Chapter 1 Introduction

Cellular phones are turning out to be a menace on the road. This is a major problem for the cellular phone manufacturers. This paper provides a solution which transmits a SOS signal to save the accident victim. It describes in detail a cost-effective full proof solution. There are many factors to be considered when designing such a system. In most of the accidents, the victim becomes unconscious. How is a SOS transmitted then? Here, many ideas can be implemented. One such solution is described here. The cell phone is fitted with a transducer, which detects shocks. The cell phone automatically transmits the SOS if the shock level goes beyond a certain percentage. The cell phone must not trigger an accidental SOS. To ensure this, the shock level that triggers the SOS must be high enough. Based on the first condition, if the shock level is made very high, then an accident might not be identified at all.

Fig1. 1: Antenna used in RDF to identify the position of the victim Having thus identified the situations in the accident, one needs to understand the actual requirements in each case. They are given below. The solution requires a software robot resident in the cellular phone provider’s server, which can transmit the SOS signal in an intelligent manner and monitor responses for the victim. i)Similarly, the solution needs a Positioning System to transmit the victim’s whereabouts to others. This has to be a cheap system and should not increase the cell phone receiver’s cost greatly. ii)The solution requires a high fidelity shock transducer and decoding circuit to identify the shock magnitude. iii)The SOS has to be transmitted as soon as possible. So all systems must have a very small time delay. 1

iv)Above all, the new system must fit in with the present system (i.e.,) there must be no difference in the information received between a user who requests this option and one who does not.

Chapter 2 The Toy Car Experiment
In case the victim becomes unconscious, the system must be able to automatically detect an accident and transmit the SOS automatically. In order to achieve this, a shock transducer is used to measure the jerk experienced through the accident and trigger the SOS circuit if the force level is very high. This system needs statistical data acquisition to find out the exact threshold level of the force in an accident. It is highly expensive to simulate the accident in real time. So, a scaled down experiment is used. Here, a pair of toy cars of mass 200g is made to collide with each other. The force caused by them is measured by simple piezoelectric transducers. The results of this experiment are tabulated below.

Fig 2.1: Toy car used in the experiment Table 2.1 Relation between Measured Voltage and Actual Force Sample No., 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mean Measured Voltage ( mV ) 113.2 112.7 114.3 114.5 113.3 113.6 Actual Force ( Newton ) .977 .972 .985 .987 .978 .980

2

As seen from the experiment, the average force acting on a toy car in case of an accident is approximately 1N. For a car measuring 960kg and moving at 70kmph speed, the force will be scaled 18000 times or 18kN. These practical results can be verified by a simple theoretical calculation. A car weighing 960kg decelerates from approximately 70kmph to 0kmph in 2 seconds in case of an accident. Hence, the force is given by F =ma which is, 960*70*1000/3600 or 18.67kN approximately. This confirms with the scaled down experimental results. However, in a four-wheeler, all of the total force does not act inside the vehicle. As per information got from Mercedes Benz, only 10% of the total force acts inside the car (Acknowledgement [4]). Thus, the threshold can be set to approximately at 1kN. The scaled down experiment used a cheaper transducer that does not measure high forces. The transducer required for the actual system costs Rs. 1000 a pair. Based on the statistical data collected above, the approximate threshold level is determined. More accurate results can be determined if the experiments are carried in real time to the exact detail. In order to ensure that the force calculated above acts on the cell phone, it is essential to place the phone in the stand that normally comes as a standard part of cars. This stand requires a slight modification to provide the cell phone a small moving space so that it is jerked when an accident occurs. The alternate and better solution would be to attach the transducer to some part of the vehicle itself and connect the cell phone to it whenever the user is driving hi/her car. This solution would require that the transducer be properly protected. The problem of finding the position’s victim is now dealt with.

3

Chapter 3 Identifying the Position of the Victim
The problem of knowing where we are has been an interesting and difficult problem through the ages. Years of research have resulted in the Global Positioning System (GPS). This technique uses three satellites and pin points the location by the triangulation process, wherein the user’s position is located as the point of intersection of the three circles corresponding to the satellites. Installing such a system is quite simple. But the major constraint here is the cost. A normal hand-held GPS costs around $100 and weighs quite heavy. Minimizing the above apparatus will increase the cost further. This would mean an extra cost of Rs.10000 to Rs.15000 for the Indian user. The better option would be to wait for a SOS signal and then identify the victim’s position. This being a faster technique also makes the design process easy and cheap.

Fig 3.1: Identifying the position of the victim through satellite This being the case, one could make use of certain obvious facts to identify the victim. They are, i) The cell within which the victim is present can be identified easily by the base station. However, this resolution is not enough because the cell can be of a huge size. ii) Accidents are exceptional cases. They occur rarely. Further, the probability of two users in the same cell getting into an accident is highly improbable. The system suggested by this paper makes use of a beacon or search signal transmitted by the base station. This is a constant amplitude a.c. signal that fits in the guard band of the respective cell. The signal has the same frequency for all users and so is unsuitable for simultaneous multi-user handling. However, that will be a highly improbable case as reasoned above. This search signal is sent only if an SOS is identified. So, when a victim sends out his SOS, the base station immediately sends the search signal. The cellular phone is fitted with a small reflector which 4

reflects this signal as such. This is easily achieved by constructing a mismatched termination in the cellular phone for that frequency. Now, the to and fro travel of the signal introduces a time delay. So, from the signal reflected, the user’s distance can be identified.

Fig 3.2: Cellular phone used in SOS transmission The information got now gives only the radius of the circle within which the user might be present. This might be too large an area to identify the user even within the cell limits as there is no maximum limit on the cell area. Since we have got the radius, all that is required is to find the angle or direction within which the user might be present. To do this, we use the Radio Direction Finder (RDF) antenna system. This makes use of a highly directional loop antenna to identify the signal source which in this case is the cellular phone. In order to do this, the cellular phone needs to transmit a microwave signal to the base station. This can be of any frequency that has not been allocated for the existing control frequencies. The base station is then fitted with the CROSSED LOOP or BELLINI TOSI or GONIOMETER type of direction finder. It has been proved mathematically that the meter points to the direction of the signal source (Reference [4]) The user in distress sends out a microwave signal to the base station just as the base station sends its beacon signal. From the reflected beacon signal the radius of the victim’s position is found. From the goniometer, the direction is found as well. This system as assumed above presents a design for only one user. To do this a small electronic system, preferably a microcontroller based system maybe used. Such systems are available widely in the market and so there is no point in trying to design one. Thus, the problem of identifying the victim is overcome. Once the victim’s location is identified, the base stationtransmits the SOS sent by the cell phone along with his coordinates to the main server. The cell phone thus initiates the process and the base station propagates it.

5

Chapter 4 Complete Block diagram of the System
The below diagram depicts the working of the complete system. As seen, the jerk caused by the accident is detected by the shock transducer and the SMS sub-routine is triggered. Along with the message, control signals that inform the base station that an accident has occurred are transmitted. The triggering is achieved by using a high pass filter that detects abrupt changes in the transducer. Simultaneously, the microwave signal for the goniometer is also transmitted. The position is identified as described in the previous section. The user’s id and his position in the polar coordinates are given to the software robot. This robot, then decodes the user’s position to other subscribers based on a priority list.

Force Caused By Accident

To Base Station

Transducer fitted in Cellular Phone To many

Trigger o/p High Pass Filter

Switch to Trigger SMS Subroutine

Position Finding Signals

Software Robot

Help Message User ID & Password

Base Station’s Goniometer and Positioning Equipment

Beacon Signal

And Figure 4.1: Block Diagram Decoded So far, the hardware design of the system has been dealt with in detail. As mentioned at the start of the Position paper, a software robot that manages the whole show will have to be designed. This robot is made resident in the main server in the control tower of the cellular service provider. The functions that this robot will have to perform are complex. The algorithm it follows and its code at the highest level of abstraction are explained in the next section. 6

4.1 Transducer
4.1.1 Introduction
A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy to another. Energy types include (but are not limited to) electrical, mechanical, electromagnetic (including light), chemical, acoustic or thermal energy. While the term transducer commonly implies the use of a sensor/detector, any device which converts energy can be considered a transducer. Transducers are widely used in measuring instruments.

4.1.2Applications

Electromagnetic:
    

Antenna – converts electromagnetic waves into electric current and vice versa Cathode ray tube (CRT) – converts electrical signals into visual form Fluorescent lamp, light bulb – converts electrical power into visible light Magnetic cartridge – converts motion into electrical form Photo detector or photo resistor or light dependent resistor (LDR) – converts changes in light levels into resistance changes Tape head – converts changing magnetic fields into electrical form Hall effect sensor – converts a magnetic field level into electrical form only

  

Electrochemical:
            

pH probes Electro-galvanic fuel cell

Hydrogen sensor Electromechanical (electromechanical output devices are generically called actuators): Electro active polymers Galvanometer Microelectromechanical systems Rotary motor, linear motor Vibration powered generator Potentiometer when used for measuring position Load cell – converts force to mV/V electrical signal using strain gauge Accelerometer Strain gauge String potentiometer 7

  

Air flow sensor Tactile sensor

Electro acoustic:

Loudspeaker, earphone – converts electrical signals into sound (amplified signal → magnetic field → motion → air pressure) Microphone – converts sound into an electrical signal (air pressure → motion of conductor/coil → magnetic field → signal) Pickup (music technology) – converts motion of metal strings into an electrical signal (magnetism → electricity (signal)) Tactile transducer – converts electrical signal into vibration ( signal → vibration) Piezoelectric crystal – converts solid-state electrical modulations into an electrical signal (vibration → electrical current → signal) Geophone – converts a ground movement (displacement) into voltage (vibrations → motion of conductor/coil → magnetic field → signal) Gramophone pickup – (air pressure → motion → magnetic field → signal) Hydrophone – converts changes in water pressure into an electrical form Sonar transponder (water pressure → motion of conductor/coil → magnetic field → signal)

 

  

Photoelectric:
 

Laser diode, light-emitting diode – converts electrical power into forms of light Photodiode, photo resistor, phototransistor, photomultiplier tube – converts changing light levels into electrical form

Electrostatic:

Electrometer

Thermoelectric:
   

Resistance temperature detector (RTD) Thermocouple Peltier cooler Thermistor (includes PTC resistor and NTC resistor)

Radio acoustic:
 

Geiger–Muller tube – used for measuring radioactivity Receiver (radio) 8

4.2ADC
An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or A to D) is a device that converts a continuous to a discrete time digital representation. An ADC may also provide an isolated measurement. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter(DAC). Typically, an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage or current to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current. However, some non-electronic or only partially electronic devices, such as rotary encoders, can also be considered ADCs. The digital output may use different coding schemes. Typically the digital output will be a two’s binary number that is proportional to the input, but there are other possibilities. An encoder, for example, might output a Gray code.

4.2.1Types of ADCS
These are the most common ways of implementing an electronic ADC:

A direct-conversion ADC or flash ADC has a bank of comparators sampling the input signal in parallel, each firing for their decoded voltage range. The comparator bank feeds a logic circuit that generates a code for each voltage range. Direct conversion is very fast, capable of gigahertz sampling rates, but usually has only 8 bits of resolution or fewer, since the number of comparators needed, 2N - 1, doubles with each additional bit, requiring a large, expensive circuit. ADCs of this type have a large die size, a high input capacitance, high power dissipation, and are prone to produce glitches at the output (by outputting an out-of-sequence code). Scaling to newer submicrometre technologies does not help as the device mismatch is the dominant design limitation. They are often used for video, wideband communications or other fast signals in optical storage.

A successive-approximation ADC uses a comparator to successively narrow a range that contains the input voltage. At each successive step, the converter compares the input voltage to the output of an internal digital to analog converter which might represent the midpoint of a selected voltage range. At each step in this process, the approximation is stored in a successive approximation register (SAR). For example, consider an input 9

voltage of 6.3 V and the initial range is 0 to 16 V. For the first step, the input 6.3 V is compared to 8 V (the midpoint of the 0–16 V range). The comparator reports that the input voltage is less than 8 V, so the SAR is updated to narrow the range to 0–8 V. For the second step, the input voltage is compared to 4 V (midpoint of 0–8). The comparator reports the input voltage is above 4 V, so the SAR is updated to reflect the input voltage is in the range 4–8 V. For the third step, the input voltage is compared with 6 V (halfway between 4 V and 8 V); the comparator reports the input voltage is greater than 6 volts, and search range becomes 6–8 V. The steps are continued until the desired resolution is reached.

A ramp-compare ADC produces a saw-tooth signal that ramps up or down then quickly returns to zero. When the ramp starts, a timer starts counting. When the ramp voltage matches the input, a comparator fires, and the timer's value is recorded. Timed ramp converters require the least number of transistors. The ramp time is sensitive to temperature because the circuit generating the ramp is often just some simple oscillator. There are two solutions: use a clocked counter driving a DAC and then use the comparator to preserve the counter's value, or calibrate the timed ramp. A special advantage of the ramp-compare system is that comparing a second signal just requires another comparator, and another register to store the voltage value. A very simple (nonlinear) ramp-converter can be implemented with a microcontroller and one resistor and capacitor.[9] Vice versa, a filled capacitor can be taken from an integrator, time-toamplitude converter, phase detector, sample and hold circuit, or peak and hold circuit and discharged. This has the advantage that a slow comparator cannot be disturbed by fast input changes.

The Wilkinson ADC was designed by D. H. Wilkinson in 1950. The Wilkinson ADC is based on the comparison of an input voltage with that produced by a charging capacitor. The capacitor is allowed to charge until its voltage is equal to the amplitude of the input pulse (a comparator determines when this condition has been reached). Then, the capacitor is allowed to discharge linearly, which produces a ramp voltage. At the point when the capacitor begins to discharge, a gate pulse is initiated. The gate pulse remains on until the capacitor is completely discharged. Thus the duration of the gate pulse is directly proportional to the amplitude of the input pulse. This gate pulse operates a linear 10

gate which receives pulses from a high-frequency oscillator clock. While the gate is open, a discrete number of clock pulses pass through the linear gate and are counted by the address register. The time the linear gate is open is proportional to the amplitude of the input pulse, thus the number of clock pulses recorded in the address register is proportional also. Alternatively, the charging of the capacitor could be monitored, rather than the discharge.

An integrating ADC (also dual-slope or multi-slope ADC) applies the unknown input voltage to the input of an integrator and allows the voltage to ramp for a fixed time period (the run-up period). Then a known reference voltage of opposite polarity is applied to the integrator and is allowed to ramp until the integrator output returns to zero (the run-down period). The input voltage is computed as a function of the reference voltage, the constant run-up time period, and the measured run-down time period. The run-down time measurement is usually made in units of the converter's clock, so longer integration times allow for higher resolutions. Likewise, the speed of the converter can be improved by sacrificing resolution. Converters of this type (or variations on the concept) are used in most digital voltmeters for their linearity and flexibility.

A delta-encoded ADC or counter-ramp has an up-down counter that feeds a digital to analog converter (DAC). The input signal and the DAC both go to a comparator. The comparator controls the counter. The circuit uses negative feedback from the comparator to adjust the counter until the DAC's output is close enough to the input signal. The number is read from the counter. Delta converters have very wide ranges and high resolution, but the conversion time is dependent on the input signal level, though it will always have a guaranteed worst-case. Delta converters are often very good choices to read real-world signals. Most signals from physical systems do not change abruptly. Some converters combine the delta and successive approximation approaches; this works especially well when high frequencies are known to be small in magnitude.

A pipeline ADC (also called sub ranging quantizer) uses two or more steps of sub ranging. First, a coarse conversion is done. In a second step, the difference to the input signal is determined with a digital to analog converter (DAC). This difference is then converted finer, and the results are combined in a last step. This can be considered a refinement of the successive-approximation ADC wherein the feedback reference signal 11

consists of the interim conversion of a whole range of bits (for example, four bits) rather than just the next-most-significant bit. By combining the merits of the successive approximation and flash ADCs this type is fast, has a high resolution, and only requires a small die size.

A sigma-delta ADC (also known as a delta-sigma ADC) oversamples the desired signal by a large factor and filters the desired signal band. Generally, a smaller number of bits than required are converted using a Flash ADC after the filter. The resulting signal, along with the error generated by the discrete levels of the Flash, is fed back and subtracted from the input to the filter. This negative feedback has the effect of noise shaping the error due to the Flash so that it does not appear in the desired signal frequencies. A digital filter (decimation filter) follows the ADC which reduces the sampling rate, filters off unwanted noise signal and increases the resolution of the output (sigma-delta modulation, also called delta-sigma modulation).

A time-interleaved ADC uses M parallel ADCs where each ADC samples data every M:th cycle of the effective sample clock. The result is that the sample rate is increased M times compared to what each individual ADC can manage. In practice, the individual differences between the M ADCs degrade the overall performance reducing the SFDR. However, technologies exist to correct for these time-interleaving mismatch errors.

An ADC with intermediate FM stage first uses a voltage-to-frequency converter to convert the desired signal into an oscillating signal with a frequency proportional to the voltage of the desired signal, and then uses a frequency counter to convert that frequency into a digital count proportional to the desired signal voltage. Longer integration times allow for higher resolutions. Likewise, the speed of the converter can be improved by sacrificing resolution. The two parts of the ADC may be widely separated, with the frequency signal passed through an opto-isolator or transmitted wirelessly. Some such ADCs use sine wave or square wave frequency modulation; others use pulse-frequency modulation. Such ADCs were once the most popular way to show a digital display of the status of a remote analog sensor.

There can be other ADCs that use a combination of electronics and other technologies:

12

A time-stretch analog-to-digital converter (TS-ADC) digitizes a very wide bandwidth analog signal, that cannot be digitized by a conventional electronic ADC, by timestretching the signal prior to digitization. It commonly uses

a photonic preprocessor frontend to time-stretch the signal, which effectively slows the signal down in time and compresses its bandwidth. As a result, an

electronic backendADC, that would have been too slow to capture the original signal, can now capture this slowed down signal. For continuous capture of the signal, the frontend also divides the signal into multiple segments in addition to time-stretching. Each segment is individually digitized by a separate electronic ADC. Finally, a digital signal processor rearranges the samples and removes any distortions added by the frontend to yield the binary data that is the digital representation of the original analog signal.

4.2.2Commercial analog to digital converters
These are usually integrated circuits. Most converters sample with 6 to 24 bits of resolution, and produce fewer than 1 mega sample per second. Thermal noise generated by passive components such as resistors masks the measurement when higher resolution is desired. For audio applications and in room temperatures, such noise is usually a little less than 1 μV (microvolt) of white noise. If the MSB corresponds to a standard 2 V of output signal, this translates to a noise-limited performance that is less than 20~21 bits, and obviates the need for any dithering. As of February 2002, Mega- and giga-sample per second converters are available. Mega-sample converters are required in digital video cameras, video capture cards, and TV tuner cards to convert full-speed analog video to digital video files. Commercial converters usually have ±0.5 to ±1.5LSB error in their output. In many cases, the most expensive part of an integrated circuit is the pins, because they make the package larger, and each pin has to be connected to the integrated circuit's silicon. To save pins, it is common for slow ADCs to send their data one bit at a time over a serial interface to the computer, with the next bit coming out when a clock signal changes state, say from 0 to 5 V. This saves quite a few pins on the ADC package, and in many cases, does

13

not make the overall design any more complex (even microprocessors which use memorymapped I/O only need a few bits of a port to implement a serial bus to an ADC). Commercial ADCs often have several inputs that feed the same converter, usually through an analog multiplexer. Different models of ADC may include sample and hold circuits, instrumentation amplifiers or differential inputs, where the quantity measured is the difference between two voltages.

4.3 High pass filter
A high pass filter actually happens to be a device that modulates amplitude of frequencies, so that it is lower than the cut-off frequency. In certain circumstances, it actually a filter, which is very much a predominant in the electronic industry and it, has a variety of purposes, that can ensure that it has longevity along with the various features, that is very much essential for that specific industry. With it is actually modeled on a linear time, along with an invariant system, that is directly proportional to the amount of frequency that is given off by the device, and also reduces the amplitude that is required, hence making sure that the frequency is always below the cut-off frequency. In common terms, are high pass filter is basically a bass cutting filter, that can ensure that there is no huge amount of frequency that is needed to be modulated, and you need not worry about getting a lot of feedback from the device, because of the fact that the amplitude would be way less than the cut-off frequency, so that frequency would not be lost in the current passage of transmission. They are utilized for a lot of features like blocking direct current and also ensuring that the voltage of the radio-frequency device is placed in the optimum level. They can be used along with a conjunction of a high band as well as a low pass filter, in order to make a band-pass filter. There are so many ways and methods with which they can be utilized in the electronics industry, that people are gushing over its various features and facts, in order to ensure that they can utilize this wonderful electronic circuitry, for the various devices that are out in the current market, in order to reduce the amount of electricity that is required for each and every device. 14

Fig 4.3.1 High Pass Filter Utilizing a high pass filter, you can ensure that the amount of electricity that is required by the device is less and by a considerable amount, because of the fact that the amount of frequency that is actually required to be sent or transmitted from the other device is basically made to be less than the cut-off frequency, and which can in hindsight, enable the device to reduce the amount of electricity that is required for transmission of that frequency, and also for the utilization of the device in its optimum level. It is such a wonderful concept, that has become revolutionary in its usage, and people have been utilizing high pass filter in devices such as audio devices, photographing, and also various other microwaves, and that can enable the battery life to be more, and give more longevity to the device.

4.4 Goniometer
4.4.1Introduction
A goniometer is an instrument that either measures an angle or allows an object to be rotated to a precise angular position. The term goniometry is derived from two Greek words, gōnia, meaning angle, and metron, meaning measure.

4.4.2 Applications
Communications Goniometers are used direction finding in signals intelligence applications for military and civil purposes,e.g. interception of satellite and naval communications as performed on the French warship Dupuy de Lôme uses multiple goniometers.

15

Crystallography

Fig 4.4.2.1A goniometer for crystallography In crystallography, goniometers are used for measuring angles between crystal faces. They are also used in X-ray diffraction to rotate the samples. The groundbreaking investigations of physicist Max von Laue and cohorts into the atomic structure of crystals in 1912 involved a goniometer. Light measurement Goniophotometers measure the spatial distribution of light visible to the human eye at a specific angular position. In Medicine Medical practitioners, (Physicians, Physician Assistants, Physical Therapists, Athletic Trainers, Chiropractors and Nurse Practitioners) use a goniometer to document initial and subsequent range of motion, at the visits for Occupational injuries, and

by disability evaluators to determine a permanent disability. This is to evaluate progress, and also for medico-legal purposes. It is a tool to evaluate Waddell's signs (findings that may indicate symptom magnification.) Physical therapy In physical therapy and occupational therapy, a goniometer is an instrument which measures an axis and range of motion. If a patient or client experiences decreased range of motion in a 16

joint (e.g. a knee or elbow), the therapist can use a goniometer to assess what the range of motion is prior to intervention, and then make sure the intervention is working by using the goniometer in subsequent interventions. Surface science

Fig 4.4.2.2 Contact angle Goniometer Surface scientists use a contact angle goniometer to measure angle, surface and surface tension. In surface science, an instrument generally called a contact angle goniometer is used to measure the static contact angle, advancing & receding contact angles, and surface tension. The first contact angle goniometer was designed by Dr. William Zisman of the United States Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC and manufactured by ramé-hart (now raméhart instrument company), New Jersey, USA. The original manual contact angle goniometer used an eyepiece with microscope. The current generation of contact angle instruments uses cameras and software to capture and analyze the drop shape and are better suited for dynamic and advanced studies. A Gonioreflectometer is used to measure the reflectivity of a surface at a variety of angles.

17

Chapter 5 Simulation
The simulation of this system has been carried out in a small scale level. As seen from the block diagram a microphone substitutes for the shock transducer in the original system. This then transmitted through a Medium Wave transmitter to a personal computer. The signal received is passed through an ADC and received in a C program. This program checks the signal value and sets a flag variable when it goes beyond a certain level. This flag is continually checked by a thread of the JAVA front-end. If the flag is set, the program connects to the back-end database and displays a list of users to whom the mock message is sent based on the hierarchy explained above. The simulation does not cover the positioning part of the system as that is too expensive to be done on small scale. Fig 6.1Block Diagram

Microphone

MW Transmitter

MW Receiver

Analog to Digital Converter

Serial Port of Personal Computer

C program to measure input and set flag

Oracle Mock Database

Java Front-End

18

Chapter 6 Advantages and Disadvantages 6.1 Advantages
    People can be saved from accidents Service to victims can be done in short span of time. Relatives can get information regarding accident. It is of low cost.

6.2 Disadvantages
 The system requires the user to place the cellular phone in a stand or connect the transducer to the vehicle in case of four wheelers.  The system needs detailed surveying to decode the position of the user in polar coordinates to actual localities. This however is a one time job.  The system does not handle multiple victims simultaneously. However, priority can be allocated to users based on the force measured.

19

Chapter 7 Conclusion
I have thoroughly studied the topic SOS transmission. Cellular phones are turning out to be a menace on the road. This is a major problem for the cellular phone manufacturers. This paper has provided a solution which transmits a SOS signal to save the accident victim. It sends SMS to hospitals, relatives, police etc based on programming. It describes in detail a cost-effective full proof solution. Thus, if this system is implemented it would prove to be a boon to all the people out there driving with hands-free earphone in their ears.

References
[1] Helfrick and Cooper, Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation 3rd Ed., Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 1970. [2] [3] [4] [5] Raj Pandya, Personal Mobile Communication Systems and Services. Thiagarajan Viswanathan, Telecommunication and Switching Systems, INSDOC, N. Delhi, 1996. K.D.Prasad, Antennas and Wave Propagation, Khanna, 2nd edition. George Kennedy, Electronic Communication Systems, 1999 - Technology & Engineering

20