SI VER TY NI

ASSAM U
LCHAR SI

Assam University Journal of Science & Technology : Biological and Environmental Sciences Vol. 7 Number I 76-78, 2011

ISSN 0975-2773

Antimicrobial Activity of Melastoma malabathricum L.
Manabendra Dutta Choudhury, *Deepa Nath, Anupam Das Talukdar Ethnobotany and Medicinal plant research laboratory, Deptt. of life Science, Assam University, Silchar-788011 *Corresponding author email: dipa.nath@gmail.com

Abstract
Present piece of work was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of methanolic and acetone extract of M. malabathricum L. Methanolic and acetone extracts of leaves have been prepared and tested against test bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp. and E. coli by disc diffusion method. The result showed significant zone of inhibition by both the extracts against all three test bacteria, which reflects the potentiality of methanolic and acetone extract of leaves of M. malabathricum as antimicrobial agent. Key Words: Melastoma malabathricum, antimicrobial, methanolic extract, acetone extract Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp. E. coli.

Introduction It is the demand of time to develop new drugs as many new diseases are continuously emerging and causative agents for many old diseases become drug resistant. Moreover, many synthetic drugs are withdrawn years after their introduction into the market because of adverse side effects. The metabolites discovered in medicinal plants may avoid the side effect of synthetic drugs . Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomataceae) locally known as LUTKI is very well known medicinal plant used by peoples of different community all over the world. The leaves of Melastoma malabathricum L. is used traditionally to treat diarrohea, dysentery, leucorrhoea, hemorrhage infection during confinement, toothache, flatulence, sore legs and thrush. The ethanolic extracts of Melastoma malabathricum L. was found to have antinociceptive effect. (Sulaiman et al., 2004). The antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of three Miconia species of Melastomataceae family (M. albicans, M. rubiginosa and M. stenostachya) was studied by Andrea et al., (2003). The antimicrobial activity was tested against eleven selected microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans and they reported efficacy of ethanol extracts of Miconia albicans and Miconia rubiginosa as most active. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of M. albicans have been established by Vasconcelos et al., (2006). Methanol extracts of Memecylon malabaricum leaves has shown activity against bacteria both Gram (+) and Gram (-), and fungi. (Hullatti et al., 2004). Rodrigues et al., (2008) reported the antimicrobial activity of ethanol and chloroform extracts of the leaves of Miconia species (Miconia cabucu, Miconia rubiginosa, and Miconia stenostachya) against Bacillus subtilis,Candida albicans, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis. The wound healing and antibacterial activities of the extract of Dissotis theifolia (Melastomataceae) stem against Staphylococcus aureus and

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Antimicrobial activity of the crude extract was determined by disc diffusion method (Vincent et al.404145 10. 2003. Leaves showing zone of inhibition against pathogenic bacteria. has potential antimicrobial activity against all three types of test bacteria viz.416333 8.. Mumbai. antipyretic activities were observed in concentration independent manner and concentration of 10% (V\V) of the water extracts (Zakaria et al.. antipyretic properties.. Vaucher specimen has been deposited to the Herbarium of Assam University. methanolic and acetone extracts of leaves of Melastoma malabathricum . Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 7425.36 ± 0. isolate) and one fungal species Candida krusei (Lab.After the inoculation . were collected from Assam University .06±0... Streptococcus aureus (Lab. Microorganism Methanol extracts E. Recently Sunilson et al. Bacillus subtilis MTCC 7164. Hullatti et al.. Odimegwu et al.77 - .Antimicrobial Activity of Melastoma..). Subcutaneous administration of extracts of Melastoma malabathricum L. Significant antinociceptive. 2008. The whole set of experiment was repeated in triplicate.. Aqueous extracts of leaves of Melastoma malabathricum has been reported to have medicinal properties and were tested for their antimicrobial activity against gram (+ve) and gram (-ve) human pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 1144. The leaves were shade dried. aureus and P. aureginosa. malabathricum L. Sunilson et al.. India).D) The antibacterial activity of crude methanolic and acetone extract of leaves were studied using three different test organism viz. isolate) (Thatoi et al. Silchar.. (2008)..085444 Acetone extracts 9. isolate).86 ± 0. Materials and Methods The current study was carried out to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanol and acetone extracts of leaves of M. Results and Discussion The results indicated that the methanolic and acetone extract from Melastoma malabathricum L. Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC 3615. 2008). 2004.. Vibrio cholerae (Lab.. 2006. isolate).33±0. Shigella flexneri (Lab. Bacillus brevis MTCC 7404..650641 Values are zone of Inhibition and an average of triplicate(Mean ± S. The crude extracts showed significant antibacterial activity as compared to standard antibiotic. Various species of Miconia belonging to Melastomataceae family showed significant antimicrobial activity against different Gram (+ve ) and Gram (-Ve) bacteria (Andrea et al. against S. In the present state of affairs.. 2008). Table -1: Methanolic and acetone extracts of Melastoma malabathricum L. leaves in experimental animals shows antinociceptive. Mumbai. E. E.142753 S.coli 11. Antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the zone of inhibition produced around the disc in millimeter. (2008) in their paper entitled “Antibacterial and wound healing activities of Melastoma malabathricum” reported the antibacterial efficacy of Melastoma malabathricum L. (2008) reported the antibacterial efficiency of Melastoma malabathricum L. Critical survey of literature reflects the efficiency of plants of Melastomataceae family having potential antimicrobial ability. Maximum zone of inhibition was recorded for Staphylococcus aureus (13. malbathricum L.. Vasconcelos et al. The microbial strains were inoculated into petriplates . Silchar. Two gram (+ve) and one gram (-ve) bacteria were collected from of Silchar Medical College. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 1034. the petriplates were incubated at 370C. anti inflammatory. & Staphylococcus aureus. Streptococcus sp. Leaves of M. campus.. 2006).. Rodrigues et al.14±o.ltd. powdered and extracted at room temperature with acetone and methanol (Merck Limited. India). against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aureginosa .441928 Streptococcus sp 12. & Staphylococcus aureus. Streptococcus sp. E. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was reported by Odimegwu et al. aureus 13. 1994) on Nutrient Agar Medium (Hi Media Lab Pvt .66 ± 0. coli. Escherichia coli MTCC 1089. anti inflammatory.06 mm. coli & Streptococcus also showed remarkable zone of inhibition.. coli.

A... and Fatimah. H. (2006). K. Sulaiman.coli and Strepcoccus sp. Zocolo.. Vasconcelos. E. Filter paper disc modification of Oxford cup peneciline cup determination. K. D. against some gram (+ ve ) and gram (-ve) human pathogenic bacteria Thus..R. Royo. S. C. 55: 162-164. R. Rodrigues.C. R. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. Abdul Ghani. Proc. (2008).. Ibezim. Panda. J. G.F. and Vincent. African Journal of Infectious Diseases. A. malabathricum L. Antinociceptive. anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of Melastoma malabathricum leaves aqueous extract in experimental animals Can. J.. 75(3-4): 409-411. Med. W.. and Wilson R. Raden Mohd. Thatoi et al. Orissa” also reported the antimicrobial efficiency of aqueous extracts of leaves of M. the findings of the present works confirms the potentiality of this plants as a source of future bioactive compounds. Andrade e Silva.S. . and Paliniappan. malabathricum L. V. C.D. M. Sulaiman. M.. C. Esimone. D. S. M. J. K.. C. M. Physiol. C. R. 84(12): 1291–1299. (2008). and Cunha. 61(7-8): 477-82.. Nor. Ahmad..Antimicrobial Activity of Melastoma. G. Michelin.. Fitoterapia. and Salgado. 2(1): 011-016. 7:260-267. Plant Sci. J.. Thatoi. Rath. C... Crotti. and Okoye. have produced significant zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (13. dos Santos. Somchit. R..N. J. D. Rathna Devi. Israf. (1994). Exp.. Z. Rajavel. J. J. showed significant zone of inhibition against Streptococcus aureus.. Antimicrobial activity of Memecylon malabaricum leaves. (2008). M.. Wound healing and antibacterial activities of the extract of Dissotis theifolia (Melastomataceae) stem formulated in a simple ointment base. V. C. M. Z. References Andréa. James. Orissa.. Nworu. S. Zakaria. (2008). This information provides a valuable clue for isolation of bioactive compound from the plant. Conclusion Bioactivity evaluation of methanolic and acetone extracts of leaves of M. Asian J. Braz.. In vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ursolic acid and oleanoic acid from Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae). Hullatti K. H. Antibacterial and wound healing activities of Melastoma malbathricum. H. Microbiol. A. S. (2006). Somchit. L. Rinaldo. (2003).. J. 1(1): 120-126. Odimegwu. Evolution of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of three Microbial species. Pharmacol.. S... R. A.. L. S. In addition to that methanolic and acetone extracts of leaves also showed significant antibacterial activity against E. S. W. Coli and Streptococcus sp. D. J.78 - . Bastos. E. (2004).N. Antimicrobial activity of Miconia species (Melastomataceae). J. Z Naturforsch C. Carvalho. Paulraj.B.M. M..C. C. Vincent. J Med Food. O. G. J.. A.. C. Z. Sunilson. and Moin.W. Vilegas.. F. 2(2):75-79. Carlos H. Hanan Kumar. In the present investigation which seems to be the first report of activity of the plant (Methanolic and acetone extract) against these two bacteria. and Dutta. Thomas... A.N.. L. A. 34(4): 339-340. Soc. E.. D.. N. Ferreira.. Mat Jais. M.K. Antinociceptive effect of Melastoma malabathricum ethanolic extract in mice.. Antimicrobial activity and ethnomedicinal uses of some medicinal plants from similipal biosphere reserve. Z. N. 75: 667–672.. (2008) in their paper entitled “Antimicrobial Activity and Ethnomedicinal Uses of Some Medicinal Plants from Similipal Biosphere Reserve. K. G. M. and Ravishankar.A. (2004). C..06 mm) which confirms the potentiality of the plants as antimicrobial agent. G.. Daniela. Fitoterapia .