Chapter 1 Key Terms

application software The set of programs on a computer that helps a user carry out tasks such as word processing, sending e-mail, balancing a budget, creating presentations, editing photos, taking an online course, and playing games. artificial intelligence (AI) The science that attempts to produce computers that display the same type of reasoning and intelligence that humans do. binary digit (or bit) A digit that corresponds to the on and off states of a computer’s switches. A bit contains a value of either 0 or 1. binary language values 0 and 1. byte The language computers use to process information, consisting of only the

Eight binary digits (or bits).

central processing unit (CPU) The part of the system unit of a computer that is responsible for data processing (or the “brains” of the computer); it is the largest and most important chip in the computer. It controls all the functions performed by the computer’s other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instructions. computer information. A data processing device that gathers, processes, outputs, and stores data and

computer fluent Describes a person who understands the capabilities and limitations of computers and knows how to use them to accomplish tasks efficiently. computer forensics The application of computer systems and techniques to gather potential legal evidence; a law enforcement specialty used to fight hightech crime. data Numbers, words, pictures, or sounds that represent facts or ideas.

data mining The process by which great amounts of data are analyzed and investigated to spot significant patterns or trends within the data that would otherwise not be obvious. embedded computers Specially designed computer chips that reside inside other devices such as your car. These are selfcontained computer devices that have their own programming and typically do not receive input from you, nor do they interact with other systems. gigabyte (GB) hardware About a billion bytes. Any part of the computer you can physically touch.

information Data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion.

sound cards. kilobyte (KB) Approximately 1. and so on) connect to it to receive power and to communicate. or video. motherboard A special circuit board in the system unit that contains the central processing unit (CPU). server A computer that provides resources to other computers on a network. all of the other boards (video cards. nurses. microphones. instructions The steps and tasks the computer needs to process data into usable information. including the management of hardware. nanotechnology The science revolving around the use of nanostructures to build devices on an extremely small scale. The two most common platform types are the PC and the Apple Macintosh. the memory (RAM) chips. and digital cameras. sounds (audio). nanoscience The study of molecules and nanostructures whose size ranges from 1 to 100 nanometers (one billionth of a meter). memory chips hold (or store) the instructions or data that the central processing unit (CPU) processes. patient simulator A computer-controlled mannequin that simulates human body functions and reactions. or input. It is the largest printed circuit board. scanners. mainframes Large. and software. and the slots available for expansion cards. mice. and sounds) and instructions (user responses and commands) into a computer.000 bytes. pictures (graphics). images.input device Hardware device used to enter. processing Manipulating data into information. memory A component inside the system unit that helps process data into information. expensive computers that support hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously. output device A device that sends processed data and information out of a computer in the form of text. megabyte (MB) About a million bytes. . platform The combination of a computer’s operating system and processor. Patient simulators are used in training doctors. and emergency services personnel to simulate dangerous situations that would normally put live patients at risk. operating system (OS) System software that controls the way in which a computer system functions. input devices include keyboards. peripherals. data (text.

software The set of computer programs or instructions that tells the computer what to do and enables it to perform different tasks. it includes the operating system and utility programs. floppy disk drives. system software The set of programs that enables a computer’s hardware devices and application software to work together. They are used in situations in which complex models requiring intensive mathematical calculations are needed (such as weather forecasting or atomic energy research). . storage devices Devices such as hard disk drives. and the many circuit boards that help the computer function. its memory. supercomputers Specially designed computers that can perform complex calculations extremely rapidly. system unit The metal or plastic case that holds all the physical parts of the computer together. including the computer’s processor (its brains). and CD drives used for storing data and information.

Chapter 2 Key Terms active-matrix displays With an LCD monitor using active-matrix technology. that move the cursor one space at a time. It controls all the functions performed by the computer’s other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instructions. or right. between pixels on the screen. it is the largest and most important chip in the computer. The result is that an active-matrix display produces a clearer. as needed. Alt key One of the keys on a standard PC computer keyboard used in conjunction with other keys for shortcuts and special tasks. The pixels are illuminated by an electron beam that passes back and forth across the back of the screen very quickly so that the pixels appear to glow continuously. drive bays Special shelves inside computers designed to hold storage devices. A CRT screen is a grid made up of millions of pixels. A smaller dot pitch means that there is less blank space between pixels. measured in millimeters. data projectors viewing screen. down. brighter image than a passive-matrix display. modems. A drive that can both read and write data to CDs. either up. each pixel is charged individually. . generally marked by arrows. Other cursor control keys move the cursor up or down one full page or to the beginning or end of a line. and the Internet. or tiny dots. and thus the image is sharper and clearer. Devices that are used to project images from your computer onto a wall or dot-matrix printer The first type of computer printer. cathode-ray tube (CRT) A picture tube device in a computer monitor. left. which has tiny hammer-like keys that strike the paper through an inked ribbon. cold boot Starting a computer from a powered down or off state. connectivity port A port that enables the computer (or other device) to be connected to other devices or systems such as networks. dot pitch The diagonal distance. CD-ROM drive CD-RW drive A drive for reading compact discs (CDs). control keys The set of special keys on a keyboard. very similar to the picture tube in a conventional television set. cursor The flashing | symbol on a computer monitor that indicates where the next character will be inserted. central processing unit (CPU) The part of the system unit of a computer that is responsible for data processing (or the “brains” of the computer).

A DVD-R W drive can write DVDs as well as read them. This removable memory card is often used in digital cameras. it is most commonly used to connect digital video devices such as digital cameras to the computer. with a transfer rate of 400 megabits per second (Mbps). Ethernet port A port that is slightly larger than a standard phone jack and transfers data at speeds of up to 1. gaming keyboard Keyboards that are optimized for playing specific video games and that contain special keys that perform special functions. they are sometimes referred to as the “F” keys because they start with the letter F followed by a number. floppy disk drive A drive bay for a floppy disk. DVD-RW drive A drive that enables the computer to read and write to DVDs. is located Any part of the computer you can physically touch. .” the keys in the middle row of the keyboard. It is designed to reduce the distance your fingers travel for most keystrokes. and personal digital assistants (PDAs).DVD drive A drive that enables the computer to read digital video discs (DVDs). expansion cards (or adapter cards) Circuit boards with specific functions that augment the computer’s basic functions as well as provide connections to other devices. It is used to connect a computer to a cable modem or a network. Today. hardware Holds all permanently stored programs and data. increasing typing speed. function keys Shortcut keys that perform special tasks. MP3 players. flash drive Drives that plug into a universal serial bus (USB) port on a computer and store data digitally. moving data at 800 megabits per second (Mbps). ergonomics Refers to how a user sets up his or her computer and other equipment to minimize risk of injury or discomfort. Also called USB drives. FireWire port (previously called the IEEE 1394 port) A port based on a standard developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). FireWire 800 One of the fastest ports available.000 megabits per second (Mbps). Dvorak keyboard A leading alternative keyboard that puts the most commonly used letters in the English language on “home keys. flash memory card A form of portable storage. hard disk drive (or hard drive) inside the system unit.

and video as “soft copies” (copies that can be seen only on-screen). and sounds) and instructions (user responses and commands) into a computer. modem port A port that uses a traditional telephone signal to connect a computer to the Internet. monitor (or display screen) A common output device that displays text. input device Hardware device used to enter. An expansion (or adapter) card that enables a computer to . mouse A device used to enter user responses and commands into a computer. Pushing the power button awakens the computer from hibernation. inkjet printer A nonimpact printer that sprays tiny drops of ink onto paper. or input. all of the other boards (video cards. scanner. keyboard Used to enter typed data and commands into a computer. input devices include keyboards. network interface card (NIC) connect with a network. the memory (RAM) chips. at which time the computer reloads everything to the desktop exactly as it was before it went into hibernation. The most common impact printer is the dotmatrix printer. mice. and copier into one machine. liquid crystal display (LCD) Technology used in flat-panel computer monitors. data (text. thus making a mark on the paper. It is the largest printed circuit board. and the slots available for expansion cards. and digital cameras. modem card A device that provides the computer with a connection to the Internet via conventional phone lines. microphones. fax machine. images. graphics. and so on) connect to it to receive power and to communicate.hibernation When a computer is in a state of deep sleep. motherboard A special circuit board in the system unit that contains the central processing unit (CPU). laser printer A nonimpact printer known for quick and quiet production and high-quality printouts. sound cards. microphone A device for capturing sound waves (such as voice) and converts to an electrical signal. impact printers Printers that have tiny hammer-like keys that strike the paper through an inked ribbon. multifunction printer A device that combines the functions of a printer. scanners.

pictures (graphics). parallel port A port that sends data between devices in groups of bits at speeds of 92 kilobits per second (Kbps). as in read-only memory (ROM). nonvolatile storage Permanent storage. It is located as a set of chips on the system unit’s motherboard. The most common nonimpact printers are inkjet and laser printers. This causes the screen to brighten with each pass of electrical current and subsequently to fade. it is housed inside the system unit. and its capacity is measured in megabytes and gigabytes. port An interface through which external devices are connected to the computer. printers. passive-matrix displays Computer monitor technology in which electrical current passes through a liquid crystal solution and charges groups of pixels. Parallel ports were commonly used to connect printers to computers. telling it where to move the pointer on the screen. printer A common output device that creates tangible or hard copies of text and graphics. QWERTY keyboard A keyboard that gets its name from the first six letters on the topleft row of alphabetic keys on the keyboard. Pixels are illuminated by an electron beam that passes back and forth across the back of the screen very quickly so that the pixels appear to glow continuously. output device A device that sends processed data and information out of a computer in the form of text. power supply Used to regulate the wall voltage to the voltages required by computer chips.nonimpact printers Printers that spray ink or use laser beams to make marks on the paper. . random access memory (RAM) The computer’s temporary storage space or shortterm memory. plotters Large printers that use a computer-controlled pen to produce oversize pictures that require precise continuous lines to be drawn. either in a row or a column. The sensor sends signals to the computer. such as in maps or architectural plans. or video. optical mouse A mouse that uses an internal sensor or laser to control the mouse’s movement. and keyboards that connect to the system unit through ports. peripheral devices Devices such as monitors. sounds (audio). pixels Illuminated. tiny dots that create the images you see on a computer monitor. numeric keypad Section of a keyboard that enables a user to enter numbers quickly.

system unit The metal or plastic case that holds all the physical parts of the computer together. stylus A device used to tap or write on touch-sensitive screens. serial port A port that enables the transfer of data. its memory. you simply move your finger across the pad to direct the cursor. it holds all the instructions the computer needs to start up. trackball mouse A mouse with a rollerball on top instead of on the bottom. To use the touchpad. it is often used to connect external modems to the computer. such as the monitor and hard drive. so it’s considered healthier for your wrists than a traditional mouse. including the computer’s processor (its brains). are powered down to save energy. Because you move the trackball with your fingers. it doesn’t require much wrist motion. thermal printer A printer that works by either melting wax-based ink onto ordinary paper (in a process called thermal wax transfer printing) or by burning dots onto specially coated paper (in a process called direct thermal printing). touch-sensitive screen at the base of the keyboard. refresh rate (or vertical refresh rate) The number of times per second an electron beam scans the monitor and recharges the illumination of each pixel. USB A small. and the many circuit boards that help the computer function. joystick-like nub that enables you to move the cursor with the tip See universal serial bus (USB) port . touchpad A small. one bit at a time. toggle key A keyboard key whose function changes each time it’s pressed. it “toggles” between two or more functions. Stand By mode When a computer’s more power-hungry components. trackpoint device of your finger. which is controlled by the number of pixels displayed on the screen. sound card An expansion card that attaches to the motherboard inside the system unit that enables the computer to produce sounds. resolution The clearness or sharpness of an image. over a single wire at speeds of up to 56 kilobits per second (Kbps).read-only memory (ROM) A set of memory chips located on the motherboard that stores data and instructions that cannot be changed or erased.

the data in volatile storage is cleared out.0 External bus that supports a data throughput of 480 megabits per second (Mbps). Used alone. however. These buses are backward compatible with buses using the original universal serial bus (USB) standard. volatile storage Temporary storage. Zip disk A portable storage medium with storage capacities ranging from 100 megabytes (MB) to 750 MB. such as in random access memory (RAM). . it’s used most often in combination with other keys as shortcuts. when the power is off. Windows key A function key specific to the Windows operating system. video card (or video adapter) An expansion card that is installed inside a system unit to translate binary data (the 1s and 0s your computer uses) into the images viewed on the monitor. warm boot The process of restarting the system while it’s powered on.USB 2. it brings up the Start menu.

Generally. and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). buddy list A list of contacts set up in an instant messaging program. client A computer that requests information from a server in a client/server network (such as your computer when you are connected to the Internet). Shown at the top of some Web pages.Chapter 3 Key Terms adware Programs that download on your computer when you install a freeware program. The conversations are in real time and are visible to everyone in the chat room. NOT. or utility. including cable. breadcrumb list A list that shows the hierarchy of previously viewed Web pages within the Web site that you are currently visiting. broadband connections High-speed Internet connections. satellite. adware enables sponsored advertisements to appear in a section of your browser window or as a pop-up ad box. . it provides an aid to Web site navigation. business-to-business (B2B) E-commerce transactions between businesses. Bookmark A feature in some browsers that places a marker of a Web site’s Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in an easily retrievable list (called Favorites in Microsoft Internet Explorer). and OR— describe the relationships between keywords in the search. game. For Internet searches these words— AND. E-commerce transactions between businesses and cable Internet connection A data transmission line that transmits data at high speeds along coaxial or fiber-optic cable. client/server network A network that consists of client and server computers. cable modem A device that enables a computer to send data over cable lines. Boolean operators Words used to refine logical searches. in which the clients make requests of the server and the server returns the response. chat room An area on the Web where people come together to communicate online. aggregator Software programs that go out and grab the latest update of Web material (usually podcasts) according to your specifications. A modem modulates and demodulates the signal into digital data and back again. business-to-consumer (B2C) consumers.

com. E-commerce transactions between consumers through cookies Small text files that some Web sites automatically store on a client computer’s hard drive when a user visits the site. . Favorites A feature in Microsoft Internet Explorer that places a marker of a Web site’s Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in an easily retrievable list in the browser’s toolbar. History list A feature on a browser’s toolbar that shows all the Web sites and pages visited over a certain period of time. the computer on the other end also must have a modem to translate (demodulate) the received analog signal back to a digital signal that the receiving computer can understand. (Called Bookmarks in most other browsers. dial-up modem A device that converts (modulates) the digital signals the computer understands to the analog signals that can travel over phone lines.) File Transfer Protocol (FTP) A protocol used to upload and download files from one computer to another over the Internet. usually measured in megabits per second (Mbps).com) DSL modem See Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modem electronic commerce (e-commerce) Conducting business online for purposes ranging from fund-raising to advertising to selling products. e-mail (electronic mail) correspond. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) A technology that uses telephone lines to connect your computer to the Internet and provides high bandwidth throughput. data transfer rate The maximum speed at which data can be transmitted between two nodes on a network. hits A list of sites (or results) that match an Internet search. Domain names consist of two parts: the site’s host and a three-letter suffix that indicates the type of organization.consumer-to-consumer (C2C) online sites such as eBay. domain name Part of a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). (Example: popsci. Internet-based communication in which senders and recipients e-mail client Software programs running on your computer that are used to send and receive email through your ISP’s server. DSL enables phone and data transmission to share the same telephone line. In turn. dial-up connection A connection to the Internet using a standard telephone line.

Organization that maintains the Web server on which a particular Web site is stored. (2) The set of specific words that have predefined meanings for a particular programming language. on the Web. instant messaging (IM) services with others who are also online. frequently accessed Web pages. Major goals of the program are the development of enhanced wireless technologies and increased network throughput. or Web page. and other Internet Protocol (IP) Internet service providers (ISPs) companies to the Internet. HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) The protocol a browser uses to send requests to a Web server. the objective of which is to fund the research and development of cutting-edge networking technologies. Internet cache A section of your hard drive that stores information that you may need again for surfing (such as IP addresses. The Internet2 backbone supports extremely high-speed communications (up to 9. it can display pictures (graphics) in addition to text. Internet hoaxes E-mail messages or Web sites that contain information that is untrue. connecting millions of computers from more than 100 countries. government. . and so on). Large Scale Networking (LSN) A program created by the U. keywords (1) Specific words a user wishes to query (or look for) in an Internet search. Companies that connect individuals. created especially for the transfer of hypertext documents over the Internet.S. when clicked. hyperlinks Specially coded text that. as well as other forms of multimedia. such as sound and video. to another within a Web site or to another Web site altogether. Programs that enable users to communicate in real time Internet A network of networks and the largest network in the world. enables a user to jump from one location. Internet backbone The main pathway of high-speed communications lines over which all Internet traffic flows. Internet Explorer (IE) A graphical browser from Microsoft Corporation for displaying different Web sites. A protocol for sending data between computers on the Internet. Internet 2 An ongoing project sponsored by more than 200 universities (supported by government and industry partners) to develop new Internet technologies and disseminate them as rapidly as possible to the rest of the Internet community. or locations.6 gigabits per second [Gbps]). groups.home page host The main or opening page of a Web site.

and Trojan horses. to view and hear certain multimedia files on the Web. malware Software that is intended to render a system temporarily or permanently useless or to penetrate a computer system completely for purposes of information gathering. network connections. for example. network interface card (NIC) connect with a network. phishing The process of sending e-mail messages to lure Internet users into revealing personal information such as credit card or social security numbers or other sensitive information that could lead to identity theft. netiquette General rules of etiquette for Internet chat rooms and other online communication.listserv Electronic mailing lists of e-mail addresses of people who are interested in a certain topic or area of interest.0 and FireWire ports. meta search engine A search engine that searches other search engines rather than individual Web sites. worms. wireless adapters. viruses. USB 2. podcast A clip of audio or video content that is broadcast over the Internet using compressed audio or video files in formats such as MP3s. An expansion (or adapter) card that enables a computer to newsgroup (or discussion group) An online discussion forum in which people “post” messages and read and reply to messages from other members of the newsgroup. path (or subdirectory) Resource Locator (URL). short for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) Credit card–sized cards that enable users to add fax modems. pop-up window Windows that pop up when you install freeware programs or enter Web sites. and other capabilities primarily to notebook computers. . using Really Simple Syndication (RSS). The information following the slash or colon in a Uniform PC cards (or PCMCIA. multimedia Anything that involves one or more forms of media plus text. Examples include spyware. Live bookmark A bookmark that delivers updates to you as soon as they become available. They often offer “useful” information or tout products. plug-in (or player) A small software program that “plugs in” to a Web browser to enable a specific function.

images. top-level domain (TLD) The three-letter suffix in the domain name (such as . in turn.edu) that indicates the kind of organization the host is. Uniform Resource Locator (URL) AWeb site’s unique address. sends the data back to the satellite dish and to the computer. and shopping guides.microsoft. news.com or . sports. This lets users avoid having to download the entire file before listening to it. such as www. . such as the weather. which is placed outside the home and connects to a computer with coaxial cable. and audio. following links in Web sites and reading Web pages.portal A subject directory on the Internet that is part of a larger Web site that focuses on offering its visitors a variety of information. This lets users avoid having to download the entire file before viewing it. streaming video Technology that enables video files to be fed to a browser continuously. search engine A set of programs that searches the Web for specific words (or keywords) you wish to query (or look for) and then returns a list of the Web sites on which those keywords are found. spam filter An option you can select in your e-mail account that places known or suspected spam messages into a folder other than your inbox. Spiders get their name because they crawl over the Web using multiple “legs” to visit many sites simultaneously. The satellite company then sends the data to a satellite orbiting the earth. spyware An unwanted piggyback program that downloads with the software you want to install from the Internet and then runs in the background of your system. streaming audio Technology that enables audio files to be fed to a browser continuously. spam Unwanted or junk e-mail. video log (vlog or video blog) Personal online journals that use video as the primary content in addition to text. subject directory A structured outline of Web sites organized by topics and subtopics. social networking A system of connections between people. server A computer that provides resources to other computers on a network. The satellite. spider (or crawler or bot) A program that constantly collects information on the Web.com. supported by electronic tools such as e-mail. satellite Internet A way to connect to the Internet using a small satellite dish. and file transfer. instant messaging.

Voice over IP (VoIP) The transmission of phone calls over the same data lines and networks that make up the Internet. . and (2) its use of special links (called hyperlinks) that enable users to jump from one place to another in the Web. wildcards Symbols used in an Internet search when the user is unsure of the keyword’s spelling or when a word can be spelled in different ways or can contain different endings. webcasts are not updated automatically. World Wide Web (WWW or Web) The part of the Internet used the most. wiki A type of Web site that allows anyone visiting the site to change its content by adding. or TCP/IP) and special languages (such as the HyperText Markup Language. Unlike podcasts. Webcast The broadcast of audio or video content over the Internet. A location on the Web. Weblog (or blog) Web browser Web site Personal logs. Software that enables a user to access the Web and display Web pages. removing. What distinguishes the Web from the rest of the Internet is (1) its use of common communication protocols (such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. that are posted on the Web. worm A program that attempts to travel between systems through network connections to spread infections. or journal entries. or HTML) that enable different computers to talk to each other and display information in compatible formats. The asterisk (*) is used to replace a series of letters and the percent sign (%) to replace a single letter in a word. Worms can run independently of host file execution and are active in spreading themselves. Also called Internet telephony. or editing the content.