1 A Project report On

SOLAR TOWER TECHNOLOGY

GUIDED BYMR. S.S.SABL Submitted by-

Niraj S. Ujainwal Jaykishan V. Naidu Kiran S. Pawar Dhananjay P. Pandey

Electrical Power System Department

B. L. Patil Polytechnic, Khopoli Acadmic year 2011-12

2

K.T.S.P. Mandal’s

B. L. Patil Polytechnic, Khopoli
Electrical Power System Department

CERTIFICATE
This to certify that Niraj S. Ujainwal Jaykishan V. Naidu Kiran S. Pawar Dhananjay P. Pandey has completed the project work titled “ SOLAR TOWER TECHNOLOGY ” under my guidenes as partial fulfillment of final year diploma in electric power system of Maharashtra state board of technical education Mumbai in acadmic year 2011-12

(S.S.Sable ) Project guide

( M.M.Dixit) H.O.D.

( B.N.Deshmukh ) Principle

Extrenal examiner

3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I owe a deep sense of gratitude to my project guide Mr. S.S.SABLE for stimulating my interest in the subject. His involvement right from conceptualization of the study through its execution and meticulous perusal of the manuscript ensured its timely completion. I would also like to thank my internal guide and Head Of Department Mr. M.M.DIXIT for his thought provoking comments, valuable suggestions constant motivation encouragement and support. I would also like to thank all our teachers for contributing to my overall training. Heartfelt thanks to our family for their unconditional support and last but not the least our friends and colleagues for their help and co-operation

Submitted by-

Niraj S. Ujainwal Jaykishan V. Naidu Kiran S. Pawar Dhananjay P. Pandey

The 38 km² collecting area is expected to extract about 0. and the resulting convection causes air to rise up the updraft tower.4 ABSTRCT The solar updraft tower is a proposed type of energy power plant. polycarbonate and polymer. According to model calculations. The reinforced concrete chimney will cover approximately one foot at its base and will be surrounded by a "greenhouse". and the wind turbine. a simple updraft power plant with an output of 200 MW would need a collector 7 kilometers in diameter (total area of about 38 km²) and a 1000-metre-high chimney. the greenhouse effect. concentrating thermal (CSP) or photovoltaic (CPV) solar power plants have an efficiency ranging from 2040%. scale. It combines three old and proven technologies: the chimney effect. The heated air mass moves as a powerful updraft. .000 tons of greenhouse producing gases from entering the environment annually. of the solar power that falls upon it. and many modelling studies have bee published as to optimization. A solar thermal power station using Solar Tower technology will create the conditions to cause hot wind to flow continuously through its turbines to generate electricity. which produce electricity. Air is heated by sunshine and contained in a very large greenhouse-like structure around the base of a tall chimney. This large body of hot air moves at 15 meters per second towards the cold air at the top of the tower which is located in centre of the canopy.5 percent. The tower is hollow in the middle like a chimney. This airflow drives turbines. and economic feasibility. One 200MW power station will provide enough electricity for around 200. or 5 W/m² of 1 kW/m². A research prototype operated in Spain in the 1980s. Note that in comparison. Because no data is available to test these models on a large-scale updraft tower there remains uncertainty about the reliability of these calculations.000 typical households and will abate over 900. forcing air through large turbines to generate electricity.

5 INDEX 1 – Introduction 2 – History 3 .MAIN FUNCTIONING DIAGRAM & PHOTOGRAPHS 5 – COMPONENT USED 6.electronic component 7 – testing & result 8 – Advantages & disadvantages 9 –future scope 10 –estimation & coasting 11– conclusion 12 – reference .WHY PROJECT IS IMPORTANT 4 .

6 INTRODUCTION Chapter-1 .

A research prototype operated in Spain in the 1980s. and economic feasibility. and the resulting convection causes air to rise up the updraft tower. Air is heated by sunshine and contained in a very large greenhouse-like structure around the base of a tall chimney. It combines three old and proven technologies: the chimney effect. which produce electricity. scale. This airflow drives turbines.7 Introduction: The solar updraft tower is a proposed type of renewable-energy power plant. and the wind turbine. A technological review is available . and many modelling studies have been published as to optimization. the greenhouse effect.

8 History Chapter-2 .

[ and the USA]Prototype in Spain In 1982. it was taken into consideration that such an inefficient but cheap plant would be ideal for third world countries with lots of space . humidity and wind speed For the choice of materials.9 HISTORY: In 1903. such as a chimney built with iron plating only 1. varying from 5 eurocent per kWh for 4% and 20 years to 15 eurocent per kWh for 12% and 40 yearsCiudad Real Torre Solar . the cost per energy is largely determined by interest rates and years of operation. Canada. So cheap materials were used on purpose to see how they would perform. after eight years they had rusted through and broke in a storm. Hanns Günther. optimization data was collected on a second-by-second basis with 180 sensors measuring inside and outside temperature.[6] Beginning in 1975. So. The plant was decommissioned in 1986 Based on the test results. 150 km south of Madrid. Israel. a small-scale experimental model of a solar chimney power plant was built under the direction of German engineer Jörg Schlaich in Manzanares. Spanish Colonel of the Spanish army Isidoro Cabanyes first proposed a solar chimney power plant in the magazine La energía eléctrica. This pilot power plant operated for approximately eight years but the chimney guy rods were not protected against corrosion and not expected to last longer than the intended test period of three years. growing plants under the glass. During its operation. Spain. Because the costs lie mainly in construction and not in operation (free 'fuel'. causing the tower to fall over. Robert E. different materials were used for testing such as single or double glazing or plastic (which turned out not to be durable enough).of the earliest descriptions of a solar chimney power plant was written in 1931 by a German author. Ciudad Real.25 mm thin and held up with guy ropes. this was an experimental setup that was not intended for power generation. between 1978 and 1981 these patents (since expired) were granted in Australia.the method is inefficient for land use but very efficient economically because of the low operating cost. Instead. the project was funded by the German government The chimney had a height of 195 metres and a diameter of 10 metres with a collection area (greenhouse) of 46. However. little maintenance and only 7 personnel). not surprisingly. or 244 m diameter) obtaining a maximum power output of about 50 kW. a reinforced concrete tower would be a better choice. Lucier applied for patents on a solar chimney electric power generator. it was estimated that a 100 MW plant would require a 1000 m tower and a greenhouse of 20 km2.000 m² (about 11 acres. For a commercial plant. and one section was used as an actual greenhouse.

It is expected to output 40 MW of electricity.10 There is a proposal to construct a solar updraft tower in Ciudad Real. Spain entitled Ciudad Real Torre Solar. . it would be the first of its kind in the European Union and would stand 750 metres tall nearly twice as tall as the current tallest structure in the EU. the – covering an area of 350 hectares. If built.

11 WHY PROJECT IS IMPORTANT Chapter-3 .

[3][4] The relatively low-tech approach could allow local resources and labour to be used for its construction and maintenance . Net energy payback is estimated to be 2–3 years. Construction would be most likely in hot areas with large amounts of very low-value land. but does not let heat out). A solar thermal power station using Solar Tower technology will create the conditions to cause hot wind to flow continuously through its turbines to generate electricity. collector areas diameter have been considered. polycarbonate and polymer. direct and diffuse. the pressure difference increases the stack effect. With a larger collector area. This large body of hot air moves at 15 metres per second towards the cold air at the top of the tower which is located in centre of the canopy.[2] Turbines can be installed in a ring around the base of the tower. chimneys as tall as 1. Carbon dioxide is emitted only negligibly while operating. and . or—as in the prototype in Spain—a single vertical axis turbine can be installed inside the chimney.281 ft) have been considered. The use of the sun’s radiation to heat a large body of air (greenhouse effect lets light in. Hot air rises (as through a chimney). but is emitted more significantly during manufacture of its construction materials. as planned for the Australian project and seen in the diagram above. with a horizontal axis. .000 metres (3. With a larger chimney height. A small-scale solar updraft tower may be an attractive option for remote regions in developing countries. a greater volume of air is warmed to flow up the chimney. Movement of air as energy source to drive large turbines to generate electricity (basic engine). Water. such as deserts. forcing air through large turbines to generate electricity. The tower is hollow in the middle like a chimney. with its relatively high specific heat capacity. The reinforced concrete chimney will cover approximately one feet at its base and will be surrounded by a "greenhouse". The heated air mass moves as a powerful updraft.[2] A solar updraft tower power station would consume a significant area of land if it were designed to generate as much electricity as is produced by modern power stations using conventional technology. Heat can be stored inside the collector area greenhouse to be used to warm the air later on. particularly cement. can be filled in tubes placed under the collector increasing the energy storage as needed.12 WHY PROJECT IS IMPORTANT The design is based on three well-known and robust thermal principles: 1. or otherwise degraded land. The generating ability of a solar updraft power plant depends primarily on two factors: the size of the collector area and chimney height.

to increase its total power output. . A Solar updraft power plant located at high latitudes such as in Canada. and by reflection off the top of the greenhouse canopy.[35] It is possible to combine the land use of a solar updraft tower with other uses. Salient features :      Can generate electricity Easy to maintain Low cost at bulk production It has no ecological harm.[36] This could be combined with agricultural use. It is renewable source of energy. but only if the collection area is sloped significantly southward. by drag induced by bracings used for supporting the chimney. Examples are the positioning of solar collectors or Photovoltaics underneath the updraft tower collector. could produce up to 85 per cent of the output of a similar plant located closer to the equator.13 The solar updraft tower has power conversion rate considerably lower than many other designs in the (high temperature) solar thermal group of collectors. [30] The performance of an updraft tower may be degraded by factors such as atmospheric winds. The low conversion rate of the Solar Tower is balanced to some extent by the low investment cost per square metre of solar collection. Location is also a factor. and in some cases. in order to make it more cost effective.

14 MAIN FUNCTIONING DIAGRAM & PHOTOGRAPHS Chapter-4 .

15 MAIN FUNCTIONING DIAGRAM & PHOTOGRAPHS .

16 COMPONENT USED Chapter-5 .

DYN AMO 12V 500M 2 .17 COMPONENT USED: 1.LODE (LED’S) .DC TO DC CONVERTER 5 -HEAT GENERATOR 6 -WOODEN BASE 7-HAIR DRYER 8.CHIMNEY MDULE 4.TURBINE 3 .

18 Electronic componants Chapter-6 .

04 Amps (40 mA) is a good range for LEDs. A current of 0. Resistance determines how much current will flow through a component. Resistors are used to control voltages and currents. They allow current to flow from one point to another point without any resistance. When the voltage on the positive leg is higher than on the negative leg then current flows through the diode (the resistance is very low). That is why wires are made of metal. Resistors Resistors are components that have a predetermined resistance. To find the positive side of an LED. Another way of finding the positive side is to find a flat spot on the edge of the LED.02 Amps (20 mA) to 0. look for a line in the metal inside the LED. This flat spot is on the negative side. LED Light Emitting Diodes are great for projects because they provide visual entertainment. A very high resistance allows very little current to flow. but they become very dangerous when the line breaks and the wire is exposed and is no longer separated from other things by insulation. This line is closest to the positive side of the LED. Air has very high resistance. It may be difficult to see the line. When current is flowing through an LED the voltage on the positive leg is about 1. . Wires are usually covered with rubber or plastic. This keeps the wires from coming in contact with other wires and creating short circuits. It is called the cathode. They have a positive side (leg) and a negative side. Current almost never flows through air.4 volts higher than the voltage on the negative side.19 Electronic componants Diodes Diodes are components that allow current to flow in only one direction. High voltage power lines are covered with thick layers of plastic to make them safe. (Sparks and lightning are brief displays of current flow through air. They have a positive leg and a negative leg just like regular diodes.) A low resistance allows a large amount of current to flow. The postive end is called the anode. LEDs use a special material which emits light when current flows through it. The light is created as the current burns parts of the air. The negative leg of a diode is the one with the line closest to it. Remember that there is no resistance to limit the current so a resistor must be used in series with the LED to avoid destroying it. Metals have very low resistance. LEDs never burn out unless their current limit is passed. Unlike light bulbs. When the voltage is lower on the positive leg than on the negative leg then the current does not flow (the resistance is very high).

Making the resistance lower will let more current flow so the volume goes up. For example. a 500 ohm variable resistor can have a resistance of anywhere between 0 ohms and 500 ohms. Each resistor is marked with colored stripes to indicate it’s resistance. lights go out and people settle down. The value of a variable resistor is given as it’s highest resistance value.000 ohms. .) Common resistor values are from 100 ohms to 100. This effect on people is used by some teachers to gain control of loud classes.) When the switch is OFF. This is very useful for many situations. (Ohms are named after Mho Ohms who played with electricity as a young boy in Germany.20 Resistance is given in units of ohms. For a light switch. Volume controls are variable resistors.) When the switch is ON it looks and acts like a wire. When you change the volume you are changing the resistance which changes the current. that means there is an open circuit (no current flows. When the switch is OFF there is no connection. A variable resistor may also be called a potentiometer (pot for short). Switches Switches are devices that create a short circuit or an open circuit depending on the position of the switch. go to Resistor Values which includes more information about resistors. Making the resistance higher will let less current flow so the volume goes down. To learn how to calculate the value of a resistor by looking at the stripes on the resistor. The Capacitor If you already understand capacitors you can skip this part. ON means short circuit (current flows through the switch. lights light up and people dance. Variable Resistors Variable resistors are also common components. They have a dial or a knob that allows you to change the resistance.

The picture on the right is the symbol used for capacitors in circuit drawings (schematics). Below is a graph of the voltage in the capacitor while it is charging. The positive leg is the one that is longer. In this kit we have 2 33pf . the capacitor will start discharging but it will take some time for the voltage to go to 0 volts. Even if a TV has been disconnected from the wall for a long time. The values are given in Farads but a Farad is a really large unit of measure for common capacitors. Capacitors usually have two legs. A capacitor is similar to a rechargable battery in the way it works. it will start with 0 volts and go from 0 volts to 12 volts. Larger capacitors can store more energy and take more time to charge and discharge. these capacitors can still make lots of sparks and hurt people. it takes a while for the capacitor to charge. One leg is the positive leg and the other is the negative leg. The difference is that a capacitor can only hold a small fraction of the energy that a battery can.21 The picture above on the left shows two typical capacitors. When you put one in a circuit. We can control the speed of the capacitor's charging and discharging using resistors. The smallest capacitors in this kit do not. The same idea is true when the capacitor is discharging.) As with a rechargable battery. Capacitors do not always have a positive leg and a negative leg. (Except for really big capacitors like the ones found in old TVs. These can hold a lot of charge. Below is a graph of what the voltage is in the capacitor while it is discharging. So if we have a 12 volt supply and start charging the capacitor. you must make sure the positive leg and the negative leg go in the right place. If the capacitor has been charged to 12 volts and then we connect both legs to ground. Capacitors are given values based on how much electricity they can store. It does not matter which way you put them in a circuit.

000000000033 Farads. Capacitors are also rated by the maximum voltage they can take. If you apply more than 25 volts to them they will die.000000000001 Farads. Pf means picofarad and uf means microfarad. the 220uF capacitors in this kit have a maximum voltage rating of 25 volts. So the 10uf capacitor is 0.00001 Farads and the 220uF capacitor is 0. .22 capacitors. If you do any calculations using the value of the capacitor you have to use the Farad value rather than the picofarad or microfarad value. We don’t have to worry about that with this kit because our power supply can only put out 12 volts.000220 Farads. For example. 2 10uf capacitors and 2 220uF capacitors. A picofarad is 0. This value is always written on the larger can shaped capacitors. A microfarad is 0.000001 Farads. So the 33pf capacitor has a value of 33 picofarads or 0.

23 testing & results Chapter-7 .

And in the second procedure. excessive leakage and degradation of capacitance meter. the resistor is open. Momentarily. Connect the positive probe to the anode and the negative probe to the cathode. A defective indication for an electrolytic capacitor shows that the meter will rest on zero and remain stationary at a point which is an indication that the capacitor is shorted. set the multi-tester to Rx 10 or Rx1K scale. Mylar and other capacitor with a capacitance with less than 1.24 fsfff testing & results How to test resistors? Read the indicated color code value then select the OHM-scale within but not way below the indicated value. Defective capacitors can have an internal shorted terminals. Tolerance should be considered with the ohmmeter reading. Connect the tester negative probe to the capacitor positive terminal. the meter will deflect towards zero. How to test LED? . While. x10. Then connect the positive probe to the cathode and the negative probe to the anode of the diode. A defective indication shows that the meter won’t deflect at all even when the probes are reversed. Or the meter deflects at the same time or almost the same resistance reading for both steps. A resistor is good if its resistance is close to the indicated.0 uF. A good indication for electrolytic capacitor shows the meter needle deflecting towards zero and moves back again to infinite resistance position. A zero resistance reading on all ohmmeter scale settings. the positive probe to the negative terminal. The actual resistance reading is the forward resistance of the diode. How to test diodes? Set the multi-tester knob to any of the resistance position (x1. How to test capacitors? In most cases. A good indication in the first procedure will show the meter deflected very little or may not deflect at all. To test a capacitor. a capacitor fails due to the deterioration of the dielectric material between its plate. x1K or 10K ohm ). the meter will not deflect at all. For ceramic. short the terminal of the electrolytic capacitor to discharge it. no resistance reading at all on the ohmmeter scale settings. resistor is shorted.

25 Advantages & disadvantages Chapter-8 .

3 – High energy cost compared to conventional source of power.It is operation cost is very less. 3. 4.it does not require any fuel for generation. The as an energy source is unlimited.It is a renewable source of energy. . 2.it has no ecological harm. Disadvantages 1 – High capital cost. 2 – large land requirment.26 Advantages 1.

27 FUTURE SCOPE Chapter-9 .

28 FUTURE SCOPE .

29 ESTIMATION & COASTING Chapter-10 .

30 ESTIMATION & COASTING Material Quantity Rate/per unit Total .

31 CONCLUSION Chapter-11 .

SCPPs can be used above and beyond power production. ethanol and methane. Besides. remaining biomass is useful creating additional heat during composting. blue-green algae. biodiesel and all manner of vegetable and plant derivatives. Very relevant byproducts are distilled water extracted from ocean water or ground water. Further developments should meet such localized requirements. shoulder and peak load electricity generation. medicinal and aromatic essential oils from herbs and flowers. It can involve fruits and vegetables. In contrast with other solar facilities. agribusiness may be appropriate under the solar collector. including its technical economical and ecological relevant facets. Under certain conditions. operation. seaweeds and planktons.32 CONCLUSION The previous literature review about SCPP presents an outstanding technological development enlightening considerable advances in its construction. The insertion of SCPP in the power generation market requires scalability and base. etc. .

33 REFFERANCE Chapter-11 .

htm .Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc. Copyright 1997.sbp.batterystuff.sunfrost.H./de/html/projects/solar/aufwind/pages_auf/techno.com/vaccine_refrigerators.2004 from.292.  Solar Chimney-Technology. http://www.com/env/solar_flue.Retrieved 10.html  This site is where we gathered pictures of competition as well as some basic information  http://www.  A brief history of solar chimney.R.Adam Hilger Ltd.  http://www.visionengineer.Alternative energy Sources.(1977).shtml  Taylor.34 REFFERANCE  http://www.11.R.11.html  All of the information regarding electric components in our design was deduced from here  Dictionary For The Electrician with Formulas. Tom Henry.Technology and applications.  Definitions for electricity and further research on electrical components  Williams.p.J.Retrieved 10.(1983).de.2004 from.com/tutorial_battery.