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/

Seepage field In Low Permeability Reservoir

1

Xi Yi, Institute of Petroleum Shuren Yang, Institute of Petroleum Junxian Wu, Qi 40 Steam Drive Project

Engineering Engineering Department

Daqing Petroleum Institute Daqing Petroleum Institute Liaohe Oilfield Company

Daqing, China Daqing, China PanJin, China

Email: vickyyix@163.com Email:dqyangsr@163.com Email: wujunxian08@126.com

Abstract—In order to forecast the mining process of oil and gas

field rightly, simulate the flow process of reservoir fluid

accurately and reveal the fluid distribution law, it must be

considered that multiphase fluid seepage caused by water

injection and exploitation, the change of stress state and the

coupling between the reservoir deformations. According to the

basic theory of rock mechanics, fluid mechanics in porous

medium, geologic mechanics, calculated mechanics and

fluid-solid coupling seepage, considering the trigger pressure

gradient of seepage flow and fluid-solid coupling characters of

low permeability reservoirs, a multi-phase and multi-component

seepage flow mathematical model of coupling between stress

field and seepage field in low permeability and porous medium

reservoir is established. On the basis of the analysis of stress and

strain in reservoir rock, combining the principle of effective stress

and the relation of rock matrix constitutive, a mathematical model

of rock skeleton in low-permeability reservoir is established.

Combining the specific features of low permeability reservoir and

according to the laboratory resultsˈthe theoretical calculation

model of dynamic changes of material parameters such as

porosity and permeability etc that is established and the dynamic

model of computing pressure gradient is given. On this basis, the

numerical model of iterative coupling is established, and program

design is conducted by coupling numerical computing method

combining finite difference with finite element, the analysis of

coupling between seepage field and stress field in low

permeability reservoir is conducted. By the method of numerical

simulation, the variation law of stress-strain with time and space

in the progress of depletion type drive for single well, dynamic

variation law of petrophysics parameters is studied. It can be seen

that the fluid-solid coupling effect in low permeability reservoirs

is very obvious through analyzing and comparing to the

calculation results of rigid model.

Keywords- low permeability reservoir; stress field; seepage

field; fluid-solid coupling; mathematical model; numerical

simulation

In recent years ,with the development of the oil industry and

the demand for solving complex engineering problems,

fluid-structure interaction research has become increasingly

important and height attention by people in oil drilling,

exploration, development areas. In the oil and gas extraction

process, on the one hand, rock matrix stress will change due to

changes in pore fluid pressure, the resulting physical parameters

of reservoir change, especially porosity and permeability, on the

other hand, these changes affect the flow of pore fluid and pore

fluid pressure distribution in turn. Namely, there is an

interrelationship between the deformations of rock and flow of

pore fluid within rock. Thus, in many cases, they must be

considered that the flow law of fluids in porous media and its

impact on deformation of rock itself or the intensity, that to say,

coupling effect of rock mass stress field and seepage field should

be considered.

The theory of fluid-solid coupling flow and numerical

solution techniques have been studied and explored by many

foreign scholars such as Biot, Geertsma, Zienkiewicz, Mctigue,

Lewis, Vaziri, Settari, Fung, Tortike, Farouq , Ali, Chen, Jose and

Susan etc.

Seepage theory and application about fluid flow of

deformable saturated reservoir, non-miscible two-phase seepage

saturated, seepage of fractured rock, fractured gas reservoirof low

permeability, reservoir after fracturing, ground water, natural gas

and coal reservoirs, low permeability reservoir, flow-solid-heat

three coupled etc have been studied and examples simulated

respectively by domestic scholars such as Dong Pingchuan, Ran

Qiquan, Xue Shifeng, Liu Jianjun, Wu Yanqing and Chai Junrui,

Fan Xueping, Zhou Zhijun, Wang Ziming, Yang Manping, Li

Paichao, Zhang Liehui, Kong Xiangyan, Tong Dengke, Lu

Baoping[1]etc, at the same time a number of interesting

conclusions and understanding have been got. Sun Ming ˄2007

˅[2] applied seepage mechanics and rock mechanics principles,

inducted rock matrix deformation of reservoir and starting

pressure of fluid flow, established mathematical model for

fluid-solid coupling seepage of multi-phase fluid flow, deduced

mathematical model for rock deformation of reservoir, parameter

mathematical model of reservoir physical theoretically, achieve a

true sense of the whole fluid-solid coupling. Zhao Yangsheng ˄

2008˅[3] described in detail the science and technology issues of

multi-field coupling in porous media in the field of civil

Foundation item㧦The main project funding by national natural science foundation , item number㧦50634020.

978-1-4244-4813-5/10/$25.00 ©2010 IEEE

engineering, environmental engineering, resource and energy

development projects, and then discussed the scientific content of

multi-field coupling in porous media and its coupling theory

include solid-stress field, seepage field, temperature field and

concentration field in four fields of the coupling effect, and the

chemical reaction of dissolution. Zhao Yizhong˄2009˅[4]

comprehensive considered the role of fluid-solid coupling, the

effect of dynamic-made sewing, variable fracture conductivity

and other factorsˈEstablished a new model of de-sand fracturing

unconsolidated sandstone reservoir productivity, carried out the

optimization of de-sand fracturing capacity under the influence of

the factors. Based on the porous medium equations of fluid-solid

coupled equations, Zhang Guangming (2009) [5], deducted the

non-linear incremental finite element formulation corresponding,

and adopted bonding units whose degree of freedom composed

by the node displacement and pore pressure to simulate the

expansion of cracks of pre-crack caused by water damage, on this

basis, established finite element model of hydraulic fracturing

wells.

The reserves of low-permeability reservoir invested by

China account for an increasing proportion of total use of

reserves, proven reserves of low permeability is more and more,

In the low-permeability oil field development process, due to low

permeability reservoir porosity and permeability with the change

in overburden pressure significantly[6], In addition, the low

permeability reservoir seepage curves deviate from the linear

Darcy's law, therefore, it has a great significance to study for

coupling law of stress field and seepage field in low permeability

reservoir, simulate truly of the development process of low

permeability reservoir and guide production of low permeability

reservoirs.

I. THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF COUPLING LAW OF STRESS

FIELD /SEEPAGE FIELD

On the basis of reference [7], after finishing, the differential

equations of coupling fluid seepage of low-permeability reservoir

stress field and seepage field have been obtained.

The equation of oil component:

t

p

B

c s

t

s

B t B

s

Q G D g P

B

KK

o

o

o o o

o

v

o

o

o o

o o

ro

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

=

+

»

¼

º

«

¬

ª

− ∇ − ∇ ⋅ ∇

φ φ ε

ρ

μ

0 0

) (

˄1a˅

The equation of water component:

t

p

B

c s

t

s

B t B

s

Q G D g P

B

KK

w

w

w w w

w

v

w

w

w w w w

w w

rw

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

=

+

»

¼

º

«

¬

ª

− ∇ − ∇ ⋅ ∇

φ φ ε

ρ

μ

) (

˄1b˅

The equation of gas composition:

»

¼

º

«

¬

ª

− ∇ − ∇ ⋅ ∇ +

»

»

¼

º

«

«

¬

ª

− ∇ − ∇ ⋅ ∇

) (

) (

o o o

o o

ro so

g g g

g g

rg

G D g P

B

KK R

G D g P

B

KK

ρ

μ

ρ

μ

˄1c˅

t

p

B

p R s

t

p

B

c s

t

s

B

R

t

s

B

R

t

s

B t B

s R

t B

s R

t B

s

Q G D g P

B

KK R

o

o

o so o

g

g

g g

w

w

sw o

o

so

g

g

v

w

w sw v

o

o so v

g

g

g w w w

w w

rw sw

∂

∂ ′

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

=

+

»

¼

º

«

¬

ª

− ∇ − ∇ ⋅ ∇ +

) (

) (

φ

φ

φ φ

φ ε ε ε

ρ

μ

t

p

B

c s R

t

p

B

p R s

t

p

B

c s R

w

w

w w sw w

w

w sw w o

o

o o so

∂

∂

+

∂

∂ ′

+

∂

∂

+

φ φ φ ) (

The above equations contain seven unknown quantity:

o

p

ˈ

w

p

ˈ

g

p

ˈ

o

s

ˈ

w

s

ˈ

g

s

ˈ

v

ε

ˈin addition to solve

volumetric strain

v

ε

through the balance equation of rock

skeleton, some states and parameter equations need to be added.

The saturation constraint equation:

1 = + +

g w o

s s s

˄2˅

The capillary pressure equation:

o g cgo

p p p − =

ˈ

w o cow

p p p − =

˄3˅

The definite conditions for mathematical model and coupled

model of coupled rock skeleton of stress field and seepage field

have been given in reference [7].

II. THE NUMERICAL MODEL AND SOLUTION PROCESS OF

COUPLING LAW OF STRESS FIELD AND SEEPAGE FIELD

The solid-phase equilibrium equations and the differential

equations of fluid seepage in the composition of fluid-solid

coupling model of multiphase (oil, gas, water) fluid seepage,

mutual coupling and not independent between them with each

other. They are a group of fully coupled partial differential

equations, only can be analyzed and solved by numerical

methods. It will bring a number of complex issues such as

convergence and stability so on to discrete uniform for two

different state equations, besides, the main diagonal elements of

non-symmetric coefficient matrix formation by coupling

calculation often have difference of several orders of magnitude,

which can also cause a larger error of numerical solution. Based

on this, the decoupling analysis method that fluid and solid

equation is solved separately is used.

A. The Numerical Model of Fluid Flow

The mathematical model of fluid flow is solved by method

of block-centered finite difference, where into the oil-water phase

fluid flow equations is solved by IMPES, that is implicit

expression for solving reservoir pressure and explicitly

expression for solving fluid saturation, the three-phase

(oil,gas,water) seepage equations is solved by SEQ method, and

the processing of fluid and well parameters is analyzed, using by

orthomin mothed for solved equations.

After finishing fluid flow model, the standard form of oil

phase pressure equation is obtained:

n

k j i ijk ijk

n

k j i ijk

n

k j i ijk

n

k j i ijk

n

k j i ijk

n

k j i ijk

n

k j i ijk

n

k j i ijk

p e d

p t p s

p g p f

p c p b p a

, , o

1

1 , , o

1

1 , , o

1

, 1 , o

1

, 1 , o

1

, , 1 o

1

, , 1 o

1

, , o

+ =

− −

− −

− −

+

−

+

+

+

−

+

+

+

−

+

+

+

˄4˅

Under the standard order, the coefficient matrix of equations

formed by equation˄4˅is seven banded sparse matrix, solving this

equations by over-relaxation iterative method or orthogonal

minimization method. After

1 + n

o

p

is got by the implicit equation

for solving reservoir pressure, respectively substituting into the

difference equation of water saturation and gas saturation, after

1 1

,

+ + n

g

n

w

s s

is obtained,

1 + n

o

s

will be got by saturation constraint

equation.

B. The Numerical Model of Rock Skeleton

The mathematical model of rock deformation is solved by

finite element method, according to the basic principles of finite

elementˈon the basis of establishment of displacement function,

combining with effective stress principle, virtual displacement

principle and virtual work equivalence principle, the cell balance

equation is established. And the calculation method of element

stiffness matrix and the equivalent nodal force of weight load,

pore fluid pressure load, surface load and initial stress load force

is given, on this basis, establishing the overall balance equation,

solving unit balance equation by the method of incremental initial

stress.

When conducting finite element analysis for the problem of

fluid-solid coupling reservoir rock elastic-plastic deformation,

parameter unit such as three dimensional hexahedral and 8-node

so on is discretized. According to the basic theory of

elastic-plastic mechanics and finite element, the finite element

model of reservoir rock deformation field is established:

[ ] { } { } { } { }

0

σ

F F F F u K

p s v

− + + =

˄5˅

Where

u

is the node displacement,

[ ] K

is element

stiffness matrix,

{ }

v

F

is volume force equivalent load,

{ }

s

F

is

surface force equivalent load,

{ }

p

F

is pore fluid pressure

equivalent load,

{ }

0

σ

F

is initial stress load.

C. The Coupling Relationship of StressField and Seepage Field

In mining process of oil reservoir, petrophysical parameters

such as porosity and permeability so on are variable, they are

function of pore fluid pressure and rock matrix effective stress.

When the volume strain of the rock is known, the dynamic

calculation model of porosity and permeability can be established

by the volumetric strain.

According to the literature [7], integrating the evolution

equation of porosity, and ignoring the second order term of

volumetric strain, it can be obtained:

v

ε φ φ φ Δ − + = ) 1 (

0 0

˄6˅

According to the literature [8], the dynamic calculation

model of permeability is obtained:

3

0

0

] 1 [

) 1 (

1

φ

ε

ε

v

v

K K +

+

=

˄7˅

The pressure gradient calculation mode is started by

empirical formula of literature [9]:

¸

¸

¹

·

¨

¨

©

§

+

Δ

»

»

¼

º

«

«

¬

ª

¸

¸

¹

·

¨

¨

©

§ Δ

+ × =

−

288 . 6

850 . 3

/ 925 . 1 10 58 . 8

388 . 1

740 . 1

2

740 . 1 284 . 0 6

K

L

p

K

L

P

K K

μ

μ μ

γ

˄8˅

By analyzing and summarizing a large number of capillary

pressure curve of low permeability reservoir, the function

expression˄10˅of

) (

w

S J

is obtained:

0646 . 2

0632 . 0

−

=

w W

S S J 䯵 䯴 ˄9˅

To calculate the relative permeability of low permeability

reservoir make use of expulsion type oil-water relative

permeability expression proposed by Wylli and Gardner˖

³

³

−

−

=

1

2

2

2

/

/

)

1

(

wi

w

wi

S

c w

S

S

c w

wi

wi w

rw

P dS

P dS

S

S S

K ˄!0˅

³

³

−

−

=

1

2

1

2

2

/

/

)

1

1

(

wi

w

S

c w

S

c w

wi

w

ro

P dS

P dS

S

S

K ˄!!˅

D. The Solution Process of Coupling Law of Stress Field and

Seepage Field

It is explicit iterative solution that the overall program for

solving mathematical model of coupling law of stress field and

seepage field in low permeability reservoir. The mathematical

model of rock deformation lags behind the mathematical model

of seepage a time step. The mathematical model of seepage is

solved by finite difference method, and passing pore fluid

pressure increment and saturation increments to the mathematical

model of rock deformation, at the same time, the mathematical

model of rock deformation is solved by finite element method,

and passing volumetric strain has been solved to the

mathematical model of seepage, calculating the new

petrophysical parameter by the dynamic model of petrophysical

parameter, on this basis, continue on to the next step for solving,

so again until the final end.

Using the theory and numerical solution above, the

calculation program of fluid seepage which is transformed from

black oil model is given, and the calculation program of

geotechnical deformation field which is transformed from the

program of 3D and 8-node elastic-plastic finite element is given.

The two part programs which have been given above is linked

through the coupling relationship of porosity and permeability,

through debugging, the program is stable.

III. THE EXAMPLE SIMULATION OF COUPLING LAW OF STRESS

FIELD AND SEEPAGE FIELD

Applying the mathematical model of coupling above, by the

program has been compiled, conducting simulation analysis for a

well in the center of a reservoir, using depleted elastic type of

drive, fixing bottom hole flowing pressure for production, and

comparison with the result of the rigid model calculation. The top

depth of this reservoir is 2537m, this reservoir is divided into two

layers, the thickness respectively is 6 and 9mˈthe porosity

respectively is 0.12 and 0.28ˈthe penetration rate respectively is

210×10-3μm2 and 30×10-3μm2, the oil saturation is 0.88ˈthe

water saturation is 0.12, the reservoir pressure is 30.4Mpa. the

rock elastic modulus is 2000Mpaˈthe poisson's ratio is 0.25ˈ

cohesion force is 30Mpaˈfriction angle is 25º, the vertical

stress of top is 63.4MpaˈClosed the outer boundary of reservoir

is closed. The simulation result is shown in Figure 1- Figure 5.

A. The Analysis for Variation Law of Rock Stress – Strain in

Reservoir

The variation law of reservoir rock stress – strain with the

spatial is: the variation near the well bore is larger, the change of

gradient obviously is larger tooˈ reducing to the reservoir

boundary quicklyˈas Figure 1 and Figure 2. Stress–strain has a

great influence area within the control of oil well. The point of

view from time, the stress–strain variation of various points in

reservoir has been decreasing with production time, and tending

to stability.

Analysis shows thatˈthe change of stress - strain is caused

by the variation of fluid pressure, the greater the fluid pressure

gradient, the greater the variation of stress – strain. In the

original state, fluid pressure and stress of various points in

reservoir is equivalent, deeming rock strain is zero. A large fluid

pressure gradient has been formed near well face, to the reservoir

boundary, the fluid pressure gradient is reducing quickly. Soˈthe

effect of fluid-solid coupling is stronger at the bottom, and

reducing to the reservoir boundary quickly. The variation of

stress – strain that is caused by fluid-solid coupling is larger at the

bottom, and reducing to the reservoir boundary quickly. The

point of view from timeˈthe initial of the production, the

pressure gradient is large near the bottom, the variation of stress –

strain also is large. Subsequently, under the action of the coupling

effect, the changing of the fluid pressure gradient is smaller, the

variation of stress – strain reduce corresponding. It is

conceivable, when production time tend to infinity, the effect of

fluid-solid coupling throughout the entire reservoir achieve to a

balance. Therefore, it will no longer be changing that fluid

pressure and stress – strain.

The stress - strain of reservoir rock near the bottom of the

well is large. so it may destroy the pore structure of this region,

reduce the effective permeabilityˈeven cause the phenomenon

of destruction of sand and reservoir collapse so on. To prevent

this happen, triggering a large pressure gradient near the bottom

area should be avoided. That to require, the production system

can not change suddenly and drastically.

The f i gur e f or t he dat a of

pr oduct i on one year

- 0. 0025

- 0. 0020

- 0. 0015

- 0. 0010

- 0. 0005

0. 0000

0. 0005

0. 0010

0. 0015

0 50 100 150 200

The di st ance f r omt he bor ehol e( m)

t

h

e

s

t

r

a

i

n

o

f

r

o

c

k

Hor i zont al st r ai n

Ver t i cal st r ai n

l`_ˊ! k·'ut`ou:h`µ ·u·v· o° »·''|o·· _·`d ·o·l :t·u`u

vu·)`u_ »`th :µu··

-0. 0040

-0. 0035

-0. 0030

-0. 0025

-0. 0020

-0. 0015

-0. 0010

-0. 0005

0. 0000

0 500 1000 1500 2000

Producti on ti me/day

T

h

e

s

t

r

a

i

n

o

f

r

o

c

k

Hori zontal s trai n

Vert i cal s tr ai n

l`_ˊ? k·'ut`ou:h`µ ·u·v· o° »·''|o·· _·`d ·o·l :t·u`u

vu·)`u_ »`th t`m·

B. The Analysis for Variation Law of Porosity and Permeability

As rock strain, the porosity and permeability is changed,

which lead to the change of the pore structure, in the end, the

effective permeability is changed. So, the variation law of

reservoir stress - strain with time and space determine the change

characteristic of the porosity and permeability with time and

space. As shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4.

The f i gure f or the data of

producti on one year

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

0 50 100 150 200

The di st ance f r omt he borehol e(m)

T

h

e

v

a

l

u

e

o

f

l

o

s

s

(

%

)

Permeabi l i ty

Poros i ty

Figˊ3 Well-bore grid’s porosity and permeability lose curve

vu·)`u_ »`th :µu··

0

10

20

30

40

50

0 500 1000 1500 2000

Ti me/day

t

h

e

v

a

l

u

e

o

f

l

o

s

s

(

%

)

Por osi t y

Per meabi l i ty

Figˊ4 Well-bore grid’s porosity and permeability lose curve

vu·)`u_ »`th t`m·

**C. The Analysis for Variation Law of Development Index
**

The performance of reservoir rock deformation influence on

the production as follow: On the one hand, rock contraction can

increase the elastic energy of reservoir, increasing production, on

the other handˈ the shrinkage deformation of rock necessarily

reduce the porosity and permeability of reservoir. So, after

considering the porosity and permeability under the influence of

stress and strain, the output will decline. Theoretical analysis,

experimental results and the actual show : Sometimes, the stress –

strain have a greater influence on the porosity and permeability,

and having a greater influence on the development of indicators

of the simulation, so the calculations output of coupling model

may is much lower than the predicted output value of

non-coupled model , the results shown in Figure 5. ThereforeˈIn

the numerical simulation of low permeability reservoir, it can not

be ignored that the effect of fluid-solid coupling.

0

0. 05

0. 1

0. 15

0. 2

0 200 400 600

t i me/day

r

e

c

o

v

e

r

y

p

e

r

c

e

n

t

o

f

r

e

s

e

r

v

e

s

䯴

f

)

Ri gi d model

Coupl ed model

Figˊ5 Recovery percent of reserves varying with time curve

IV. CONCLUSIONS

• Considering the pressure gradient is started at the time of

low-permeability reservoir seepage and considering

fluid-solid coupling characteristics of low permeability

reservoir, establishing the mathematical model and the

numerical model of coupling law of stress field and

seepage field in low permeability reservoir, giving the

coupling relationship of fluid flow and rock deformation.

• Simulation results show that˖ they are a function of

time and space that stress - strain, porosity and

permeability in low permeability reservoir. In the space,

these parameters have a large change near the bottom,

and the farther away from the bottom, the smaller the

extent of the affected. In the space, for closed reservoir of

initial production, they have a larger change that stress -

strain, porosity and permeability, after it, the change

tends to stable because of the change of elastic-plastic

decreases gradually. So, the sudden large changes in

pressure gradient of bottom hole should be avoided, to

prevent harm to the reservoir.

• when the low-permeability reservoir depressurize for

exploitation, the lowering of pore pressure lead to an

increase in the effective stress of rock, to make a change

in pore structure, reservoir porosity and permeability

reduction, and the permeability has a greater reducing.

• Comparing with non-coupled model ˈconsidering the

effect of fluid-solid coupling ˈThe deformation of

reservoir rock have a greater impact on petrophysical

parameter and the development index of analog

computation. Therefore ˈthe influence of fluid-solid

coupling effect must be considered in numerical

simulation of low permeability reservoir.

[1] Zhou Zhijun㧘et al㧚Study on percolation law in low permeability

reservoir of deformble media.IEEE2009 㧘

March28-31,2009,Wuhan,China

[2] Sun Ming 㧘Li Zhiping 㧘Fan Zhonghai. Mathematical Model and

Reservoir Physical Model for Fluid2sol id Coupling[J]. Journal of Oil and

Gas Technology㧘2007㧘29㧔6㧕㧦115-119.

[3] Zhao Yangsheng㧘Yang Dong㧘Feng Zengchao㧘et al㧚Multi-field

Coupling Theory of Porous Media and Its Applications to Resources and

Energy Engineering[J]. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and

Engineering.2008,27㧔7㧕㧦1321-1328.

[4] Zhao Yizhong㧘Cheng Yuanfang㧘Zi Qingong㧘et al㧚Fluid-solid

coupling simulation of deliverability of screening out fracturing under

influence of multiple factors[J].Journal of Liaoning Technical University

㧔Natural Science㧕㧘2009㧘28㧔Suppl㧕㧦54-57ޕ

[5] Zhang Guangming㧘Liu He㧘Zhang Jin㧘et al㧚Simulation of hydraulic

fracturing of oil well based on fluid-solid coupling equation and

non-linear f inite element[J]. ACTA PETROL EI SINICA㧘2009㧘30㧔1

㧕㧦113-116.

[6] Shi Lianjie etc..Variation of porous medium and fluids during the

development of a low permeability reservoir in eastern Daqing [J].

Journal of Da Qing Petroleum Institute㧘1999㧘23㧔2㧕㧦85-87㧚

[7] Zhou Zhijun㧘Liu Yongjian㧘Ma Yingjian㧘et al㧚The theoretical

model of fluid-solid coupling seepage in low permeability reservoirs [J].

Journal of da qing petroleum institute㧘2002㧘26㧔3㧕㧦29-32

[8] Ran Qiquan 㧘Li Shilun 㧚Study on dynamic models of reservoir

parameters in the coupled simulation of multiphase flow and reservoir

deformation [J] 㧚Petroleum Exploration and Development 㧘1997㧘

24(3)㧦61-65

[9] Lv Chengyuan㧘Wang Jian㧘Sun Zhigang㧚An experimental study on

starting pressure gradient of fluids flow in low permeability sandstone

porous media [J]. Petroleum Exploration and Development㧘2002㧘29㧔2

㧕㧦86-89

[10] Zhang Xuewen㧘Yin Jiahong. Features of oil water relative permeability

curves for lowpermeability sandstone reservoir[J].1999㧘6㧔2㧕㧦27-31

that is implicit expression for solving reservoir pressure and explicitly expression for solving fluid saturation. and the chemical reaction of dissolution. It will bring a number of complex issues such as equations of coupling fluid seepage of low-permeability reservoir convergence and stability so on to discrete uniform for two different state equations. and adopted bonding units whose degree of freedom composed by the node displacement and pore pressure to simulate the expansion of cracks of pre-crack caused by water damage. only can be analyzed and solved by numerical On the basis of reference [7]. the low permeability reservoir seepage curves deviate from the linear Darcy's law. After finishing fluid flow model. Zhao Yizhong 2009 [4] comprehensive considered the role of fluid-solid coupling. due to low permeability reservoir porosity and permeability with the change in overburden pressure significantly[6]. therefore. non-symmetric coefficient matrix formation by coupling The equation of oil component: calculation often have difference of several orders of magnitude. besides. THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF COUPLING LAW OF STRESS other. Zhang Guangming (2009) [5]. the differential methods. gas. variable fracture conductivity and other factors Established a new model of de-sand fracturing unconsolidated sandstone reservoir productivity. where into the oil-water phase fluid flow equations is solved by IMPES. The Numerical Model of Fluid Flow 1b The mathematical model of fluid flow is solved by method of block-centered finite difference. established finite element model of hydraulic fracturing wells. temperature field and concentration field in four fields of the coupling effect. They are a group of fully coupled partial differential FIELD /SEEPAGE FIELD equations. The saturation constraint equation: ε so + s w + s g = 1 The capillary pressure equation: 2 3 The definite conditions for mathematical model and coupled model of coupled rock skeleton of stress field and seepage field have been given in reference [7]. the standard form of oil phase pressure equation is obtained: sw ∂ε v φ ∂sw φswcw ∂pw + + Bw ∂t Bw ∂t Bw ∂t ( ∇ Pg − ρ g g ∇ D − G g ) The equation of gas composition: ∇⋅ KK rg Bg μ g 1c +∇⋅ R so KK ro ( ∇ Po − ρ o g ∇ D − G o ) Bo μ o . and then discussed the scientific content of multi-field coupling in porous media and its coupling theory include solid-stress field. some states and parameter equations need to be added. In addition. proven reserves of low permeability is more and more. using by orthomin mothed for solved equations. resource and energy development projects. +∇⋅ = + R sw KK rw (∇ Pw − ρ w g∇ D − G w ) + Q g Bw μ w s g ∂ε v R so s o ∂ε v R sw s w ∂ε v φ ∂s g + + + B g ∂t Bo ∂t B w ∂t B g ∂t ′ R so φ ∂s o R swφ ∂s w φs g c g ∂p g φs o R so ( p o ) ∂p o + + + Bo ∂t B w ∂t B g ∂t Bo ∂t ′ φR s c ∂p o φs w R sw ( p w ) ∂p w φR sw s w c w ∂p w + so o o + + ∂t ∂t Bo Bw Bw ∂t The above equations contain seven unknown quantity: po pw pg so sw sg εv in addition to solve v through the balance equation of rock volumetric strain skeleton. = + + Bo ∂t ∇⋅ = Bo ∂t Bo ∂t The equation of water component: KK rw (∇Pw − ρ w g∇D − Gw ) + Qw Bw μ w A. on this basis. the effect of dynamic-made sewing. The reserves of low-permeability reservoir invested by China account for an increasing proportion of total use of reserves. Based on the porous medium equations of fluid-solid coupled equations. it has a great significance to study for coupling law of stress field and seepage field in low permeability reservoir. KK ro ∇⋅ (∇Po − ρ0 g∇D − Go ) + Q0 which can also cause a larger error of numerical solution. the decoupling analysis method that fluid and solid so ∂ε v φ ∂so φso co ∂po equation is solved separately is used. the three-phase (oil. environmental engineering. Based 1a Bo μo on this. simulate truly of the development process of low permeability reservoir and guide production of low permeability reservoirs. the main diagonal elements of stress field and seepage field have been obtained. THE NUMERICAL MODEL AND SOLUTION PROCESS OF COUPLING LAW OF STRESS FIELD AND SEEPAGE FIELD p cgo = p g − p o pcow = po − p w The solid-phase equilibrium equations and the differential equations of fluid seepage in the composition of fluid-solid coupling model of multiphase (oil.engineering. after finishing. and the processing of fluid and well parameters is analyzed.gas. carried out the optimization of de-sand fracturing capacity under the influence of the factors. seepage field. deducted the non-linear incremental finite element formulation corresponding. In the low-permeability oil field development process. II. mutual coupling and not independent between them with each I. water) fluid seepage.water) seepage equations is solved by SEQ method.

The mathematical model of seepage is solved by difference method. at the same time.0632S w of To calculate the relative permeability of low permeability The mathematical model of rock deformation is solved by reservoir make use of expulsion type oil-water relative finite element method. Sw 2 combining with effective stress principle. the coefficient matrix of equations formed by equation 4 is seven banded sparse matrix. and ignoring the second order term of The two part programs which have been given above is linked volumetric strain.740 Δp K 1. the mathematical model of rock deformation is solved by finite element method.s n +1 g is obtained.925 K 1.n n n aijk poi+1. the dynamic calculation program of fluid seepage which is transformed from calculation model of porosity and permeability can be established black oil model is given.j n = dijk + eijk poi . k +1 − tijk poi+1. B. And the calculation method of element 1 − S wi dS w / Pc2 stiffness matrix and the equivalent nodal force of weight load. integrating the evolution program of 3D and 8-node elastic-plastic finite element is given. and passing pore fluid stiffness matrix.850 K 1. the function expression 10 be got by saturation constraint equation. on this basis.388 + Lμ 6. the finite element model of reservoir rock deformation field is established: It is explicit iterative solution that the overall program for solving mathematical model of coupling law of stress field and [K ]u = {Fv } + {Fs } + Fp − Fσ 0 5 seepage field in low permeability reservoir. According to the basic theory of Seepage Field elastic-plastic mechanics and finite element. continue on to the next step for solving. k − gijk poi+1−1. they are so again until the final end. equivalent load.j + −1 n n − f ijk poi+1+1.0646 J SW = 0. k . petrophysical parameters parameter.284 + 1. k − cijk poi+1 . and the calculation program of by the volumetric strain. 1 − S wi dS w / Pc2 When conducting finite element analysis for the problem of S wi fluid-solid coupling reservoir rock elastic-plastic deformation. function of pore fluid pressure and rock matrix effective stress. k − bijk poi+11. k −1 . pressure increment and saturation increments to the mathematical Fp surface force equivalent load. calculating the new C. {Fs } is of seepage a finite step. solving this equations by over-relaxation iterative method or orthogonal got by the implicit equation minimization method. 1 − S w 2 S w dS w / Pc solving unit balance equation by the method of incremental initial ) 1 K ro = ( stress. The Coupling Relationship of StressField and Seepage Field petrophysical parameter by the dynamic model of petrophysical In mining process of oil reservoir. After for solving reservoir pressure.58 × 10 − 6 K 0. geotechnical deformation field which is transformed from the According to the literature [7]. surface load and initial stress load force 1 2 is given. through debugging. s n +1 o will By analyzing and summarizing a large number of capillary pressure curve of low permeability reservoir.740 Lμ μ 3. the program is stable. φ = φ + (1 − φ )Δε 6 { } { } [ ] { } { } 0 0 v . K is element model of rock deformation lags behind the mathematical model Where time {Fv } is volume force equivalent load. k 4 According to the literature [8]. virtual displacement S w − S wi 2 S wi dS w / Pc principle and virtual work equivalence principle. the dynamic calculation model of permeability is obtained: ε 1 K = K0 [1 + v ]3 φ0 (1 + ε v ) 7 The pressure gradient calculation mode is started by empirical formula of literature [9]: ΔP γ = 8. respectively substituting into the difference equation of water saturation and gas saturation. j . and passing volumetric strain has been solved to the mathematical model of seepage. Using the theory and numerical solution above. The Numerical Model of Rock Skeleton J ( S w ) is obtained: −2. Fσ 0 is initial stress load. equation of porosity. according to the basic principles of finite permeability expression proposed by Wylli and Gardner element on the basis of establishment of displacement function. is pore fluid pressure model of rock deformation. k . such as porosity and permeability so on are variable. the cell balance ) 1 K rw = ( equation is established. on this basis.288 2 Under the standard order. the When the volume strain of the rock is known. j . parameter unit such as three dimensional hexahedral and 8-node D.j . it can be obtained: through the coupling relationship of porosity and permeability. after / 8 p n +1 o is s n +1 w . j . The mathematical u is the node displacement. S wi pore fluid pressure load. establishing the overall balance equation. The Solution Process of Coupling Law of Stress Field and so on is discretized.j n n − sijk poi+1.j .

The point of view from time. Therefore. 0030 -0.12. As shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4. the variation of stress – strain reduce corresponding. the change of gradient obviously is larger too reducing to the reservoir boundary quickly as Figure 1 and Figure 2. A large fluid pressure gradient has been formed near well face. The Analysis for Variation Law of Rock Stress – Strain in Reservoir The variation law of reservoir rock stress – strain with the spatial is: the variation near the well bore is larger. 0020 -0. by the program has been compiled. it will no longer be changing that fluid pressure and stress – strain. the rock elastic modulus is 2000Mpa the poisson's ratio is 0. The variation of stress – strain that is caused by fluid-solid coupling is larger at the bottom. 0005 . 0005 0. fluid pressure and stress of various points in reservoir is equivalent.0. 0000 -0. the greater the variation of stress – strain. Analysis shows that the change of stress .strain of reservoir rock near the bottom of the well is large. So the effect of fluid-solid coupling is stronger at the bottom.0.4Mpa Closed the outer boundary of reservoir is closed. the changing of the fluid pressure gradient is smaller. the thickness respectively is 6 and 9m the porosity respectively is 0. The simulation result is shown in Figure 1. when production time tend to infinity. conducting simulation analysis for a well in the center of a reservoir. 0020 . The stress . 0010 -0. 0040 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Producti on ti m e/day Vert i cal s tr ai n B. and comparison with the result of the rigid model calculation.88 the water saturation is 0. THE EXAMPLE SIMULATION OF COUPLING LAW OF STRESS 0. the pressure gradient is large near the bottom. the variation law of reservoir stress . the production system can not change suddenly and drastically.0. The point of view from time the initial of the production. 0010 t he st r ai n of r ock 0. deeming rock strain is zero. 0000 Applying the mathematical model of coupling above. 0015 FIELD AND SEEPAGE FIELD 0. 0035 -0. using depleted elastic type of drive. the effect of fluid-solid coupling throughout the entire reservoir achieve to a balance. Stress–strain has a great influence area within the control of oil well. and reducing to the reservoir boundary quickly. The f i gur e f or t he dat a of pr oduct i on one year .0. triggering a large pressure gradient near the bottom area should be avoided. in the end. The top depth of this reservoir is 2537m.28 the penetration rate respectively is 210×10-3μm2 and 30×10-3μm2. the reservoir pressure is 30. 40 35 30 The val ue of l oss( % ) 25 The f i gure f or the data of producti on one year Perm l i ty eabi 20 Poros i ty 15 10 5 0 0 5 0 1 00 150 200 The d st ance f r omt he borehol e(m i ) Fig 3 Well-bore grid’s porosity and permeability lose curve . under the action of the coupling effect. 0015 -0. which lead to the change of the pore structure. reduce the effective permeability even cause the phenomenon of destruction of sand and reservoir collapse so on. 0005 H zontal s trai n ori The s trai n of roc k -0. It is conceivable. 0025 0 50 100 150 200 Hor i zont al st r ai n Ver t i cal st r ai n The di st ance f r om t he bor ehol e( m ) 0. To prevent this happen.strain is caused by the variation of fluid pressure.25 cohesion force is 30Mpa friction angle is 25º. Subsequently.12 and 0. the stress–strain variation of various points in reservoir has been decreasing with production time. 0010 . So. In the original state.0. the oil saturation is 0. A. the greater the fluid pressure gradient. 0025 -0. to the reservoir boundary.Figure 5. the porosity and permeability is changed. the vertical stress of top is 63. The Analysis for Variation Law of Porosity and Permeability As rock strain. and tending to stability.4Mpa. That to require.strain with time and space determine the change characteristic of the porosity and permeability with time and space. the variation of stress – strain also is large. 0015 . the fluid pressure gradient is reducing quickly. the effective permeability is changed. so it may destroy the pore structure of this region. and reducing to the reservoir boundary quickly.III. this reservoir is divided into two layers. fixing bottom hole flowing pressure for production.

29-32 Journal of da qing petroleum institute 2002 26 3 [8] Ran Qiquan Li Shilun Study on dynamic models of reservoir parameters in the coupled simulation of multiphase flow and reservoir deformation [J] Petroleum Exploration and Development 1997 24(3) 61-65 [9] Lv Chengyuan Wang Jian Sun Zhigang An experimental study on starting pressure gradient of fluids flow in low permeability sandstone porous media [J]. ACTA PETROL EI SINICA 2009 30 1 113-116. it can not be ignored that the effect of fluid-solid coupling. porosity and permeability. the smaller the extent of the affected. to prevent harm to the reservoir. 15 Coupl ed m odel 0. when the low-permeability reservoir depressurize for exploitation. Theoretical analysis.27 7 1321-1328. 05 0 0 200 400 600 t i m day e/ Fig 5 Recovery percent of reserves varying with time curve IV. Journal of Oil and Gas Technology 2007 29 6 115-119. So.2009. porosity and permeability in low permeability reservoir.Journal of Liaoning Technical University Natural Science 2009 28 Suppl 54-57 [5] Zhang Guangming Liu He Zhang Jin et al Simulation of hydraulic fracturing of oil well based on fluid-solid coupling equation and non-linear f inite element[J].Variation of porous medium and fluids during the development of a low permeability reservoir in eastern Daqing [J]. Therefore the influence of fluid-solid coupling effect must be considered in numerical simulation of low permeability reservoir. 0. So.strain. the lowering of pore pressure lead to an increase in the effective stress of rock. and having a greater influence on the development of indicators of the simulation. they have a larger change that stress strain. In the space. [4] Zhao Yizhong Cheng Yuanfang Zi Qingong et al Fluid-solid coupling simulation of deliverability of screening out fracturing under influence of multiple factors[J]. experimental results and the actual show : Sometimes. Features of oil water relative permeability curves for lowpermeability sandstone reservoir[J]. and the farther away from the bottom. and the permeability has a greater reducing. reservoir porosity and permeability reduction. CONCLUSIONS • Considering the pressure gradient is started at the time of low-permeability reservoir seepage and considering fluid-solid coupling characteristics of low permeability reservoir. the results shown in Figure 5.50 t he val ue of l oss( % ) 40 30 Por osi t y 20 10 0 0 500 1000 Ti m day e/ • Per m l i ty eabi 1500 2000 Fig 4 Well-bore grid’s porosity and permeability lose curve • C. Petroleum Exploration and Development 2002 29 2 86-89 [10] Zhang Xuewen Yin Jiahong. after it. Ri gi d m odel 0. the change tends to stable because of the change of elastic-plastic decreases gradually. for closed reservoir of initial production. rock contraction can increase the elastic energy of reservoir. so the calculations output of coupling model may is much lower than the predicted output value of non-coupled model . establishing the mathematical model and the numerical model of coupling law of stress field and Zhou Zhijun et al Study on percolation law in low permeability reservoir of deformble media. giving the coupling relationship of fluid flow and rock deformation.IEEE2009 March28-31. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering. after considering the porosity and permeability under the influence of stress and strain. The Analysis for Variation Law of Development Index • The performance of reservoir rock deformation influence on the production as follow: On the one hand. these parameters have a large change near the bottom. Simulation results show that they are a function of time and space that stress . the stress – strain have a greater influence on the porosity and permeability. the sudden large changes in pressure gradient of bottom hole should be avoided. on the other hand the shrinkage deformation of rock necessarily reduce the porosity and permeability of reservoir.. to make a change in pore structure. the output will decline. Journal of Da Qing Petroleum Institute 1999 23 2 85-87 [7] Zhou Zhijun Liu Yongjian Ma Yingjian et al The theoretical model of fluid-solid coupling seepage in low permeability reservoirs [J]. In the space. 2 seepage field in low permeability reservoir.Wuhan. Comparing with non-coupled model considering the effect of fluid-solid coupling The deformation of reservoir rock have a greater impact on petrophysical parameter and the development index of analog computation. Mathematical Model and Reservoir Physical Model for Fluid2sol id Coupling[J].China [2] Sun Ming Li Zhiping Fan Zhonghai. [3] Zhao Yangsheng Yang Dong Feng Zengchao et al Multi-field Coupling Theory of Porous Media and Its Applications to Resources and Energy Engineering[J].2008. Therefore In the numerical simulation of low permeability reservoir. [6] Shi Lianjie etc. increasing production. 1 0.1999 6 2 27-31 [1] r ecove r y per cen t of r es er ves f) .

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