UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR

MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE
TUTORIAL 2

MATHEMATICS UNIT-TF-UNIKL MFI
NBB
Tutorial 2 - 1

1. Solve each of the following linear systems by Cramer’s Rule.

(a)
4.304 d 0.536 - b 1.21
1.990 d 0.150 b 0.460
=
= +
(b)
m 0.7 - 1.30 p 0.1 -
3.10 p 0.2 m 0.5
=
= +


2. Given that
2 2 1
1 2 1
Z R i R I
Z R R
= −
= +


Solve for
2 1
R and R in terms of
2 1
Z and Z , i , I by using Cramer’s Rule.

3. Solve each of the following linear systems by Gauss Jordan Elimination.

(a)
4
y
x
6
y 2x
7
2
3
7
y 2x
2
2y 3x
+ =


+
+
=

(b)
30
R
3
R
5
2
R
5
R
9
2 1
2 1
= +
= −


4. The transfer function, TF of a system is given by ( ) B A sI C TF
1 −
− = where
A is the state matrix, C is the output matrix and I is the identity matrix. For
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|


=
6 . 0
1
B ,
2 3
1 0
A and ( ), 0 1 C = obtain TF.

5. Writing u for
8y x
1
+
and v for
y 8x
1

, solve the following equations for u
and v , and hence determine the values of x and y (use inverse matrix):

7
y 8x
2
8y x
1
; 4
y 8x
1
8y x
2
=

+
+
=


+


UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR
MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE
TUTORIAL 2

MATHEMATICS UNIT-TF-UNIKL MFI
NBB
Tutorial 2 - 2

6. Given
|
|
¹
|

\
|
b
5
a 0
0 1
, state the values of b and a if the system has:
(a) a unique solution
(b) infinite number of solutions
(c) no solution

7. Use the system of linear equations
¹
´
¦
= +
= +
b 3n 3m
5 n m
to answer the questions
(a) Find the value of b so that the system has an infinite number of
solutions
(b) Find a value of b so that there are no solutions


8. Solve each of the following linear systems by Cramer’s Rule.

(a)
75 x
95
26
x
10
3
x
5
4
55 x
95
7
x
10
1
x
5
3
35 x
95
12
x
10
1
x
5
3
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
= − + −
= − + −
= + −
(b)
0.00 z 0.27 y 0.42 x 0.78
0.00 z 0.20 y 0.42 x 0.78
1.00 z 0.19 y 0.44 x 0.83
= + −
= − +
= + +



9. A pulley system gives the following equations:
T 50 x 5
T 20 x 2
0 x x
2
1
2 1
− =
− =
= +

where
1
x and
2
x represent acceleration and T represents tension in the
rope. Determine T and x , x
2 1
by using Gaussian elimination.

UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR
MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE
TUTORIAL 2

MATHEMATICS UNIT-TF-UNIKL MFI
NBB
Tutorial 2 - 3

10. Given that
0 3
1
V
2
V V
0 2
2
V V
1
V V
0
1
V V
2
V
- 3
3 2 3
2 3 1 2
1 2 1
= − −


= −

+


=

+

Solve the given linear systems using the Gaussian elimination.

11. It is given that
0 i i i
s s i z i z
s s i z i z
3 2 1
3 2 3 3 2 2
2 1 2 2 1 1
= + +
− = −
− = −

Where
3 2 1 3 2 1
s and s , s , z , z , z are constants.
Using the Cramer’s Rule, solve for
3 2 1
i and i , i in terms of
3 2 1 3 2 1
s and s , s , z , z , z .

12. In the following system of equations, a takes all real number.
a 9z 8y x
13 3z y 2x
1 z 2y x
= + +
= + +
− = − −

(a) Write the system into augmented matrix form
(b) Show that the system has infinitely many solutions which can be
written as t z , t 3 y , t 5 x = − = − = ( t is real )

13. Show by using Gauss Jordan Elimination method that the following
system
5y 2x 4 - 7z
-1 2z - 3y x
+ =
= +

has an infinite number of solutions, ( ) ( ) z , 3z 2 , 7 11z z , y , x − − =
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR
MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE
TUTORIAL 2

MATHEMATICS UNIT-TF-UNIKL MFI
NBB
Tutorial 2 - 4

14. Write the following system of equations in augmented matrix form.

k z 7y x
1 4z y 2x
3 z 2y x
= − +
= + −
= + +


(a) Use row operations to reduce the system to echelon form,
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|




• •
• • •
0 0
0
(b) Show that the system has either no solutions or infinitely many
solutions and write down these solutions.
(c) Why doesn’t the system have a unique solution?

15. Given a system in augmented matrix form:
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− − 2 x
1
2
4 x 0 0
0 1 0
1 1 1
2

(a) what is the value of x if the system has no solution?
(b) what is the value of x if the system has infinite number of
solutions?
(c) what is the value of x if the system has unique solution?

16. Analysis of the voltages in an amplifier circuit produces the following
equations.
C A
C B
B A
V 0.2 35 V 0.1
0 25 V 0.1 V 0.2
30 V 0.1 V 0.2
− = −
= − −
= +


By using the inverse matrix, show that 150 V , 200 V , 50 V
C B A
= = =

UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR
MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE
TUTORIAL 2

MATHEMATICS UNIT-TF-UNIKL MFI
NBB
Tutorial 2 - 5

17. A resistive network gives the following equations.

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 6 i i i 2 i i 5
0 i i i 2 i i
24 i i 5 i i 2
1 2 1 3 1
1 2 2 3 2
1 3 2 3
= + − + −
= − + + −
= − + −

Simplify the equations and find the value of
2
i correct to two significant
figures.

18. If z and y , x satisfy the equations
( )
0 z M M
2
1
y M
0 z M M y 2M x M
W y M x M M
2
1
2 1 2
2 1 2 2
2 2 1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + −
= − + + −
= −
|
¹
|

\
|
+

Evaluate x in terms of
2 1
M and M , W

19. Show that
( )
2 4k k
3 k ak
x
2
+ +
+
= if
( )
( )
( ) 0 2z y x a z k
0 z 2y a y k
0 z 2x a - x k
= + − − −
= − + −
= − +


20. Find the inverse of the matrix
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
6 4 2
4 1 4
1 2 3
A . Hence, solve the equation
B AX = where
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
3
2
1
x
x
x
X and
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
12 -
9 -
6 -
B


UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR
MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE
TUTORIAL 2

MATHEMATICS UNIT-TF-UNIKL MFI
NBB
Tutorial 2 - 6

21. The angles γ and β , α and the sides c and b , a of a triangle (see the
figure) satisfy



γ cos b β cos c a
γ cos a α cos c b
β cos a α cos b c
+ =
+ =
+ =



Use Cramer’s Rule to express α cos in terms of c and b , a thereby
deriving the familiar law of cosines from trigonometry.
c b 2
a c b
α cos
2 2 2
− +
=

22. In a star-connected circuit, currents
3 2 1
i , i , i flowing through impedances.
3 2 1
z , z , z , are given by
3 2 3 3 1 2
2 1 2 2 1 1
3 2 1
e e i z i z
e e i z i z
0 i i i
− = −
− = −
= + +


If ; 3 z ; 8 z ; 10 z
3 2 1
= = = ; 160 e e ; 65 e e
3 2 2 1
= − = − apply matrix
methods to determine the values of . i , i , i
3 2 1


23. Currents
3 2 1
i , i , i in a network are related by the following equations
0 i i i
0 i z i z
V i z i z
3 2 1
3 3 2 2
3 3 1 1
= − −
= −
= +


Determine expressions for
3 2 1
i , i , i , in terms of
3 2 1
z , z , z and V.
b
a
α β
γ γγ γ

b cos α

a cos β

c
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR
MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE
TUTORIAL 2

MATHEMATICS UNIT-TF-UNIKL MFI
NBB
Tutorial 2 - 7

ANSWERS:

1. (a) ( ) ( ) 1 , 4 d , b = (b) ( ) ( ) 8 , 3 p , m =
2.
I i
Z I Z
R ,
I i
Z i Z
R
2 1
2
2 1
1
+

=
+
+
=
3. (a) ( ) ( ) 4 , 5 y , x = (b) ( )
|
¹
|

\
|
=
5
1
,
3
1
R , R
2 1

4.
3 2s s
1.4 s
TF
2
+ +
+
= 5. ( )
|
¹
|

\
|
=
30
1
,
15
1
y , x
6. (a) ℜ ∈ ≠ b , 0 a (b) 0 b , 0 a = = (c) 0 b , 0 a ≠ =
7. (a) 15 b = (b) 15 b ≠
8. (a) ( ) ( ) 1710 , 1810 , 0 x , x , x
3 2 1
=
(b) ( ) ( ) 51 . 2 , 4 . 1 , 11 . 0 - z , y , x =
9. ( ) ( ) 28.57 , 4.29 , 4.29 T , x , x
2 1
− =
10. ( ) ( ) 5 . 2 - , 5 . 1 - , 1 V , V , V
3 2 1
=
11.
( ) ( )
3 2 3 1 2 1
2 1 3 3 1 2
1
z z z z z z
s s z s s z
i
+ +
− + −
= ,
( ) ( )
3 2 3 1 2 1
2 1 3 3 2 1
2
z z z z z z
s s z s s z
i
+ +
− − −
=
( ) ( )
3 2 3 1 2 1
1 3 2 2 3 1
3
z z z z z z
s s z s s z
i
+ +
− + −
=
15. (a) 2 - x = (b) 2 x = (c) 2 x ± ≠
17. 19 . 5 i
2
=
18.
( )
( )
2 1 1
2 1
2M M M
M 2M W
x
+
+
=
20. ( ) ( ) 1 , 1 , 1 - x , x , x
3 2 1
− − =
22. ( ) ( ) 20 , 5 . 7 , 5 . 12 i , i , i
3 2 1
− =
23.
( )
3 2 3 1 2 1
3 2
1
z z z z z z
z z V
i
+ +
+
= ,
3 2 3 1 2 1
3
2
z z z z z z
Vz
i
+ +
= ,
3 2 3 1 2 1
2
3
z z z z z z
Vz
i
+ +
=

27 z = 0.42 y + 0.  m+n =5 Use the system of linear equations  to answer the questions  3m + 3n = b (a) (b) Find the value of b so that the system has an infinite number of solutions Find a value of b so that there are no solutions 8.20 z = 0.78 x − 0.44 y + 0. 1 0 Given  0 a  (a) (b) (c) 5  . (a) 3 1 12 x1 − x 2 + x 3 = 35 5 10 95 3 1 7 − x1 + x 2 − x 3 = 55 5 10 95 4 3 26 − x1 + x 2 − x 3 = 75 5 10 95 0. A pulley system gives the following equations: x1 + x 2 = 0 2 x 1 = 20 − T 5 x 2 = 50 − T where x1 and x 2 represent acceleration and T represents tension in the rope.00 9. state the values of a and b if the system has: b  a unique solution infinite number of solutions no solution 7.00 (b) 0.00 0.2 MATHEMATICS UNIT-TF-UNIKL MFI NBB .78 x + 0.83 x + 0.UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE TUTORIAL 2 6. Tutorial 2 . Solve each of the following linear systems by Cramer’s Rule. Determine x1 . x 2 and T by using Gaussian elimination.19 z = 1.42 y − 0.

s1 . s 2 and s 3 are constants. solve for i1 . i 2 and i 3 in terms of z1 . ( x . Using the Cramer’s Rule. x − 2y − z = −1 2x + y + 3z = 13 x + 8y + 9z = a (a) (b) Write the system into augmented matrix form Show that the system has infinitely many solutions which can be written as x = 5 − t .UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE TUTORIAL 2 10. y . In the following system of equations. z 2 . 11. z 3 . s 2 and s 3 . y = 3 − t . z 2 . z = t ( t is real ) 13. z ) Tutorial 2 . Show by using Gauss Jordan Elimination method that the following system x + 3y . 2 − 3z . 12.2z = -1 7z . Given that 3- V1 V2 − V1 + =0 2 1 V − V1 V3 − V2 − 2 + −2=0 1 2 V − V2 V3 − 3 − −3= 0 2 1 Solve the given linear systems using the Gaussian elimination. z ) = ( 11z − 7 . z 3 . a takes all real number. s1 . It is given that z1i1 − z 2i 2 = s1 − s 2 z 2 i 2 − z 3i 3 = s 2 − s 3 i1 + i 2 + i 3 = 0 Where z1 .3 MATHEMATICS UNIT-TF-UNIKL MFI NBB .4 = 2x + 5y has an infinite number of solutions.

1 VC − 25 = 0 0. what is the value of x if the system has no solution? what is the value of x if the system has infinite number of solutions? what is the value of x if the system has unique solution? Analysis of the voltages in an amplifier circuit produces the following equations. 0.2 VC By using the inverse matrix.1 VA − 35 = −0. x + 2y + z = 3 2x − y + 4z = 1 x + 7y − z = k (a) Use row operations to reduce the system to echelon form.  • • • •    0 • • •  0 0 • •   (b) (c) Show that the system has either no solutions or infinitely many solutions and write down these solutions.UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE TUTORIAL 2 14. Why doesn’t the system have a unique solution? 15. VC = 150 Tutorial 2 . VB = 200 .1 VB = 30 0.2 VA + 0. 1 1 1  Given a system in augmented matrix form:  0 1 0  0 0 x2 − 4    1  x−2   2 (a) (b) (c) 16. Write the following system of equations in augmented matrix form.2 VB − 0.4 MATHEMATICS UNIT-TF-UNIKL MFI NBB . show that VA = 50 .

9  x   . 3 2 1   Find the inverse of the matrix A =  4 1 4  . solve the equation 2 4 6    x1   -6      AX = B where X =  x 2  and B =  .a ) + 2x − z = 0 k (y − a ) + 2y − z = 0 k (z − a ) − x − y + 2z = 0 20. Show that x = k (x .UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE TUTORIAL 2 17.12   3   Tutorial 2 . A resistive network gives the following equations.5 MATHEMATICS UNIT-TF-UNIKL MFI NBB . 2 (i 3 − i 2 ) + 5 (i 3 − i1 ) = 24 (i 2 − i 3 ) + 2 i 2 + (i 2 − i1 ) = 0 5 (i1 − i 3 ) + 2 (i1 − i 2 ) + i1 = 6 Simplify the equations and find the value of i 2 correct to two significant figures. 18. If x . Hence. M1 and M 2 ak (k + 3) if k 2 + 4k + 2 19. y and z satisfy the equations 1   M1 + M 2  x − M 2 y = W 2  − M 2 x + 2M 2 y + (M1 − M 2 ) z = 0 1  − M 2 y +  M1 + M 2  z = 0 2  Evaluate x in terms of W .

Currents i1 . z 3 and V. in terms of z1 . The angles α . z 2 = 8 . z 2 . β and γ and the sides a . 23. z 3 = 3 . i 3 flowing through impedances. i 2 . i 3 in a network are related by the following equations z1i1 + z 3i 3 = V z 2i 2 − z 3i 3 = 0 i1 − i 2 − i 3 = 0 Determine expressions for i1 . apply matrix methods to determine the values of i1 . i 2 . i 3 .6 MATHEMATICS UNIT-TF-UNIKL MFI NBB . Tutorial 2 . In a star-connected circuit. b and c of a triangle (see the figure) satisfy b γ a β a cos β c c = b cos α + a cos β + a cos γ b = c cos α a= c cos β + b cos γ α b cos α Use Cramer’s Rule to express cos α in terms of a . z 2 . e1 − e 2 = 65 . i 3 . e 2 − e3 = 160 . b and c thereby deriving the familiar law of cosines from trigonometry. cos α = b2 + c2 − a 2 2bc 22. i 2 . z1 .UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE TUTORIAL 2 21. currents i1 . z 3 . are given by i1 + i 2 + i 3 = 0 z1i1 − z 2i 2 = e1 − e 2 z 2i1 − z 3i3 = e 2 − e3 If z1 = 10 . i 2 .

18. y ) = ( 5. x 3 ) = ( 0 . x 3 ) = ( -1 .5 .1 ) Z1 i + Z 2 Z I − Z2 .0.11 . T ) = ( − 4. 20.57 ) ( V1 . ) ( i1 . . i2 = z1 (s 2 − s 3 ) − z 3 (s1 − s 2 ) z1z 2 + z1z 3 + z 2 z 3 15. R2 = 1 i+I i+I (b) ( m . ( x .29 . − 20 V (z 2 + z 3 ) . y . x 2 .29 .1. 22.4 s + 2s + 3 2 (b) 5. 1810 . 4 ) s + 1. (b) (b) a=0 . V3 ) = ( 1 . (a) (b) x =2 (c) x ≠ ±2 i 2 = 5.7 MATHEMATICS UNIT-TF-UNIKL MFI NBB . b≠0 (a) (a) (a) (b) a ≠ 0 . 7.4 .2. 10.   15 30  a=0 . 1.y )=   1 1  . z1z 2 + z1z 3 + z 2 z 3 i2 = ) . 1710 ) 9. −1 .5 ) z 2 (s1 − s 3 ) + z 3 (s1 − s 2 ) z1 z 2 + z 1 z 3 + z 2 z 3 z1 (s 3 − s 2 ) + z 2 (s 3 − s1 ) z1z 2 + z1z 3 + z 2 z 3 x = -2 i1 = i3 = . i 3 ) = ( 12. 17. R 2 ) =  1 . z ) = ( . 4. 3. b∈ℜ b = 15 (c) ( x1 . b=0 b ≠ 15 ( R1 .5 . 2.19 x= W (2M 1 + M 2 ) M 1 (M 1 + 2M 2 ) x 2 . 11. . 28. 6. (a) R1 = ( b . −1 ( x1 . i1 = i 2 . 8 ) (a) TF = ( x . 1    3 5 ( x. i3 = Vz 2 z1z 2 + z1z 3 + z 2 z 3 Vz 3 z1z 2 + z1z 3 + z 2 z 3 Tutorial 2 . 7. 23. d ) = ( 4 .51 ) ( x 1 .5 . 2. 8. 4.UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE TUTORIAL 2 ANSWERS: 1. p ) = ( 3. V2 . x 2 .