MLDesign Technologies, Inc.

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GSM System Model
This abstract model of a GSM cellular telephone network is comprised of a user population that moves through the coverage area of a cellular network. The number of base stations and the number of communication channels per base station are specified by parameters. Users are generated randomly and the length of their calls is specified by parameter.

1. The Model
The top-level model is shown below; it consists of a mobile station (user) block, a collection of base stations, a base station controller and a wireless channel.

This system models multiple mobile stations roaming amongst 16 base stations each with 20 channels.

M lower_y

M upper_y

M lower_x M upper_x M BaseStationMem M GoToBlockedMem M GoToOutofAreaMem M GoToSessionOverMem M GoToStatCollectMem M TxPowerVector M HandoverCount M BERTable M BERTableSize

Um

Abis

Figure 1: Top-level GSM network model The Base Station Controller and Wireless Channel modules are control modules configured by model parameters. The Base Station Controller creates the base stations, coverage area and users. The Wireless Channel module moves users through the coverage, terminates calls, and removes users who have moved outside the coverage area or completed their calls. 1.1. The Mobile Station Module The mobile station block models the operation of a single user and contains some of the functionality of the GSM stack architecture. Although the top-level model shows a single mobile station , the model generates many users during the simulation. The user simulation process consists of creating users, initiating calls, moving users through the service 1

M mCURRENT_STATEm M TxPowerVector This implemenation is based on the one outlined in Appendix A of the GSM 5.com area while calls are in progress.08 specification. or MS-BS Distance are below thresholds Figure 3: Power and handover FSMs 2 . terminating calls. GSM Handover & Power Control Release Channel ReleaseChannel Connection_input Connection_output Figure 2: Mobile user The GSM power and handover control block is modeled with Finite State Machines. EIO 1 2 3 4 Update RXLEV_UL Calculate the received power level. M BERTable M MobileAddress M RXQUAL_UL M MS_BSDistance Mobile Address M RXLEV_UL What mobile is this? M TxPowerVector M HandoverCount M BaseStationMem BS-MS Distance Calculate Distance between Mobile and Base. Inc. received signal quality.mldesigner. RXQUAL_UL Calculate the received signal quality. www.(Much of this process is handled by the base station controller. and removing the users.MLDesign Technologies. State_Control Yes / Release Channel M MobileAddress M RXLEV_UL Start Uplink Power Control Power_Control Check_L_RXLEV_UL_P OK Check_U_RXLEV_UL_P OK Check_L_RXQUAL_UL_H Check_L_RXLEV_UL_H !OK !OK MobileIn Increase_UL_TXPWR Decrease_UL_TXPWR -> Can't Increase MS_TXPWR_MAX_Exceeded !OK !OK Check_U_RXQUAL_UL_P OKCheck_L_RXQUAL_UL_P M ReleaseChannel !OK Check_MAX_MS_RANGE !OK Check_RXLEV_UL_IH OK Handover OK !OK !OK OK M HandoverCount M ChangeState ReleaseChannelOut M HandoverCause M OK MaintainChannel Handover_Required_ No / Maintain Channel Handover Control M MS_BSDistance M RXQUAL_UL Power is either increased or decreased based upon received power and signal quality measurements Handover is required if the received power.

mldesigner. create the mobile users and collect statistics to document operation.3. 1. create the coverage area. www. If no channel is available. 3 . The AssignChannelifpossible module assigns an available channel of the serving Base Station to the Mobile User. M M M BaseStationMem GoToBlockedMem GoToStatCollectMem M HandoverCount FromBSC_input FromBSC_output Dum Assign Base Station To Mobile Users Assign Channel if possible TodFromChannel_output TodFromChannel_input Figure 4: Base station The AssignBaseStationToMobileUsers module assigns a Base Station to the Mobile User. The closest Base Station to the Mobile User is selected to serve the User.com 1. Base Station Control Module The Base Station Control module contains blocks to create and save the base stations. Base Station Module The base station module contains modules to assign base stations and channels to users. The shortest distance determines the Base Station serving the Mobile User. Inc. the Mobile User is blocked and exits the system prematurely. The module uses the x & y coordinates of the incoming Mobile User as well as the x & y coordinates of the Base Stations to compute the distances between the incoming Mobile User and all the Base Stations.MLDesign Technologies.2.

com M BaseStationMem M lower_y M lower_x M upper_y M upper_x M GoToBlockedMem M GoToOutofAreaMem M GoToSessionOverMem M GoToStatCollectMem M _BERTable M BERTableSize MobileUsers_input GenIntConst#1 Init Create & Save All The Base Stations Create Coverage Area Create Mobile Users MobileUsers_output Mobile User is Blocked Mobile User Out of Coverage Area Mobile User Session is Over Stat Collect & Compute Read Files Figure 5: Base station control module The Create and Save Base Stations module generates and saves all the Base Stations. and the Base Stations matrix size. The x & y coordinates of these Base Stations are generated based on the distance between the Base Stations (a parameter) and the initial Base Station's x & y coordinates (also parameters. Inc. User locations (x & y coordinates) are generated randomly inside the coverage area. The Mobile Users are generated until the time value specified by the "Time To Stop Traffic" parameter is reached. The create users module generates Mobile Users with time between them exponentially distributed with mean specified by the parameter "Exp Pulse Mean".) The Create Coverage Area module creates the coverage area by computing the upper and lower limits on the x & y coordinates from the initial Base Station's x & y coordinates. the distance between the Base Stations.mldesigner. The total number of Base Stations generated is b*b where b is specified by the Base Station Matrix Size parameter.MLDesign Technologies. www. The direction in which a Mobile User moves is randomly selected from the possibil4 .

South. the possibilitiesare North. South East. It uses the old x & y coordinates.MLDesign Technologies. East. North East.4 Wireless Channel The Wireless Channel module contains blocks to delay mobile seers.mldesigner. Inc. M GoToSessionOverMem M GoToStatCollectMem M BaseStationMem M GoToOutofAreaMem M lower_y M lower_x M upper_y M upper_x Comm_input MobileIn_input Delay Mobile Users Comm_output Delete Expired Mobile Users Move Mobile Users ReleaseChannel One_Way MobileIn_output Figure 6: Wireless channel module The Move Users module determines the new position of the Mobile User. 5 . It computes the percentage of Mobile Users exiting the system under the normal condition. under the no-channel condition and under the exiting the coverage area condition. The Statistics Collection collects statistics of the Mobile Users exiting the system during the simulation run and also computes the statistics at the end of the simulation run. South West. West. The Mobile User's speed of motion and session length are both randomly selected using uniform distribution between the values specified by the “Minimum Speed Limit.com ities specified by the “Direction of Motion” parameter. and speed of motion.” and “Maximum Session Length” parameters. and North West. If the new position is outside the coverage area.” “Minimum Session Length. If this parameter is set to eight. It also computes the percentage of requested time supported by the system under the various different conditions. direction of motion.” “Maximum Speed Limit. delete expired mobile users and move mobile users. however a Mobile User may exit the system prematurely by going outside the coverage area or by moving to a cell where the Base Station does not have an available channel. then there are 8 possibilities: North. If if it is set to 4. 1. The time to exit is current time plus session length. the Mobile User can not use the system any longer and has to exit the system. www. East and West. South.

8 3.0 1.0 0.6 0.6 2.0 2. GSMSystem.4 1. The two graphs below show received signal power and received signal quality for the same simulation.MLDesign Technologies.0 0.0 1.0 2.mldesigner.6 1. Inc.com 2.                     Base station matrix size Distance between base stations Initial base station x and y coordinates Total channels for base station Maximum session length Minimum session length Minimum speed limit (mph) Minimum speed limit (mph) Director of motion options Delta time in seconds RX level threshold on the uplink to trigger handover RX quality threshold on the uplink to trigger handover RX level interference threshold on the uplink to trigger handover                           Maximum range between mobile and base station RX level threshold on the uplink to trigger power increase RX level threshold on the linkup to trigger power decrease RX quality threshold on the uplink to trigger power increase RX quality threshold on the uplink to trigger power decrease Maximum RF TX power permitted for a channel in the serving cell Power increase step size Power reduction step size Input BER file Time to stop 3.2 3.4 0. Outputs The selected outputs from this model are shown below.5 1.GSMStack_MS_#1.Xgraph#1 Set 0 3.4 2.5 2.parameters.5 0. Parameters The model is very flexible and has a large set of configuration . 6 .8 1.0 3.2 0.8 2.UpdateMS_BSDistance#1.2 2.4 x10 2 Figure 7: Base station distance The graph above shows the distance between the mobile users are base stations during the simulation.0 0.2 1.MobileStation#1. www.

mldesigner.10 0.90 -0.6 1.MLDesign Technologies.RXQUAL_UL#1.8 3.Xgraph#1 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.0 1.MobileStation#1.95 -1.0 0.2 2.4 0.GSMStack_MS_#1.0 1.4 x10 2 Figure 8: RX level GSMSystem.05 -1.4 x10 2 Set 0 Figure 9: RX quality 7 .0 0.6 0.6 0.8 3.85 -0.4 2.0 2.com x10 2 GSMSystem. Inc.6 1.2 0. www.8 1.4 1.UpdateRXLEV_UL#1.6 2.2 1.GSMStack_MS_#1.Xgraph#1 Set 0 -0.8 2.80 -0.4 1.MobileStation#1.0 3.8 1.0 2.00 -1.2 2.2 0.2 3.0 3.2 1.4 2.4 0.6 2.2 3.8 2.

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