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A

guide to porcelain painting

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olin,anx

3 1924 031 306 560

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OXFORD STREET. WHITEFORD. ARTISTS' COLOURMEN. AND 52. FIFTH EDITION. RATHBONB PLACE. SIDNEY T.: A GUIDE PORCELAIN PAINTING. W. . LONDON aEORGE EOWNBY AND COMPANY. . WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY THE AUTHOR. MANUFACTURING 29.

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is The surface of the glazed ware always practically identical in texture. The practice of Cer- amic paiuting does not include the varied manipulative employed by is artists who work upon canvas or paper. the art. some acquaintance with drawing and colouring being pre- supposed in the learner. whether cultivated for pleasure or profit. will be found to aiford a highly processes interesting occupation. Whilst nearly evjery brahch of Pictorial and Decorative art has been made the subject of numerous handbooks. it is believed that no manual of instructions in the art of paiatiag on Pottery and Porcelain has hitherto appeared. who cannot obtain such aid. and colours of every hue are available. and . but. to those is offered. There comparatively Kttle to be taught. Under its present facilitated conditions.PREFACE. by greater it and much more uncertainty but was felt by actual experience what results can be obtained by each process. The superior value of personal teaching or supervision that many persons might wish to decide is not contested . is Painting in under-glaze colours difficulties attended . Instructions for under-glaze work are therefore given. Painting in enamel colour is more particularly recommended. this little work with confidence that atten- tion to its directions will prevent serious mistakes.

failures must be expected is but to use a homely proverb. first attempts may be hopelessly mis- The thanks little. however. ties of The difficul- any art are only OTercome by practice. " "WeU begun half done. without which directed." The learner may obtain from a book. advanced that has not ^ been tested by actual experience. of the writer are due to several for professional painters assistance is freely and cour- teously given .PREFACE. . and some . information. greatly advance the attainment of success. as well as from a teacher.

made arrangements enabling to them to supply glazed and unglazed ware. Except for those it who resided in the neighbourhood of some factory. that Messrs. so many persons have expressed a desire to attempt the practice of the art. to obtain cesses. of colours requisite They have. when quiet harmony . Their ivory tinted ware meets a want that has been felt by many painters on Porcelain. to is whom is the cold whiteness of ordinary china of difficulty disagreeable. Eowney have been and all induced. with a view to facilitate such endeavours. was seldom possible and the necesdelays. and have the painted pieces entrusted to carefully glazed them by their customers and fired. of tone and a source desired.INTEODUCTOEY EEMAEKS. Painting on Pottery or Porcelain has occasionally been practised with considerable success hy amateurs. any instruction in the special technical proof materials and even the purchase sary transmission of the painted pieces to the kilns were accompanied by vexatious tivated taste difficulties and Cul- and intelligent interest in the subject of Pottery Decoration being now very widely spread. to prepare complete sets materials. but obstacles to the cultivation of the art have hitherto been very numerous.

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— A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. Dr. in his interesting sketch of the History of Pottery. after rightly describing them as Faience. " and . are broadly divided into two classes Pottery and Porcelain. referring to the works of Delia Robbia (15th century). are applied if the beauty and value of specimens of the Potter's art are so greatly enhanced. Much confusion arises from misappKcation of these distinctive terms. especially its Porcelain was obtained only from the East. factories of AU the early productions of the varieties of earthenware or Europe were pottery. and from the country which has given to the ware familiar name —china. who observe with admiration the desMlMly executed paintings by which few are accurately. CHAPTER Of those persons licate colours or I. for example. very all. It must first be observed that the many varieties of ware upon which at different periods the potter's skill has been exercised. at informed as to the nature of the materials employed or the methods on the ware. immediately speaks of the opaque glaze as " covering the ill-coloured ground of the porcelain. Lardner. or earthenware. by which colours Some remarks on and fixed the subject and brief notice of the progress of Ceramic decorative art in this country will not be out of place to the formal directions by way of introduction which are the chief objects of these pages.

again in Ms notice of Bernard Palissy. But in these days. "* its Manufactured ware of is kinds in unglazed state termed " biscuit." Article —Pottery. he describes a " Bouteille de chasse " of that artist as " a Porcelain flask. called by the Chinese "kathis and obtained in country chiefly from Cornwall and Devon under the name " China-clay." prohahlyas being the best substitute they could offer for the coveted Oriental ware. which are interwoven and . all when true porcelain is manufactured in parts of Europe. . no such excuse can be offered for the misuse of the name." is Earthenware fineness of its quality. arises always opaque. china transparent in proportion to the " The transparency of porcelain from the clay body becoming saturated with amass of glassy flux. but true " china " or porcelain always consists maialy of a olin. the milky mass appearing as a transparent ground mixed with an opaque substance composed of minute globules. " Chemistry of Arts and Manufactures.O A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. Under the microscope the two ingredients can be clearly distinguished from each other. arranged in a lineal direction one on the other as articulated cross threads or little rods." It is true that early in the 15th century Conti- nental makers and vendors of earthenware gave to their choicest articles the term "porcelain. each other in all directions the want of absolute trans- parency in the mass being due to the reflection and refraction of light from these all crystals. p." fine white earth." * Mnspratt's 795. For earthenware a great variety of clays has at different times been employed.

skilfully managed. the glaze and • and after undergoing the action of Dark blue. a light violet or even a dirty brown. according to the nature of the body to which they are to be applied. The coloured design is covered with glaze and fired in an oven raised to great Designs executed by this method are incorporated with the surface. " fired" laid —in the glost. or glazing oven. and becomes glassy and transparent when subjected to the is The glaze applied as an opaque creamy action of heat — ^technically." as "refractory. articles are • by which process. when Crimson. which For enamel painting many colours are would not endure the heat. and other colours show available • diff'erences of the same kind." Under-glaze painting enamel" or" over-glaze. and a the difierent appearance of great source of colours diflElculty is when applied.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. fluid. is. -For this process the colours are fluxed. fluxes. dipped in the but almost always the biscuit fluid glaze. they are very rapidly and uniformly covered. which unite them with Painting •and is ". 9 Glazes vary in their composition. in its first state. and for enamel painting are combined with substances termed the glaze. The colours used in pottery decorations are chiefly metallic oxides. employed to vitrify the glaze. is of two kinds —known as " under-glaze. fire. and can perish only with the ware itself . applied. for instance. a pale pink . and the flux ." executed on the biscuit with colours specially prepared and known heat. is. but much uncertainty attends the process. Occasionally it is on with a flat brush.

Colour isthen " bossed" on. the powdered colour by covering glazed The part to be coloured is. much of' be the appearance of under-glaze work can be obtained without its objections. for subsequent decoration by paintiag or gilding. with a mixture of turpentine and oils. " stencUled. imparted. well "fired in. mixed with oil and turpentine. and fixed by firing. generally of rose pink with sxigar and water. and is dusted on with cotton-wool. as colours are. The colours must. If the glaze very hard the paintis ing generally has a dry look. Washing in warm water soon removes colour from those parts that have been protected. tlie dissolving -under moderate heat. . by biimishing." silver For gUding." A general brushed over hering with tint is imparted to an object by applying coloured glazes to biscuit ware. or ware with colour in powder. ad- sufficient firmness to admit of any superoff. by the use of a soft glaze."^" when required. or.10 A GUIDE TO POECELAIN PAINTING. and only superficial . as it is technically termed." and the application of a body of is uniform colour laying." or " ground- When it is desired to leave on a coloured ground a white space. the gold is prepared with quick- It is and flux. such a space is first covered with a mixture. and has the appearance of black du^t. however. and its laid on with a camel hair pencil." known as " grounding. readily seen to be hut. fluous particles beiag lightly brushed is' This method termed "bossing. unites colours more- or less intimately with the glaze upon which the paintiag is has heen executed. gold recovers Brilliancy is After being flred the proper tint and appears as " dead gold.

of the Conti- nent alone could hope for These sentiments. degree of pre-eminence was confessedly attained whilst popular belief regarded one Briton as a match for many foreign opponents in war. in all work for which strength of will and muscle gave especial fitness. In productions which required no alliance with taste. almost always printed. Patterns upon ware for general use are. or till rubbed with a th& coloured design adheres. although the history of all the potteries of Ghreat Britain . it. : some but. such were rude in specimens of their productions as stUl exist show that until the middle of the last century they form and decoration. even now far from extinct.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN TAINTING. the pat- pressed on the surface of the biscuit ware and boss. 11 when intricate. involved in considerable obscurity manufacture of earthenware was carried on rather extensively in some counties from very early times. a competitor in th& Foreign painters. when The the paper is afterwards gently rubbed The absorbent ground retains off by is means of a soft wet sponge. and. sculptors. musicians and sLngerslong held undisputed sway. The paper bearing pad of wash-leather.. to be that almost The truth appears down to our own day the British nation itself as has had no confidence in fields of art. were most prevalent until the . Impressions from engraved copper plates are taken upon specially prepared paper and divided tern is into sections. in the peaceful contests it of the arts was assimied that the nations laurels.. It is remarkable for how long a period the arts of design in connection with manufactures were neglected in this country.

and forced from the public such Teoognition that the vaunted productions of the French and German factories gave place to his own. but does not appear to iave been imitated. or to have influenced pottery decoration in this country. nevertheless. worked chiefly. applied or produced by formIn the next period colours a mould. For a long period the decoration sometimes incised. too flattering to classes their energies mained undeveloped. as he would have been the first to . were imparted by the use of coloured glazes. convertiag an inconsiderable manufacof earthenware tory into an important part of the national commerce. for the humble were restricted and talent reItis." and. notahly in his well- close of the last eentury." The potters . at others ing the article in was oonfined to the enrichment of the surface by ornaments. satire of the inimitable known caricature entitled " Taste. frequently dis- plays fine design and colours. always be with high honour as the •of who boldly followed a path independent invention. The well- known Faience.good work was done by assert that many of his predecessors and conremembered first temporaries. he will. of metallic colours As the preparation became better understood. this distrust of native ability acted most injuriously. thus. perhaps. The factories which produced a . Upon the potteries.12 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING and did not escape the vigorous Hogarth. t6 quote irom his epitaph. if not whoUy. or by combining variously coloured clays. of Josiah potter's speak "Wedgwood (bom 1730) as " the father of the art in England" " Vixiere fortes ante Agam- — menona. paiutiags in a bold style were occasionally executed. or earthenware of Italy.

Paris. and sometimes with Euro- pean feeling infused. from Chinese patterns and designs. fabricated a similar paste. about the year 1518. perhaps. Cloud. excited general admiration . kind of delft is. and ia manufac- tured state it had much the appearance of true porcelain. fine qualities and in the course of time a natural desire arose in the countries of Europe to include among the productions of their fac- tories the highly-prized Oriental ware. in so- not a clay. Dutch or Grerman in character. established at the close of the 17th or beginning of the 18th century. name Pate its tendre. near To the paste thus formed the . though fact. In England the called porcelain factories at Bow and Chelsea. stoneware. The decorations employed were copies. Chiaese porcelain was introduced in considerable quantities nations among the "Western Its- by the Portuguese. Lambeth and Fulat ham. was employed was given at St. were probably imder Dutch direction. a failed to fine clay and powdered flint EinaUy. or soft paste porcelain. The attention of chemists and manxifacturers was constantly directed to the subject without leading to the discovery of the true nature of the material. chance gave to Europe what the efforts of learned men had . but a kind of glass. 13 soft enamel —that earthenware covered with a —and. alum. It is with the establishment of the manufacture of porce- lain in Europe that the era of improved pottery decorafirst tion in colours began. of which the chief components were —sand from Alum Bay. saltpetre.. In 1695 a composition of sand. destitute of all the real constituents —being.A GUIDE TO POECELAIN PAINTING. Isle of Wight. in the 17th century. in the glass. &c.

A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. whilst his valet was up a packet of the new hair its powder. was placed under the direction of Bottger. was brouglit under the notice of an iron-master named Schnorr. in 1715. In 1765. He probably suspecting. the long-sought " kaolin. not far from the town. a white earth which she thought might prove of use as a substitute for soap. near Limoges." John Bottger. happened one day. kaolin was accidentally discovered ia France. Yreix. and thus commenced." he at once conjectured that might prove a valuable material in the fabrication fine pottery. transmitted it warded by her husband to the celebrated Macquer. near Dresden. observed in a ravine. made from wheat flour.14 obtain. About 1709. then extenThe powdered clay was soon in great demand. Being told that it was of " Schnorr's White Earth. Madame Damet. by the simple circumstances of its clogging his horse's feet as he rode through the district. inquired name and how it it was obtained. the manufacture of true porcelain in Europe. Experiment soon proved that he was right. though uncertain as to its true character. to take at Dresden. who . wife of«a surgeon at St. found in great •quantities near Aue. in or true china-clay. He conceived and successfully accomplished a plan to employ this earth as a substitute for the hair powder sively used. struck by its great weight. the director of the royal potteries dressing his hair. being sold under the name of " Sohnorr's White Earth." porcelain manufactory The royal established at Meissen. a fine white earth. and. fact. the substance being. A specimen of the earth was for- to a chemist at Bordeaux. in Saxony.

" now so well known as china-clay. the first English factory of true or hard porcelain. A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. Four years later. when the and Barr. of Plymouth. at •Sevres. the earth to which he gave the name " caulin. Flight In the course of a few years china-clay came into general use. in Devon. Macquer established. in 1769. but how it was obtained is imcertain. having found near Helstone. 1730. named Champion. patent passed into the hands of the Worcester manufacturers. Cookworthy sold his patent- right to a merchant the manufactory to Bristol. and established at Plymouth. Messrs. In 1755. in spite of the doubtful tradition that native kaolin was obtained from Bovey Tracy. in Cornwall. equally unprofitable. It is unnecessary to pursue ' their history. . the factory of " hard. as information can be obtaiaed desire it. small quantities were from time to time imported from China but. he commenced iuvestigations. taking out a patent for the manufacture ia 1768. who transferred The Bristol factory proved and was closed in 1783. tit 15 once recognized the true china-clay. the credit of its as early as discovery in this country may be safely given to William Cookworthy." Probably. having failed to make the works profitable. about 1760. from many sources by those who Appendix) {See . Yreix. and porcelain factories were established in various parts of Great Britain. and haviQg ascertained that the clay could he procured in abundance at St.. China-clay appears to have been occasionally used in English factories early in the 18th century. After many ex- periments." or true porcelain.

As might Trance. It was better that flowers. but more correct drawing was added. As long as the painting was weB. so exactly as to deceive More often Chinese designs were imitated without any perception of their decorative principles. and constant. it may be thought of the style of decoration must be admitted that the paintings were executed with much ability. The motif^io borrow a French spirit art term —was foUowed.16 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. than that nondescript inventions should be accepted as . in general. the paintings alternated As regards and petty between boldness that finish was really coarseness.. with a loss of aU and character. and. At Dresden even experienced copies of Chinese forms. should be rendered with too • much fidelity to nature.. like the highest forms of every art. and. On useful the character of the decorations painted upon both and ornamental ware in the last century a few words may be said. and their ornamentation remarkable paucity of invention. be expected. and such extreme minuteness as were even more misplaced. or was the result of a direct gift. Artists of repute found employment at Sevres . of Oriental porcelain was great The influence and gilding. a slavish spirit of imitation. whatever cultivated. without regard to its appropriateness or relation to a general result. progress was most rapid m. colours were produced persons. &c. it executed and agreeable in was accepted as a decoration. It seems to have been hardly suspected that good decoration was subject to any principles. display in tories of this country. itself. The early productions of the facof the continent. designs. style.

assisted In England. and the skill of the French chemists suppKed colours of extreme beauty. as the State. With these admissions. but less spirited. —in the form is of general remarks on the principles of decorative art It — for the conclusion of difficult to select any description of ornament or painted subjects so as typical of the pro- ductions of each European factory.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. combined with other chemical substances. inferior in colouring. perhaps. fine clays named Basalt. The attention of Wedgwood was These were chiefly bestowed on the composition of coloured bodies. His factory did not produce porcelain. &c. except much alike as to be often Groups of by the nature of the paste. which he jasper. however by the tasteless." as they are termed. and " conversation pieces. The attempt to justify this position must be reserved this chapter. and. that had taken the fancy of the pubUc. bouquets. Cupids. superior in beauty. Early pieces from Dresden and Chelsea are undistiaguishable. the assertion must yet be hazarded that the art of pottery decoration has been almost as little comprehended in France as by other European nations. . ad nauseam. German paintings were as highly finished as those by French artists. or Each manufacturer pursue. and adding that gilding was often introduced with much taste. were equally popular everywhere. and stained by the addition of coloured oxides. 17 and the paintiags from must be preferred subjects by Watteau or Boucher to bad imitations of misunderstood Chinese art. some decorative theme. a factories were un- more mercantile spirit prevailed was content to imitate others.

163. and the paintings upon tlie fine earthenware used as a The border substitute were of the usual character. Jewitt's Life of Wedgwood^ p. or any material imported from abroad for. under the altered conditions everywhere accompanying the course of Time. It is scarcely probably with a feeling possible that the imitation shall possess the distinctive merits of the original that . That he had no intention to deceive is selfevident. for his direct object was to establish the conviction that England could furnish both materials and men for the art of pottery worthy to rank with the best of any much of period and every country. are yet without originality.* models for imitation. Eor the selection of classic Wedgwood's partner." though truly elegant and perfect in execution. Bentley. always strongly influenced by early Etruscan pottery. declares that in and around Burslem " not one foreigner is employed in. even when made without any intention of contemporary of fraud. and it is Wedgwood's labour was thus misapplied. any branch of " their trade." The refined forms and moulded decorations which distinguish thecelebrated "Wedgwood ware. when not direct copies. . to reproduce in stituted race. occasionally tasteful in what degree may patterns were — be estimated by the examples figured in Miss Meteyard's " Life of Wedgwood. and bears the impress modes of life and thought. supported by Wedgwood. The attempt. was * The petition of the Staffordshire potters. Good art-work is the offspring of national character. being. or differently con- be regretted. is generally to fac- simile the creations of another epoch.18 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. eminent author of " The History of Ancient that the Pottery" classes him among producers of forged Etruscan ware.

scarcely a name is remembered served his but that of the eminent enameller. protest must be made against the prevalent and most unartistic practice of adding to engraved patterns shading which is objectionable in any form. The painters were generally men of humble origin. factory to another and their methods and style were transmitted from one generation to another. and capable of more extended and judicious application than has yet been attempted. and tbe cboice at least displayed a higher taste than was possessed by other manufacturers.A GUIDE TO PORCELATN PAINTING. Bone. Thus. of transferring to biscuit is The method ware designs printed from copper plates attributed to Dr. They not unfrequently went from one . 19 probably chiefly responsible. Wall. At the same time. who apprenticeship in Cookworthy's factory. though neither interesting nor agreeable. who established the "Worcester porcelain factory in 1751. whose occupation was looked upon rather as a trade than an art. Intimate acquaintance only can give the powers of distiaguishing the decorated ware of each factory with- out the assistance of the recognised factory marks. In almost all cases the engraved outlines is are too fine and rigid. such uniformity of resemblance was secured as was certainly striking. but perfect identity of pattern not objectionable for ware which general effect.. The discovery was of great value. at Plymouth. but B 2 . It is remarkable that whilst a long list may be made of known artists who worked at Sevres of English painters on pottery or porcelain. is intended to please by without attracting close attention.

believed to be the largest piece of porcelain that has in this country. . . mens exist in "Wentworth House. Champion. states that " he has spai'ed no expense in encouraging foreign artificers. 241. in spite of patriotic example. . 281-288. or clearly-outUned designs to which colours be afterwards quickly added by hand. which produced the ware known as "Rockingham. shotdd be confined to right —such may rapid repetition as is necessary for cheapness of broadly-outhned conventional patterns for colour printing." existence under various owners. when rendered by tlie net-work Printing. of of harsh. . of a painting is by Vandyke. p. . for the extension of his patentright for the manufacture of porcelain." kinds are purpose which several its now in use." Jewitt's Life of Wedgwood. reference Finally. It is hitherto (1857) been a scent * The petition of Mr. Wedgwood's country. a large number of foreign painters this and modellers found employment in rewarded by success. tablet. if not superior. One of these pieces is a copy in enamel colours. yet. at After a struggliag Swinton. which are deserving of more than common attention. a position appears to have been attained equal. the works ceased in 1842 . made made on a porcelain The other . pp. lines termed " cross-hatching.* To what has been said respecting the English pottery decorators should be added that. as showing that the best efforts were not always factory on the estate of the Marquis of must be made to the Rockingham.20 especially A GUIDE TO POKCELAIN PAINTING. See also Marryatt's History of Pottery and Porcelain. to " Two magnificent specithat of rival establishments. . in Yorkshire. both in fabrication and decoration. of Bristol. near Eotherham. as denoting the degree of advancement of the art in England.

" * This employment of designs by an English artist deserves particular notice. giving to all classes what was before possessed by so few —the power of developing their critical faculties •Marryatt's History ofPottenj and Porcelain." which gave such a stimulus arts. 2nd ed. which has been energetically met by the eminent firms whose productions give to this country its present high position in Ceramic art. jar. extremely decorative.. 21 one entire made and . If this impartial butnecessarily brief survey of Ceramic decorative art in the last centiiry compels the conclusion that little praise can be justly bestowed. whilst the subjects are often ia character. p.A GUIDE TO POECELAIN PAINTING. The three compartments are painted in enamel colours. apply in an equal degree to his paintings of colour does not appear to have obtained complete mastery. to manufactures allied with the Since that day the general spread of information and art education has created a demand for superior ornamentation. . 292. from designs by Stothard the suhjects taken from Cervantes. and nearly always in treatment feeling. and he These remarks do not . The writings and influence of intelligent lovers of true decoration have borne schools of art have done much. good fruit. his drav/ings having marked individuality. an equally un- favourable view must be taken of what was done from its close almost to the date of the first " great exhibition of the works of all nations. and for such a purpose Stothard's art was singularly suitable. fired in piece. forty-four inches high. The and the establishment of has been of incalculable the South Kensington Museum benefit.

Our manucom- facturers will not produce w^hat the public will not readily buy . As a manufacturer and a man of he spoke with knowledge. and not for excellence of workmanship. The quotation " is from his catalogue. The desire of selling much in a little time. On ' the relations between producers and buyers nothing can be more wood. will be impossible for manufacturers either to improve or keep up the quality of their works. and their experience too often justifies their plaint that objects in the best taste are not sufficiently appreciated to be remunerative to the producer. actual observation ' by and comparison of the art-work of different generations and races. whilst those who buy for the sake of a fallacious saving prefer medioit crity to excellence. just and accurate than what was said by Wedgtaste. preference being still general for what is is merely pretty or eccentric. which they manufacture or deal in and. A competition is for cheapness. This observation is equally applicable to manufactures of the fine arts. the most frequent and certain cause of the rapid decay and entire destruction of arts and manufactures. for.22 A GUIDE TO POECELAIN PAINTING. That much may yet be done will scarcely be disputed. more especially to popubut this cannot be hoped for until larize artistic work . and his words cannot be too often repeated or too attentively considered. without respect to the taste or quality of the goods. rather than for what beautiful. the national taste becomes more cultivated. leads manufacturers and merchants to ruin the reputation of the articles . but the degradation and the productions is more fatal to the latter than the former . though an . published in 1775.

lame and unsuccessful does he make in his design. even while the model is before the workman. and every part as in vases of is it. as totally to change and depiece. but absolutely useless and ridiculous. Those pieces that for these reasons bear the highest price. without the constant attention of the master's eye. how diffi- be to preserve the beauty of the first model ? It is so difficult that. for instance. ordinary piece of goods for 23 common use is always dearer than the best of the kind. yet an ordinary and tasteless piece of ornament is not only dear at any price. art must bear a price in proportion to the the taste. before he can please himself and suppose one piece well composed and tolerably finished. such variations are frequently made in the form and taste of the work. than those that everybody . are. how many . the time the expense and the risk attending the invention and execution. grade the character of the Beautiful forms and . when justly estimated. is and encaustic paintings. the cheapest articles that can be purchased. with the same attention and diligence as the cult must it first. AU works of skill. . where every succeeding vase and every picture made. or by a stamp.A GUIDE TO POKCELAIN PAINTING. and such as are generally attended with much less profit calls cheap. The and most successful artists know that they can turn out ten is ugly and defective things for one that perfect of its beautiful kind. not in a mould. Even suppose the efibrts artist has the true idea of the kind of beauty at which he aims. but separately by the hand. to the artist . and which those to consider the real difSculty who are not accustomed of and expense making fine things are apt to call dear.

—" A genuine artistic race. from their wide diffusion." * The peculiar difficulties attending every effort to obtain a wide circulation for articles displaying the best taste in design or decoration can only be fully understood those by who have given much its attention to the subject. the perfection of which consists in its cheap production and exact resem- blance to numberless similar wholes." . at a small expense. Her taste is either distorted by trade calculations. p." f face of recent progress these views . may seem too but it cannot be denied that the tide of imarticles as provement has as yet scarcely reached such are moderate in price. and effectually hinders any wholesome development In the despondent of taste in the buyer. power of enjoyment andmanual capacity of the worker. a system of labour which deadens the mental faculties. Each workman is made the life-long slave of a single fraction of a mechanical whole. chilled by the public indifference to beauty. 218 and 219. A recent writer does not hesitate to say. means for its instruction and On the subject of Ceramic decoration great diversity * Jewitt's JJfe of Wedgwood. 262.' 24 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. . afford the best indication of the state of national taste. or coolly set aside by the one-sided common sense theory of political economy. and they composition are not to he made by chance were never made. and never can be made in any kind. pp. too " Europe is much hampered by industrial code and prosaic notions to invent purely aesthetic designs and forms. and. as well as the most powerful refinement. t Art JoiiTtud (1871).

though. appropriateness of an agreeable flow of lines and disposition of masses. and may. To this the first that to give durability to the fabricated ware. effective arrangement with fine quality of colour.A GUIDE TO POECELAIN PAINTING. but wise direction and limitation. or only half recognized by themselves. that the glaze is highly reflective and the material extremely brittle. and views directly opposed to the judg- ment of the test authorities are so tenaciously held as to difficulty be with combated. Their reasoning. These are the conditions which regulate the labours of the Ceramic artist. mischievous The characteristics to first. for similar ends. units effects. . those employed by sculptors and painters. economy by which is meant. in some measure. or closely resemble. 25 of opinion exists. therefore. be sought in good pottery decoration are subject. be used in the same manner and answer is. Many persons if who wiU applied to yield ready assent to certain propositions other artistic manufactures. and lastly. not istint. manageable and uncertain in -degrees of convexity Let it be con- sidered also. as to the paintings or other ornaments indispensable upon its surface. and which render any attempted success only rivalry with other forms of pictorial or plastic art a mis- taken efifort and occasional comparative in result. perhaps unsuspected. appears to be this potter : The materials at the disposal of the and pottery decorator are the same as. that the forms present constantly varying and concavity. refuse to admit that they are of equal force when directed to the fabrication and orna- mentation of pottery. of labour. the action of fire is —an element always.

varied according- to his purpose. such as panels of vases. pictures. picture ought to be a decoration that the lesson it con- veys. justifies certain eccentricities of the figures in Turner's. eO'ect when hung upon the lies..e. of expression. Neither gravely truthful nor brightly . or pMques i." At the present day many of our best artists maintain that every . requiriagboth taste and invention in colour- ing and design..y " Sight is a more effectual teacher than hearing. and the Horatian quoted : " Segnius irritant animos quse sunt demissa per- aurem. the question finely coloured. of real importance being whether and has a decorative for its reception.e. quam quae sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus" i. between the- two extremes. walls of' such an apartment as the painter would have selected The truth probably.. drawing and arrangement it is — — are matters of secondary importance. Not many years ago pictorial to art became too dignified condescend to subjects suggested merely by a fanciful sportive imagination. in the place of fidelity to nature. fanciful art can be surrendered and painting on potterjr adapted — quite unsuited to the former — is peculiarly well forthe latter. light and ability with which its story is told by mastery and shade. and A picture tbat did not teacb maxim was something was a vanity.— 26 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. observing that when composing a grand land- . All that de- manded is a a conventionalised treatment. either to produce a decorative picture on flat surface. Exis cluding serious and painful or repulsive subjects. Euskin- object having a concave or convex surface. every field is open to the painter on pottery. slabs of soft porcelain or earthenware — or to decorate an Mr.

and can only be expe- and effectually concealed by the addition of a colour introduced as shading. at others he will the eye with pleasurable discriminated sensations by means which cannot be without attentive examination. less felt when the colouriug is rich . It may be added that slight defects in paintresult ings on pottery frequently from some accident connected with glazing or ditiously little firing.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. At may arrest attention affect by some startling con- trast. and other components of the scene. effects of aerial perspective. and strong light and shade. as well as all attempts to convey an impression of distance by should be avoided. are conis siderations of minor importance. accurate perspective. strict observance of the relative sizes of objects. but. Archaic forms. To the decorator. truth of colour and exactness of form. or by balanced spaces one time he of beautiful colour. paintiag in a light key and strong than when the but they must never be so introduced as to break up the general appearance of flatness. Shadows are entirely out of place iu pure ornament gence assist . bmldiags. or such conventionalized representations of natural objects as are popularly termed Grothic. 27 scape we may twist about the forms and proportions of human heings as we do hills. Their absence is is. effect. For strictly decorative treatment a clear outHne should mark out each important component of the picture. secure a good^eneral His first care by skilful disposition of to light and dark. trees. for decorative pictures. perhaps. . some indulso may be claimed for their use —not much to in expressrag form as to give agreeable varia- tions of colour.

and charming ornamental patterns whilst the conventionalized folds are beautifully disposed so as to assist or harmonize with the figures as they are in movement or repose. for Ceramic decoration. . weary of its repetitions and it its ceases to excite interest or even attract notice when ingenious composition has been traced out. has only a limited number admirers when used . balanced arrangement of masses. such as of work in wood or metal. and it is possible to meet this want without any sacrifice of the principles of true decoration. the less rude. There is a craving for more easily recognized resemblance to nature that will not be gainsaid. From the Greeks we may learn appropriate treatment of the human form and drapery. we gain in the best form illus- trations of right adaptation of familiar natural beauties to the purposes of ornamentation. delightful when So. The Greeks. principles — Ornament constructed on mathematical the construction of natural ^by analysis of forms — though admirable for other purposes. figure.28 fail to A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. In their draperies we see grace of line. obtain general acceptance. relied on their accurate knowledge of the human which they displayin perfect beauty. yellow and white. and in every variety of graceful or vigorous action. . It is felt to be monotonous both eye and mind grow quickly . satisfies severe taste. from early Chinese. though. but quaintly precise treatment known only certain minds trained to as Mediseval. too. black. and more recent Japanese art. working with only red. carred in stone and combined with architecture.

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.

with their useful and orna. of their national art departs. furred or feathered. The occupations of civil and military life. colonx. and the glory It is. observable in tic all cases. and and even the the tiny insects to which they afford food and shelter. and distinctly national to Europeans. therefore. mental contents. that the former quickly substitute for artis- enthusiasm the trader's love of gain. they turned with equal affection to wild . Nothing is too high or too humhle for them from sea and sky. dweUiags of different ranks. a strange and disastrous consequence of intercourse between the Eastern and Western nations. revelling in the and and water. only to fine examples of early Chinese artistic spirit for departed long since from the nation — the ^per- haps banished by the same is destructive influence of European commerce which It is already contributing to the evident and rapid deterioration of Japanese art. thought and the genuine learn art instincts of each race full play. only to the best decorated work of China and Japan. 29 The Chinese and Japanese air.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. yet tender. are also depicted tions of the but their representa- human face and form are too grotesque be instructive examples for skill. fire decorators. produced when had extensive commerce with other nations was not of. delights of bright.work. and showing in the draperies finely varied patterns and These remarks apply art. mountain and forest. press earth creatures. to plants and flowers. that attention can safely be given by those unite decorative treatment who would how to . though introduced with extreme beautiful harmonies of colour. into their service.

. all distinctive properties are spirited shown by the Japanese artists by a few strokes. . birds and fishes. the play wings and fins . Wliat is wanted in.30 with A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. be confidently recommended to those who love and cannot accept realistic art as decorative. is not a laboured imitation. grace and colour of plants . of beasts. of which not one is without purpose. fidelity to nature. in action or repose. and flowers the strength or lissomness of trees the form. —in a word. The . construction. suffice to A volume would not qualities of illustrate the high art their commonest productions: and the study and application of their principles —^which must not be confounded with direct imitation of their work —may nature. feathers and scales of limbs. the set and texture of fur. but the expression its simplest form of the essential characteristics of each object repre- sented.

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A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN

PAINTIJJG.

31

CHAPTER

II.

PAINTING ON POTTERY AND PORCELAIN.

MATERIALS.
only necessary
of the large

XTnder-glaze Colours.
to

— Of these

it is

name

sucli as are in

general use.

Most

factories possess specialities in colours for biscuit paint-

ing, adapted to particular glazes
heat.

and degrees

of furnace

The same

colours are also frequently

known by

various names.

AH that

are really necessary are

—pink,

dark blue, light blue, dark green, light green, deep
yellow, violet, dark brown, light brown, black.

Light green must be used pure;
All the other colours

it is

very vivid, and,

therefore, only agreeable in small quantities, or in its

paler tints.

may

be intermixed

for composite hues.

Pink
Tvash

is

a powerful colour.

If applied thickly it

becomes a deep crimson

after firing,
tint.

and the thinnest
subject to less
fire, it

wiU impart a pink

As

it is

waste than other colours under the action of the
is

often added to give stability to dark composite hues.
is

Thus, for outlines, a good mistm-e
little

dark brown with a

pink and dark yellow.
is

by striking pink, moderately The result is a better colour produced by mixing. than can be For purple, mix dark blue and pink.
Orange
obtained
thick, over deep yellow.


32

A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING.
All the other colours lose

much substance when

fire"d;

and the most frequent source of disappointment to inexperienced persons
too
is

the discovery that they have used

much piak and

to Httle of all other colours.
is

Much,

however, depends on the degree of heat that
to vitrify the glaze.

necessary

For composite greens, russets and olives, yellow, hlack light brown are mixed in varying proportions with dark green. Only sober greens can be obtained by mixture. Such colouring as is seen in enamel paiatings
and
is

unattainable with under-glaze colours.

Enamel Coloubs.— Of

these a great

pared that are very seldom of use.
Others can be obtained
is

number are preThe list here given
any kind.

includes all that are necessary for subjects of
if

desired; but a larger selection
:

a source of perplexity rather than an advantage
Red.
Coral Red.

Yellow. Orange.

Dark Green.
Purple.

Carmine.
Rose.

Dark Brown. Light Brown.
Purple Brown. Light Green.

Turquoise.
Black.

Deep Blue.
Light Blue.

White Enamel.

On

the use of these a few remarks are necessary.

Neither red nor coral red must be mixed with other
colours
;

and, as they are subject to some change, their
if possible, till

use should be deferred,

the paiatiug has
firing.

reached such a stage as to require only a final

Carmine and
firing

rose.

These are

varieties of the

same

pigment, and are used as test colours.

In the process of
till

they pass through various conditions of tint

they become a fine crimson or clear rose, when the action

serves as a test by which to regulate the action of heat on the painting. The development of the carmine or rose tint. should not be mixed with other tints. tints. also. dark brown. when earmiae and rose are used pure and in any quantity. Eose or carmine must not be used for flesh tint at all. It is ordinarily considered that when rose colour has been sufficiently fired. &c. As the other colours do not change substance. therefore.. and others . but the two colours must never be mixed. rose colour. Purple brown. consequently. that Dark green combined with yellow gives such usefulhues it is not necessary to use the light green for mixed It is of value pure. they are said to be very "hard-fired" or "full-fired"). 1 or light brown used very pale. and should be fixed by a first firing before shadows are added. For the lips.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. "short-fired") their hue duU red. and may be brought to the proper tint by renewed firing. depth of tint —though they —they are often lose subjected to great heat (technically. but shadows should be very delicate. of the fire 33 must be at once checked. The general tint of flesh is best given by red No. If over-fired they pass to a dull purple. For composite suffice. and. to apply them when the piece is to be fired for the last time. so as to unite them thoroughly with the glaze. aU other colours used in the painting are properly burnt in. If is not fired enough (technically. orange and light brown may be hatched or stippled on. For shading touches of blue. carmine or red may be used pure. It is often advantageous. and are spoilt beyond remedy.havingitsown peculiar character. colours.

but refined turpentine and the preparation are considered termed by professional painters on pottery indispensable for workuponthe glaze. Forunderglaze. Clear red orange is test obtained by passing carmine The hue obtained by mixing is very different. have been tried . great. over orange. glycerine. added to colour mixed with turpentine and fat-oil. the colours may be mixed with gum.water or water colour McGuelp A drop of oil of spike. table-easel. brushed "thinly over the surface. Vehicles. enamel first and pass other passed over . delicate —The best are the red sable may finishing touches. A ing. or biscuit painting. —Mixtures of honey. reds When all white enamel has been fixed by and other colours may be it. is very useful. &o. White enamel may be mixed with any of the colours. one more tapering and narrow at the point than the other. wiU be found convenient to have two palette knives. colours over firing. good camel hair brushes in quills wiU. adapted for rest of flat and hollow pieces.34 A GUIDE TO POUCELAIN PAINTING. suffice. however. or aniseed. For those who find the difficulties of work on the porous biscuit too f at-oiL . is to apply the it. The colours are so finely ground that they will . Brushes. but. and a some kind indispensable to preserve the hand or sleeve from contact with the paint- Both easels and rests have been prepared. similar to those approved It by the experience of professional painters.. except the two reds and purple brown. The best course. renders it much is less absorbent. which. •cloves. a " dressing " has been provided. prevents it from drying too quickly. as these are vpry expensive. work and For general pur- poses. they be used only for outlines.

and.wheninuse. a flat space of tint can upon which small quantities slants for oil be mixed. mixed upagain with turpentine. and and turpentine. palette in general use comprises a Palettes. apairof dividers. must then be added. as it is easily cleaned. gum water and Indian ink. c 2 . hard black lead pencils. colour with oil and turpentiae when it but a great deal of time and trouble will be first. that the right proportion of fat-oil and turpentiae must be added. so is Those who prefer to do win mix each wanted . Letthe colour and oil be well worked Turpentine so as to bring the pasty colour to a together until the oil will take up no more. or other earthenware slabs are required. if necessary. form a stiff paste. —The number of wells to hold prepared colour. require only nibbing 35 of the broad palette knife. The one difficulty is. charcoal. ultimately saved by rubbing down.iaaplate or saucer). Other requisites are —a tin brush washer for turpentine (which shouldstand. and. It is then fit to betransferredtotheweIls. then add colour with the palette knife. For this purpose an ivory knitting-needle is well suited. or the contents of the wells will soon become unfit for use.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. Some rim-tiles. fit if kept covered. a tracing point. The must be examined from time to time. wiU remain contents of the wells for use for a long time. slab down to The smootliness by means laborious use of the glass and muller is unnecessary. The safest course is to put upon a glazedtile so as a little to fat-on. tracing and transfer paper. gilt or bone pens. plenty of soft rag free from Unt. at the a sufficient quantity of each colour to fill the wells. state resembling syrup or refined treacle.

and. the surface of the biscuit not unlike drawing paper. or with fat-oil colours. with allow- ance for waste produced practice. settle (2) They are apt to run. without any gloss. . its like enamel first Each method has case they flow readily In from the brush. painters begin with water colour and finish with will not disturb the first is . be used like ordinary water colours. all these obstacles are overcome. when unequally. For work upon imglazed ware pigments (bisque. may The second painting and afterwork in enamel colour upon the glaze sary. by the action of the fire. With and however.36 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. or biscuit) the may be used either with water and some me- dium the to fix them. A mottled appearance than another. and. The diffiQulties are (1) The that is. and may advantages. more colour having been deposited on one part (3) It is not easy to lay on a sufficient body of colour to produce tints of full depth. III. palette a little water soon softens When dry upon the is them. are quite unlike what they become after glazing and firing. colours dry " dead " — — consequently. floated on. PAINTING IN IJNDEE-GLAZE COLOURS. be executed with one firing only. and. complete work Some on. CHAPTEE. if "dressed" with a suitable preparation. imless to repair unneces- very slight defects. and turpentine. results.

" A practised draughtsman frequently sketches his subject directly on the biscuit. of executing a painting in one colour and. all other colours should. as a rule. be applied so thickly as to conceal the surface and present. suffice. The thinnest possible layer of colour will TJnder-glaze colours may be mixed at pleasure to pro- duce any variety of compound tints. If the painting 37 "with oil is executed entirely in coloux mixed and turpentine the touches are more precise. but the pigment much thicker is upon ap- some parts than on necessary to decide others. For pink tints. a greater body of pigment is deposited. will be sufficient to explain the method biscuit . when fired. of the ware. and especially in flesh painting. when dry. used with water has a A painting executed in colours dead surface. The different tints appear nearly uniform is in depth or force. Piok applied thus thickly will become. Experience therefore how thickly the pigment must be plied to produce colours in varying degrees of strength.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. known also as " flowing blue. using either charcoal or . the appearance of a paiuting iu tempera. and the glossy nature of the medium gives the will colours somethiag of the hue and transparency they It filing have after being fired. must be remembered that the depth of tiuts after depends on the quantity of the colour deposited. as seen iu good specimens of the art of illuminating. for decorative work on a white none can be selected so suitable as the dark blue. tions as to their use it For general direcon the surface. it can scarcely be used too delicately. Pink and dark blue excepted. a fine crimson.

when the glazing and firing are comas quite conceals and such a thickness of pigment too thickly.. it used must be filled with colour from a brush and the colour stirred frequently. is impossible to The blue is a powerful colour. and the be run or fioated on or laid . or shows a sort of filmy irridescence. or with a small brush. wash will give a tint pleted. and rub- bing out or cleaning effected with stale bread. the brush must be fuUy charged. if possible. and it wash out any mark made with it so that The thinnest no stain shall ultimately appear. the surface will give a deep blue. the powder colours must be rubbed Some of down with gum and water. draw the outhnes firmly and red or blue transfer paper. less commoii water Those who have experience will find it preferable to make a design on paper and clearly. PAIJTTING. or water colour McGhielp. 38 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN colours. teehnicaHy termed " ironing. An exact tracingwith ordinary from these can be transferred to the biscuit Very light pressure with the tracing point will convey a sufficiently clear impression and it is generally advisable to remove some of the colouring matter from the transfer paper by laying it face downwards on a sheet knife-handle. The outlines may be drawn with a medium-pointed If a pen is bone or gilt pen. using enough water to make it flow easily from the pen or brush. Beginners generally apply it and it afterwards appears almost black." colours. should For painting. such as an ivory Slight corrections may be made in the transferred design with a very hard lead pencil. of rather rough paper and rubbing the back with some smoothe implement." or becoming " ironed.

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To face page_39 ..

A cerand amount of irregularity in the depth of the tints. fat-oil This is best done . o. produced by hatching or stip- pHng. parts with one 39 It is desirable to paint light wash of thin colour. and the glaze will cause tain them to flow partially together. It is and attaches the colour to the ware.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. leave Under-glaze paintings. which expels all They are subjected the oil and turpentine because the water. StUl. oil would repel the glaze which is mized with important to observe that if under-giaze colours . with broad rapid touches. If the design includes small forms in white on a blue ground. a blotty look. and dark parts with one wash of thick colour. Designs combining theunder-glaze blue and over-glaze The parts to be coloured or enamel red are effective. undergo a process termed "hardening on.f Some skUl is required to wash on a ground tint dark blue over a space of any considerable extent. This is necessary. red must be left quite white." to moderate heat. It may be "bossed " or dabbed on with brushes sold for the purpose. It is very difficult to them untouched when rapidly laying on colour. is not objectionable. instead of trying to gain depth by several washes one over the other. they can be added in white enamel piece has been glazed when the and fired. if the colour is mixed with and turpentine it will not sink or dry so quickly and can be more easily and deliberately worked. and the red afterwards applied on the glaze and fixed by the enamelling kiln. colours may be added by small broad touches lightly applied. before they are glazed. feeble effect. and always preferable to a dotted.

perfectly effective. are used with oil and turpentine. and can scarcely be repaired. All things considered. fat-oil is used. too much by and the colour when dry looks very glossy. touch on some enamel colour and fire the painting again. the only remedy being to chip it off. and. however. with a Uttle experience. having rubbed down remaining roughnesses with pumice-stone.40 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. turpentine is it is not of mucli conse- quence how much added. It thickly applied colour will almost certainly be spoilt the boiling of the oil in the hardening Idln. so long as the If. as it will mixed with a good deal of not sink so quickly the fire into the porous surface. colours can be effectiyely worked. if Thin colour is most easily laid on the biscuit fat-oil. and effects of need not dipped in be feared. the brush the fat-oQ or turpentine contained in the slants of the palette. lumpy look. . wiU have a blistered. and. the use of under-glaze colours with water is most simple. To regulate the quality of the mixed colour is for different portions of the work.

has been already indicated (p. fat-oH and turpentine. of the ia form. and stiff and lumpy. 41 CHAPTEE lY. . vehicle it requires thinning with turpentine. and the little fat-oU. thoroughly mixed and thinned with turpentine only. may be made to assist the judgment on this point. in thin ia excess and its yellowish colour observable. FAINTING IN ENAMEL COLOURS. right sitie consistency of the pigments being the successful over-glaze work. 35) but one or two observations . is remedy If. if the oil must be noticed. If the colour a proper state each touch wUl be smooth and definite will take hold. the colour clogs the brush. to carry as it The must be made is much colouring matter as possible. surface. qua non of Before any attempt to paint. in which case more pigment must be added. but will soon paid to the preparation of securing the proper of the colour. The best method relative proportion of colour. so to speak. The extreme smoothness of the surface is the principal source of difi&culty in cease to embarrass if work upon attention is the glaze. The brush If the brush slips and the colour spreads irre- gularly. is the addition of more colour and a on the other hand. some experimental touches should be is ia made on a piece of glazed ware. therefore touches. too much turpentine has been used.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING.

it is best done. probably be injured by boiling in the kiln. the covered Asdth some adhesive substance. steadily upon it. as recommended and. or fixed with. required.. A tliick body of colour. The spirit mingles with and efEaees. and are added to colour. If a rather dry brush and India ink are generally used. pottery painting the familiar saying plicable To —" The more haste the is particularly ap- less speed. first To draw the outlines of a design on glazed ware. not only the touch just added. to- the palette-knife used to convey colours from the wells the tine tiles must be scrupulously clean oil . will pass "through the holes and mark out the design on the ware- . so as to succession of fine holes. containing too mucli oil. Powdered charcoal. (p. mark out the forms by a close The glazed surface having been as thinly as possible). taking the spirit from the brush-washer and the on from the slant in the palette. a tracing can be with a needle. but by means of the palette- knife. made and the outlines pricked. much turpentine. brushed lightly over the- back with a soft leather stump or the fingers. will." If the well-palettes are used. carried The work must be on deliberately. 36). and the point only charged with colour. Much an- noyance frequently results from a hurried attempt to add a small touch whilst the brush is full of turpentine. such as honey" or oil and turpentine (applied must be held tracing wafers. but also adjacent parts of the painting previously executed. not when turpenby pouring from the bottles.42 A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. A tbin layer of colour cannot be spread evenly with too if mixed.

in tolerably clear dotted lines . should be charged. Honey and vehicles.£Eord the best guide to appropriate execution. perhaps. and. glycer- afterwards used for painting. gum-water and other have been too used for this purpose. be kept separate on a small Colour for outlines palette. will not disturb the outlines drawn with pigment thus prepared. As far as possible the work should be carried on by broad touches. as it would if thetracing-point was passed many times over the liaes. lest The mixture must not be the fine lines should not have substance for waste in firing. by " bossing " any degree of or dabbing on the colour fired and when the picture has been a repetition of the process will give Oross-hatohing and strength desired. suffices. Brushes of different sizes are necessary. such as borders on which the same forms are several times repeated.. Pale flat tints may be produced most easily . A GUIDE TO POKCELAIN PAINTING. Perforated tracings are chiefly useful for patterns. to use a tracing to transfer the principal forms. whether for large or fine touches. 4S at once these must be gone over with colours. minute-stippling are laborious and produce a poor effect. For pictorial designs the best course is. A tracing of one section of the design and does not wear out. enough to allow No particular method of painting can be suggested individual taste will a. The colour mixed with oil and turpentiae. treacle. ine. thin. not by . may and used with glycerine or some water colour medium. and sketch in details or slight alterations with India ink. laid with a fuUy-charged flattened brush.

repeatedly. be fired as often . through the To prepare the brushes for use dip them in turpentine and draw them through a little oil in the as to soften and unite the hair up to the quill. not It is to rely on more than two or three firings. and the painting bttt it is both on the grounds of risk and expense. so If a brush becomes hard. even a hair will draw up the and cause an annoying disfigurement. flattened. by drawing tbem. therefore. can be at once softened by breathing on corrections. however. will up the edges of be most readily and neatly done and slight any patch if the colour is first allowed to dry. and. be used darker than they are to appear finally. in spite of the destroying power of the colours in the Tfiln fire. may be laid in a little oil or washed with The free colours on the palette or painting grit of must be kept from dust or any kind. . but colour. then slightly softened by the breath. Small portions of superfluous colour are easily removed from the paiating with the brush-stick. for. For small touches white enamel may be put on thick . such as cleaning of colour.. After use the brushes must be thoroughly cleansed with turpentine soap and water. Colour can. it . 44 A GUIDE TO POKCELAIN PAINTING. desirable. Thia colour. slant. when dry. All colours will lose some of there strength when fired added the tints must. if not intended to be used for some days. which should be cut to a flat shape at the end. possible to finish scarcely an enamel painting with one firing. dip it in turpentine and it hold near a flame —warmth will soon soften it. dipping.

at once. White enamel may be employed Uke ordinary white Colours can be mixed with it. colour becomes dry and hard upon the palette- knife or palette. and rag with turpentine used all away the rest. always breathe upon it.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. Turquoise is used precisely in the same manner as white enamel. other pigments. is After use implements should be cleaned before the colour has hardened to be upon them. paint. as much as possible should be scraped to clean. it . 45 applied but upon large spaces it should be glaze. or struck lightly over it when nearly dry. When off. so as to take a hold on the When dry. colour applied moderately thick may be to distribute itself more evenly by breathing on a little Pottery painters. and a palette-knife wiped each time it is used The presence of a to take out a different colour. Both are applied more solidly than a considerable body of each being necessary to a proper effect. A patch of made it. when preparing and colour on the palette for delicate precise work. some time if . very smaU quantity of another colour will spoil the contents of a bottle. The bottles containing the colours must be kept covered. colours The intimate union and smooth flow of the and medium seems to be assisted by the slight warmth thus imparted. first thinly. no further use made of them for but colour on the . may be covered at once with a thicker layer but the safest course is to defer the addition of the fuU thickness required until the painting has been once fired.

it requires to be separated ject varying If the border design broad and from the central sub- by a blank space of considerable width. For aris tistic work great precision : not required.46 palette A GUIDE TO POECELAIN PAINTING. and not draw the eye forcibly from the painting lines of is which they enclose. which. is filled is "When up bya decora- an intricate border merely wasted labour. of which the border is the principal part. Upon this the point of one joint of the dividers or compasses will rest firmly. but the lines fix may be traced thus Find the centre and upon it with beeswax a bit of thick card. In designs for pottery a multitude of small detached details should be avoided. Such a piece as a saucer-shaped plateau. will remain servieeaUe for a day or two if •covered close with a saucer. the outlines of which may be put in firmly with indelible brown ink. Beginners will do well not to attempt large paintings at first. Straggling forms are not agreeable in border designs. It is generally sufficient to surround a decorative design with one or two width and colour. is well suited for decoration. the balance being re- storedby a small central subj ect strongly coloured. as destroying unity of effect. however intricate." or wheel — drawn by means of a a small revolving table. elaborate. should have a certain compactness. nearly the whole available space tive picture. from nine to twelve inches in diameter. whilst the other joint carries a brush in place of the usual lead pencil. Circular border lines are generally *' planchette. . and to defer working on the ware until they have prepared on paper an exact coloured design.

.

To face page_47. .

it is advisable to dry out the oil by heating it on a stove. A small plaque or a posite tints produced common plate should he covered with patches of gradated colours. but by Lonit adapting them. after being fired.A GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTIiSIG. For those who cannot Modern originate decorative subjects ihere can be no lack of material in these days of photo- graphy. and fully illustrative of the styles of nations. havthe colours used. ornament characteristic of various periods A list of works relating to pottery and pottery decora- . not and ingenuity in the emby copying. the general is be more readily when bright colours are used. for the eye quickly becomes fatigued and loses all power of discrimination. All the best works on ornament are accessible. should be always at hand for reference. Grernian woodcuts are often very sug- being generally simple in treatment and firmly outlined. or in a common oven. a painted piece is Finally. descriptive list. to residents in -don and other large towns will find a . removing the painting now and then to some It especially necessary to do this dis- tance from the eye. gestive. Early engravings and book plates is also some- times afford excellent subjects. when to be sent to the kiln. hoth pure and in com- by mixture. 47 Much assistance will be derived from trials of the colours. This initial letters of trial piece. but those of who can obtain work entitled "Examples and Ornament" inex- pensive. in the national libraries. ing below the patches the or a number to correspond with a written effect will By seen. and there abundant room for the exercise of taste ployment of such materials.

but. and famUiarity with the experience of others. and success speedily attend the efforts of those is who accept his guidance the sincere wish of THE WEITEE. 48 A GUIDE TO POKCELAIN PAINTING. Kensington. seldom receive close and make but a faint or confused impression on the reader's memory. has suggested. its practical more than'probable that usefulness would be diminished. an appendix. in tion has been added. although It would be easy to expand the simple directions here comprised within a few pages an appearance of more importance might it is thus be given to the work. All the difficulties ally encountered at first are noticed. may understood and remembered. as the hope that some readers may be interested in the history as well as in the practice of Ceramic art. Unless condensed and presented in such a form as to be easily mastered. CONCLUSION. so that they AH the be easily gener- technical processes in general use have been described. briefly.. . written instructions attention. yet. Stanford Road. That real assistance may be obtained from his pages. it is hoped. and such advice added on the best mode of overcoming them as the writer's own practice. to tliese pages. 1873.

Dresden. 1873. Jacquemabt. London. H. Greek Vases. 1872. &c. a. in Bristol. 1854. : Rebotjlleau La Peinture sur Porcelain. Birch. J. Paris. in the S. 1873. ffiuvres : Completes de B. Paris. Dr. et Porcelaines. Naples^ : : 1791. 1874. : Paris. Salvetat . History of Ancient Pottery. Graesse Marks and Monograms. Tvyo Centuries of Ceramic Art Maertatt. a. 1856. London. J. . Sir W. Palissy. BiNNS : A Century : of Pottery in the City of Worcester. Demmain : Guide de Amateur de Faiences -. Histoire de la Porcelain. 1822. W.. Eis-Pacquot : Histoire des Faiences de Eouen. la Poterie Gauloise. 1844. 1868-70. . Jacquemaet Histoire de la Porcelain. D. 3rd Edition.M. Traits des Arts Ceramiques. 1873. Palliser. 1870. Maiolica. 1865. 1861. Millingen.A LIST OF AND OF WOEKS DECOKATION RELATING TO THE MANUFACTUEE POTTERY AND PORCELAIN. 4 vols. . 4th Edition. London. S. 1843. Jewitt : Notices of English Potteries. Hamilton. Paris. : Art Journal. Paris. p. Mayer Qiot : : History of the Art of Pottery in Liverpool. De Marks and Monograms on Pottery and London. : Les Merveilles de la Ceramique. Porcelain. Bbongniabt Chaefkes. &c. 1868. JacquBmart. : : Paris. Le9ons do Ceramique. S. Paris. Porcelain. Bury London. Clbuziot .K. Antoine. Paris. Engraving from Greek Vases. History of Pottery and . 1855. 1873. Amiens. FoBTNUM. London. London. HoEEMAN Memoire sur la Porcelain de Japon. London. Owen. Babbet de Jouy Les Delia Robbia. E. Translated by Mrs. : Paris. 1864. History of Ceramic Art. 1857.

.

and dry in bottles..'S MATERIALS FOR PORCELAIN PAINTING. COLOURS AND MEDIUMS FOR PORCELAIN PAINTING.GEORGE ROWNEY & -**<- CO. Mahogany Box The Colours are prepared vioist in tubes £i IS. Caddy Lid Box. fitted with the requisite materials Price .. . .^2 los.

s. 5 inch. shape. d. Glass Slabs .4>^ inch. FOR COLOUR GRINDING. A B Cocoa Handle Ditto Balance 1 II 2 II A B Ebony Handle Ditto Balance 1 2 8 2 5 3 A B Ivory Handle Ditto Balance 2 2 I I 2 10 E D C CocoaHandleTiowel 554 Ebony Askew points 557 Cocoa Long Shank 564 GLASS SLABS AND MULLERS.

Lyons Universal Exhibition. MESSRS. Prize Medal. perfectly fine. Messrs. RETAIL DEPARTMENTS: 52. W. 1855.EASUKE TO ANNOUNCE 'JHAT BV THEIH SYSTEM OF GRINDING COLOURS BY MACHINERY. feel assured the OIL COLOURS ground by their quicker improved process will be found to ###BOT_TEXT###gt;e. 1867. Prize Medal. 1865. G. .Jiner^ brighter^ less oily^ and to dry than any others at present manufactured prepared by the . RATHBONE PLACE. and that their WATER COLOU RS same process. Two Silver Medals. Two Silver Medals. Philadelphia International Exhibition. International Exhibition. GEORGE ROWNEY & CO. Dublin International Exhibition. & Co. Paris Universal Exhibition. HAVE THH Pr. trial in full They therefore solicit a confidence of giving satisfaction. and tojioat mart evenly lolthout granulation than any other colours hitherto produced. 1851. 1878. or powder. OXFORD STREET. 1872. Prize Medal. at the same prices as hitherto charged for colours less finely ground. R. Two Prize Medals. 1876. 1862."PRIZE MEDALS AWARDED." Exhibition of all Nations. and 64. . brighter. Paris Universal Exhibition. Prize Medal. will prove to beyfwtr. They are enabled to supply Artists' colours in oilj water. Two Prize Medals. Paris Universal Exhibition.

. GROUND BY MACHINERY.GEORGE ROWNEY & CO.'S WATER COLOURS.

Van- LANDSCAPE.. . 3-Pan Box Raw Raw Sienna.'S JAPANNED TIN SKETCHING BOXES. LANDSCAPE. Madder Brown. Sepia. Lalce. . + o Gamboge. and Prussian Blue.. Crimson Lake. {^ Mars Orange. 4 8 2-Pan Box Sepia and Chinese White. [^) Vermilion. {\) Lemon Yellow. . . Raw Sienna. {^ Indian Red. Cobalt. {^) Chinese Orange. i-Pan Box Sepia. Lamp Black. 4-Pan Box Sienna.. . Indigo. s d. LANDSCAPE. {^ Pale Cadmium. Roman Ochre. Yellow Ochre. Sepia. {\) Indian Red. lo-Pan Box . Prussian Blue. GEO. Gamboge. and Qlive Green.. Coeruleum.. FILLED WITH MOIST COLOURS. and Veronese Green. and Chinese White. ROWNEY & CO. Indigo. . French Ultramarine. (i) Lemon Yellow. (^) Vermilion. Light Red. lo 9 Gamboge. Prussian Blue. [^ Orange Cadmium. and Sepia... 12-Pan Box . Brown Pink.. Sepia. Crimson dyke Brown.. 6-Pan Box .

Ash. Brown Burnt Sienna. Madder Madder.LANDSCAPE AND FIGURE. 1 15 o Ochre. Indian Yellow. (i) Orange Cadmium. (y) Carmine. Indian Yellow. Aureolin. (1) Vermilion. Yellow nese Green. Indigo. Roman Ochre. (i) Lemon Yellow. FIGURE. {{) Brown. {{) Ctcruleum. {{) Indian Lake.. and Vero- Gamboge. Yellow Ochre. Vandyke Brown. and Veronese Green.. [{) Indian Red. (|) (i) (i) Italian Cadmium Yellow. French Ultramarine. Sepia. Brown Ochre. Olive Green. . (^) Emerald Green.. (i) Purple Lake.216 Gamboge. Sepia. (i) Scarlet Vermilion. FIGURE. Brown Ochre. (i) Orange Cadmium. Rose Madder. C<Hruleum. (i) {\) Gamboge. (i) Indian Red. Prussian Blue. and Veronese Green. (i) Lamp Black. Indian Lake. Green. Brown Ochre. {\) Vermilion. .. Yellow Ochre.. (1) Indian Red. (i) Orange Cadmium. (f) (i) LANDSCAPE. French Ultramarine. Madder. Rose Madder. Rose Brown. Burnt Umber.. French UltraEmerald Green. 20-Pan Box 40.. {{) Scarlet Vermilion. . Raw Umber. © Green Oxide of Chromium. (i) Smalt. Rose Mars YelHow. {{) Olive Green. &c. Madder Brown. {{) hmerald Brown. Lemon Yellow. Ochl-e. Light Red. Indian Yellow. [\) Lamp Black. Vandyke Brown. Vandyke (i) Indigo. Madder (J) Carmine. Sepia. (i) Orange Cadmium. LANDSCAPE AND FIGURE. (i) Ultramarine Ash. Indigo. Light Red. 279 Lemon Yellow. LANDSCAPE AND FIGURE. French Ultramarine. I 15 o Raw Pink. LANDSCAPE. Cadmium Yellow. Cobalt. (1) Carmine. . i6-Pan Box . Raw Umber. Roman Ochre. Cobalt. French Ultramarine. Prussian Blue.Indian Yellow. Light Red. Cadmium Yellow. (J) Orange Cadmium. Cobalt. Scarlet Vermilion. Raw Sienna. {\) Emerald Green. {{) Emerald Green.. (i) Italian Pink. (1) Caruleum.. . and Veronese Green. i8-Pan Box . [\) Orange Vermilion. Madder Lake. {\) Purple Madder. (i) Scarlet Vermilion. {{) Ultramarine. Light Red. (^) Ultramarine Ash. I2-Pan Box . (i) Aureolin. and marine. {{} Olive Green. (i) Cadmium Yellow. Yellow Ochre. . Cobalt. Sienna. . (i) Aureolin. Lemon Yellow. 22-Pan Box (i) ..

Burnt Sienna. HALF PANS. Purple Lake. HALF PANS. French Ultramarine. Venetian Red. and Sepia. Veronese Green. Animal. Madder Brown. Burnt Sienna. & Landscape). (Sea and Landscape). Scarlet Vermilion. Carmine. E. Scarlet . DUNCAN'S ARRANGEMENT WHOLE PANS. Chinese Orange. Cobalt. Yellow Ochre. Indian Yellow. Prussian Blue. Vandyke Brown. Yellow. Purple Lake. Raw Sienna. Lemon Yellow. ^2 6s. Indian Yellow. Lamp Black. Brown Pink. Raw Sienna. Olive Grcen. Chinese Orange. Purple Madder. Price per box. . Carmine. 6d. Indigo. lo PANS AND HALF PANS. F. 6d. £z 5s. and Veronese Green. Cadmium Orange. TAYLOR'S ARRANGEMENT WHOLE (Figure. Rose Madder. Extract of Madder Ultramarine Ash. and Ultramarine Ash. Indigo. Cceruleum. Cceruleum. Madder Brown. Violet Rose Carmine. Madder. and Sepia. Cadmium Price per box. Gamboge.Vandykc Brown. Gamboge. Orange Cadmium.Vermilion. Yellow Ochre. Cadmium Yellow. Indian Red. Roman Ochre.WATER COLOUR i6 PAINTER'S BOX. Cobalt. PANS.

Purple Lake. Emerald Green. and Terra Vej-t. French Ultramarine. Madder Brown. Orange Cadmium. Brown Pink. . o 10 6 Gamboge. Rose Madder.. Brown Pink. Cceruleum. Cobalt. Chinese Orange. Prussian Blue. Light Red. Vermilion. Indian Red. Payne's Grey. Orange Vermilion. Aureolin. Scarlet Yellow. ao-Half-Pan Box .. Chinese Orange. Light Red. Vermilion.. Lemon Yellow. Vandyke Brown. Roman Ochre. Lemon Yellow. Cobalt. Prussian Blue.. Cadmium Pale. . Lemon Yellow. Crimson Lake. Vermilion. Cceruleum. Prussian Blue. and Veronese Green. Cceruleum. Sepia. 8-Half-Pan Box 3 Gamboge. Cadmium Yellow. Rose Madder. Madder Brown. Indian Red. French Ultramarine. Cobalt. and Cobalt. Cobalt. Sepia. Light Red. Prussian Blue. Yellow Ochre. 3-Half-Pan Box . Crimson Lake. Crimson Laice. 14-Half-Pan Box 16 Gamboge. Raw Sienna.. and Veronese Green. Mars Orange. Vandyke Brown. Sepia. Cceruleum. Sepia. d. i2-Half-Pan Box Gamboge. Indigo. Payne's Grey. Light Red. Yellow . Emerald Green. FILLED WITH HALF-PANS OF MOIST COLOURS. and Veronese Green. Light Red. . Lemon Yellow. Brown Pink. Gamboge. Orange Cadmium... Cadmium Pale. Vloiet Carmine. and Olive Green. Mars Vermilion. i8-Half-Pan Box Gamboge. Lamp Black. and Veronese Green. Vermilion. Yellow Ochre. Orange Cadmium.. Ochre. Indigo. Chinese Orange.JAPANNED TIN SKETCH BOXES.. Rose Madder. Carmine. Rose Madder. Orange Vermilion. i6-Half-Pan Box Yellow Ochre.

Vermilion. Chinese White.. Raw Sienna. Vermilion. French Ultramarine.. and Veronese Green. . Gamboge. Sepia. Orange Cadmium. Aureolin. Scarlet Vermilion. Indian Red.. Scarlet Vermilion. Lemon Yellow. Roman Ochre. Carmine. Yellow Ochre. Yellow Indian Yellow. Madder Brown. Roman Ochre. Green. French Ultramarine. Carmine. i2-Moist Tube Box .. Lemon Yellow. Vermilion. . Cteruleum. Prussian Blue. 24-Moist Tube Box . Sepia. 3 Gamboge. Ivory Black. Naples Yellow. French Ultramarine.. Light Red. £ S. Vermilion.. . Aureolin. Emerald Green.. WITH FOLDING PALETTE.Neutral Tint. Chinese White. and Veronese Green. 2 10 6 Ochre. Brown Pink. Cobalt. Sepia. Indian Red. Indian Yellow. Cceruleum. Rose Madder. Vermilion. Prussian Blue. Emerald Green. Veronese Green. Cceruleum. Gamboge. Rose Madder. and Chinese White. Olive Green. Aureolin. . and Chinese White. Chinese Orange.378 Gamboge. Crimson Lake. 20-Moist Cobalt. Lamp Black. Orange Vermilion. Prussian Blue. Violet Carmine. Olive Green.. Emerald Green.. Orange Cadmium.. IN COMPRESSIBLE TUBES. Prussian Blue. Gamboge.7 JAPANNED TIN BOXES OF MOIST WATER COLOURS. Vandyke Brown. Yellow Ochre. Rose Madder.. Roman Ochre. Cobalt. and Ultramarine Ash. Vandyke Brown.150 . Madder Brown. Cobalt. Brown Pink. Veronese Green. Indian Red. Crimson Lake. =^53 Aureolin. Chinese White. d. Brown Ochre. Indian Red. 15-Moist Tube Box i 14. Cadmium Pale. Orange Cadmium. Light Red. Madder Brown.. Sepia. Warm Sepia. Cadmium Yellow.. Olive Tube Box .. Mars Orange. Light Red. Cceruleum. 30-Moist Tube Box . Brown Pink. Brown Ochre. Prussian Blue.

Scarlet Vermilion. Orange Cadmium. and Veronese Green.. Emerald Green. FILLED WITH QUARTER-PAN QUANTITIES OF MOIST COLOURS. . iz Yellow Ochrcj Aureolin. a few days' use j the wells 5 9 6 with double row of wells 8 . . Cobalt. Carmine. Prussian Blue.. Vandyke Brown. . Yellow Ochre. Indigo. French Ultramarine. . i6-Quarter-Pan Box . . Vandyke Brown. Vermilion. two-thirds its size. 8-Quarter-Pan Box .. . PALETTE BOXES. . Sepia. ditto. Light Red. Rose Madder. French Ultramarine.8 Gamboge. Mars Yellow. ivitk Twelve Colottrs.. Chinese Orange. 4-Quarter-Pan Box • + Raw Sienna. 12-Quarter-Pan Box . Indian Red. This Jlbtstration sheivs the Box.. . Cceruleum. Light Red. Rose Madder. Brown Pink.. MINIATURE SIZE JAPANNED SKETCH BOXES. Purple Lake. Roman Ochre. Sepia. Light Red. and Veronese Green. and Cobalt. Madder Brown. . Prussian Blue. . 6 Raw Sienna. For holding a small supply of Colours for to be filled from the tubes Ditto. . Lemon Yellow.. and Veronese Gieen.. Coeruleum..

The Blocks form icnife consist of a number of sheets of paper. compressed so as to is a solid mass. The Cases contain a pocket for carrying the sketches and place for pencil. MADE OF WHATMAN'S OR HODQKINSON'S THICK PAPERS.SOLID SKETCH BLOCKS. 32 SURFACES. and passing round the edge. . WITH AND WITHOUT CASES. each sheet of which to be it separated by inserting a underneath the uppermost one.

MADE OF WHATMAN'S OR HODQKINSON'S EXTRA THICK PAPERS. WITH & WITHOUT OASES. 32 SURFACES.SOLID BLOCKS. .

Cloth Sides. Gilt. TO FASTEN WITH ELASTIC BAND. MADE OF WHATMAN'S HAND-MADE DRAWING PAPERS.1 1 SKETCH BOOKS. Forty Leaves. Roan Backs. Half-bound. Imperial 32010 Imperial i6mo Demy 8vo Medium 8vo Royal 8vo Imperial 8vo Demy 4to Medium 4to Royal 4to Super-Royal 4to Imperial 4to .

zs'. have every IMPROVED DRAWING PENCILS to confidence in the notice of recommending the Profession. GEORGE ROWNEY & CO. B & BB. Broad and Black Lead Firm for Ordinary Drawing Very Firm and Double Thick Lead Extra Hard and Black Ditto. . their their moderate price and superior quality being ference with the public. RowNEV & Co. ditto. Leads only. per dozen. 4s. per Case. each. The above Pencils are free from this and are exceedingly light in the hand. EHB DEHB Dozen. extra Very Thick Lead Double Thick Lead 2s. 1862. PRIZE MEDAL AWARDED INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. fault of all Pencils of this description has been hitherto their inability to resist the pressure necessary in drawing. sufficient to give them a decided pre- ROWNEY'S EVER-POINTED DRAWING PENCILS. H B BB HB HH HHH HHHH BBB BBBB Hard for Sketching for Outlines Harder BBBBBBB F FF Very Hard for Architects Extra Hard for Engineers Hard and Black Black for Shading Softer and very Black Extra Soft and Black Softer and Very Black. H.BLACK LEAD PENCILS. Each degree is polished in a different colour. Cases containing Four Pencils. per Messrs. is. and consequently soiling the fingers. Neatly got up ia Polished Cedarj in ordei: to prevent the lead dust adhering to the Pencil.'S IMPROVED DRAWING PENCILS. The defect. HB.

. . Middle. . .. is . Soft. . ROWNEY & CO. . Very Soft. OR PATENT COMPRESSED LEAD. coloured red. R. Messrs. per d 'G. polished Middle. G.. coloured dark red. 6d. . OF THE FOLLOWING DEGREES H . of a quality The Pencils are manufactured of Four good for general purposes. . and to supply themselves with good materials at a low price..'S CO. in plain Cedar. each. H HB B BB Hard. . . ROWNEY & CUMBERLAND BLACK LEAD DRAWING MANUFACTURED BY PENCILS. I .. . . . — •3 GEO. OF THE GENUINE PLUMBAGO. coloured black . With the view of enabling the working classes to avail themselves of the advantages presented by the many Schools of Design and Classes recently opened for the instruction of Drawing in its various branches. . . HALFPENNY PENCIL. thus—" GEORGE ROWNEY & CO" Cases. Soft. containing Three Pencils. & Co. have devoted their attention to the sufficiently Degrees — production of a Penny Drawing Pencil. . in polished and coloured Cedar. ". . . thus er dozen 6d. in In Polished and Stained Cedar." .'S PENNY DRAWING PENCILS. 1 I . . and very Soft. 1 Each Pencil stamped in Silver. . ROWNEY & CO. stamped Gold.. GEORGE ROWNEY & COMPANY. . Hard.

POINTED CRAYONS. ° o 6 Vermilion. per Boxes containing 36 7^ 1) Box „ „ 4.1 i o 6 I ^4 36 2 3 . which prevent the colours mingling. These are very They ). MANUFACTURED OF THE FINEST MATERIALS. These are hard Crayons which work with great evenness and freedom. &C. Boxes containing 12 per „ » . soft. or Cobalt..'S COLOURED CRAYONS. 18 Box „ . are sold in glass tubes. Lake. These are similar to the Swiss. separately per dozen Cravens SWISS CRAYONS. d.. s. and the material most in use for Crayon Drawings. but of medium quality and smaller. rather harder.GEORGE ROWNEY & CO. 6 _„ '4+ - - - 9 18 4. Boxes containing 12 each o 6 24 3^ 7* '44 „ " >> „ „ „ o 10 o 15 1 10 » 30 . o ° IMPROVED CRAYONS.

15 GEORGE ROWNEY & CO.'S BRUSHES FOR WATER-COLOUR DRAWING. ^Z\=i Q003E . DOME-POINTED. Large eagle . SABLE HAIR PENCILS. S^HWSiff!!" R & E DUO.

IN GERMAN SILVER FERRULES. 5 I.i6 BROWN SABLE BRUSHES. AND POLISHED HANDLES. No. c. VERY FINE QUALrTY. Round >. I d. s. IN GERMAN SILVER FERRULES. or flat each o lo I I Round >. or flat each I ^ 3 „ I . No. AND POLISHED HANDLES VERY FINE QUALITY. I li'll! No. „ 4 6 „ „ „ 2 o ? 2 The prices of Red Sables only are fluctuating . i}- s. d. Round or flat ch o 4 5 • Round J) or flat each 6 RED SABLE BRUSHES. i Ln No.

d.CAMEL HAIR BRUSHES. Full Gnnsc Camels 2d. ea^h. each. Small Ci'ow .

PORTABLE SKETCHING EASEL. „ or Walnut.Wood. 6 feet each 5 feet Mahogany. 5. 5 6 . ° " „ „ French polished. Ash. 5 feet or IN CASE.

.. '8. Round.i.> Flat Oval . FOR CARRYING A SUPPLY OF WATER FOR SKETCHlNS.. „ 6 3 o 9 „ .jtO... No. BRUSH POUCH. spilling. ROVAL IMI'K. Large . plated inside. COLOUR BOX... MADE OF SATEEN. . Svo. by 8 inches 8 . platkd . s d. iMt-KKiAi. „ Small Large .. Smai.. TOURISTS' SKETCHING BAGS. WATER BOTTLE.HTAI 4tO. Smali . each 16 i8 18 6 9 y Imperial 6mo...40 .. Imitation. revent thh Wai er IS. SKETCH BOCK. .. Sizk each 2 3 3 5 9 Middle „ Large „ . . ° 6 3 Oval. in... „ „ . AND ARRANGED TO HOLD SKETCHING BLOCK. . 15 .... .40 RIMMED DIPPER.19 JAPANNED WATER BOTTLES.. WITH CUPS TO FIT ON THE PALETTE OR BOX. Ji inches ETC.. gd. I2j^ 15 „ 10 II „ „ .side.

GEORGE ROWNEY

&

CO.'S

PORTABLE TENTS,
FOR

SKETCHING TOURS, PIC-NICS, OR SUMMER EXCURSIONS.

Th= advantages

consisting of their portability and light weight when packed, and their strength and spacionsness when pitched, are much appreciated by artists.

of these Tents,

S.ZE OF Sm.,.,.

Tent WHEN SET

UP
4

4

FEET SQUARE,

^''^'^'^^

INCHES BY

4 INCHES, 4

7 KEET , UGH. FEET 4 INCHES LONG.
3s.

Weight, about
Size of

17 lbs.

Price, including Case,

£3

Large Teut when set
Weight, about

ui-

, 7
••

pkex By FEET sv
5

> 4

.^i,.,. FEET

«

6,

7

FEET HIGH.

"""*"
22 lbs.

S

"^=«KS »V

INCHES, 4 FEET 6 INCHES LONG

Price, including Case,

£3

,Ss,

.

Bacon Cloth and gilt 6 GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING. .es Martrl C.. G.. cloth and gilt ^ F. Mekrifield Clint . n. Lloyds. G. with additional Chromo-Lithographed Illustrations.ITERIALS USED IN PAINTING.XINTIXG IN WATER COLOURS. E.SCULPTURE. Ditto. M.GEO. Part II. •HINTS OX SKETCHING FROM NATURE.. .. s.'E.. i o o o o o o o o o GUIDE TO OIL PAINTING.A R.M. Chari. i Lewis. G. N. By George Halse PRACTICAL MANUAL OF HERALDU ILLUMINAI ION. Weigall . F.. ^ PRACTK. with Remarks on Varnishing and Cleaning Pictures. B.. ROWNEY &. j . i GUIDE TO WATER COLOUR PAINTING.. gilt W.. •HINTS OX SKETCHING FROM HATURE..06 Three Parts bound in one. Grke-. Mrs. Whiteford o 6 Cloth and gilt 2 GUIDE TO MODELLING AND THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF . \'ith J. . GUIDE TO LIGHT AND SHADE DRAWING. i q ^ GUIDE TO ANIMAL DRAWING. Templeton WATER i COLOUR. FROM NATURE. S... Harlev i GUIDE TO PICTORIAL ART. o o o O o o o Part Part II. E. o Demy 8vo.vev T. THEORY OF COLOURING. .AWING.M.. P. i J. Henry Svd... . Hicks GUIDE TO FLOWER paint: ^"V. Additional Uiiisirations.26 2 .. J.. Ditto. 5s. GUIDE TO SKETCHING FROM NATURE. PRIXCIILES OF PERSPECTIVE.. . i i GUIDE TO PENCIL AND CH. cloth. III.' N. GUIDE TO SCENE PAINTING. * Cloth and gilt . GUIDE TO ILLUMINATING AND MLt^SAL PAINTING. HINTS KCiR Noble IN i SKETCHING TREES Part I. IN Water Cm OURS. and C. R. „ . Green GUIDE TO FIGURE DR. .'S TREATISES ON THE •HINTS ON SKETCHING FROM NATURE. Templeton . . I o ON THE M.s Clint Mir. B. (Landscape from Nature. H.. - A cTS." .. Jfice ' ra*-h.) A. O'Neil GUIDE TO PICTORIAL PERSPECTIVE. cloth and gilt. J Baicent AND C.. Green . Thomas Hattok o GUIDE TO OIL PAINTING. ' J ^ . i Part N. H. . Bielfield GUIDE TO MINIATURE PAIXTIXG AND COLOURING PHOTOGRAPHS. . R senbeeg GUIDE TO PAINTING ON GLASS.. Sydney T. CO. Kcssrll. AUDSLEV H. I Leonida. E. S. WlMTEFORO . i i GUIDE TO FIGURE P... With Illustrations. J. Green >r..ES .K DRAWING.?. Fl-NE I..