CORNELL
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

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A

guide to porcelain painting

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olin,anx

3 1924 031 306 560

the United States on the use of the http://www. There are no known copyright restrictions in text.org/details/cu31 924031 306560 .The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library.archive.

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SIDNEY T. RATHBONB PLACE. MANUFACTURING 29. FIFTH EDITION.: A GUIDE PORCELAIN PAINTING. WHITEFORD. AND 52. OXFORD STREET. ARTISTS' COLOURMEN. WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY THE AUTHOR. . LONDON aEORGE EOWNBY AND COMPANY. W. .

W. & rESTOir. geueeai. 73 A 74. peihtees. MAETIEBONE LANE. CORNELlX UNfVE^TSITY \jJCRARV .lOHDOIf : hewiiEESOu bait.

but. who cannot obtain such aid. and colours of every hue are available. by greater it and much more uncertainty but was felt by actual experience what results can be obtained by each process. it is believed that no manual of instructions in the art of paiatiag on Pottery and Porcelain has hitherto appeared. some acquaintance with drawing and colouring being pre- supposed in the learner. is The surface of the glazed ware always practically identical in texture. whether cultivated for pleasure or profit.PREFACE. The practice of Cer- amic paiuting does not include the varied manipulative employed by is artists who work upon canvas or paper. There comparatively Kttle to be taught. Whilst nearly evjery brahch of Pictorial and Decorative art has been made the subject of numerous handbooks. Painting in enamel colour is more particularly recommended. Instructions for under-glaze work are therefore given. this little work with confidence that atten- tion to its directions will prevent serious mistakes. to those is offered. the art. is Painting in under-glaze colours difficulties attended . Under its present facilitated conditions. The superior value of personal teaching or supervision that many persons might wish to decide is not contested . will be found to aiford a highly processes interesting occupation. and .

information. without which directed. " "WeU begun half done. as well as from a teacher. greatly advance the attainment of success. advanced that has not ^ been tested by actual experience. of the writer are due to several for professional painters assistance is freely and cour- teously given ." The learner may obtain from a book. failures must be expected is but to use a homely proverb. ties of The difficul- any art are only OTercome by practice. first attempts may be hopelessly mis- The thanks little. however. and some .PREFACE. .

Except for those it who resided in the neighbourhood of some factory.INTEODUCTOEY EEMAEKS. but obstacles to the cultivation of the art have hitherto been very numerous. with a view to facilitate such endeavours. to prepare complete sets materials. Painting on Pottery or Porcelain has occasionally been practised with considerable success hy amateurs. of tone and a source desired. of colours requisite They have. and have the painted pieces entrusted to carefully glazed them by their customers and fired. any instruction in the special technical proof materials and even the purchase sary transmission of the painted pieces to the kilns were accompanied by vexatious tivated taste difficulties and Cul- and intelligent interest in the subject of Pottery Decoration being now very widely spread. to is whom is the cold whiteness of ordinary china of difficulty disagreeable. was seldom possible and the necesdelays. Their ivory tinted ware meets a want that has been felt by many painters on Porcelain. that Messrs. made arrangements enabling to them to supply glazed and unglazed ware. to obtain cesses. so many persons have expressed a desire to attempt the practice of the art. when quiet harmony . Eowney have been and all induced.

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are applied if the beauty and value of specimens of the Potter's art are so greatly enhanced. " and . immediately speaks of the opaque glaze as " covering the ill-coloured ground of the porcelain.— A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. Much confusion arises from misappKcation of these distinctive terms. Lardner. by which colours Some remarks on and fixed the subject and brief notice of the progress of Ceramic decorative art in this country will not be out of place to the formal directions by way of introduction which are the chief objects of these pages. are broadly divided into two classes Pottery and Porcelain. factories of AU the early productions of the varieties of earthenware or Europe were pottery. especially its Porcelain was obtained only from the East. or earthenware. referring to the works of Delia Robbia (15th century). and from the country which has given to the ware familiar name —china. for example. in his interesting sketch of the History of Pottery. at informed as to the nature of the materials employed or the methods on the ware. CHAPTER Of those persons licate colours or I. after rightly describing them as Faience. who observe with admiration the desMlMly executed paintings by which few are accurately. very all. Dr. It must first be observed that the many varieties of ware upon which at different periods the potter's skill has been exercised.

china transparent in proportion to the " The transparency of porcelain from the clay body becoming saturated with amass of glassy flux. he describes a " Bouteille de chasse " of that artist as " a Porcelain flask. p. all when true porcelain is manufactured in parts of Europe. Under the microscope the two ingredients can be clearly distinguished from each other." It is true that early in the 15th century Conti- nental makers and vendors of earthenware gave to their choicest articles the term "porcelain. But in these days. "* its Manufactured ware of is kinds in unglazed state termed " biscuit. each other in all directions the want of absolute trans- parency in the mass being due to the reflection and refraction of light from these all crystals. the milky mass appearing as a transparent ground mixed with an opaque substance composed of minute globules. For earthenware a great variety of clays has at different times been employed." prohahlyas being the best substitute they could offer for the coveted Oriental ware. which are interwoven and . called by the Chinese "kathis and obtained in country chiefly from Cornwall and Devon under the name " China-clay.O A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING." * Mnspratt's 795. arranged in a lineal direction one on the other as articulated cross threads or little rods. again in Ms notice of Bernard Palissy. but true " china " or porcelain always consists maialy of a olin. arises always opaque. " Chemistry of Arts and Manufactures. no such excuse can be offered for the misuse of the name." is Earthenware fineness of its quality." Article —Pottery." fine white earth. .

the glaze and • and after undergoing the action of Dark blue. and becomes glassy and transparent when subjected to the is The glaze applied as an opaque creamy action of heat — ^technically." Under-glaze painting enamel" or" over-glaze. for instance. which unite them with Painting •and is ". " fired" laid —in the glost. and other colours show available • diff'erences of the same kind. and can perish only with the ware itself . when Crimson.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. 9 Glazes vary in their composition. Occasionally it is on with a flat brush. is of two kinds —known as " under-glaze. articles are • by which process. which For enamel painting many colours are would not endure the heat." executed on the biscuit with colours specially prepared and known heat. employed to vitrify the glaze. or glazing oven. skilfully managed. is. they are very rapidly and uniformly covered. a pale pink . according to the nature of the body to which they are to be applied. fluid. fluxes. applied. The coloured design is covered with glaze and fired in an oven raised to great Designs executed by this method are incorporated with the surface. but much uncertainty attends the process. -For this process the colours are fluxed. a light violet or even a dirty brown. in its first state. and for enamel painting are combined with substances termed the glaze. is. dipped in the but almost always the biscuit fluid glaze. The colours used in pottery decorations are chiefly metallic oxides. fire. and a the difierent appearance of great source of colours diflElculty is when applied. and the flux ." as "refractory.

and fixed by firing. by biimishing. or ware with colour in powder." A general brushed over hering with tint is imparted to an object by applying coloured glazes to biscuit ware. the gold is prepared with quick- It is and flux. for subsequent decoration by paintiag or gilding. such a space is first covered with a mixture. as it is technically termed. the powdered colour by covering glazed The part to be coloured is. or. and only superficial . fluous particles beiag lightly brushed is' This method termed "bossing. mixed with oil and turpentine. The colours must. however." silver For gUding. and is dusted on with cotton-wool. If the glaze very hard the paintis ing generally has a dry look. Washing in warm water soon removes colour from those parts that have been protected." known as " grounding. much of' be the appearance of under-glaze work can be obtained without its objections. and its laid on with a camel hair pencil. well "fired in. Colour isthen " bossed" on.10 A GUIDE TO POECELAIN PAINTING. tlie dissolving -under moderate heat."^" when required. gold recovers Brilliancy is After being flred the proper tint and appears as " dead gold. ." and the application of a body of is uniform colour laying. " stencUled. ad- sufficient firmness to admit of any superoff. as colours are. imparted. with a mixture of turpentine and oils. readily seen to be hut. by the use of a soft glaze." or " ground- When it is desired to leave on a coloured ground a white space. unites colours more- or less intimately with the glaze upon which the paintiag is has heen executed. and has the appearance of black du^t. generally of rose pink with sxigar and water.

such were rude in specimens of their productions as stUl exist show that until the middle of the last century they form and decoration. : some but. were most prevalent until the . to be that almost The truth appears down to our own day the British nation itself as has had no confidence in fields of art. Patterns upon ware for general use are. almost always printed. sculptors. involved in considerable obscurity manufacture of earthenware was carried on rather extensively in some counties from very early times. even now far from extinct. when The the paper is afterwards gently rubbed The absorbent ground retains off by is means of a soft wet sponge. and. in the peaceful contests it of the arts was assimied that the nations laurels.. Impressions from engraved copper plates are taken upon specially prepared paper and divided tern is into sections. it. 11 when intricate. It is remarkable for how long a period the arts of design in connection with manufactures were neglected in this country. although the history of all the potteries of Ghreat Britain . of the Conti- nent alone could hope for These sentiments. degree of pre-eminence was confessedly attained whilst popular belief regarded one Briton as a match for many foreign opponents in war.. in all work for which strength of will and muscle gave especial fitness. or till rubbed with a th& coloured design adheres. The paper bearing pad of wash-leather.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN TAINTING. musicians and sLngerslong held undisputed sway. In productions which required no alliance with taste. a competitor in th& Foreign painters. the pat- pressed on the surface of the biscuit ware and boss.

if not whoUy. as he would have been the first to . The well- known Faience. thus. Upon the potteries. notahly in his well- close of the last eentury. he will.good work was done by assert that many of his predecessors and conremembered first temporaries. this distrust of native ability acted most injuriously. of Josiah potter's speak "Wedgwood (bom 1730) as " the father of the art in England" " Vixiere fortes ante Agam- — menona. perhaps. for the humble were restricted and talent reItis. t6 quote irom his epitaph. too flattering to classes their energies mained undeveloped. always be with high honour as the •of who boldly followed a path independent invention. frequently dis- plays fine design and colours.12 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING and did not escape the vigorous Hogarth. or by combining variously coloured clays. but does not appear to iave been imitated. and forced from the public such Teoognition that the vaunted productions of the French and German factories gave place to his own. The factories which produced a . satire of the inimitable known caricature entitled " Taste." The potters . of metallic colours As the preparation became better understood. nevertheless. applied or produced by formIn the next period colours a mould. were imparted by the use of coloured glazes. at others ing the article in was oonfined to the enrichment of the surface by ornaments. paiutiags in a bold style were occasionally executed. convertiag an inconsiderable manufacof earthenware tory into an important part of the national commerce. For a long period the decoration sometimes incised." and. or to have influenced pottery decoration in this country. worked chiefly. or earthenware of Italy.

and ia manufac- tured state it had much the appearance of true porcelain. but a kind of glass. though fact.. and sometimes with Euro- pean feeling infused. perhaps. The attention of chemists and manxifacturers was constantly directed to the subject without leading to the discovery of the true nature of the material. fine qualities and in the course of time a natural desire arose in the countries of Europe to include among the productions of their fac- tories the highly-prized Oriental ware. excited general admiration . Cloud. about the year 1518. In 1695 a composition of sand. Lambeth and Fulat ham. in the 17th century. alum. was employed was given at St. in so- not a clay. name Pate its tendre. Isle of Wight. of which the chief components were —sand from Alum Bay.A GUIDE TO POECELAIN PAINTING. were probably imder Dutch direction. in the glass. or soft paste porcelain. kind of delft is. fabricated a similar paste. established at the close of the 17th or beginning of the 18th century. The decorations employed were copies. Chiaese porcelain was introduced in considerable quantities nations among the "Western Its- by the Portuguese. Dutch or Grerman in character. 13 soft enamel —that earthenware covered with a —and. saltpetre. a failed to fine clay and powdered flint EinaUy. near To the paste thus formed the . destitute of all the real constituents —being. stoneware. In England the called porcelain factories at Bow and Chelsea. Paris. from Chinese patterns and designs. &c. chance gave to Europe what the efforts of learned men had . It is with the establishment of the manufacture of porce- lain in Europe that the era of improved pottery decorafirst tion in colours began.

by the simple circumstances of its clogging his horse's feet as he rode through the district. wife of«a surgeon at St. near Dresden. the manufacture of true porcelain in Europe. then extenThe powdered clay was soon in great demand. About 1709. made from wheat flour. He probably suspecting. whilst his valet was up a packet of the new hair its powder. transmitted it warded by her husband to the celebrated Macquer. Yreix. not far from the town. being sold under the name of " Sohnorr's White Earth." porcelain manufactory The royal established at Meissen. Madame Damet. fact. In 1765. a white earth which she thought might prove of use as a substitute for soap. Being told that it was of " Schnorr's White Earth. and. though uncertain as to its true character. inquired name and how it it was obtained. observed in a ravine. near Limoges. the long-sought " kaolin. was placed under the direction of Bottger. the director of the royal potteries dressing his hair. A specimen of the earth was for- to a chemist at Bordeaux. He conceived and successfully accomplished a plan to employ this earth as a substitute for the hair powder sively used. kaolin was accidentally discovered ia France. struck by its great weight. in or true china-clay. was brouglit under the notice of an iron-master named Schnorr. happened one day. in Saxony. found in great •quantities near Aue." John Bottger. A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING.14 obtain. to take at Dresden. the substance being. a fine white earth. and thus commenced. in 1715. who . Experiment soon proved that he was right." he at once conjectured that might prove a valuable material in the fabrication fine pottery.

and haviQg ascertained that the clay could he procured in abundance at St.. After many ex- periments. as information can be obtaiaed desire it. Four years later. at •Sevres. in spite of the doubtful tradition that native kaolin was obtained from Bovey Tracy. In 1755. but how it was obtained is imcertain. Macquer established. the factory of " hard. small quantities were from time to time imported from China but. from many sources by those who Appendix) {See . the first English factory of true or hard porcelain. and established at Plymouth. Flight In the course of a few years china-clay came into general use. patent passed into the hands of the Worcester manufacturers." Probably." now so well known as china-clay. the credit of its as early as discovery in this country may be safely given to William Cookworthy. about 1760. Messrs. A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. 1730. China-clay appears to have been occasionally used in English factories early in the 18th century. and porcelain factories were established in various parts of Great Britain. Yreix. named Champion." or true porcelain. when the and Barr. having found near Helstone. he commenced iuvestigations. equally unprofitable. It is unnecessary to pursue ' their history. taking out a patent for the manufacture ia 1768. of Plymouth. tit 15 once recognized the true china-clay. who transferred The Bristol factory proved and was closed in 1783. having failed to make the works profitable. in Cornwall. Cookworthy sold his patent- right to a merchant the manufactory to Bristol. the earth to which he gave the name " caulin. . in Devon. in 1769.

. designs. On useful the character of the decorations painted upon both and ornamental ware in the last century a few words may be said. style. Artists of repute found employment at Sevres . without regard to its appropriateness or relation to a general result. and such extreme minuteness as were even more misplaced. but more correct drawing was added.16 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. should be rendered with too • much fidelity to nature. display in tories of this country. As might Trance. whatever cultivated. be expected. than that nondescript inventions should be accepted as . and. It was better that flowers. it may be thought of the style of decoration must be admitted that the paintings were executed with much ability. The early productions of the facof the continent. or was the result of a direct gift. &c. colours were produced persons. At Dresden even experienced copies of Chinese forms. and. it executed and agreeable in was accepted as a decoration. like the highest forms of every art. with a loss of aU and character. As long as the painting was weB. of Oriental porcelain was great The influence and gilding. progress was most rapid m. a slavish spirit of imitation. It seems to have been hardly suspected that good decoration was subject to any principles. itself. and their ornamentation remarkable paucity of invention. so exactly as to deceive More often Chinese designs were imitated without any perception of their decorative principles. in general. and constant. the paintings alternated As regards and petty between boldness that finish was really coarseness.. The motif^io borrow a French spirit art term —was foUowed.

With these admissions. or Each manufacturer pursue. that had taken the fancy of the pubUc. His factory did not produce porcelain. however by the tasteless. Early pieces from Dresden and Chelsea are undistiaguishable. The attention of Wedgwood was These were chiefly bestowed on the composition of coloured bodies. ad nauseam. —in the form is of general remarks on the principles of decorative art It — for the conclusion of difficult to select any description of ornament or painted subjects so as typical of the pro- ductions of each European factory. and the skill of the French chemists suppKed colours of extreme beauty. combined with other chemical substances. which he jasper. Cupids. and " conversation pieces. a factories were un- more mercantile spirit prevailed was content to imitate others. and stained by the addition of coloured oxides. but less spirited. . German paintings were as highly finished as those by French artists. The attempt to justify this position must be reserved this chapter. inferior in colouring. as the State.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. bouquets. &c. some decorative theme. were equally popular everywhere. perhaps. assisted In England. the assertion must yet be hazarded that the art of pottery decoration has been almost as little comprehended in France as by other European nations. 17 and the paintiags from must be preferred subjects by Watteau or Boucher to bad imitations of misunderstood Chinese art. except much alike as to be often Groups of by the nature of the paste." as they are termed. and. fine clays named Basalt. superior in beauty. and adding that gilding was often introduced with much taste.

It is scarcely probably with a feeling possible that the imitation shall possess the distinctive merits of the original that . and bears the impress modes of life and thought. or any material imported from abroad for." though truly elegant and perfect in execution. Bentley. occasionally tasteful in what degree may patterns were — be estimated by the examples figured in Miss Meteyard's " Life of Wedgwood. even when made without any intention of contemporary of fraud. That he had no intention to deceive is selfevident." The refined forms and moulded decorations which distinguish thecelebrated "Wedgwood ware. and the paintings upon tlie fine earthenware used as a The border substitute were of the usual character. being.* models for imitation. declares that in and around Burslem " not one foreigner is employed in. under the altered conditions everywhere accompanying the course of Time. to reproduce in stituted race. Good art-work is the offspring of national character. and it is Wedgwood's labour was thus misapplied. was * The petition of the Staffordshire potters. eminent author of " The History of Ancient that the Pottery" classes him among producers of forged Etruscan ware.18 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. is generally to fac- simile the creations of another epoch. are yet without originality. supported by Wedgwood. or differently con- be regretted. always strongly influenced by early Etruscan pottery. . Eor the selection of classic Wedgwood's partner. for his direct object was to establish the conviction that England could furnish both materials and men for the art of pottery worthy to rank with the best of any much of period and every country. any branch of " their trade. Jewitt's Life of Wedgwood^ p. The attempt. 163. when not direct copies.

. and capable of more extended and judicious application than has yet been attempted. and tbe cboice at least displayed a higher taste than was possessed by other manufacturers. The discovery was of great value. at Plymouth. Thus. 19 probably chiefly responsible. protest must be made against the prevalent and most unartistic practice of adding to engraved patterns shading which is objectionable in any form. but B 2 . At the same time. Bone. is intended to please by without attracting close attention. such uniformity of resemblance was secured as was certainly striking. It is remarkable that whilst a long list may be made of known artists who worked at Sevres of English painters on pottery or porcelain. They not unfrequently went from one . though neither interesting nor agreeable. scarcely a name is remembered served his but that of the eminent enameller. In almost all cases the engraved outlines is are too fine and rigid. of transferring to biscuit is The method ware designs printed from copper plates attributed to Dr. who established the "Worcester porcelain factory in 1751. whose occupation was looked upon rather as a trade than an art. but perfect identity of pattern not objectionable for ware which general effect. Wall. The painters were generally men of humble origin.A GUIDE TO PORCELATN PAINTING. Intimate acquaintance only can give the powers of distiaguishing the decorated ware of each factory with- out the assistance of the recognised factory marks. factory to another and their methods and style were transmitted from one generation to another. who apprenticeship in Cookworthy's factory.

as showing that the best efforts were not always factory on the estate of the Marquis of must be made to the Rockingham. yet. which are deserving of more than common attention. to " Two magnificent specithat of rival establishments. It is hitherto (1857) been a scent * The petition of Mr. near Eotherham. . reference Finally." Jewitt's Life of Wedgwood. believed to be the largest piece of porcelain that has in this country. as denoting the degree of advancement of the art in England. or clearly-outUned designs to which colours be afterwards quickly added by hand. when rendered by tlie net-work Printing.* To what has been said respecting the English pottery decorators should be added that. One of these pieces is a copy in enamel colours. Champion. See also Marryatt's History of Pottery and Porcelain. the works ceased in 1842 . . . . both in fabrication and decoration. pp. if not superior. shotdd be confined to right —such may rapid repetition as is necessary for cheapness of broadly-outhned conventional patterns for colour printing. at After a struggliag Swinton. mens exist in "Wentworth House. made made on a porcelain The other . p." existence under various owners. 281-288. of a painting is by Vandyke." kinds are purpose which several its now in use. a large number of foreign painters this and modellers found employment in rewarded by success. in spite of patriotic example. of Bristol.20 especially A GUIDE TO POKCELAIN PAINTING. Wedgwood's country. lines termed " cross-hatching. states that " he has spai'ed no expense in encouraging foreign artificers. of of harsh. in Yorkshire. . 241. which produced the ware known as "Rockingham. tablet. . a position appears to have been attained equal. for the extension of his patentright for the manufacture of porcelain.

his drav/ings having marked individuality. forty-four inches high. jar. The writings and influence of intelligent lovers of true decoration have borne schools of art have done much. 292. and he These remarks do not .A GUIDE TO POECELAIN PAINTING. whilst the subjects are often ia character. 21 one entire made and . The three compartments are painted in enamel colours. extremely decorative." which gave such a stimulus arts. and for such a purpose Stothard's art was singularly suitable. giving to all classes what was before possessed by so few —the power of developing their critical faculties •Marryatt's History ofPottenj and Porcelain. from designs by Stothard the suhjects taken from Cervantes. . apply in an equal degree to his paintings of colour does not appear to have obtained complete mastery. If this impartial butnecessarily brief survey of Ceramic decorative art in the last centiiry compels the conclusion that little praise can be justly bestowed. good fruit. and nearly always in treatment feeling. which has been energetically met by the eminent firms whose productions give to this country its present high position in Ceramic art. fired in piece. 2nd ed.. to manufactures allied with the Since that day the general spread of information and art education has created a demand for superior ornamentation." * This employment of designs by an English artist deserves particular notice. The and the establishment of has been of incalculable the South Kensington Museum benefit. an equally un- favourable view must be taken of what was done from its close almost to the date of the first " great exhibition of the works of all nations. p.

leads manufacturers and merchants to ruin the reputation of the articles . whilst those who buy for the sake of a fallacious saving prefer medioit crity to excellence. actual observation ' by and comparison of the art-work of different generations and races. published in 1775. Our manucom- facturers will not produce w^hat the public will not readily buy . for. and their experience too often justifies their plaint that objects in the best taste are not sufficiently appreciated to be remunerative to the producer. will be impossible for manufacturers either to improve or keep up the quality of their works. A competition is for cheapness. rather than for what beautiful. The desire of selling much in a little time. just and accurate than what was said by Wedgtaste. and his words cannot be too often repeated or too attentively considered. which they manufacture or deal in and. The quotation " is from his catalogue. This observation is equally applicable to manufactures of the fine arts. but the degradation and the productions is more fatal to the latter than the former . and not for excellence of workmanship. That much may yet be done will scarcely be disputed. the national taste becomes more cultivated. On ' the relations between producers and buyers nothing can be more wood. the most frequent and certain cause of the rapid decay and entire destruction of arts and manufactures.22 A GUIDE TO POECELAIN PAINTING. preference being still general for what is is merely pretty or eccentric. As a manufacturer and a man of he spoke with knowledge. without respect to the taste or quality of the goods. more especially to popubut this cannot be hoped for until larize artistic work . though an .

but separately by the hand. Even suppose the efibrts artist has the true idea of the kind of beauty at which he aims. with the same attention and diligence as the cult must it first. yet an ordinary and tasteless piece of ornament is not only dear at any price. grade the character of the Beautiful forms and . the cheapest articles that can be purchased. ordinary piece of goods for 23 common use is always dearer than the best of the kind. as totally to change and depiece. are. such variations are frequently made in the form and taste of the work. when justly estimated. than those that everybody . to the artist . Those pieces that for these reasons bear the highest price. how diffi- be to preserve the beauty of the first model ? It is so difficult that.A GUIDE TO POKCELAIN PAINTING. art must bear a price in proportion to the the taste. lame and unsuccessful does he make in his design. is and encaustic paintings. for instance. The and most successful artists know that they can turn out ten is ugly and defective things for one that perfect of its beautiful kind. how many . AU works of skill. without the constant attention of the master's eye. not in a mould. where every succeeding vase and every picture made. before he can please himself and suppose one piece well composed and tolerably finished. and such as are generally attended with much less profit calls cheap. even while the model is before the workman. but absolutely useless and ridiculous. and every part as in vases of is it. or by a stamp. . and which those to consider the real difSculty who are not accustomed of and expense making fine things are apt to call dear. the time the expense and the risk attending the invention and execution.

and never can be made in any kind." * The peculiar difficulties attending every effort to obtain a wide circulation for articles displaying the best taste in design or decoration can only be fully understood those by who have given much its attention to the subject. a system of labour which deadens the mental faculties. Her taste is either distorted by trade calculations. may seem too but it cannot be denied that the tide of imarticles as provement has as yet scarcely reached such are moderate in price. 218 and 219. the perfection of which consists in its cheap production and exact resem- blance to numberless similar wholes. 262." f face of recent progress these views . . p. too " Europe is much hampered by industrial code and prosaic notions to invent purely aesthetic designs and forms.' 24 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. and effectually hinders any wholesome development In the despondent of taste in the buyer. means for its instruction and On the subject of Ceramic decoration great diversity * Jewitt's JJfe of Wedgwood." . power of enjoyment andmanual capacity of the worker. Each workman is made the life-long slave of a single fraction of a mechanical whole. and they composition are not to he made by chance were never made. pp. or coolly set aside by the one-sided common sense theory of political economy. as well as the most powerful refinement. at a small expense. t Art JoiiTtud (1871). from their wide diffusion. —" A genuine artistic race. A recent writer does not hesitate to say. afford the best indication of the state of national taste. and. chilled by the public indifference to beauty.

of labour. be used in the same manner and answer is. or closely resemble. perhaps unsuspected. though. These are the conditions which regulate the labours of the Ceramic artist. refuse to admit that they are of equal force when directed to the fabrication and orna- mentation of pottery. not istint. effective arrangement with fine quality of colour. the action of fire is —an element always. that the forms present constantly varying and concavity. those employed by sculptors and painters. To this the first that to give durability to the fabricated ware. 25 of opinion exists. mischievous The characteristics to first. . appears to be this potter : The materials at the disposal of the and pottery decorator are the same as. Many persons if who wiU applied to yield ready assent to certain propositions other artistic manufactures. be sought in good pottery decoration are subject. and lastly. that the glaze is highly reflective and the material extremely brittle. but wise direction and limitation. manageable and uncertain in -degrees of convexity Let it be con- sidered also. and views directly opposed to the judg- ment of the test authorities are so tenaciously held as to difficulty be with combated. therefore. appropriateness of an agreeable flow of lines and disposition of masses. in some measure. as to the paintings or other ornaments indispensable upon its surface.A GUIDE TO POECELAIN PAINTING. economy by which is meant. Their reasoning. for similar ends. and which render any attempted success only rivalry with other forms of pictorial or plastic art a mis- taken efifort and occasional comparative in result. or only half recognized by themselves. and may. units effects.

every field is open to the painter on pottery. requiriagboth taste and invention in colour- ing and design." At the present day many of our best artists maintain that every . and A picture tbat did not teacb maxim was something was a vanity. either to produce a decorative picture on flat surface. between the- two extremes. Neither gravely truthful nor brightly . slabs of soft porcelain or earthenware — or to decorate an Mr. quam quae sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus" i.e. justifies certain eccentricities of the figures in Turner's..e. observing that when composing a grand land- . light and ability with which its story is told by mastery and shade. picture ought to be a decoration that the lesson it con- veys. Euskin- object having a concave or convex surface. walls of' such an apartment as the painter would have selected The truth probably.. of real importance being whether and has a decorative for its reception.. in the place of fidelity to nature. the question finely coloured. of expression.— 26 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. drawing and arrangement it is — — are matters of secondary importance. Exis cluding serious and painful or repulsive subjects. such as panels of vases. Not many years ago pictorial to art became too dignified condescend to subjects suggested merely by a fanciful sportive imagination.y " Sight is a more effectual teacher than hearing. All that de- manded is a a conventionalised treatment. or pMques i. pictures. eO'ect when hung upon the lies. varied according- to his purpose. fanciful art can be surrendered and painting on potterjr adapted — quite unsuited to the former — is peculiarly well forthe latter. and the Horatian quoted : " Segnius irritant animos quse sunt demissa per- aurem.

perhaps. secure a good^eneral His first care by skilful disposition of to light and dark. and strong light and shade. paintiag in a light key and strong than when the but they must never be so introduced as to break up the general appearance of flatness. To the decorator. . effects of aerial perspective. trees. as well as all attempts to convey an impression of distance by should be avoided. strict observance of the relative sizes of objects. It may be added that slight defects in paintresult ings on pottery frequently from some accident connected with glazing or ditiously little firing. bmldiags. and can only be expe- and effectually concealed by the addition of a colour introduced as shading. Shadows are entirely out of place iu pure ornament gence assist . For strictly decorative treatment a clear outHne should mark out each important component of the picture. less felt when the colouriug is rich . or such conventionalized representations of natural objects as are popularly termed Grothic. for decorative pictures. or by balanced spaces one time he of beautiful colour. truth of colour and exactness of form. and other components of the scene. 27 scape we may twist about the forms and proportions of human heings as we do hills. some indulso may be claimed for their use —not much to in expressrag form as to give agreeable varia- tions of colour. Their absence is is. at others he will the eye with pleasurable discriminated sensations by means which cannot be without attentive examination.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. but. Archaic forms. At may arrest attention affect by some startling con- trast. accurate perspective. are conis siderations of minor importance. effect.

From the Greeks we may learn appropriate treatment of the human form and drapery. from early Chinese. for Ceramic decoration. too. and it is possible to meet this want without any sacrifice of the principles of true decoration. figure. relied on their accurate knowledge of the human which they displayin perfect beauty. delightful when So. such as of work in wood or metal. In their draperies we see grace of line. the less rude. The Greeks. It is felt to be monotonous both eye and mind grow quickly . carred in stone and combined with architecture. and more recent Japanese art. yellow and white. we gain in the best form illus- trations of right adaptation of familiar natural beauties to the purposes of ornamentation. and charming ornamental patterns whilst the conventionalized folds are beautifully disposed so as to assist or harmonize with the figures as they are in movement or repose. though. and in every variety of graceful or vigorous action. .28 fail to A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. principles — Ornament constructed on mathematical the construction of natural ^by analysis of forms — though admirable for other purposes. . but quaintly precise treatment known only certain minds trained to as Mediseval. obtain general acceptance. working with only red. There is a craving for more easily recognized resemblance to nature that will not be gainsaid. has only a limited number admirers when used . satisfies severe taste. black. weary of its repetitions and it its ceases to excite interest or even attract notice when ingenious composition has been traced out. balanced arrangement of masses.

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.

colonx. dweUiags of different ranks. and the glory It is. and and even the the tiny insects to which they afford food and shelter. fire decorators. 29 The Chinese and Japanese air. a strange and disastrous consequence of intercourse between the Eastern and Western nations. therefore. thought and the genuine learn art instincts of each race full play. they turned with equal affection to wild . to plants and flowers.work. are also depicted tions of the but their representa- human face and form are too grotesque be instructive examples for skill. revelling in the and and water. press earth creatures. observable in tic all cases. though introduced with extreme beautiful harmonies of colour. that attention can safely be given by those unite decorative treatment who would how to . only to the best decorated work of China and Japan. furred or feathered.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. and showing in the draperies finely varied patterns and These remarks apply art. yet tender. that the former quickly substitute for artis- enthusiasm the trader's love of gain. delights of bright. with their useful and orna. of their national art departs. Nothing is too high or too humhle for them from sea and sky. mountain and forest. only to fine examples of early Chinese artistic spirit for departed long since from the nation — the ^per- haps banished by the same is destructive influence of European commerce which It is already contributing to the evident and rapid deterioration of Japanese art. and distinctly national to Europeans. produced when had extensive commerce with other nations was not of. into their service. The occupations of civil and military life. mental contents.

Wliat is wanted in. in action or repose. birds and fishes. of beasts. all distinctive properties are spirited shown by the Japanese artists by a few strokes. —in a word. fidelity to nature. suffice to A volume would not qualities of illustrate the high art their commonest productions: and the study and application of their principles —^which must not be confounded with direct imitation of their work —may nature. The . the play wings and fins . is not a laboured imitation. and flowers the strength or lissomness of trees the form. of which not one is without purpose. the set and texture of fur. feathers and scales of limbs. but the expression its simplest form of the essential characteristics of each object repre- sented. . be confidently recommended to those who love and cannot accept realistic art as decorative. construction. .30 with A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. grace and colour of plants .

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A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN

PAINTIJJG.

31

CHAPTER

II.

PAINTING ON POTTERY AND PORCELAIN.

MATERIALS.
only necessary
of the large

XTnder-glaze Colours.
to

— Of these

it is

name

sucli as are in

general use.

Most

factories possess specialities in colours for biscuit paint-

ing, adapted to particular glazes
heat.

and degrees

of furnace

The same

colours are also frequently

known by

various names.

AH that

are really necessary are

—pink,

dark blue, light blue, dark green, light green, deep
yellow, violet, dark brown, light brown, black.

Light green must be used pure;
All the other colours

it is

very vivid, and,

therefore, only agreeable in small quantities, or in its

paler tints.

may

be intermixed

for composite hues.

Pink
Tvash

is

a powerful colour.

If applied thickly it

becomes a deep crimson

after firing,
tint.

and the thinnest
subject to less
fire, it

wiU impart a pink

As

it is

waste than other colours under the action of the
is

often added to give stability to dark composite hues.
is

Thus, for outlines, a good mistm-e
little

dark brown with a

pink and dark yellow.
is

by striking pink, moderately The result is a better colour produced by mixing. than can be For purple, mix dark blue and pink.
Orange
obtained
thick, over deep yellow.


32

A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING.
All the other colours lose

much substance when

fire"d;

and the most frequent source of disappointment to inexperienced persons
too
is

the discovery that they have used

much piak and

to Httle of all other colours.
is

Much,

however, depends on the degree of heat that
to vitrify the glaze.

necessary

For composite greens, russets and olives, yellow, hlack light brown are mixed in varying proportions with dark green. Only sober greens can be obtained by mixture. Such colouring as is seen in enamel paiatings
and
is

unattainable with under-glaze colours.

Enamel Coloubs.— Of

these a great

pared that are very seldom of use.
Others can be obtained
is

number are preThe list here given
any kind.

includes all that are necessary for subjects of
if

desired; but a larger selection
:

a source of perplexity rather than an advantage
Red.
Coral Red.

Yellow. Orange.

Dark Green.
Purple.

Carmine.
Rose.

Dark Brown. Light Brown.
Purple Brown. Light Green.

Turquoise.
Black.

Deep Blue.
Light Blue.

White Enamel.

On

the use of these a few remarks are necessary.

Neither red nor coral red must be mixed with other
colours
;

and, as they are subject to some change, their
if possible, till

use should be deferred,

the paiatiug has
firing.

reached such a stage as to require only a final

Carmine and
firing

rose.

These are

varieties of the

same

pigment, and are used as test colours.

In the process of
till

they pass through various conditions of tint

they become a fine crimson or clear rose, when the action

orange and light brown may be hatched or stippled on. therefore. "short-fired") their hue duU red. and are spoilt beyond remedy. &c. rose colour. that Dark green combined with yellow gives such usefulhues it is not necessary to use the light green for mixed It is of value pure. As the other colours do not change substance. The development of the carmine or rose tint. 1 or light brown used very pale. For shading touches of blue. colours. It is ordinarily considered that when rose colour has been sufficiently fired. when earmiae and rose are used pure and in any quantity. so as to unite them thoroughly with the glaze. aU other colours used in the painting are properly burnt in. they are said to be very "hard-fired" or "full-fired"). and others . For composite suffice. but the two colours must never be mixed.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. and may be brought to the proper tint by renewed firing. The general tint of flesh is best given by red No. For the lips. to apply them when the piece is to be fired for the last time. also. but shadows should be very delicate. dark brown. carmine or red may be used pure. consequently. and. It is often advantageous. If is not fired enough (technically. and should be fixed by a first firing before shadows are added. Eose or carmine must not be used for flesh tint at all.havingitsown peculiar character. If over-fired they pass to a dull purple. should not be mixed with other tints. depth of tint —though they —they are often lose subjected to great heat (technically.. serves as a test by which to regulate the action of heat on the painting. tints. Purple brown. of the fire 33 must be at once checked.

they be used only for outlines. work and For general pur- poses. and a some kind indispensable to preserve the hand or sleeve from contact with the paint- Both easels and rests have been prepared. •cloves. Brushes. have been tried . enamel first and pass other passed over .34 A GUIDE TO POUCELAIN PAINTING. &o. good camel hair brushes in quills wiU. over orange. suffice. brushed "thinly over the surface.water or water colour McGuelp A drop of oil of spike. one more tapering and narrow at the point than the other. great. glycerine. The colours are so finely ground that they will . For those who find the difficulties of work on the porous biscuit too f at-oiL . however. a " dressing " has been provided. or aniseed. table-easel. adapted for rest of flat and hollow pieces. The best course. similar to those approved It by the experience of professional painters. is to apply the it.. delicate —The best are the red sable may finishing touches. but. but refined turpentine and the preparation are considered termed by professional painters on pottery indispensable for workuponthe glaze. A ing. prevents it from drying too quickly. colours over firing. Clear red orange is test obtained by passing carmine The hue obtained by mixing is very different. as these are vpry expensive. which. —Mixtures of honey. or biscuit painting. is very useful. except the two reds and purple brown. added to colour mixed with turpentine and fat-oil. Vehicles. White enamel may be mixed with any of the colours. renders it much is less absorbent. reds When all white enamel has been fixed by and other colours may be it. Forunderglaze. the colours may be mixed with gum. wiU be found convenient to have two palette knives.

gum water and Indian ink. so is Those who prefer to do win mix each wanted . The safest course is to put upon a glazedtile so as a little to fat-on. The must be examined from time to time.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. then add colour with the palette knife. and and turpentine. require only nibbing 35 of the broad palette knife. a tracing point. colour with oil and turpentiae when it but a great deal of time and trouble will be first. form a stiff paste. apairof dividers. plenty of soft rag free from Unt. at the a sufficient quantity of each colour to fill the wells. a flat space of tint can upon which small quantities slants for oil be mixed. For this purpose an ivory knitting-needle is well suited. hard black lead pencils. state resembling syrup or refined treacle. or other earthenware slabs are required. fit if kept covered. that the right proportion of fat-oil and turpentiae must be added. charcoal. It is then fit to betransferredtotheweIls. gilt or bone pens. Letthe colour and oil be well worked Turpentine so as to bring the pasty colour to a together until the oil will take up no more. Other requisites are —a tin brush washer for turpentine (which shouldstand. if necessary. mixed upagain with turpentine. The one difficulty is. Some rim-tiles.and. tracing and transfer paper. slab down to The smootliness by means laborious use of the glass and muller is unnecessary. palette in general use comprises a Palettes. wiU remain contents of the wells for use for a long time. ultimately saved by rubbing down. —The number of wells to hold prepared colour. as it is easily cleaned.wheninuse.iaaplate or saucer). must then be added. or the contents of the wells will soon become unfit for use. and. c 2 .

all these obstacles are overcome. colours dry " dead " — — consequently. . PAINTING IN IJNDEE-GLAZE COLOURS. be used like ordinary water colours. complete work Some on. when unequally. CHAPTEE. For work upon imglazed ware pigments (bisque. with allow- ance for waste produced practice. imless to repair unneces- very slight defects. are quite unlike what they become after glazing and firing. and. and turpentine. if "dressed" with a suitable preparation. palette a little water soon softens When dry upon the is them.36 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. the surface of the biscuit not unlike drawing paper. without any gloss. III. be executed with one firing only. and may advantages. painters begin with water colour and finish with will not disturb the first is . floated on. settle (2) They are apt to run. more colour having been deposited on one part (3) It is not easy to lay on a sufficient body of colour to produce tints of full depth. and. With and however. results. The diffiQulties are (1) The that is. and. A mottled appearance than another. or with fat-oil colours. its like enamel first Each method has case they flow readily In from the brush. by the action of the fire. or biscuit) the may be used either with water and some me- dium the to fix them. may The second painting and afterwork in enamel colour upon the glaze sary.

and the glossy nature of the medium gives the will colours somethiag of the hue and transparency they It filing have after being fired. as seen iu good specimens of the art of illuminating. used with water has a A painting executed in colours dead surface. The thinnest possible layer of colour will TJnder-glaze colours may be mixed at pleasure to pro- duce any variety of compound tints. of executing a painting in one colour and. suffice. a greater body of pigment is deposited. for decorative work on a white none can be selected so suitable as the dark blue." A practised draughtsman frequently sketches his subject directly on the biscuit. must be remembered that the depth of tiuts after depends on the quantity of the colour deposited. as a rule. Experience therefore how thickly the pigment must be plied to produce colours in varying degrees of strength. but the pigment much thicker is upon ap- some parts than on necessary to decide others. Piok applied thus thickly will become. all other colours should. using either charcoal or . Pink and dark blue excepted. a fine crimson. tions as to their use it For general direcon the surface. of the ware. and especially in flesh painting. when fired. will be sufficient to explain the method biscuit . The different tints appear nearly uniform is in depth or force. when dry. For pink tints. known also as " flowing blue.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. If the painting 37 "with oil is executed entirely in coloux mixed and turpentine the touches are more precise. it can scarcely be used too delicately. be applied so thickly as to conceal the surface and present. the appearance of a paiuting iu tempera.

and the be run or fioated on or laid ." colours. PAIJTTING." or becoming " ironed. wash will give a tint pleted. An exact tracingwith ordinary from these can be transferred to the biscuit Very light pressure with the tracing point will convey a sufficiently clear impression and it is generally advisable to remove some of the colouring matter from the transfer paper by laying it face downwards on a sheet knife-handle. teehnicaHy termed " ironing. such as an ivory Slight corrections may be made in the transferred design with a very hard lead pencil. and rub- bing out or cleaning effected with stale bread. it used must be filled with colour from a brush and the colour stirred frequently. of rather rough paper and rubbing the back with some smoothe implement. if possible.. or with a small brush. less commoii water Those who have experience will find it preferable to make a design on paper and clearly. or shows a sort of filmy irridescence. or water colour McGhielp. the brush must be fuUy charged. is impossible to The blue is a powerful colour. The outlines may be drawn with a medium-pointed If a pen is bone or gilt pen. should For painting. the surface will give a deep blue. Beginners generally apply it and it afterwards appears almost black. and it wash out any mark made with it so that The thinnest no stain shall ultimately appear. the powder colours must be rubbed Some of down with gum and water. 38 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN colours. when the glazing and firing are comas quite conceals and such a thickness of pigment too thickly. draw the outhnes firmly and red or blue transfer paper. using enough water to make it flow easily from the pen or brush.

.

To face page_39 ..

and the glaze will cause tain them to flow partially together. and always preferable to a dotted. It may be "bossed " or dabbed on with brushes sold for the purpose. parts with one 39 It is desirable to paint light wash of thin colour. A cerand amount of irregularity in the depth of the tints. It is very difficult to them untouched when rapidly laying on colour. they can be added in white enamel piece has been glazed when the and fired.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. which expels all They are subjected the oil and turpentine because the water. is not objectionable. colours may be added by small broad touches lightly applied. instead of trying to gain depth by several washes one over the other. a blotty look. produced by hatching or stip- pHng. and the red afterwards applied on the glaze and fixed by the enamelling kiln. oil would repel the glaze which is mized with important to observe that if under-giaze colours . o. undergo a process termed "hardening on. fat-oil This is best done . red must be left quite white." to moderate heat. with broad rapid touches. if the colour is mixed with and turpentine it will not sink or dry so quickly and can be more easily and deliberately worked. It is and attaches the colour to the ware. Designs combining theunder-glaze blue and over-glaze The parts to be coloured or enamel red are effective. leave Under-glaze paintings. This is necessary. and dark parts with one wash of thick colour. StUl.f Some skUl is required to wash on a ground tint dark blue over a space of any considerable extent. feeble effect. If the design includes small forms in white on a blue ground. before they are glazed.

the use of under-glaze colours with water is most simple. To regulate the quality of the mixed colour is for different portions of the work. however. the brush the fat-oQ or turpentine contained in the slants of the palette. the only remedy being to chip it off. so long as the If. and can scarcely be repaired. as it will mixed with a good deal of not sink so quickly the fire into the porous surface. if Thin colour is most easily laid on the biscuit fat-oil. . and effects of need not dipped in be feared. perfectly effective. wiU have a blistered. lumpy look. All things considered. turpentine is it is not of mucli conse- quence how much added. colours can be effectiyely worked. fat-oil is used. having rubbed down remaining roughnesses with pumice-stone. too much by and the colour when dry looks very glossy. touch on some enamel colour and fire the painting again. are used with oil and turpentine.40 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. It thickly applied colour will almost certainly be spoilt the boiling of the oil in the hardening Idln. and. with a Uttle experience. and.

may be made to assist the judgment on this point. has been already indicated (p. is the addition of more colour and a on the other hand. is remedy If. in thin ia excess and its yellowish colour observable. if the oil must be noticed. qua non of Before any attempt to paint.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. FAINTING IN ENAMEL COLOURS. some experimental touches should be is ia made on a piece of glazed ware. fat-oH and turpentine. so to speak. therefore touches. of the ia form. 41 CHAPTEE lY. thoroughly mixed and thinned with turpentine only. If the colour a proper state each touch wUl be smooth and definite will take hold. the colour clogs the brush. The best method relative proportion of colour. 35) but one or two observations . The extreme smoothness of the surface is the principal source of difi&culty in cease to embarrass if work upon attention is the glaze. and the little fat-oU. The brush If the brush slips and the colour spreads irre- gularly. . surface. vehicle it requires thinning with turpentine. to carry as it The must be made is much colouring matter as possible. too much turpentine has been used. and stiff and lumpy. in which case more pigment must be added. but will soon paid to the preparation of securing the proper of the colour. right sitie consistency of the pigments being the successful over-glaze work.

. the covered Asdth some adhesive substance. made and the outlines pricked. The spirit mingles with and efEaees. first To draw the outlines of a design on glazed ware. but by means of the palette- knife. and are added to colour. brushed lightly over the- back with a soft leather stump or the fingers. or fixed with. so as to succession of fine holes. such as honey" or oil and turpentine (applied must be held tracing wafers. carried The work must be on deliberately.42 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. not when turpenby pouring from the bottles. to- the palette-knife used to convey colours from the wells the tine tiles must be scrupulously clean oil . but also adjacent parts of the painting previously executed." If the well-palettes are used. and the point only charged with colour. a tracing can be with a needle. it is best done. as recommended and. mark out the forms by a close The glazed surface having been as thinly as possible). If a rather dry brush and India ink are generally used. will pass "through the holes and mark out the design on the ware- . Powdered charcoal. 36). probably be injured by boiling in the kiln. required. not only the touch just added. will. A tliick body of colour. containing too mucli oil. pottery painting the familiar saying plicable To —" The more haste the is particularly ap- less speed. A tbin layer of colour cannot be spread evenly with too if mixed. taking the spirit from the brush-washer and the on from the slant in the palette. steadily upon it. Much an- noyance frequently results from a hurried attempt to add a small touch whilst the brush is full of turpentine. (p. much turpentine.

to use a tracing to transfer the principal forms.£Eord the best guide to appropriate execution. by " bossing " any degree of or dabbing on the colour fired and when the picture has been a repetition of the process will give Oross-hatohing and strength desired. minute-stippling are laborious and produce a poor effect. As far as possible the work should be carried on by broad touches. 4S at once these must be gone over with colours. be kept separate on a small Colour for outlines palette. Pale flat tints may be produced most easily . Perforated tracings are chiefly useful for patterns. treacle. and. For pictorial designs the best course is. in tolerably clear dotted lines . laid with a fuUy-charged flattened brush. lest The mixture must not be the fine lines should not have substance for waste in firing. thin. as it would if thetracing-point was passed many times over the liaes. should be charged. may and used with glycerine or some water colour medium. such as borders on which the same forms are several times repeated. and sketch in details or slight alterations with India ink. will not disturb the outlines drawn with pigment thus prepared.. whether for large or fine touches. The colour mixed with oil and turpentiae. glycer- afterwards used for painting. gum-water and other have been too used for this purpose. Honey and vehicles. not by . A tracing of one section of the design and does not wear out. perhaps. Brushes of different sizes are necessary. suffices. ine. A GUIDE TO POKCELAIN PAINTING. enough to allow No particular method of painting can be suggested individual taste will a.

All colours will lose some of there strength when fired added the tints must. be fired as often . slant. for. even a hair will draw up the and cause an annoying disfigurement. through the To prepare the brushes for use dip them in turpentine and draw them through a little oil in the as to soften and unite the hair up to the quill. then slightly softened by the breath. desirable. when dry. Small portions of superfluous colour are easily removed from the paiating with the brush-stick. dipping. in spite of the destroying power of the colours in the Tfiln fire. . can be at once softened by breathing on corrections. therefore. 44 A GUIDE TO POKCELAIN PAINTING. will up the edges of be most readily and neatly done and slight any patch if the colour is first allowed to dry. possible to finish scarcely an enamel painting with one firing. may be laid in a little oil or washed with The free colours on the palette or painting grit of must be kept from dust or any kind. not It is to rely on more than two or three firings. repeatedly. dip it in turpentine and it hold near a flame —warmth will soon soften it. After use the brushes must be thoroughly cleansed with turpentine soap and water. such as cleaning of colour. by drawing tbem. but colour. flattened. For small touches white enamel may be put on thick . and. Colour can. be used darker than they are to appear finally. which should be cut to a flat shape at the end. so If a brush becomes hard. however. and the painting bttt it is both on the grounds of risk and expense. it . Thia colour. if not intended to be used for some days..

is After use implements should be cleaned before the colour has hardened to be upon them. as much as possible should be scraped to clean. or struck lightly over it when nearly dry. The bottles containing the colours must be kept covered. may be covered at once with a thicker layer but the safest course is to defer the addition of the fuU thickness required until the painting has been once fired.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. it . very smaU quantity of another colour will spoil the contents of a bottle. paint. some time if . 45 applied but upon large spaces it should be glaze. at once. and rag with turpentine used all away the rest. always breathe upon it. Turquoise is used precisely in the same manner as white enamel. other pigments. Both are applied more solidly than a considerable body of each being necessary to a proper effect. no further use made of them for but colour on the . and a palette-knife wiped each time it is used The presence of a to take out a different colour. colour becomes dry and hard upon the palette- knife or palette. so as to take a hold on the When dry. A patch of made it. White enamel may be employed Uke ordinary white Colours can be mixed with it. colours The intimate union and smooth flow of the and medium seems to be assisted by the slight warmth thus imparted. when preparing and colour on the palette for delicate precise work. When off. first thinly. colour applied moderately thick may be to distribute itself more evenly by breathing on a little Pottery painters.

Beginners will do well not to attempt large paintings at first. and to defer working on the ware until they have prepared on paper an exact coloured design.46 palette A GUIDE TO POECELAIN PAINTING. elaborate. which. of which the border is the principal part. will remain servieeaUe for a day or two if •covered close with a saucer. Circular border lines are generally *' planchette. nearly the whole available space tive picture. is filled is "When up bya decora- an intricate border merely wasted labour. but the lines fix may be traced thus Find the centre and upon it with beeswax a bit of thick card. as destroying unity of effect. the balance being re- storedby a small central subj ect strongly coloured. the outlines of which may be put in firmly with indelible brown ink. however intricate. Such a piece as a saucer-shaped plateau. ." or wheel — drawn by means of a a small revolving table. should have a certain compactness. For aris tistic work great precision : not required. it requires to be separated ject varying If the border design broad and from the central sub- by a blank space of considerable width. In designs for pottery a multitude of small detached details should be avoided. from nine to twelve inches in diameter. It is generally sufficient to surround a decorative design with one or two width and colour. is well suited for decoration. and not draw the eye forcibly from the painting lines of is which they enclose. Straggling forms are not agreeable in border designs. whilst the other joint carries a brush in place of the usual lead pencil. Upon this the point of one joint of the dividers or compasses will rest firmly.

.

To face page_47. .

after being fired. removing the painting now and then to some It especially necessary to do this dis- tance from the eye. gestive. should be always at hand for reference. and there abundant room for the exercise of taste ployment of such materials. ing below the patches the or a number to correspond with a written effect will By seen. and fully illustrative of the styles of nations. This initial letters of trial piece. 47 Much assistance will be derived from trials of the colours. or in a common oven. havthe colours used. A small plaque or a posite tints produced common plate should he covered with patches of gradated colours. Early engravings and book plates is also some- times afford excellent subjects. All the best works on ornament are accessible.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTIiSIG. when to be sent to the kiln. descriptive list. to residents in -don and other large towns will find a . it is advisable to dry out the oil by heating it on a stove. a painted piece is Finally. for the eye quickly becomes fatigued and loses all power of discrimination. not and ingenuity in the emby copying. For those who cannot Modern originate decorative subjects ihere can be no lack of material in these days of photo- graphy. ornament characteristic of various periods A list of works relating to pottery and pottery decora- . hoth pure and in com- by mixture. in the national libraries. the general is be more readily when bright colours are used. Grernian woodcuts are often very sug- being generally simple in treatment and firmly outlined. but those of who can obtain work entitled "Examples and Ornament" inex- pensive. but by Lonit adapting them.

has suggested. and such advice added on the best mode of overcoming them as the writer's own practice. written instructions attention. may understood and remembered. . Stanford Road. as the hope that some readers may be interested in the history as well as in the practice of Ceramic art. seldom receive close and make but a faint or confused impression on the reader's memory. its practical more than'probable that usefulness would be diminished. briefly. but. although It would be easy to expand the simple directions here comprised within a few pages an appearance of more importance might it is thus be given to the work. it is hoped. to tliese pages. yet. an appendix. 1873.. so that they AH the be easily gener- technical processes in general use have been described. in tion has been added. That real assistance may be obtained from his pages. Unless condensed and presented in such a form as to be easily mastered. Kensington. All the difficulties ally encountered at first are noticed. 48 A GUIDE TO POKCELAIN PAINTING. and famUiarity with the experience of others. and success speedily attend the efforts of those is who accept his guidance the sincere wish of THE WEITEE. CONCLUSION.

S. 1864. FoBTNUM. : Rebotjlleau La Peinture sur Porcelain. a. HoEEMAN Memoire sur la Porcelain de Japon. 1865. Naples^ : : 1791. London.M. Paris. Paris. 1870. Tvyo Centuries of Ceramic Art Maertatt. 1857. Paris. Eis-Pacquot : Histoire des Faiences de Eouen.K. S. London. Palliser. p. &c. Porcelain. Maiolica. London. J. Owen. 4th Edition. Bury London. Sir W. 1873. De Marks and Monograms on Pottery and London. 1822. Hamilton. Mayer Qiot : : History of the Art of Pottery in Liverpool. Porcelain. 1854. 3rd Edition. E. in the S. Palissy. Birch. : Paris. : Art Journal. London. Dresden. a. London.A LIST OF AND OF WOEKS DECOKATION RELATING TO THE MANUFACTUEE POTTERY AND PORCELAIN.. Translated by Mrs. . Paris. Salvetat . &c. Traits des Arts Ceramiques. Greek Vases. Demmain : Guide de Amateur de Faiences -. Le9ons do Ceramique. Millingen. Amiens. : Paris. Bbongniabt Chaefkes. History of Ancient Pottery. Babbet de Jouy Les Delia Robbia. Clbuziot . H. 4 vols. 1873. . : Les Merveilles de la Ceramique. JacquBmart. BiNNS : A Century : of Pottery in the City of Worcester. 1872. 1861. Paris. : : Paris. W. 1844. 1874. 1856. J. Engraving from Greek Vases. Jacquemaet Histoire de la Porcelain. 1868. Paris. Graesse Marks and Monograms. 1873. Histoire de la Porcelain. Jacquemabt. ffiuvres : Completes de B. 1843. 1855. in Bristol. London. et Porcelaines. la Poterie Gauloise. . History of Ceramic Art. 1873. 1868-70. Dr. Antoine. Jewitt : Notices of English Potteries. D. History of Pottery and .

.

GEORGE ROWNEY & -**<- CO... and dry in bottles.'S MATERIALS FOR PORCELAIN PAINTING. Caddy Lid Box. COLOURS AND MEDIUMS FOR PORCELAIN PAINTING. Mahogany Box The Colours are prepared vioist in tubes £i IS.^2 los. . fitted with the requisite materials Price . .

FOR COLOUR GRINDING. s.4>^ inch. d. shape. 5 inch. A B Cocoa Handle Ditto Balance 1 II 2 II A B Ebony Handle Ditto Balance 1 2 8 2 5 3 A B Ivory Handle Ditto Balance 2 2 I I 2 10 E D C CocoaHandleTiowel 554 Ebony Askew points 557 Cocoa Long Shank 564 GLASS SLABS AND MULLERS. Glass Slabs .

Paris Universal Exhibition. Paris Universal Exhibition. MESSRS. Messrs. 1855. Two Prize Medals. Prize Medal. R. GEORGE ROWNEY & CO. Prize Medal. Dublin International Exhibition. HAVE THH Pr."PRIZE MEDALS AWARDED. 1862. brighter. perfectly fine. G. Prize Medal. Philadelphia International Exhibition.Jiner^ brighter^ less oily^ and to dry than any others at present manufactured prepared by the . 1865." Exhibition of all Nations. at the same prices as hitherto charged for colours less finely ground. . 1867. Paris Universal Exhibition. or powder. trial in full They therefore solicit a confidence of giving satisfaction. & Co. 1851. and 64. International Exhibition. and that their WATER COLOU RS same process. 1876. Prize Medal.EASUKE TO ANNOUNCE 'JHAT BV THEIH SYSTEM OF GRINDING COLOURS BY MACHINERY. Two Silver Medals. 1878. feel assured the OIL COLOURS ground by their quicker improved process will be found to \>e. . RATHBONE PLACE. RETAIL DEPARTMENTS: 52. will prove to beyfwtr. W. OXFORD STREET. Two Silver Medals. 1872. They are enabled to supply Artists' colours in oilj water. Lyons Universal Exhibition. Two Prize Medals. and tojioat mart evenly lolthout granulation than any other colours hitherto produced.

GROUND BY MACHINERY.GEORGE ROWNEY & CO.'S WATER COLOURS. .

. LANDSCAPE. Sepia. (^) Vermilion. lo-Pan Box . Sepia. ..'S JAPANNED TIN SKETCHING BOXES. . Cobalt. {\) Indian Red. and Veronese Green. LANDSCAPE. and Qlive Green. Indigo. 3-Pan Box Raw Raw Sienna. {^ Pale Cadmium. Raw Sienna... Prussian Blue.. Light Red. Lamp Black. Indigo.. 6-Pan Box . 4-Pan Box Sienna. Gamboge. Brown Pink. Crimson dyke Brown.. . i-Pan Box Sepia. {\) Lemon Yellow. GEO. Van- LANDSCAPE. 12-Pan Box .. and Sepia. 4 8 2-Pan Box Sepia and Chinese White. [^ Orange Cadmium. ROWNEY & CO. . + o Gamboge. {^ Mars Orange. lo 9 Gamboge. Yellow Ochre. French Ultramarine. and Chinese White. Prussian Blue. [^) Vermilion. . and Prussian Blue. Lalce. (i) Lemon Yellow. FILLED WITH MOIST COLOURS.. Sepia.. Madder Brown. Crimson Lake. {^) Chinese Orange. s d. Roman Ochre. Coeruleum. {^ Indian Red.

216 Gamboge. (i) {\) Gamboge. (i) Italian Pink. Indian Yellow. . Roman Ochre. (i) Orange Cadmium. {{) Olive Green. Prussian Blue. Brown Burnt Sienna. (^) Emerald Green. French Ultramarine. [\) Orange Vermilion. LANDSCAPE. and Veronese Green. Madder. {{) Emerald Green. Indian Lake. Aureolin. Madder Madder. . and Veronese Green. Ash. French Ultramarine. Yellow Ochre. Olive Green. (i) Orange Cadmium. Prussian Blue. Madder Brown.LANDSCAPE AND FIGURE. Rose Mars YelHow. 20-Pan Box 40. {{) Scarlet Vermilion. Yellow nese Green. Lemon Yellow. Madder (J) Carmine. Vandyke (i) Indigo. {{} Olive Green. . {\) Emerald Green. and Vero- Gamboge. Rose Madder. {{) Indian Lake. Roman Ochre. Light Red. (i) Scarlet Vermilion. {{) Ctcruleum. (i) Orange Cadmium. Raw Umber. (f) (i) LANDSCAPE. {\) Purple Madder.. [{) Indian Red. Sepia. i6-Pan Box . Indigo. . . Light Red. i8-Pan Box . Burnt Umber... Brown Ochre. Sepia. (i) Indian Red. Raw Umber. . (i) Orange Cadmium. Vandyke Brown. Raw Sienna. Yellow Ochre. LANDSCAPE AND FIGURE. Indigo.. I 15 o Raw Pink.Indian Yellow. Madder Lake.. (i) Aureolin. Light Red.. I2-Pan Box . {{) Ultramarine. Brown Ochre. (i) Lemon Yellow. © Green Oxide of Chromium. (i) Cadmium Yellow. LANDSCAPE AND FIGURE. (i) Ultramarine Ash. (1) Vermilion. (i) Aureolin. Scarlet Vermilion. (1) Carmine. (|) (i) (i) Italian Cadmium Yellow. Ochl-e. Rose Brown. Sienna. (1) Indian Red. {{) hmerald Brown. Brown Ochre. Cobalt. FIGURE. Cobalt. (^) Ultramarine Ash.. and marine. Cadmium Yellow. Green. Yellow Ochre. Light Red.. {{) Brown. FIGURE. (i) Lamp Black. (y) Carmine. . (J) Orange Cadmium. Vandyke Brown. Indian Yellow. Cadmium Yellow. (i) Smalt. 279 Lemon Yellow. and Veronese Green. Sepia. 1 15 o Ochre. &c. [\) Lamp Black. Lemon Yellow.. (i) Scarlet Vermilion. C<Hruleum. (i) Purple Lake. Indian Yellow. Rose Madder. {\) Vermilion.. Cobalt. (1) Caruleum. French Ultramarine. 22-Pan Box (i) . French Ultramarine. French UltraEmerald Green. Cobalt.

DUNCAN'S ARRANGEMENT WHOLE PANS. Madder. & Landscape). Indian Red. Vandyke Brown. . Animal. Carmine. Roman Ochre. Lemon Yellow. Veronese Green. PANS. Lamp Black. Brown Pink. HALF PANS. Chinese Orange. Rose Madder. Burnt Sienna. E. Prussian Blue. Raw Sienna. Venetian Red. Indian Yellow. Yellow Ochre. Madder Brown. French Ultramarine. Cceruleum. Gamboge. HALF PANS. lo PANS AND HALF PANS. Violet Rose Carmine. Madder Brown. Indigo. (Sea and Landscape). Extract of Madder Ultramarine Ash. Cobalt. Yellow Ochre. Burnt Sienna. Purple Madder. Cobalt. Indigo. and Veronese Green. Orange Cadmium.WATER COLOUR i6 PAINTER'S BOX. Carmine. Chinese Orange. Cceruleum. Cadmium Yellow. Raw Sienna. Gamboge. Price per box. Cadmium Orange. 6d. Scarlet . Olive Grcen. Scarlet Vermilion. and Sepia. Indian Yellow. TAYLOR'S ARRANGEMENT WHOLE (Figure. Cadmium Price per box. Yellow. 6d. and Sepia. and Ultramarine Ash. £z 5s. ^2 6s. Purple Lake.Vermilion. Purple Lake.Vandykc Brown. F.

Brown Pink. i8-Half-Pan Box Gamboge. Cobalt. Chinese Orange. Orange Cadmium. and Terra Vej-t. Madder Brown. and Olive Green. Emerald Green. Chinese Orange. Orange Cadmium. Light Red. Sepia. Vandyke Brown. Payne's Grey. Cobalt. Sepia. Sepia. and Veronese Green. Indian Red. and Veronese Green. i2-Half-Pan Box Gamboge. Light Red. Yellow Ochre. and Veronese Green. Vermilion. Orange Vermilion. Cceruleum. Brown Pink. Lamp Black. Light Red.. Sepia. Vermilion. Mars Orange. Cceruleum. Yellow Ochre. French Ultramarine. French Ultramarine. Purple Lake. Rose Madder. Indigo.JAPANNED TIN SKETCH BOXES. Payne's Grey. FILLED WITH HALF-PANS OF MOIST COLOURS. Indian Red. Vloiet Carmine. Prussian Blue. Crimson Lake. and Veronese Green. o 10 6 Gamboge. Scarlet Yellow. Lemon Yellow. i6-Half-Pan Box Yellow Ochre. Cadmium Yellow. 3-Half-Pan Box . Light Red. Roman Ochre. 14-Half-Pan Box 16 Gamboge. Madder Brown. Raw Sienna. Indigo. and Cobalt. Rose Madder. Cadmium Pale. Mars Vermilion.. . Orange Vermilion.. Yellow .. . 8-Half-Pan Box 3 Gamboge. Crimson Lake. . Cobalt. Prussian Blue. Aureolin. Lemon Yellow.. Orange Cadmium. Gamboge. Brown Pink... Rose Madder. Lemon Yellow. Cceruleum. Cadmium Pale. d. Cceruleum. Vermilion. Crimson Laice. Ochre.. Emerald Green. Lemon Yellow. ao-Half-Pan Box .. Carmine. Chinese Orange. Vandyke Brown. Prussian Blue. Prussian Blue. Vermilion. Light Red. Cobalt. Rose Madder.

Cobalt... Veronese Green. and Veronese Green. Indian Red. Cadmium Yellow.. Indian Red. Chinese White. 24-Moist Tube Box . Prussian Blue. Gamboge. Chinese Orange. 3 Gamboge. ... Rose Madder.. Vermilion. Light Red.. Yellow Ochre. Scarlet Vermilion. Aureolin. WITH FOLDING PALETTE. Aureolin. Rose Madder. Olive Tube Box .Neutral Tint.. Vermilion. Carmine. Orange Cadmium. and Chinese White.. Yellow Ochre. and Veronese Green. and Ultramarine Ash. Cteruleum. Violet Carmine. Prussian Blue. Ivory Black. Yellow Indian Yellow.150 . Indian Red. IN COMPRESSIBLE TUBES. Prussian Blue. Emerald Green. Brown Ochre. Prussian Blue. Aureolin.. Carmine. Vermilion. Olive Green. Sepia. 2 10 6 Ochre. Lemon Yellow. Raw Sienna. Sepia.378 Gamboge. Crimson Lake. Madder Brown. Indian Red. Roman Ochre. Gamboge. Cobalt. Scarlet Vermilion. Lamp Black. Vandyke Brown. Roman Ochre. Cceruleum. =^53 Aureolin. Cobalt.. Cadmium Pale. Roman Ochre. and Chinese White. i2-Moist Tube Box . Brown Pink. Vermilion. Madder Brown. Gamboge. Brown Pink.7 JAPANNED TIN BOXES OF MOIST WATER COLOURS. Cceruleum. Olive Green.. 30-Moist Tube Box .. Warm Sepia. 15-Moist Tube Box i 14. Veronese Green. £ S. Indian Yellow. Prussian Blue.. French Ultramarine. French Ultramarine. Crimson Lake. Sepia. Orange Vermilion. Emerald Green. Brown Ochre. . Light Red. Cceruleum. Chinese White. . . Green. d. Lemon Yellow. Emerald Green. Brown Pink. Chinese White. Naples Yellow. Madder Brown. Light Red. Orange Cadmium. Rose Madder. Mars Orange. Vandyke Brown. Orange Cadmium. French Ultramarine. 20-Moist Cobalt. Sepia. Vermilion.

. . . . Orange Cadmium. 12-Quarter-Pan Box . Mars Yellow. Purple Lake. Rose Madder. Cobalt. . 4-Quarter-Pan Box • + Raw Sienna. French Ultramarine. Light Red. Indian Red. Rose Madder. Coeruleum. Carmine. i6-Quarter-Pan Box . Prussian Blue. Lemon Yellow. a few days' use j the wells 5 9 6 with double row of wells 8 . and Veronese Green. Vandyke Brown.. Indigo. 8-Quarter-Pan Box .. two-thirds its size. Emerald Green. FILLED WITH QUARTER-PAN QUANTITIES OF MOIST COLOURS. Roman Ochre... and Veronese Green.. Cceruleum. Madder Brown. PALETTE BOXES. ivitk Twelve Colottrs. For holding a small supply of Colours for to be filled from the tubes Ditto. Vermilion. Light Red. Sepia. This Jlbtstration sheivs the Box. ditto. . . . Sepia. Brown Pink. Yellow Ochre. . Scarlet Vermilion. Prussian Blue... . and Cobalt. MINIATURE SIZE JAPANNED SKETCH BOXES. . . Light Red. 6 Raw Sienna.8 Gamboge. and Veronese Gieen. Chinese Orange. French Ultramarine.. iz Yellow Ochrcj Aureolin. Vandyke Brown.

The Blocks form icnife consist of a number of sheets of paper. MADE OF WHATMAN'S OR HODQKINSON'S THICK PAPERS. compressed so as to is a solid mass. .SOLID SKETCH BLOCKS. each sheet of which to be it separated by inserting a underneath the uppermost one. WITH AND WITHOUT CASES. The Cases contain a pocket for carrying the sketches and place for pencil. 32 SURFACES. and passing round the edge.

MADE OF WHATMAN'S OR HODQKINSON'S EXTRA THICK PAPERS.SOLID BLOCKS. WITH & WITHOUT OASES. 32 SURFACES. .

TO FASTEN WITH ELASTIC BAND. MADE OF WHATMAN'S HAND-MADE DRAWING PAPERS. Half-bound. Roan Backs. Imperial 32010 Imperial i6mo Demy 8vo Medium 8vo Royal 8vo Imperial 8vo Demy 4to Medium 4to Royal 4to Super-Royal 4to Imperial 4to . Forty Leaves. Gilt. Cloth Sides.1 1 SKETCH BOOKS.

fault of all Pencils of this description has been hitherto their inability to resist the pressure necessary in drawing. Cases containing Four Pencils. ditto. sufficient to give them a decided pre- ROWNEY'S EVER-POINTED DRAWING PENCILS. The above Pencils are free from this and are exceedingly light in the hand. RowNEV & Co. B & BB. per Case. Neatly got up ia Polished Cedarj in ordei: to prevent the lead dust adhering to the Pencil. The defect. zs'. per dozen. EHB DEHB Dozen. PRIZE MEDAL AWARDED INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. each. H. GEORGE ROWNEY & CO. 4s. is. Each degree is polished in a different colour. per Messrs. 1862. have every IMPROVED DRAWING PENCILS to confidence in the notice of recommending the Profession. . H B BB HB HH HHH HHHH BBB BBBB Hard for Sketching for Outlines Harder BBBBBBB F FF Very Hard for Architects Extra Hard for Engineers Hard and Black Black for Shading Softer and very Black Extra Soft and Black Softer and Very Black. their their moderate price and superior quality being ference with the public. Broad and Black Lead Firm for Ordinary Drawing Very Firm and Double Thick Lead Extra Hard and Black Ditto. Leads only.'S IMPROVED DRAWING PENCILS. HB. extra Very Thick Lead Double Thick Lead 2s.BLACK LEAD PENCILS. and consequently soiling the fingers.

With the view of enabling the working classes to avail themselves of the advantages presented by the many Schools of Design and Classes recently opened for the instruction of Drawing in its various branches. in plain Cedar. . Middle. . stamped Gold. .'S PENNY DRAWING PENCILS. and very Soft. polished Middle. is .'S CO. HALFPENNY PENCIL. . . & Co. . . ROWNEY & CUMBERLAND BLACK LEAD DRAWING MANUFACTURED BY PENCILS. R. of a quality The Pencils are manufactured of Four good for general purposes. . . H HB B BB Hard. . . Soft. . 1 I . I . Messrs. per d 'G. . and to supply themselves with good materials at a low price. . . ROWNEY & CO. coloured red. ". 6d.. .. coloured black . GEORGE ROWNEY & COMPANY. Very Soft. OF THE GENUINE PLUMBAGO.. 1 Each Pencil stamped in Silver.. thus—" GEORGE ROWNEY & CO" Cases." . . have devoted their attention to the sufficiently Degrees — production of a Penny Drawing Pencil. G. coloured dark red. Soft. in In Polished and Stained Cedar. containing Three Pencils.. . — •3 GEO. each. ROWNEY & CO. thus er dozen 6d. OF THE FOLLOWING DEGREES H . . in polished and coloured Cedar. . OR PATENT COMPRESSED LEAD. . Hard.

GEORGE ROWNEY & CO. Boxes containing 12 each o 6 24 3^ 7* '44 „ " >> „ „ „ o 10 o 15 1 10 » 30 .'S COLOURED CRAYONS. MANUFACTURED OF THE FINEST MATERIALS. These are hard Crayons which work with great evenness and freedom. d. POINTED CRAYONS. rather harder. 6 _„ '4+ - - - 9 18 4. These are very They ). s. per Boxes containing 36 7^ 1) Box „ „ 4. Lake.. These are similar to the Swiss.1 i o 6 I ^4 36 2 3 .. o ° IMPROVED CRAYONS. 18 Box „ . but of medium quality and smaller. separately per dozen Cravens SWISS CRAYONS. and the material most in use for Crayon Drawings. ° o 6 Vermilion. soft. &C. Boxes containing 12 per „ » . or Cobalt. are sold in glass tubes. which prevent the colours mingling.

DOME-POINTED. ^Z\=i Q003E .15 GEORGE ROWNEY & CO. SABLE HAIR PENCILS. Large eagle .'S BRUSHES FOR WATER-COLOUR DRAWING. S^HWSiff!!" R & E DUO.

5 I. I li'll! No. d. VERY FINE QUALrTY. I d. AND POLISHED HANDLES. i Ln No. Round or flat ch o 4 5 • Round J) or flat each 6 RED SABLE BRUSHES. or flat each I ^ 3 „ I . Round >. IN GERMAN SILVER FERRULES. i}- s. „ 4 6 „ „ „ 2 o ? 2 The prices of Red Sables only are fluctuating . s. No. No. IN GERMAN SILVER FERRULES. AND POLISHED HANDLES VERY FINE QUALITY. or flat each o lo I I Round >.i6 BROWN SABLE BRUSHES. c.

each. Full Gnnsc Camels 2d.CAMEL HAIR BRUSHES. Small Ci'ow . d. ea^h.

5. „ or Walnut.Wood. 6 feet each 5 feet Mahogany.PORTABLE SKETCHING EASEL. ° " „ „ French polished. 5 feet or IN CASE. Ash. 5 6 .

plated inside. Large . FOR CARRYING A SUPPLY OF WATER FOR SKETCHlNS.40 . „ Small Large .. COLOUR BOX. .40 RIMMED DIPPER... Smai. „ 6 3 o 9 „ . SKETCH BOCK.HTAI 4tO.> Flat Oval . gd. TOURISTS' SKETCHING BAGS... AND ARRANGED TO HOLD SKETCHING BLOCK. .i. BRUSH POUCH.. . spilling. iMt-KKiAi.19 JAPANNED WATER BOTTLES. . by 8 inches 8 . Sizk each 2 3 3 5 9 Middle „ Large „ . . s d. ° 6 3 Oval. MADE OF SATEEN. 15 .jtO..side. revent thh Wai er IS. each 16 i8 18 6 9 y Imperial 6mo. I2j^ 15 „ 10 II „ „ .. ROVAL IMI'K.. Ji inches ETC. Imitation. . in.... Round.. No... '8.. Svo.. WITH CUPS TO FIT ON THE PALETTE OR BOX. „ „ . Smali . platkd .. WATER BOTTLE..

GEORGE ROWNEY

&

CO.'S

PORTABLE TENTS,
FOR

SKETCHING TOURS, PIC-NICS, OR SUMMER EXCURSIONS.

Th= advantages

consisting of their portability and light weight when packed, and their strength and spacionsness when pitched, are much appreciated by artists.

of these Tents,

S.ZE OF Sm.,.,.

Tent WHEN SET

UP
4

4

FEET SQUARE,

^''^'^'^^

INCHES BY

4 INCHES, 4

7 KEET , UGH. FEET 4 INCHES LONG.
3s.

Weight, about
Size of

17 lbs.

Price, including Case,

£3

Large Teut when set
Weight, about

ui-

, 7
••

pkex By FEET sv
5

> 4

.^i,.,. FEET

«

6,

7

FEET HIGH.

"""*"
22 lbs.

S

"^=«KS »V

INCHES, 4 FEET 6 INCHES LONG

Price, including Case,

£3

,Ss,

.

i Lewis. M.) A. Templeton . * Cloth and gilt ... cloth and gilt.. Lloyds.?. ' J ^ . - A cTS. H. Jfice ' ra*-h.. ROWNEY &. FROM NATURE.XINTIXG IN WATER COLOURS. HINTS KCiR Noble IN i SKETCHING TREES Part I.M.. Harlev i GUIDE TO PICTORIAL ART.. G. •HINTS OX SKETCHING FROM NATURE.. I Leonida. H. P.es Martrl C. . i i GUIDE TO FIGURE P. G. n. THEORY OF COLOURING. Hicks GUIDE TO FLOWER paint: ^"V.s Clint Mir. GUIDE TO LIGHT AND SHADE DRAWING. . B.'E. j .' N. S. i GUIDE TO WATER COLOUR PAINTING. III. . By George Halse PRACTICAL MANUAL OF HERALDU ILLUMINAI ION. Grke-. J. Part II.Bacon Cloth and gilt 6 GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. GUIDE TO SKETCHING FROM NATURE.. cloth.A R. I o ON THE M.vev T. „ . with Remarks on Varnishing and Cleaning Pictures. (Landscape from Nature. i Part N. . Whiteford o 6 Cloth and gilt 2 GUIDE TO MODELLING AND THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF .. Green >r.. G. cloth and gilt ^ F. CO. . . Ditto. i J. R senbeeg GUIDE TO PAINTING ON GLASS. IN Water Cm OURS..06 Three Parts bound in one. E.. \\'ith J. with additional Chromo-Lithographed Illustrations.SCULPTURE. ^ PRACTK. Fl-NE I. Mekrifield Clint .AWING.. i o o o o o o o o o GUIDE TO OIL PAINTING. Kcssrll. s. Sydney T. Henry Svd. F. Green GUIDE TO FIGURE DR.. •HINTS OX SKETCHING FROM HATURE. R...'S TREATISES ON THE •HINTS ON SKETCHING FROM NATURE." . . i q ^ GUIDE TO ANIMAL DRAWING..ITERIALS USED IN PAINTING. Green . 5s. B. gilt W. Additional Uiiisirations. N.. Weigall . O'Neil GUIDE TO PICTORIAL PERSPECTIVE. . J Baicent AND C..ES . Bielfield GUIDE TO MINIATURE PAIXTIXG AND COLOURING PHOTOGRAPHS. and C. o Demy 8vo.. . S.. o o o O o o o Part Part II.K DRAWING.. WlMTEFORO ... E.26 2 . Ditto.M. GUIDE TO ILLUMINATING AND MLt^SAL PAINTING. PRIXCIILES OF PERSPECTIVE. J. Templeton WATER i COLOUR.GEO. Mrs. i i GUIDE TO PENCIL AND CH. . GUIDE TO SCENE PAINTING. With Illustrations... Chari. Thomas Hattok o GUIDE TO OIL PAINTING. E. AUDSLEV H.

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