The Analysis of Coupling Law of Stress field

/
Seepage field In Low Permeability Reservoir
1
Xi Yi, Institute of Petroleum Shuren Yang, Institute of Petroleum Junxian Wu, Qi 40 Steam Drive Project
Engineering Engineering Department
Daqing Petroleum Institute Daqing Petroleum Institute Liaohe Oilfield Company
Daqing, China Daqing, China PanJin, China
Email: vickyyix@163.com Email:dqyangsr@163.com Email: wujunxian08@126.com
Abstract—In order to forecast the mining process of oil and gas
field rightly, simulate the flow process of reservoir fluid
accurately and reveal the fluid distribution law, it must be
considered that multiphase fluid seepage caused by water
injection and exploitation, the change of stress state and the
coupling between the reservoir deformations. According to the
basic theory of rock mechanics, fluid mechanics in porous
medium, geologic mechanics, calculated mechanics and
fluid-solid coupling seepage, considering the trigger pressure
gradient of seepage flow and fluid-solid coupling characters of
low permeability reservoirs, a multi-phase and multi-component
seepage flow mathematical model of coupling between stress
field and seepage field in low permeability and porous medium
reservoir is established. On the basis of the analysis of stress and
strain in reservoir rock, combining the principle of effective stress
and the relation of rock matrix constitutive, a mathematical model
of rock skeleton in low-permeability reservoir is established.
Combining the specific features of low permeability reservoir and
according to the laboratory resultsˈthe theoretical calculation
model of dynamic changes of material parameters such as
porosity and permeability etc that is established and the dynamic
model of computing pressure gradient is given. On this basis, the
numerical model of iterative coupling is established, and program
design is conducted by coupling numerical computing method
combining finite difference with finite element, the analysis of
coupling between seepage field and stress field in low
permeability reservoir is conducted. By the method of numerical
simulation, the variation law of stress-strain with time and space
in the progress of depletion type drive for single well, dynamic
variation law of petrophysics parameters is studied. It can be seen
that the fluid-solid coupling effect in low permeability reservoirs
is very obvious through analyzing and comparing to the
calculation results of rigid model.
Keywords- low permeability reservoir; stress field; seepage
field; fluid-solid coupling; mathematical model; numerical
simulation
In recent years ,with the development of the oil industry and
the demand for solving complex engineering problems,
fluid-structure interaction research has become increasingly
important and height attention by people in oil drilling,
exploration, development areas. In the oil and gas extraction
process, on the one hand, rock matrix stress will change due to
changes in pore fluid pressure, the resulting physical parameters
of reservoir change, especially porosity and permeability, on the
other hand, these changes affect the flow of pore fluid and pore
fluid pressure distribution in turn. Namely, there is an
interrelationship between the deformations of rock and flow of
pore fluid within rock. Thus, in many cases, they must be
considered that the flow law of fluids in porous media and its
impact on deformation of rock itself or the intensity, that to say,
coupling effect of rock mass stress field and seepage field should
be considered.
The theory of fluid-solid coupling flow and numerical
solution techniques have been studied and explored by many
foreign scholars such as Biot, Geertsma, Zienkiewicz, Mctigue,
Lewis, Vaziri, Settari, Fung, Tortike, Farouq , Ali, Chen, Jose and
Susan etc.
Seepage theory and application about fluid flow of
deformable saturated reservoir, non-miscible two-phase seepage
saturated, seepage of fractured rock, fractured gas reservoirof low
permeability, reservoir after fracturing, ground water, natural gas
and coal reservoirs, low permeability reservoir, flow-solid-heat
three coupled etc have been studied and examples simulated
respectively by domestic scholars such as Dong Pingchuan, Ran
Qiquan, Xue Shifeng, Liu Jianjun, Wu Yanqing and Chai Junrui,
Fan Xueping, Zhou Zhijun, Wang Ziming, Yang Manping, Li
Paichao, Zhang Liehui, Kong Xiangyan, Tong Dengke, Lu
Baoping[1]etc, at the same time a number of interesting
conclusions and understanding have been got. Sun Ming ˄2007
˅[2] applied seepage mechanics and rock mechanics principles,
inducted rock matrix deformation of reservoir and starting
pressure of fluid flow, established mathematical model for
fluid-solid coupling seepage of multi-phase fluid flow, deduced
mathematical model for rock deformation of reservoir, parameter
mathematical model of reservoir physical theoretically, achieve a
true sense of the whole fluid-solid coupling. Zhao Yangsheng ˄
2008˅[3] described in detail the science and technology issues of
multi-field coupling in porous media in the field of civil
Foundation item㧦The main project funding by national natural science foundation , item number㧦50634020.
978-1-4244-4813-5/10/$25.00 ©2010 IEEE

engineering, environmental engineering, resource and energy
development projects, and then discussed the scientific content of
multi-field coupling in porous media and its coupling theory
include solid-stress field, seepage field, temperature field and
concentration field in four fields of the coupling effect, and the
chemical reaction of dissolution. Zhao Yizhong˄2009˅[4]
comprehensive considered the role of fluid-solid coupling, the
effect of dynamic-made sewing, variable fracture conductivity
and other factorsˈEstablished a new model of de-sand fracturing
unconsolidated sandstone reservoir productivity, carried out the
optimization of de-sand fracturing capacity under the influence of
the factors. Based on the porous medium equations of fluid-solid
coupled equations, Zhang Guangming (2009) [5], deducted the
non-linear incremental finite element formulation corresponding,
and adopted bonding units whose degree of freedom composed
by the node displacement and pore pressure to simulate the
expansion of cracks of pre-crack caused by water damage, on this
basis, established finite element model of hydraulic fracturing
wells.
The reserves of low-permeability reservoir invested by
China account for an increasing proportion of total use of
reserves, proven reserves of low permeability is more and more,
In the low-permeability oil field development process, due to low
permeability reservoir porosity and permeability with the change
in overburden pressure significantly[6], In addition, the low
permeability reservoir seepage curves deviate from the linear
Darcy's law, therefore, it has a great significance to study for
coupling law of stress field and seepage field in low permeability
reservoir, simulate truly of the development process of low
permeability reservoir and guide production of low permeability
reservoirs.
I. THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF COUPLING LAW OF STRESS
FIELD /SEEPAGE FIELD
On the basis of reference [7], after finishing, the differential
equations of coupling fluid seepage of low-permeability reservoir
stress field and seepage field have been obtained.
The equation of oil component:
t
p
B
c s
t
s
B t B
s
Q G D g P
B
KK
o
o
o o o
o
v
o
o
o o
o o
ro


+


+


=
+
»
¼
º
«
¬
ª
− ∇ − ∇ ⋅ ∇
φ φ ε
ρ
μ
0 0
) (
˄1a˅
The equation of water component:
t
p
B
c s
t
s
B t B
s
Q G D g P
B
KK
w
w
w w w
w
v
w
w
w w w w
w w
rw


+


+


=
+
»
¼
º
«
¬
ª
− ∇ − ∇ ⋅ ∇
φ φ ε
ρ
μ
) (
˄1b˅
The equation of gas composition:
»
¼
º
«
¬
ª
− ∇ − ∇ ⋅ ∇ +
»
»
¼
º
«
«
¬
ª
− ∇ − ∇ ⋅ ∇
) (
) (
o o o
o o
ro so
g g g
g g
rg
G D g P
B
KK R
G D g P
B
KK
ρ
μ
ρ
μ
˄1c˅
t
p
B
p R s
t
p
B
c s
t
s
B
R
t
s
B
R
t
s
B t B
s R
t B
s R
t B
s
Q G D g P
B
KK R
o
o
o so o
g
g
g g
w
w
sw o
o
so
g
g
v
w
w sw v
o
o so v
g
g
g w w w
w w
rw sw

∂ ′
+


+


+


+


+


+


+


=
+
»
¼
º
«
¬
ª
− ∇ − ∇ ⋅ ∇ +
) (
) (
φ
φ
φ φ
φ ε ε ε
ρ
μ
t
p
B
c s R
t
p
B
p R s
t
p
B
c s R
w
w
w w sw w
w
w sw w o
o
o o so


+

∂ ′
+


+
φ φ φ ) (
The above equations contain seven unknown quantity:
o
p
ˈ
w
p
ˈ
g
p
ˈ
o
s
ˈ
w
s
ˈ
g
s
ˈ
v
ε
ˈin addition to solve
volumetric strain
v
ε
through the balance equation of rock
skeleton, some states and parameter equations need to be added.
The saturation constraint equation:
1 = + +
g w o
s s s
˄2˅
The capillary pressure equation:
o g cgo
p p p − =
ˈ
w o cow
p p p − =
˄3˅
The definite conditions for mathematical model and coupled
model of coupled rock skeleton of stress field and seepage field
have been given in reference [7].
II. THE NUMERICAL MODEL AND SOLUTION PROCESS OF
COUPLING LAW OF STRESS FIELD AND SEEPAGE FIELD
The solid-phase equilibrium equations and the differential
equations of fluid seepage in the composition of fluid-solid
coupling model of multiphase (oil, gas, water) fluid seepage,
mutual coupling and not independent between them with each
other. They are a group of fully coupled partial differential
equations, only can be analyzed and solved by numerical
methods. It will bring a number of complex issues such as
convergence and stability so on to discrete uniform for two
different state equations, besides, the main diagonal elements of
non-symmetric coefficient matrix formation by coupling
calculation often have difference of several orders of magnitude,
which can also cause a larger error of numerical solution. Based
on this, the decoupling analysis method that fluid and solid
equation is solved separately is used.
A. The Numerical Model of Fluid Flow
The mathematical model of fluid flow is solved by method
of block-centered finite difference, where into the oil-water phase
fluid flow equations is solved by IMPES, that is implicit
expression for solving reservoir pressure and explicitly
expression for solving fluid saturation, the three-phase
(oil,gas,water) seepage equations is solved by SEQ method, and
the processing of fluid and well parameters is analyzed, using by
orthomin mothed for solved equations.
After finishing fluid flow model, the standard form of oil
phase pressure equation is obtained:

n
k j i ijk ijk
n
k j i ijk
n
k j i ijk
n
k j i ijk
n
k j i ijk
n
k j i ijk
n
k j i ijk
n
k j i ijk
p e d
p t p s
p g p f
p c p b p a
, , o
1
1 , , o
1
1 , , o
1
, 1 , o
1
, 1 , o
1
, , 1 o
1
, , 1 o
1
, , o
+ =
− −
− −
− −
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+
˄4˅
Under the standard order, the coefficient matrix of equations
formed by equation˄4˅is seven banded sparse matrix, solving this
equations by over-relaxation iterative method or orthogonal
minimization method. After
1 + n
o
p
is got by the implicit equation
for solving reservoir pressure, respectively substituting into the
difference equation of water saturation and gas saturation, after
1 1
,
+ + n
g
n
w
s s
is obtained,
1 + n
o
s
will be got by saturation constraint
equation.
B. The Numerical Model of Rock Skeleton
The mathematical model of rock deformation is solved by
finite element method, according to the basic principles of finite
elementˈon the basis of establishment of displacement function,
combining with effective stress principle, virtual displacement
principle and virtual work equivalence principle, the cell balance
equation is established. And the calculation method of element
stiffness matrix and the equivalent nodal force of weight load,
pore fluid pressure load, surface load and initial stress load force
is given, on this basis, establishing the overall balance equation,
solving unit balance equation by the method of incremental initial
stress.
When conducting finite element analysis for the problem of
fluid-solid coupling reservoir rock elastic-plastic deformation,
parameter unit such as three dimensional hexahedral and 8-node
so on is discretized. According to the basic theory of
elastic-plastic mechanics and finite element, the finite element
model of reservoir rock deformation field is established:
[ ] { } { } { } { }
0
σ
F F F F u K
p s v
− + + =
˄5˅
Where
u
is the node displacement,
[ ] K
is element
stiffness matrix,
{ }
v
F
is volume force equivalent load,
{ }
s
F
is
surface force equivalent load,
{ }
p
F
is pore fluid pressure
equivalent load,
{ }
0
σ
F
is initial stress load.
C. The Coupling Relationship of StressField and Seepage Field
In mining process of oil reservoir, petrophysical parameters
such as porosity and permeability so on are variable, they are
function of pore fluid pressure and rock matrix effective stress.
When the volume strain of the rock is known, the dynamic
calculation model of porosity and permeability can be established
by the volumetric strain.
According to the literature [7], integrating the evolution
equation of porosity, and ignoring the second order term of
volumetric strain, it can be obtained:
v
ε φ φ φ Δ − + = ) 1 (
0 0
˄6˅
According to the literature [8], the dynamic calculation
model of permeability is obtained:
3
0
0
] 1 [
) 1 (
1
φ
ε
ε
v
v
K K +
+
=
˄7˅
The pressure gradient calculation mode is started by
empirical formula of literature [9]:
¸
¸
¹
·
¨
¨
©
§
+
Δ
»
»
¼
º
«
«
¬
ª
¸
¸
¹
·
¨
¨
©
§ Δ
+ × =

288 . 6
850 . 3
/ 925 . 1 10 58 . 8
388 . 1
740 . 1
2
740 . 1 284 . 0 6
K
L
p
K
L
P
K K
μ
μ μ
γ
˄8˅
By analyzing and summarizing a large number of capillary
pressure curve of low permeability reservoir, the function
expression˄10˅of
) (
w
S J
is obtained:
0646 . 2
0632 . 0

=
w W
S S J 䯵 䯴 ˄9˅
To calculate the relative permeability of low permeability
reservoir make use of expulsion type oil-water relative
permeability expression proposed by Wylli and Gardner˖
³
³


=
1
2
2
2
/
/
)
1
(
wi
w
wi
S
c w
S
S
c w
wi
wi w
rw
P dS
P dS
S
S S
K ˄!0˅
³
³


=
1
2
1
2
2
/
/
)
1
1
(
wi
w
S
c w
S
c w
wi
w
ro
P dS
P dS
S
S
K ˄!!˅
D. The Solution Process of Coupling Law of Stress Field and
Seepage Field
It is explicit iterative solution that the overall program for
solving mathematical model of coupling law of stress field and
seepage field in low permeability reservoir. The mathematical
model of rock deformation lags behind the mathematical model
of seepage a time step. The mathematical model of seepage is
solved by finite difference method, and passing pore fluid
pressure increment and saturation increments to the mathematical
model of rock deformation, at the same time, the mathematical
model of rock deformation is solved by finite element method,
and passing volumetric strain has been solved to the
mathematical model of seepage, calculating the new
petrophysical parameter by the dynamic model of petrophysical
parameter, on this basis, continue on to the next step for solving,
so again until the final end.
Using the theory and numerical solution above, the
calculation program of fluid seepage which is transformed from
black oil model is given, and the calculation program of
geotechnical deformation field which is transformed from the
program of 3D and 8-node elastic-plastic finite element is given.
The two part programs which have been given above is linked
through the coupling relationship of porosity and permeability,
through debugging, the program is stable.

III. THE EXAMPLE SIMULATION OF COUPLING LAW OF STRESS
FIELD AND SEEPAGE FIELD
Applying the mathematical model of coupling above, by the
program has been compiled, conducting simulation analysis for a
well in the center of a reservoir, using depleted elastic type of
drive, fixing bottom hole flowing pressure for production, and
comparison with the result of the rigid model calculation. The top
depth of this reservoir is 2537m, this reservoir is divided into two
layers, the thickness respectively is 6 and 9mˈthe porosity
respectively is 0.12 and 0.28ˈthe penetration rate respectively is
210×10-3μm2 and 30×10-3μm2, the oil saturation is 0.88ˈthe
water saturation is 0.12, the reservoir pressure is 30.4Mpa. the
rock elastic modulus is 2000Mpaˈthe poisson's ratio is 0.25ˈ
cohesion force is 30Mpaˈfriction angle is 25º, the vertical
stress of top is 63.4MpaˈClosed the outer boundary of reservoir
is closed. The simulation result is shown in Figure 1- Figure 5.
A. The Analysis for Variation Law of Rock Stress – Strain in
Reservoir
The variation law of reservoir rock stress – strain with the
spatial is: the variation near the well bore is larger, the change of
gradient obviously is larger tooˈ reducing to the reservoir
boundary quicklyˈas Figure 1 and Figure 2. Stress–strain has a
great influence area within the control of oil well. The point of
view from time, the stress–strain variation of various points in
reservoir has been decreasing with production time, and tending
to stability.
Analysis shows thatˈthe change of stress - strain is caused
by the variation of fluid pressure, the greater the fluid pressure
gradient, the greater the variation of stress – strain. In the
original state, fluid pressure and stress of various points in
reservoir is equivalent, deeming rock strain is zero. A large fluid
pressure gradient has been formed near well face, to the reservoir
boundary, the fluid pressure gradient is reducing quickly. Soˈthe
effect of fluid-solid coupling is stronger at the bottom, and
reducing to the reservoir boundary quickly. The variation of
stress – strain that is caused by fluid-solid coupling is larger at the
bottom, and reducing to the reservoir boundary quickly. The
point of view from timeˈthe initial of the production, the
pressure gradient is large near the bottom, the variation of stress –
strain also is large. Subsequently, under the action of the coupling
effect, the changing of the fluid pressure gradient is smaller, the
variation of stress – strain reduce corresponding. It is
conceivable, when production time tend to infinity, the effect of
fluid-solid coupling throughout the entire reservoir achieve to a
balance. Therefore, it will no longer be changing that fluid
pressure and stress – strain.
The stress - strain of reservoir rock near the bottom of the
well is large. so it may destroy the pore structure of this region,
reduce the effective permeabilityˈeven cause the phenomenon
of destruction of sand and reservoir collapse so on. To prevent
this happen, triggering a large pressure gradient near the bottom
area should be avoided. That to require, the production system
can not change suddenly and drastically.
The f i gur e f or t he dat a of
pr oduct i on one year
- 0. 0025
- 0. 0020
- 0. 0015
- 0. 0010
- 0. 0005
0. 0000
0. 0005
0. 0010
0. 0015
0 50 100 150 200
The di st ance f r omt he bor ehol e( m)
t
h
e

s
t
r
a
i
n

o
f

r
o
c
k
Hor i zont al st r ai n
Ver t i cal st r ai n
l`_ˊ! k·'ut`ou:h`µ ·u·v· o° »·''|o·· _·`d ·o·l :t·u`u
vu·)`u_ »`th :µu··

-0. 0040
-0. 0035
-0. 0030
-0. 0025
-0. 0020
-0. 0015
-0. 0010
-0. 0005
0. 0000
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Producti on ti me/day
T
h
e

s
t
r
a
i
n

o
f

r
o
c
k
Hori zontal s trai n
Vert i cal s tr ai n
l`_ˊ? k·'ut`ou:h`µ ·u·v· o° »·''|o·· _·`d ·o·l :t·u`u
vu·)`u_ »`th t`m·

B. The Analysis for Variation Law of Porosity and Permeability
As rock strain, the porosity and permeability is changed,
which lead to the change of the pore structure, in the end, the
effective permeability is changed. So, the variation law of
reservoir stress - strain with time and space determine the change
characteristic of the porosity and permeability with time and
space. As shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4.
The f i gure f or the data of
producti on one year
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0 50 100 150 200
The di st ance f r omt he borehol e(m)
T
h
e

v
a
l
u
e

o
f

l
o
s
s
(
%
)
Permeabi l i ty
Poros i ty
Figˊ3 Well-bore grid’s porosity and permeability lose curve
vu·)`u_ »`th :µu··

0
10
20
30
40
50
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Ti me/day
t
h
e

v
a
l
u
e

o
f

l
o
s
s
(
%
)
Por osi t y
Per meabi l i ty
Figˊ4 Well-bore grid’s porosity and permeability lose curve
vu·)`u_ »`th t`m·

C. The Analysis for Variation Law of Development Index
The performance of reservoir rock deformation influence on
the production as follow: On the one hand, rock contraction can
increase the elastic energy of reservoir, increasing production, on
the other handˈ the shrinkage deformation of rock necessarily
reduce the porosity and permeability of reservoir. So, after
considering the porosity and permeability under the influence of
stress and strain, the output will decline. Theoretical analysis,
experimental results and the actual show : Sometimes, the stress –
strain have a greater influence on the porosity and permeability,
and having a greater influence on the development of indicators
of the simulation, so the calculations output of coupling model
may is much lower than the predicted output value of
non-coupled model , the results shown in Figure 5. ThereforeˈIn
the numerical simulation of low permeability reservoir, it can not
be ignored that the effect of fluid-solid coupling.
0
0. 05
0. 1
0. 15
0. 2
0 200 400 600
t i me/day
r
e
c
o
v
e
r
y

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

r
e
s
e
r
v
e
s

f
)
Ri gi d model
Coupl ed model

Figˊ5 Recovery percent of reserves varying with time curve

IV. CONCLUSIONS
• Considering the pressure gradient is started at the time of
low-permeability reservoir seepage and considering
fluid-solid coupling characteristics of low permeability
reservoir, establishing the mathematical model and the
numerical model of coupling law of stress field and
seepage field in low permeability reservoir, giving the
coupling relationship of fluid flow and rock deformation.
• Simulation results show that˖ they are a function of
time and space that stress - strain, porosity and
permeability in low permeability reservoir. In the space,
these parameters have a large change near the bottom,
and the farther away from the bottom, the smaller the
extent of the affected. In the space, for closed reservoir of
initial production, they have a larger change that stress -
strain, porosity and permeability, after it, the change
tends to stable because of the change of elastic-plastic
decreases gradually. So, the sudden large changes in
pressure gradient of bottom hole should be avoided, to
prevent harm to the reservoir.
• when the low-permeability reservoir depressurize for
exploitation, the lowering of pore pressure lead to an
increase in the effective stress of rock, to make a change
in pore structure, reservoir porosity and permeability
reduction, and the permeability has a greater reducing.
• Comparing with non-coupled model ˈconsidering the
effect of fluid-solid coupling ˈThe deformation of
reservoir rock have a greater impact on petrophysical
parameter and the development index of analog
computation. Therefore ˈthe influence of fluid-solid
coupling effect must be considered in numerical
simulation of low permeability reservoir.
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[10] Zhang Xuewen㧘Yin Jiahong. Features of oil water relative permeability
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that is implicit expression for solving reservoir pressure and explicitly expression for solving fluid saturation. and the chemical reaction of dissolution. It will bring a number of complex issues such as equations of coupling fluid seepage of low-permeability reservoir convergence and stability so on to discrete uniform for two different state equations. and adopted bonding units whose degree of freedom composed by the node displacement and pore pressure to simulate the expansion of cracks of pre-crack caused by water damage. only can be analyzed and solved by numerical On the basis of reference [7]. the low permeability reservoir seepage curves deviate from the linear Darcy's law. After finishing fluid flow model. Zhao Yizhong 2009 [4] comprehensive considered the role of fluid-solid coupling. due to low permeability reservoir porosity and permeability with the change in overburden pressure significantly[6]. therefore. non-symmetric coefficient matrix formation by coupling The equation of oil component: calculation often have difference of several orders of magnitude. besides. THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF COUPLING LAW OF STRESS other. Zhang Guangming (2009) [5]. the differential methods. gas. variable fracture conductivity and other factors Established a new model of de-sand fracturing unconsolidated sandstone reservoir productivity. where into the oil-water phase fluid flow equations is solved by IMPES. The Numerical Model of Fluid Flow 1b The mathematical model of fluid flow is solved by method of block-centered finite difference. established finite element model of hydraulic fracturing wells. temperature field and concentration field in four fields of the coupling effect. They are a group of fully coupled partial differential FIELD /SEEPAGE FIELD equations. The saturation constraint equation: ε so + s w + s g = 1 The capillary pressure equation: 2 3 The definite conditions for mathematical model and coupled model of coupled rock skeleton of stress field and seepage field have been given in reference [7]. the standard form of oil phase pressure equation is obtained: sw ∂ε v φ ∂sw φswcw ∂pw + + Bw ∂t Bw ∂t Bw ∂t ( ∇ Pg − ρ g g ∇ D − G g ) The equation of gas composition: ∇⋅ KK rg Bg μ g 1c +∇⋅ R so KK ro ( ∇ Po − ρ o g ∇ D − G o ) Bo μ o . and then discussed the scientific content of multi-field coupling in porous media and its coupling theory include solid-stress field. some states and parameter equations need to be added. In addition. proven reserves of low permeability is more and more. using by orthomin mothed for solved equations. resource and energy development projects. +∇⋅ = + R sw KK rw (∇ Pw − ρ w g∇ D − G w ) + Q g Bw μ w s g ∂ε v R so s o ∂ε v R sw s w ∂ε v φ ∂s g + + + B g ∂t Bo ∂t B w ∂t B g ∂t ′ R so φ ∂s o R swφ ∂s w φs g c g ∂p g φs o R so ( p o ) ∂p o + + + Bo ∂t B w ∂t B g ∂t Bo ∂t ′ φR s c ∂p o φs w R sw ( p w ) ∂p w φR sw s w c w ∂p w + so o o + + ∂t ∂t Bo Bw Bw ∂t The above equations contain seven unknown quantity: po pw pg so sw sg εv in addition to solve v through the balance equation of rock volumetric strain skeleton. = + + Bo ∂t ∇⋅ = Bo ∂t Bo ∂t The equation of water component: KK rw (∇Pw − ρ w g∇D − Gw ) + Qw Bw μ w A. on this basis. the effect of dynamic-made sewing. The reserves of low-permeability reservoir invested by China account for an increasing proportion of total use of reserves. Based on the porous medium equations of fluid-solid coupled equations. it has a great significance to study for coupling law of stress field and seepage field in low permeability reservoir. KK ro ∇⋅ (∇Po − ρ0 g∇D − Go ) + Q0 which can also cause a larger error of numerical solution. the decoupling analysis method that fluid and solid so ∂ε v φ ∂so φso co ∂po equation is solved separately is used. the three-phase (oil. environmental engineering. Based 1a Bo μo on this. simulate truly of the development process of low permeability reservoir and guide production of low permeability reservoirs. the main diagonal elements of stress field and seepage field have been obtained. THE NUMERICAL MODEL AND SOLUTION PROCESS OF COUPLING LAW OF STRESS FIELD AND SEEPAGE FIELD p cgo = p g − p o pcow = po − p w The solid-phase equilibrium equations and the differential equations of fluid seepage in the composition of fluid-solid coupling model of multiphase (oil.engineering. after finishing. and the processing of fluid and well parameters is analyzed.gas. carried out the optimization of de-sand fracturing capacity under the influence of the factors. seepage field. deducted the non-linear incremental finite element formulation corresponding. In the low-permeability oil field development process. II. mutual coupling and not independent between them with each I. water) fluid seepage.water) seepage equations is solved by SEQ method.

The mathematical model of seepage is solved by difference method. at the same time.0632S w of To calculate the relative permeability of low permeability The mathematical model of rock deformation is solved by reservoir make use of expulsion type oil-water relative finite element method. Sw 2 combining with effective stress principle. the coefficient matrix of equations formed by equation 4 is seven banded sparse matrix. and ignoring the second order term of The two part programs which have been given above is linked volumetric strain.740 Δp K 1. the mathematical model of rock deformation is solved by finite element method.s n +1 g is obtained.925 K 1.n n n aijk poi+1. the dynamic calculation program of fluid seepage which is transformed from calculation model of porosity and permeability can be established black oil model is given.j n = dijk + eijk poi . k +1 − tijk poi+1. B. And the calculation method of element 1 − S wi dS w / Pc2 stiffness matrix and the equivalent nodal force of weight load. integrating the evolution program of 3D and 8-node elastic-plastic finite element is given. and passing pore fluid stiffness matrix.850 K 1. the function expression 10 be got by saturation constraint equation. on this basis.388 + Lμ 6. the finite element model of reservoir rock deformation field is established: It is explicit iterative solution that the overall program for solving mathematical model of coupling law of stress field and [K ]u = {Fv } + {Fs } + Fp − Fσ 0 5 seepage field in low permeability reservoir. According to the basic theory of Seepage Field elastic-plastic mechanics and finite element. continue on to the next step for solving. k − gijk poi+1−1. they are so again until the final end. equivalent load.j + −1 n n − f ijk poi+1+1.0646 J SW = 0. k . petrophysical parameters parameter.284 + 1. k − cijk poi+1 . and the calculation program of by the volumetric strain. 1 − S wi dS w / Pc2 When conducting finite element analysis for the problem of S wi fluid-solid coupling reservoir rock elastic-plastic deformation. function of pore fluid pressure and rock matrix effective stress. k − bijk poi+11. k −1 . pressure increment and saturation increments to the mathematical Fp surface force equivalent load. calculating the new C. {Fs } is of seepage a finite step. solving this equations by over-relaxation iterative method or orthogonal got by the implicit equation minimization method. 1 − S w 2 S w dS w / Pc solving unit balance equation by the method of incremental initial ) 1 K ro = ( stress. The Coupling Relationship of StressField and Seepage Field petrophysical parameter by the dynamic model of petrophysical In mining process of oil reservoir. After for solving reservoir pressure.58 × 10 − 6 K 0. geotechnical deformation field which is transformed from the According to the literature [7]. surface load and initial stress load force 1 2 is given. through debugging. s n +1 o will By analyzing and summarizing a large number of capillary pressure curve of low permeability reservoir.740 Lμ μ 3. the program is stable. φ = φ + (1 − φ )Δε 6 { } { } [ ] { } { } 0 0 v . K is element model of rock deformation lags behind the mathematical model Where time {Fv } is volume force equivalent load. k 4 According to the literature [8]. virtual displacement S w − S wi 2 S wi dS w / Pc principle and virtual work equivalence principle. the dynamic calculation model of permeability is obtained: ε 1 K = K0 [1 + v ]3 φ0 (1 + ε v ) 7 The pressure gradient calculation mode is started by empirical formula of literature [9]: ΔP γ = 8. respectively substituting into the difference equation of water saturation and gas saturation. j . and passing volumetric strain has been solved to the mathematical model of seepage. Using the theory and numerical solution above. The Numerical Model of Rock Skeleton J ( S w ) is obtained: −2. Fσ 0 is initial stress load. equation of porosity. according to the basic principles of finite permeability expression proposed by Wylli and Gardner element on the basis of establishment of displacement function. is pore fluid pressure model of rock deformation. k . such as porosity and permeability so on are variable. the cell balance ) 1 K rw = ( equation is established. on this basis.288 2 Under the standard order. the When the volume strain of the rock is known. j . parameter unit such as three dimensional hexahedral and 8-node D.j . it can be obtained: through the coupling relationship of porosity and permeability. after / 8 p n +1 o is s n +1 w . j . The mathematical u is the node displacement. S wi pore fluid pressure load. establishing the overall balance equation. The Solution Process of Coupling Law of Stress Field and so on is discretized.j n n − sijk poi+1.j .

The point of view from time. Therefore. 0030 -0.12. As shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4. the variation of stress – strain reduce corresponding. the change of gradient obviously is larger too reducing to the reservoir boundary quickly as Figure 1 and Figure 2. A large fluid pressure gradient has been formed near well face. The Analysis for Variation Law of Rock Stress – Strain in Reservoir The variation law of reservoir rock stress – strain with the spatial is: the variation near the well bore is larger. 0020 -0. by the program has been compiled. it will no longer be changing that fluid pressure and stress – strain. the rock elastic modulus is 2000Mpa the poisson's ratio is 0. The variation of stress – strain that is caused by fluid-solid coupling is larger at the bottom. 0005 . 0005 0. fluid pressure and stress of various points in reservoir is equivalent.0. 0000 -0. the greater the variation of stress – strain. Analysis shows that the change of stress .strain of reservoir rock near the bottom of the well is large. So the effect of fluid-solid coupling is stronger at the bottom.0.4Mpa Closed the outer boundary of reservoir is closed. the changing of the fluid pressure gradient is smaller. the thickness respectively is 6 and 9m the porosity respectively is 0. The simulation result is shown in Figure 1. when production time tend to infinity. conducting simulation analysis for a well in the center of a reservoir. 0020 . The stress . 0010 -0. 0040 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Producti on ti m e/day Vert i cal s tr ai n B. and comparison with the result of the rigid model calculation.88 the water saturation is 0. THE EXAMPLE SIMULATION OF COUPLING LAW OF STRESS 0. the pressure gradient is large near the bottom. the variation law of reservoir stress . the production system can not change suddenly and drastically.0. The point of view from time the initial of the production. 0010 t he st r ai n of r ock 0. deeming rock strain is zero. 0000 Applying the mathematical model of coupling above. 0015 FIELD AND SEEPAGE FIELD 0. 0035 -0. using depleted elastic type of drive. the effect of fluid-solid coupling throughout the entire reservoir achieve to a balance. Stress–strain has a great influence area within the control of oil well. and reducing to the reservoir boundary quickly. The f i gur e f or t he dat a of pr oduct i on one year .0. triggering a large pressure gradient near the bottom area should be avoided. in the end. The top depth of this reservoir is 2537m.28 the penetration rate respectively is 210×10-3μm2 and 30×10-3μm2. the reservoir pressure is 30. 40 35 30 The val ue of l oss( % ) 25 The f i gure f or the data of producti on one year Perm l i ty eabi 20 Poros i ty 15 10 5 0 0 5 0 1 00 150 200 The d st ance f r omt he borehol e(m i ) Fig 3 Well-bore grid’s porosity and permeability lose curve . under the action of the coupling effect. 0015 -0. which lead to the change of the pore structure. reduce the effective permeability even cause the phenomenon of destruction of sand and reservoir collapse so on. 0005 H zontal s trai n ori The s trai n of roc k -0. It is conceivable. 0025 0 50 100 150 200 Hor i zont al st r ai n Ver t i cal st r ai n The di st ance f r om t he bor ehol e( m ) 0. To prevent this happen.strain is caused by the variation of fluid pressure.25 cohesion force is 30Mpa friction angle is 25º. Subsequently.12 and 0. the stress–strain variation of various points in reservoir has been decreasing with production time. 0010 . So. In the original state.0. the oil saturation is 0. A. the greater the fluid pressure gradient. 0025 -0. to the reservoir boundary.Figure 5. the porosity and permeability is changed. the vertical stress of top is 63. The Analysis for Variation Law of Porosity and Permeability As rock strain. and tending to stability.4Mpa. That to require.strain with time and space determine the change characteristic of the porosity and permeability with time and space. the variation of stress – strain also is large. 0015 . the fluid pressure gradient is reducing quickly. the effective permeability is changed. so it may destroy the pore structure of this region. and reducing to the reservoir boundary quickly.III. this reservoir is divided into two layers. fixing bottom hole flowing pressure for production.

29-32 Journal of da qing petroleum institute 2002 26 3 [8] Ran Qiquan Li Shilun Study on dynamic models of reservoir parameters in the coupled simulation of multiphase flow and reservoir deformation [J] Petroleum Exploration and Development 1997 24(3) 61-65 [9] Lv Chengyuan Wang Jian Sun Zhigang An experimental study on starting pressure gradient of fluids flow in low permeability sandstone porous media [J]. ACTA PETROL EI SINICA 2009 30 1 113-116. it can not be ignored that the effect of fluid-solid coupling. porosity and permeability. the smaller the extent of the affected. to prevent harm to the reservoir. 15 Coupl ed m odel 0. when the low-permeability reservoir depressurize for exploitation. Theoretical analysis.27 7 1321-1328. 05 0 0 200 400 600 t i m day e/ Fig 5 Recovery percent of reserves varying with time curve IV. Journal of Oil and Gas Technology 2007 29 6 115-119. So.2009. porosity and permeability in low permeability reservoir.Journal of Liaoning Technical University Natural Science 2009 28 Suppl 54-57 [5] Zhang Guangming Liu He Zhang Jin et al Simulation of hydraulic fracturing of oil well based on fluid-solid coupling equation and non-linear f inite element[J].Variation of porous medium and fluids during the development of a low permeability reservoir in eastern Daqing [J]. Therefore the influence of fluid-solid coupling effect must be considered in numerical simulation of low permeability reservoir. 0. So.strain. the lowering of pore pressure lead to an increase in the effective stress of rock. and having a greater influence on the development of indicators of the simulation. they have a larger change that stress strain. In the space. [4] Zhao Yizhong Cheng Yuanfang Zi Qingong et al Fluid-solid coupling simulation of deliverability of screening out fracturing under influence of multiple factors[J]. experimental results and the actual show : Sometimes. Features of oil water relative permeability curves for lowpermeability sandstone reservoir[J]. and the farther away from the bottom. and the permeability has a greater reducing. reservoir porosity and permeability reduction. CONCLUSIONS • Considering the pressure gradient is started at the time of low-permeability reservoir seepage and considering fluid-solid coupling characteristics of low permeability reservoir. the results shown in Figure 5.50 t he val ue of l oss( % ) 40 30 Por osi t y 20 10 0 0 500 1000 Ti m day e/ • Per m l i ty eabi 1500 2000 Fig 4 Well-bore grid’s porosity and permeability lose curve • C. Petroleum Exploration and Development 2002 29 2 86-89 [10] Zhang Xuewen Yin Jiahong. after it. Ri gi d m odel 0. the change tends to stable because of the change of elastic-plastic decreases gradually. for closed reservoir of initial production. rock contraction can increase the elastic energy of reservoir. so the calculations output of coupling model may is much lower than the predicted output value of non-coupled model . establishing the mathematical model and the numerical model of coupling law of stress field and Zhou Zhijun et al Study on percolation law in low permeability reservoir of deformble media. giving the coupling relationship of fluid flow and rock deformation.IEEE2009 March28-31. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering. after considering the porosity and permeability under the influence of stress and strain. The Analysis for Variation Law of Development Index • The performance of reservoir rock deformation influence on the production as follow: On the one hand. these parameters have a large change near the bottom. Simulation results show that they are a function of time and space that stress . the stress – strain have a greater influence on the porosity and permeability. the sudden large changes in pressure gradient of bottom hole should be avoided. on the other hand the shrinkage deformation of rock necessarily reduce the porosity and permeability of reservoir.. to make a change in pore structure. the output will decline. Journal of Da Qing Petroleum Institute 1999 23 2 85-87 [7] Zhou Zhijun Liu Yongjian Ma Yingjian et al The theoretical model of fluid-solid coupling seepage in low permeability reservoirs [J]. In the space. 2 seepage field in low permeability reservoir.Wuhan. Comparing with non-coupled model considering the effect of fluid-solid coupling The deformation of reservoir rock have a greater impact on petrophysical parameter and the development index of analog computation. Mathematical Model and Reservoir Physical Model for Fluid2sol id Coupling[J].China [2] Sun Ming Li Zhiping Fan Zhonghai. [3] Zhao Yangsheng Yang Dong Feng Zengchao et al Multi-field Coupling Theory of Porous Media and Its Applications to Resources and Energy Engineering[J].2008. Therefore In the numerical simulation of low permeability reservoir. [6] Shi Lianjie etc. increasing production. 1 0.1999 6 2 27-31 [1] r ecove r y per cen t of r es er ves f) .