h. guard cells becomes turgid and curve outward and the stomata opens f. Water enters by osmosis from surrounding epidermal cells into the guard cells e. guard cells becomes flaccid and the stomata closes. .