• • • • • Regular tyre maintenance and wheel alignment reduces fuel consumption and prevents undue tyre wear. Worn shock absorbers and weak springs can also contribute to the waste of fuel. Correctly aligned wheels extend tyre life and improve fuel efficiency They also help safe steering of the vehicle and comfortable ride Wheel out of balance leads to hard steering, rough riding and rapid tire wear – Static balance & Dynamic balance


–A wheel that is statically out of balance is heavier in one section than in another. –A statically balanced wheel may not be dynamically balanced


the wheel is spun and indicating device in the wheel balancer indicates the place and appx. • Dynamic unbalance causes the wheels to wobble at or above a particular speed. • No more than 8 ounces should be added to a rim ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING . amount the dynamically out of balance.DYNAMIC BALANCE • To check dynamic balance .



• Function – Interpose a cushion between the road and car wheels .shocks – To carry load of the vehicle – Provide frictional contact between wheels and road. strength to take weight . • Must be strong enough to resist local deformation TYRES – Cushioning • Should be able to absorb high frequency vibration set up by the road surface – Wheel balance • Must be properly balanced – Non skidding • Good thread pattern giving nice gripping – Must be easily detachable with minimum effort – Power consumption • Synthetic tyre consume more power than natural – Should be easy to clean and of good external appearance ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING . so that good traction is secured • Desirable tire properties – Load carrying capacity • Must be of max.road shocks etc.

TYPES OF TYRES –Solid –Pneumatic •With inner tube •Tubeless ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .

Truck -14 – Tread .CONVENTIONAL TYRE WITH TUBE • Consists of two main parts – Carcass – Basic structure taking mainly the various loads • Consists of number of plies wound in a particular fashion from the cords of rayon or any other materials • Vulcanizing – Process of heating the rubber under pressure • Number of layers of cord varies • Passenger car –4.Part of the tyre which contacts the road surface • Ribs – provide traction edges required for gripping • Grooves – provide passage for the quick escape of any foreign matters • A valve stem – For inflating or deflating the tube ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .

causes excessive tread wear and hard riding ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING . excessive heat. side walls. premature failure – Over inflation – overloads the components of the tyre.TUBE • Tube – flexible – Amount of air pressure depends on the type of tire and operation – Passenger cars : 22 – 30 psi – Trucks & buses : 100 psi • Importance of maintaining tyre pressure – Under inflation – severe flexing of tire plies.

TUBELESS TYRE • No separate tube • Advantages – – – – – Lesser unsprung weight Better cooling Slower leakage of air Simpler assembly Improved safety ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .

Puncture sealing tire/tubes Tube : Material : butyl . ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .Coating of plastic material.hardens to seal the hole.

CARCASS TYPE • Cross ply or bias ply – Ply cords are woven at an angle (30 – 40) to the tyre axis – Two layers run in opposite direction • Radial ply – Ply cords run in radial direction – Number of break strips in circumferential direction to provide lateral stability • Belted bias ply – Combination of above two types ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .


• Longer tread life – • While taking turns.lower fuel consm. a radial tyre has less tendency to lift off from the road ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .COMPARISON OF RADIAL AND BIAS PLY TIRES • The side walls of radial ply tyres can bend readily. – Shock absorbing deflection is about 25 % more than the cross ply tyres • Lower rolling resistance – lower sidewall rigidity.

their bulge appears due to which tyre seems to be under inflated ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .• More road contact for radial tyres – Breaker strips • Heavier steering at low speeds • Due to the highly flexible sidewalls .

TYRE SECTION Aspect ratio = Tyre section height/ Tyre section width • Lower aspect ratio • Advantages • better load carrying capacity • Less wear • better performance at high speed ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .

diameter – (SR –upto 170kmph. tyre construction. m : m inches larger in radius than rim • Width.TYRE DESIGNATIONS Tire Size : 8 x 15 (m xn) n : Diameter of the rim. VR above 210 kmph). rim diameter. ply rating – 9. – 145 SR -13 • Width. Rim size in inches – FR 78 -15 ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING . HR upto 210 kmph.00 –20 -12 • Load/size relationship. aspect ratio. speed rating.

AUTOMOBILE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM • • • • Lighting system Ignition system Starting system Generator ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .


BATTERY • • • • • • • • Heart of the electrical system Lead acid type . 12V Positives plates consists of grid filled with paste of lead peroxide Negative plates consists of grid filled with paste of lead Grid made of an allot of lead and antimony Post strap to hold plates Plates are separated by separators – Porous rubber. consisting of 3 or 6 cells. perforated cellulose Electrolyte – – Sulfuric acid – Battery case – Moulded from ebonite – Or bituminous ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .

Sulfuric Spongy Lead Water acid lead Sulfate 2H2SO4 + Pb = PbSO4 + 2H2O + Electrolyte Neg.CHEMICAL REACTIONS H2SO4 = H2 (pos) + SO4 (neg.) H2 +PbO2 = H2O +PbO (Pos) PbO +SO4 + PbSO4 (Pos) Pb +SO4 + PbSO4 (Neg.) Charged Lead Peroxide PbO2 + Pos Discharged Lead Energy Sulfate PbSO4 + Q Neg. Water ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING . Pos.

25 V – 12 amp – 10hrs – 3 amp – 40hrs ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .BATTERY CAPACITY • Maximum current that a cell can furnish is dependent on the area of plate surface in contact • Standard Capacity rating – 20 hour rating in ampere hours (quantity of energy furnished by a current of 1 amp for 1 hour) • Indicates the lighting ability of the battery • Discharging the battery at a current rate equal to 1/20 of the manufacturer's ampere hour rating – 6 V. 120 amp hour – 6 amp for 20 hrs before its terminal voltage drops to 5.

• Measure of ability of the battery to furnish electrical energy to the starting motor at low temperatures (Cold rating at ° F) – Indication of the cold weather starting ability of the battery – By the number of minutes required for a battery to drop to a terminal voltage of 1 V per cell when continuously discharged at a rate of 150 amp(12 V) – The terminal voltage 5 seconds after the beginning of such a the discharge ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .

110 – 1.260 – 1.220 1.190 1.170.280 1.• Hydrometer – To measure the sp.230 – 1.130 Full charge ¾ charge ½ charge Very little life Completely discharged • ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .1.20 – 1.250 1.gravity of the electrolyte Reading Condition 1.

BATTERY LIFE • Depends on the material • Way of use – Overcharging – Faulty regulator/generator –dry water – Under charging – Sulfated –Sulfate crystals causes plates to buckle and break • Mechanical breakage • Excessive loads – Starting motor • Addition of distilled water ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .

so that voltage is maintained at the value required by the battery condition – Voltage regulator • Connection of dynamo with battery (during starting) – Cut out or Reverse.current relay • Automatic control in charging system is essential ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .BATTERY CHARGING • Charging methods – Slow charge method – Small current for long time – Quick charge method – Large current for short time • Rate of current varies with the time of charging • Dynamo speed also varies • Dynamo out put must be regulated by automatic means.

– DC Generator – Battery – Ampere-meter – Cut out/Voltage/Current Regulator – Necessity of regulators ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .CHARGING CIRCUIT • Responsible to keep the battery charged for regular supply of electric current to various electrical systems.



7 to 13.CUT OUT (REVERSE CURRENT DELAY) • Cut out unit consists two coils – Fine wire voltage or shunt coil – Thick wire current or series coil • The value of the dynamo voltage at which the cut out contact close is usually between 12.3 V ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .


VOLTAGE REGULATOR • • • • Causes generator to provide a charging rate in reverse ratio to the state of charge of battery Variable resistance increases or decreases the effective resistance in generator field Battery (full charge) & No electrical load – resistance remains in the generator field Battery (Partial charge) & with load –resistance is kept only for a small portion of time ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING .




Voltage regulator operates • Current and voltage regulator will not operates simultaneously.CURRENT/VOLTAGE REGULATOR • When the load requirement is high and the battery is low. ME 423T AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING . the current regulator operates to prevent the generator output from exceeding the safe maximum • When load requirement is reduced and the battery come up to charge.