SUMMARY

The process purpose is to produce acetone from isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at the given
conditions. This report is formed, some properties, manufacturing process of acetone. In
manufacturing process, feed drum, vaporizer, heater, reactor, furnace, cooler, condenser,
flash unit, scrubber, acetone and IPA columns are used.
This profile envisages the establishment of a plant for the production of acetone with a
capacity of 100 tons per annum.
The present demand for the proposed product is estimated at 70 tons per annum. The demand
is expected to reach at 137.7 tones by the year 2017.
The plant will create employment opportunities for 20 persons.
The total investment requirement is estimated at Birr 6.17 million, out of which Birr 2.84
million is required for plant and machinery.
The project is financially viable with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 14 % and a net
present value (NPV) of Birr 1.71 million, discounted at 8.5%.






















NOMENCLATURE
MW=Molecular Weight [kg/kmol]
N = mole [mol/h]
Y = mol or mass fraction of gas stream
X = mol or mass fraction of liquid stream
P Tn = Total Pressure [bar]
Pi*n= Vapour Pressure of Component [bar]
Pv* = Vapour Pressure [bar]
F = Feed Flow Rate [k mol/h]
V = Flow Rate of Vapour [kmol/h]
L = Flow Rate of Liquid [kmol/h]
T = Temperature [° C]
∆ Hvap = Latent Heat of Vaporization [kJ/kg]
TC = Critical Temperature [° C]
PC = Critical Pressure [bar]
Tb = Normal Boiling Point [° C]
Q = Heat [kJ]
M = Mass Flow Rate [kg/h]
K = Activity Coefficient










Introduction:-
Acetone is the organic compound with the formula (CH
3
)
2
CO, a colorless, mobile, flammable
liquid, the simplest example of the ketones. Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an
important solvent in its own right, typically as the solvent of choice for cleaning purposes in
the laboratory. About 6.7 million tons were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a
solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A. Familiar household uses of
acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner. It is a
common building block in organic chemistry.
Acetone is naturally produced and disposed of in the human body as a result of normal
metabolic processes. It is normally present in blood and urine. Diabetic people produce it in
larger amounts. Reproductive toxicity tests show that it has low potential to cause
reproductive problems. In fact, the body naturally increases the level of acetone in pregnant
women, nursing mothers and children because their higher energy requirements lead to
higher levels of acetone production. Ketogenic diets that increase acetone in the body are
used to reduce epileptic attacks in infants and children who suffer from recalcitrant refractory
epilepsy. Acetone (dimethyl ketone, 2-propane, CH3COCH3) formulation weight 58,079 is
the simplest and the most important of the ketones. It is a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid
with a mildly pungent and somewhat aromatic odour. It is miscible in all proportions with
water and with organic solvents such as ether, methanol, ethyl alcohol, and esters.
Acetone is used as a solvent for cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose, as a carrier for acetylene
And as a raw material for the chemical synthesis of a wide range of products such as ketene,
Methyl methacrylate, bisphenol A, diacetone alcohol mesityl oxide, methyl isobutyl ketone,
Hexylene glycol (2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol), and isophorone.
Acetone is produced in various ways;
1. The Cumene Hydro peroxide Process for Phenol and Acetone
2. Isopropyl Alcohol Dehydrogenation
3. Direct Oxidation of Hydrocarbons to a Number of Oxygenated Products Including
Acetone
4. Catalytic Oxidation of Isopropyl Alcohol
5. Acetone as a By-Product of the Propylene Oxide Process Used by Oxirane
6. The p-Cymene Hydro peroxide Process for p Cresol and Acetone
7. The Diisopropylbenzene Process for Hydroquinone (or Resorcinol) and Acetone
In this report isopropyl alcohol dehydrogenation was investigated.
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES:
Appearance: - Liquid. Clear.
Molecular wt.:- 58.079
Colour: - Colourless.
Density/specific gravity (g/ml):- 0.79 Temperature (°C): 20
Melting Point -94.6
0
C
Boiling Point 56.13
0
C (at 760 mm Hg)
Vapour Pressure: - 24 .7 KP at Temperature (°C):
20Evaporation Rate: - .6
Volatile by vol. (%):- 10
Solubility description: - Miscible with water.
Solubility Value (g/100g H 2O20°C ):- 100
Auto Ignition Temp. (°C):- 540
Flammability limit (lower) (%):- 2.1
Flammability limit (upper) (%):- 13.0

Stability and Reactivity:
Stability: - Stable under normal conditions of use.
Conditions to avoid: - Avoid contact with: Strong oxidising agents. Avoid
Contact with acids. Avoid heat, flames and other .
. Sources of ignition
Materials to avoid: - Potassium sulphate, sodium hydroxide, sulphuric acid,
Nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, chloroform, activated
Carbon, Bromine.
Hazardous Decomp.Product - Thermal decomposition or burning may release oxides
Of carbon and other hazardous gases or vapours
Uses-:
About a third of the world's acetone is used as a solvent, and a quarter is consumed as a
precursor to methyl methacrylate.
Solvent use:
Acetone is a good solvent for most plastics and synthetic fibers including those used in
laboratory bottles made of polystyrene, polycarbonate and some types of polypropylene. It is
ideal for thinning fibreglass resin, cleaning fiberglass tools and dissolving two-part epoxies
and superglue before hardening. It is used as a volatile component of some paints and
varnishes. As a heavy-duty degreaser, it is useful in the preparation of metal prior to painting;
it also thins polyester resins, vinyl and adhesives. It is also useful for high reliability
soldering applications to remove solder rosin after soldering is complete. This helps to
prevent the Rusty bolt effect from occurring due to dirty solder contacts.
Storage of acetylene
Although flammable itself, acetone is also used extensively as a solvent for the safe
transporting and storing of acetylene, which cannot be safely pressurized as a pure
compound. Vessels containing a porous material are first filled with acetone followed by
acetylene, which dissolves into the acetone. One litter of acetone can dissolve around 250
litters of acetylene.
Methyl methacrylate
This application begins with the initial conversion of acetone to acetone cyanohydrins:
(CH
3
)
2
CO + HCN → (CH
3
)
2
C (OH) CN
In a subsequent step, the nitrile is hydrolyzed to the unsaturated amide, which is esterified:
(CH
3
)
2
C (OH) CN + CH
3
OH → CH
2
= (CH
3
) CCO2CH3 + NH
3

The third major use of acetone (about 20%) entails its condensation with phenol to give
bisphenol A
(CH
3
)
2
CO + 2 C
6
H
5
OH → (CH
3
)
2
C (C
6
H
4
OH)
2
+ H
2
O
Bisphenol A is a component of many polymers such as polycarbonates, polyurethanes, and
epoxy resins.
Medical and cosmetic uses
Acetone is used in a variety of general medical and cosmetic applications and is also listed as
a component in food additives and food packaging.
Acetone is commonly used in chemical peeling. Common agents used today for chemical peels
are salicylic acid, glycolic acid, 30% salicylic acid in ethanol, and trichloroacetic acid (TCA).
Prior to chemexfoliation, the skin should be cleaned properly and excess fat removed. This
process is known as defatting. Acetone, Septisol, or a combination of these agents is
commonly used in this process.
Laboratory uses
In the laboratory, acetone is used as a polar aprotic solvent in a variety of organic reactions,
such as S
N
2 reactions. The use of acetone solvent is also critical for the Jones oxidation. It is a
common solvent for rinsing laboratory glassware because of its low cost and volatility.
H\however, it does not form an azeotrope with water (see azeotrope (data)). Despite its
common use as a supposed drying agent, it is not effective except by bulk displacement and
dilution. Acetone can be cooled with dry ice to −78 °C without freezing; acetone/dry ice baths
are commonly used to conduct reactions at low temperatures. Acetone is fluorescent under
ultraviolet light, and its vapour may be used as a fluorescent tracer in fluid flow experiments.
Domestic and other niche uses
Acetone is often the primary component in cleaning agents such as nail polish remover. Ethyl
acetate, another organic solvent, is sometimes used as well. Acetone is a component of
superglue remover and it easily removes residues from glass and porcelain.
It can be used as an artistic agent; when rubbed on the back of a laser print or photocopy
placed face-down on another surface and burnished firmly, the toner of the image transfers to
the destination surface. Make-up artists use acetone to remove skin adhesive from the netting
of wigs and moustaches by immersing the item in an acetone bath, then removing the oftened
glue residue with a stiff brush.
MARKET TREND -:
Past Supply and Present Demand
The country's requirement for acetone is totally met through import. Data obtained from the
Ethiopian Customs Authority with regard to import of acetone for the period covering 1997 -
2011 is given in Table-

IMPORTANCE OF ACETONE YEAR QUANTITY(Mt.Tons)
1997 41.6
1998 90.6
1999 52.7
2000 24.7
2001 154.3
2002 34.0
2003 34.3
2004 57.7
2005 47.5
2006 84.2
2007 70.5
2008 74.9
2009 80.2
2010 85.8
2011 91.8










Projected Demand -: Acetone is used as a solvent in the production of paint, varnish,
lacquer, cellulose acetate, potassium iodide and permanganate. It is also used to clean dry
parts of precision equipments, delusterant for cellulose acetate fibre and specification testing
of vulcanized rubber products. This clearly indicates that demand for acetone is directly
related with the development of the industrial sector. Taking this in consideration, annual
average growth of 7% is applied to forecast the future demand. The forecasted demand up to
the year 2017 is given in Table 3.2. 55-6 import figures were much higher than the imports in
the following years. In 1998, the import figure was about 90.6 tonnes while in the following
years, i.e., 1999 and 2000 the import figure dropped to 52.7 tonnes and 24.7 tonnes
respectively. Similarly, import figure in the year 2001 was about 154 tones while in the
following four consecutive years, i.e., from 2002 - 2005 import ranges from only 34 tonnes to
about 58 tonnes. This probably indicates that the high imports in some years were used as
buffer stocks for the following years. Hence, some portions of the imports were distributed
among the subsequent years in which recorded import figures were found to be
comparatively low.
By looking to the above argument, the present effective demand is estimated using the
following methodology.
The average import figures in the recent past six years, i.e., 2001- 2006 is taken as an
effective demand for the year 2007 since the product is directly related with the growth of the
manufacturing sector, an annual average growth rate of 7% (which is recorded by the
industrial sector in the past) is applied to arrive at the current (year 2007) demand.




PROJECT DEMAND OF ACETONE YEAR QUANTITY(Mt.Tons)
2012 98.2
2013 105.1
2014 112.4
2015 120.3
2016 128.7
2017 137.7
METHODS OF PRODUCTION:-
(a) Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Isopropanol
(b) Oxidation of Isopropyl benzene
(c) Co product of Glycerine- H
2
O
2
process
(d) Oxidation of Butanol
(e) Oxidation of Propylene
(a) Acetone by oxidation of Propylene: A process for acetone production by direct
oxidation of propylene using air. In this process the catalysis consists of a solution of
copper chloride containing small quantities of palladium chloride.
The overall reaction is as follows
C
3
H
6
+1/2O
2
CH
3
COCH
3
(b) Oxidation of Butanol:
Catalytic oxidation of n butane using either cobalt or manganese acetate produces
acetic acid at 75-80% yield. By products of commercial value are obtained in
variable amounts. In the Celanese process the oxidation reaction is performed at a
temperature range 150-225
0
C and pressure of approx 505 atm.

CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
+ O
2
CH
3
COOH + CH
3
COCH
3

(c) Co product of Glycerine- H
2
O
2
process:
When Glycerine is produced from propylene via acrolein then acetone is produced as
a by product.


CH
3
CH═CH
2
+ H
2
O CH
3
CHOHCH
3
+ O
2
CH
3
COCH
3
+ H
2
O
2


(d) Oxidation of Isopropyl Benzene (Cumene):Cumene is synthesised from propylene
and benzene, followed by oxidation for the formation of hydro peroxide and splitting
the same into acetone and phenol. The crude products are then fractionated to get
pure acetone and phenol.



(e) Dehydrogenation of Isopropanol: Acetone is produced from catalytic
dehydrogenation of isopropanol. The catalyst used in this process is ZNO.The crude
product obtained from this process is fractioned and pure product is obtained.
(CH
3
)
2
CHOH (CH
3
)
3
CO + H
2

The acetone produced in the reactor passes into a phase separator and then into a separation
system that includes one stripping and two distillation columns. A recycle stream takes a
mixture of unreacted isopropyl alcohol and water, with a trace amount of acetone, back into a
mixer that feeds the reaction system. Using the catalyst which will be employed throughout
this analysis, the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of isopropanol and
has an Arrhenius dependence on temperature with E=72.38 MJ/kmol and k=351,000 cubic m
gas/cubic m reactor sec.
Reason for selecting the process: (Catalytic dehydrogenation of
Isopropanol): Acetone production from Cumene process is a serious competitor for the
isopropanol dehydrogenation process. Catalytic dehydrogenation of isopropanol can be
chosen as a synthetic route when high-purity acetone is required, such as in biomedical
applications. In this process 88% of isopropanol is recycled so this process is cost effective.
Catalytic dehydrogenation of isopropanol gives approx 99% pure product.
Catalytic dehydrogenation of isopropanol: In the simplified process, an aqueous solution
of isopropyl alcohol is fed into the reactor, where the stream is vaporized and reacted over a
solid catalyst at 2 atm. The reactions occurring within the reactor are as follows:
CH
3
-CHOH-CH
3
÷ CH
3
-CO-CH
3
+ H
2

Isopropyl alcohol (IP) Acetone (AC) Hydrogen (HY)
CH
3
-CHOH-CH
3
+ ½ O
2
÷ CH
3
-CO-CH
3
+ H
2
O
IP Acetone Water


Flow Sheet of Acetone Production

Process Description:
Feed drum is a kind of tank used for the mixing of the recycle stream and feed stream.
Recycle stream concentration was assumed to be same with the feed stream. The temperature
of the feed stream is assumed to be 25
0
C at 2 bar pressure, which is assumed to be constant.
The temperature of recycle stream was calculated as 111.5
0
C. The temperature of the leaving
stream was calculated as 32.89
0
C, by the energy balance around feed drum. In the vaporizer
molten salt was used for heating. The temperature at the entrance of the unit is the
temperature of the mixture leaving the feed drum, which is 32.89
0
C. And the leaving
temperature is the bubble point temperature of the mixture, which is 109.5
0
C. The pressure is
2 bars, and assumed to be constant. Since the temperature leaving the vaporizer is not enough
for the reaction a pre-heat was used. The unit is working at 2 bars, and assumed to be
constant. The entrance and leaving temperatures are 109.5
0
C and 325
0
C. The reactor was the
starting point for the calculations. The temperature values for the entering and leaving
streams were found from literature, which are 325
0
C and 350
0
C, respectively. The reaction
taken place inside is endothermic, for this reason the reactor has to be heated. For heating,
molten salt was used. The pressure is 1.8 bar, and assumed to be constant. The entrance
temperature of the cooler is 350
0
C and leaving is 94.7
0
C. For cooling, water was used.
Instead of water a refrigerant may be used. Better results may get. But since it costs too
much, it wasn‟t chosen as the cooling material. From the temperature values it‟s easily seen
that the load is on the cooler not on the condenser, for this process. But in reality the unit
cannot cool that much, and the load is mostly on the condenser. In this process, the mixture
cooled down to its dew point. The pressure is 1,5 bar, and assumed to be constant.- 5 - The
temperature of the entering stream is the dew point and the leaving temperature is the bubble
point of the mixture. In the condenser water was used as cooling material. In the calculation
of the dew and bubble points Antoine Equation was used. Trial and error was used with the
help of Excel. The mixture includes acetone, i- propyl -alcohol, water and hydrogen. But
hydrogen was not taken into consideration in the calculations. Since the condensation
temperature of hydrogen is very low, it is not condense in the condenser. It stays in the for
this reasons it has no affect on bubble and dew point calculations. Also since it does not
affect the temperature calculations it‟s not taken into consideration on mole and mass fraction
calculations. The leaving and entering temperatures are 94.70
0
C and 81
0
C, respectively. The
pressure is 1.5 bar, and assumed to be constant. Flash unit was assumed to be isothermal, for
this reason temperature was not changed. It is 81
0
C in the entrance and exit. The pressure is
1.5 bar, and assumed to be constant. By trial and error method, (V / F) value was found to be
0.2. The entrance temperature of the unit is the bubble point of the mixture, but if it was its
dew point the (V/F) value would be much higher. Scrubber was assumed to be adiabatic. The
temperature of water entering the unit was assumed to be 25
0
C. The temperature of the off
gas, including hydrogen and a very little amount of acetone, was assumed to 70
0
C. But this
assumption is too high, a lower temperature should have been assumed, since a lot of water is
used in the unit. It should have been around 40
0
C – 50
0
C. The temperature of the leaving
stream was found to be 28.1
0
C.The pressure of the unit is 1.5 bar, and assumed to be
constant

Raw Material
Propylene or ISO-propyl alcohol is the only raw material used for manufacturing of acetone
in the presence of a catalyst. Packaging materials are required for delivering this product. The
annual materials requirement and cost of the plant is given in Table 4.1.
ANNUAL CONSUMPTION OF RAW MATERIALS AND COST
ANNUAL CONSUMPTION
OF RAW MATERIALS AND
COST Description
Unit of
meas.
Qty. Cost in '000 Birr
F.C L.C T.C
Propylene tonnes 120 918 162 1080
Catalyst (silver or copper) " 0.5 17 3 20
Water
m
3

80 - 0.26 0.26
Packaging Barrel 625 - 188 188
Total 935 353.26 1288.26













7.2 MATERIAL BALANCE:
7.2.1 Material Balance on Reactor:
CONVERSION = 90%

N
acetron5
= 100*0.9 =90kmole/hr
N
h25
=100*0.9 =90 kmole/hr
N
H2o 5
=49.25kmole/hr
N
ipa
=100*0.1= 10 kmole/hr
N
total
= n
aceton
+n
h2o
+ n
h2 5
+n
ipa
=239.25kmole/hr

Y
acetone
=90/239.25= 0.376
Y
h2 5
=90/239.25 =.376
Y
H2o
= 49.25/239.25= o.206
y
ipa
=10/239.25 =0.042





7.2.2 Material Balance on Flash Unit:

It is assume that there is no change at temp. and pressure.
K
i =
= p
i
*
/p
p
= y
i
/x
i
(at bubble point = 81
0
c)
For Acetone
Logp
*
aceton
=7.0947 – 1161/ (224+81)
P
*
aceton
= 1651.6mmHg
K
aceton
=1651.6/ ((1.5/1.013)*760) = 1.467
For IPA
Log p
*
= 8.37895- 1788.02/ (227.438+81)
P
*
ipa
=381`.89 mmHg
K
ipa
= 381.89/1125.092 =0.339
For H
2
O
Log p
*
H2O
= 7.96681 – 1668.21/ (228+81)
P
*
H2O
= 369.89
K
H2O
= 369.89/1125.092 = 0.328
For Trail error
F/V = 0.2
Ft= n
acetone
+n
H2O
+ n
ipa
=149.25
F = V + L
V/F =0.2
Solving
V = 29.85kmole/hr , L= 119.4 Kmole/ hr
Y
V
= K * x
l
F*Z
F
= V
x
*y
v
+ z* x
l

For Acetone

Y
v =
1.467 * x
L
90=29.85 yv

+ 119.4* x
L
After solving

X
l
=0.551
Y
v
= 0.809
For IPA
Y
v =
0.339 * xL
10= 29.85 * y
v
+ 119.4 * x
l

After solving
X
l =
=0.077 Yv = 0.026
For water
Y
v
= 0.328 *x
l

49.25 = 29.85 * y
v
+ 119.4 * x
l

X
l
= o.381
Y
v
= o.125


At Stream 8:
V= 29.85 kmol/hr.
Y
acetone
= 0.809
N
acetone8
= (0.809)*(29.85) = 24.148 kmol/hr
Y
ipa
= 0.026
N
ipa8
= 0.026*29.85= 0.766 kmol/hr
Y
H2O
=0.125
N
H2O
= (0.125)*(29.85) =3.731kmol/hr
At Stream 9
L= 119.4kmol/hr
X
acetone
=0.551 n
acetone
= (0.551)*(119.4) = 65.789 kmol/hr
X
ipa
=0.077 n
ipa9
= (0.077)*(119.4) = 9.149 kmol/hr
X
water
=0.381 n
acetone
= (0.381)*(119.4) = 45.491 kmol/hr










7.2.3 Material balance for Scrubber:
T=(81
o
C) = 354.15 K, P=1.5bar
Assume: 1/1000 of inlet acetone is off gas.
N
acetone12
= 0.024148 kmol/hr
N
acetone10
=24.148-0.024148=24.124kmol/hr

N
total
= n
acetone
+n
H2,8
+n
H2O
+n
ipa
24.148+90+3.731+0.776 = 118.655 kmol/hr
n
acetone12
= n
acetone12
+n
H2,12
0.024148+90 = 90.024kmol/hr
Y
acetone
=0.024148/90.024= 2.68*10
-4
Y
acetone8
= 24.148/118.655 =0.203
Y
acetone12
/ Y
acetone8
=1-A/1-A
6
Where A =L
11
/m* V
8

M= e
(10.92-3598/T)/P
take P=1.48 T=354.15
M= 1.445
Y
acetone12
/ Y
acetone8
=2.68*10
-4
/0.203 = 1.320*10
-3
= 1-A/1-A
6
From trial error A is found is 3.523
L
11
= m*A*V
8
= 1.445*3.523*118.655 = 604.041 kmol/hr
N
H2O10
= n
H2O8
+ n
H2O11
3.731+604.041 =607.772 kmol/hr
N
total10
= n
acetone10
+n
H2,10
+n
ipa10


24.124+607.772+0.776= 632.6724 kmol/hr
7.2.4 Material balance for Acetone Column
N
acetone13
= N
acetone9
+n
acetone10
= 65.789+24.124= 89.913kmol/hr
N
ipa13
= N
ipa9
+ N
ipa10
= 9.194+0.776 = 9.97 kmol/hr
N
H2o13
= N
H2o9
+ N
H2o10
= 45.491+607.772=653.263 kmol/hr

Assume: 1/1000 of acetone is in bottom product.
N
acetone15
=89.913/1000= 0.089kmol/hr
N
acetone14
= 89.913-0.089= 89.824kmol/hr
Since acetone purity is 99%.
N
ipa14
=89.824*(0.01/.99)= 0.907kmol/hr
N
ipa15
=n
ipa13
-n
ipa14
=9.97-0.907=9.063kmol/hr
N
H2O15
=n
H2o13
=653.263kmol/hr
7.2.5 Material Balance for IPA column:

All the ipa is at the top product
N
ipa17
= n
ipa 15 =
9.063 kmole/hr
N
acetone17
= n
acetone15
= 0.089kmole/hr
Assume the composition of the recycle stream is as feed stream so that
Y
acetone
= 0.33 y
ipa
=o.67
N
H2O 17
= 9.063 * 0.33/o.67 = 4.469kmole/hr
n
water

=
n
water
- n
water
= 653.263 - 4.464 = 648.729kmole/hr
7.2.6 Material Balance for Feed Drum:
INPUT = OUTPUT
N
ipa 12 =
n
ipa
- n
ipa 17
= 100 - 9.063 = 90.933kmole/hr
N
H2O
= n
H2O
+ n
h2o
17
N
H2O
= 49.25 - 4.464 = 44.786kmole/hr
Sience 115000tonns/day acetone is wanted to produce all of these calculation should be
correlated as this amount, these new value are shown in lable
Amount = 89.824 kmole/hr * 58.08 kg/1 * 1 ton/1000 * 8760/1 yr
= 45700.726 tpy
Scale factor
Sf = (115000ton/yr)/ 45700.726 = 2.516

7.3 ENERGY BALANCE
7.3.1 For Feed Drum

M
H2O
=2029.966kg/hr 1
T=25
0
C
M
ipa=
13749.785kg/hr 2


T=32.89
0
C

M
ipa
=15120.159kg/hr

M
water
=2232.293kg/hr
3
M
ipa
=1370.369kg/hr M
water
=202.326kg/hr

T
ref
=25
0
C C
p.pia
=2497kj/kg C
p.water
=4178kj/kg
For stream 1,2 and 17 calculate C
pmix

C
pmix
= (2497*0.87)+(4178*0.13) =2715 kj/kg
M
total1
=13749.785+2029.966= 15779.75 kg/hr

Feed Drum
M
total2
=15120.154+2232.293=17352.447kg/hr
M
total3
=1370.369+202.326= 1572.695 kg/hr
Q
in
=Q
out
15779.75*2.715*(25-25) +1572.695*2.715*(111.5-25) = 17352.447*2.715*(T-25)
T=32.83
0
C

7.3.2 For Vaporiser:

T=32.83
0
C
M
IPA
=15120.15kg/hr
M
H2O
=2232.293kg/hr
T =109.5
0
C
M
ipa
=15120.154 Kg/hr
M
water
= 2232.293kg/hr
At 32.83
0
c
Cp
ipa =
145kj/kmole K = 2.413 kj/kg K
Cp
H2o
= 4.179 kj/kg K
For Water
Tc = 508.3 K
Tb = 394.399K
ΔH
f
= 39838 kj/kmole
ΔH
vap ,H2O
= H [(Tc-T)/(Tc-Tb)]
o.38

= 41370.970 kj/kmole
= 2296.4731 kj/kg
For IPA
Tc = 647.3 K
Tb = 375K
ΔH
f
= 40683kj/kmole
ΔH
vap , ipa
= 40683[(647.3k-382.5k)/(647.3k-375k)]
0.38

=40253.505 kj/kmol = 66982kj/kg
Q = (m
ipa
* Cp
ipa
* Δ T) + ( m
water
* Cp
w
* ΔT) + (m
w
*Δ H
vep, wat
) + (mp
ipa
* ΔH
vap
,
ipa
)
= 9.652 * 10
6
kj
Molten Salt:
We assume
Δ T = 20
Q = m * Cp
molt.salt
* Δ T
9.652*10^6 kj = 156 kj/kg * m * (20)
M = 309.358 tons
7.3.3 Pre Heater:


T=109.5
0
C T=325
0
C
M
water
=2232.253kg/hr M
water
=15120.154kg/hr
M
ipa
=15120.154kg/hr M
ipa
=2232.293kg/hr

T
ref
=109.5
0
C C
p,pia
=24.6kj/kgk C
pH2O
=2019kj/kgk
Heater
Q=(m
water
*C
pwater
*∆T)+(m
ipa
*C
pipa
*∆T) =[(2232.293*2.468*(325-
109.5)+(15120.154*2.019*215.5)]
= 1.845*10
6
kj
Molten Salt: We assume ∆T= 150
0
C
Q=m*C
p molten salt
*∆T= 1.845*10
6
=156*m*150
M=7.855 ton
7.3.4 For Reactor:
(CH
3
)
2
CHOH (CH
3
)
2
CO+ H
2

COMPOUND N
in
kmol/hr H
f
kj/kmol N
out
kmol/hr

(CH
3
)
2
CHOH 251.6 -272.290 25.16

CH
3
)
2
CO 0 -216.685 226.44

H
2
0 0 226.44



T=325
0
C T=350
0
C
M
H2
=435.144kg/hr
M
ipa
=1512.015kg/hr
M
ipa
=15120.154kg/hr
M
water
=2232.293kg/hr
M
water
= 2232.293kg/hr
M
acetone
=13151.635kg/hr
Reactor


∆H
in ipa
= -272.29+
25

325
(32.427+1.886*10
-1
T+6.405*10
-5
T
2
-9.261*10
-8
T
5
)dT

∆H
in ipa
= -272.29+20.104 = -252186 kj/mol
∆H
out ipa
= -27229+
25

350
(32.427+1886*10
-1
T+6405*10
-5
T
2
-9261*10
-8
T
3
)dT
∆H
out ipa= -
249.691 kj/kmol

∆H
out acetone
= -216.685+
25

350
(71.96+20.1*10
-2
T+12.78*10
-5
T
2
+3.476*10
-8
T
3
)dT
∆H
out acetone
= -182.745 kj/mol
∆H
out H2
=
25

350
(28.84*10
-3
+0.3288*10
-8
T
2
+0.00765*10
-5
T-0.8698*10
-12
T
3
)dT
∆H
out H2
=9.466 kj/kmol
∆H
r
0
=(-216.685kj/kmol)-(-272.29)kj/kmol
∆H
r
0
= 55.605kj/kmol
∆H
r
=226.44*55.685/1 =12591kj
Q= ∑
out
n
i
H
i
- ∑
in
n
i
H
i
+∆H
r
Q= [ 25.16( -249.691)+226.44(-182.745)+226.44(9.466)] – [252.6(-252.106)] +2591.196
Q=30521.67 kj
Molten Salt
C
p
(molten salt b/w 360
0
C- 410
0
C) = 156kj/kg
Q=m*C
p
*∆T
30521.67=156*m*50
M=391.300kg/hr

7.3.5 For Cooler
T = 350
0
C
M
IPA = 1512.015kg/hr
M
H2O
= 2232.293kg/hr T= 94.7
0
c ,
M
acetone
= 13151.635kg/hr m
ipa
=1512.015kg/hr
M
H2
= 455.144kg/hr m
H2O
=2232.293
kg/hr
M
acetone
=13151.635
kg/hr
M
H2
=
455.144kg/hr


Tref = 94.7
0
c
Cp
H2
= 12.608 kj/kg K
Cp
H2O
= 2.035 kj/kg K
Cp
ipa
=2.536kj/kg K
Cp
acetone
= 1.096 kj/kg K
We know
Q =[(m
H2
*Cp
H2
) + (m
H2O
* Cp
H2O
) + (m
ipa
* Cp
ipa
) + (m
acetone
* Cp
acetone
)] * del T
Q = - 10.123 * 10
6
kj
Water
Δ T
water
= 35- 20 =20
Cp
H2O
=4.179 kj/hr
Q = m * Cp
H2o
* Δ T
10.123 *10
6
kg = 4.179kj/kg * m * 20 m = 121.117 ton/hr


7.3.6 For Condencer:

T = 94.7
0
C
T = 81
0
c
M
IPA
=1512.O15Kg/hr
M
H2O
=2232.293 kg/h m
h2o
= 2232.293kg/hr
M
acetone
= 1315.635kg/hr m
acetone
=13151.635kg/hr
M
h2
= 455.144 kg/hr m
H2 =
=455.444k/hr

Log P
*
= a – b/(c+Tdp)
Assumption = P
T
= 1.5 bar = 1125 mmHg
[(y
acetone
* p
t
)/(p
*
acetone
* T
dp
)] + [(y
h2o
* p
t
)/(p
*
water
*Tdp)] + [(y
ipa
* p
t
)/( p
ipa
*
* Tdp)] +
[(y
H2
*p
t
)/(p
H2
*
* Tdp)] = 1
From Literature :
For acetone
A = 7.02447 B = 1161 C = 224
For H2O
A = 7.96681 B = 1668.21 C = 228
For IPA
A = 8.3789 B = 1788.02 C = 227.938
Using y
aceton
= 0.6 y
H2o
= 0.33 y
ipa
= 0.07
By trial error T
dp
= 94.7
0
C
For aceton
At 14.7
0
C & 1.5 bar
Cp
acetone
= 1.297 kg /K
Q
acetone=
= m * Cp * del T
= 13151.6322 * 1.297 [(81+273.15) - (943.7 +273.15)]
= - 233.690 * 10
-6
kj
Δ H
vep
= Δ H
f
[(Tc - T)/(Tc-Tb)]
0.38
= 29140 kj/kmole
Tc 508.1 K Tb= 341.5 K
Δ H
vap =
=28289.029kj/kmole = 487.07 kj/ kg
For IPA
At 94.7
0
c & 1.5 bar
Cp
ipa =
1.761 kj / g KS
Cp
ipa
= 1.761 kj.kg K
Q
ipa =
=1512.015 * 1.761 *(354.15-367.85)
= -36.487 * 10^-3 Kj
∆ H
vep
=delH
f
[(Tc -T)/(Tc –Tb)]
0.38
∆H
F
= 39850 kj/kmole
Tc =508.3K Tb = 366.6K
∆H
vap
= 4116935kg/kmole
∆H
vap
= 685128 kj/kg
For H
2
O
At 94.7
o
C & 1.50bar
Cp
H2o
= 1.898 kj/kgK
Q
H2o
= 2232.293 *1898 *(354.15 -367.85)
= -58.045 *10^3 kj
∆H
vap
= 40683 kj/kmole
Tc = 647.3 K Tb = 385.106K
∆H
VAP
= 40683 * [(6473-354)/(6473-385.126)]
.38
= 42442.0561 kj/kmole
=2356845 kj/lg
For H
2

At 94.7
0
c & 1.5 bar
Cp
H2
= 13.255 kj/kg K
Q
H2
= 435.144 kg * 13225 * (354.15 – 367.85)
= -82.464 * 10
3
kj
∑ m.Cp .∆ T = -410.677 *10
3
kg
∑m
i
∆H
vap
=12.702 * 10
6
kg
Q
TOTAL
= ∑m
i
C
P,t
∆T + ∑m
i .
∆H
vap
=
12.3

*10^6
For H
2
O
∆T for water = (35-15)= 20
Cp
water
=40182 kj/lg
Q = m*Cp
water
*∆ T
682691.799kj = 40182 kj/kg * m *20
m=147.038 ton/day
∆H
vap =
= 40683 *[(647.3 -354)/(647.3 -385.186)]
0.38
=2356.845 kj/kgmole


7.3.7 For Scrubber:
Q
in
= Q
out

T
ref
= 25
0
C
455.144 * 14.419 *(81-25)+ 3528.708 *1.259*(81- 25) + 169.107 * 4.193 *(81-25) +
117.307 * 1.716 *(81-25) = 455.144 *14.401 *(70-25) + 3.485 *1229*(70-25) +
35.25.224 * 1249 *(T-25) + 27547.709 *4.183 *(T -25) + 117.307 * 1710 * (T-25)
4222.8319 = 18777.661 + (T-25)*755114.9
T = 28.1
0
C

7.3.8 For Acetone column:
∆ H
vap
= ∆H
f
[(Tc -T)/(Tc- Tb)]
0.38
Befor the application the boiling temp (Tb) for each of the component must be find at 1.1 bar
pressur.
For the boiling point calculation,
ln p
sat
= A - (B/T ) will be used
Condenser:
For Acetone - P
c
= 47 bar T
c
= 508.1K P= 1.0133 bar T= 329.2K
ln1.0133= A-B/329.2 ln47= A-B/508.1
then A=10.91 B= 3587.3
At 1.1 bar pressure boiling point is- ln1.1= 10.91-(3587.3/T
b
)
T
b
= 331.706K
For ipa
P
c
=47.6 bar T
c
=508.3K
P= 1.0133 bar T= 355.35K
ln1.0133= A-(B/355.35)
ln47.6= A-(B/508.3) A=12.807 B= 4546.375
At 1.1 bar pressure boiling point is
ln1.1 = 12.807-(4546.375/ T
b
) T
b
= 357.653K
Substituting the result to the first equation:
∆H
acetone
= 29140*[(508.1-375.3) / (508.1-331.706) ]
0.38
= 26160195 kj/ kmol
∆H
ipa
= 39858*[(508.3-375.3) / (508.3-357.653) ]
0.38
∆H
ipa
= 38014 kj/kmol
For the mixture:
∆H
mix
= 450.417*0.99+632.618*0.01 = 452.24 kj/kg
M
T
=13263.045kg
For the energy balance of the mixture:
Q= m
T
*∆H
mix
= 6*10
6
kj
For Water:
P
c
= 220.5 bar T
c
= 647.3K P= 1.0133 bar T= 373.15K
ln1.0133= A-(B/373.15)
ln220.5= A-(B/647.3) then A=12.72 B= 4743.39
At 1.1 bar pressure boiling point
ln1.1= 12.72-(4743.39/T
b
) T
b
=375.723K
Reboiler:
∆H
vap, aceton
=29140 *[(508.1-378)/(508.1-331.706)]
0.38
=25956.795 kj/kmole
=446.951 kj/kg

FOR H
2
O
∆H
vap,H2O
= 40683*[ (647.3-378)/(647.1-375.723)]
0.38

∆H
vap, H2O
= 40533.043kj/kgmole = 474.872
∆H
vap, ipa
= 39838 *[(508.3-378)/(508.3-337.653)]
0.38
= 627.722 kj/kmole
Y
acetone
= 4.364 * 10
-4
y
H2O
= 0.955 y
ipa
=0.045
∆H
vap,mix
=

446915 *6364 *10
-4
+ 674872 * 0.955 + 627.722*0.045
=672.945 kj/kg
Balance;
Q = m
t
. ∆ x
vap mix

= 30993.013*672.945
=20.86*10
6
kj

7.3.9 IPA Column
Tb
ipa
= 84.653
0
C Tb
H2o
= 102.723
0
C
∆H
f,H2o


=40683kj/kmole del H
f,ipa
=39858kg/kmole
∆H
f,aceton
= 29140 kj/kmole
∆H
vap,h2o
=40294.194 kj/kmole= 2236.081kj/kg
∆H
vap,ipa
= 38014 kj/kmole = 632.618kj/kg
∆H
vap,acetone
= 26160.195 kj/kmole
sience aceton is neglected
Y
H2O
= 0.13 Y
ipa
= 0.87
∆H
vap,mix
=2236.081*632.618
= 841.068 kj/kg
For the energy balance for mixing
Q = m
T
. ∆H
mix
= 1941.326*841.068 =1.633 *10
6
kj

Reboiler:
ΔH
vap, water =
40683 * [(647.3-384.5)/(647.1-375.723)]0.38
=40179.523 kj/kmole
=2230.892kj/kg
Q = m
T
.ΔH.
vap,water
= 2230.892*29407.290
= 65.604 *10
6
kj







Preliminary equipment summary table for acetone process
Equipment P-401 A/B P-402 A/B V-401 V-402
MOC

Carbon Steel Carbon
steel
Carbon
steel
Carbon
steel
POWER(Shaft)
(KW)
0.43 1.58 _ _
Efficiency

40% 50% _ _
Type/Drive

Centrifugal/
Electric
Centifugal/
Electric
_ _
Op.Temreperatu
(
0
C)
32 360 32 20
Pressure In
(bar)
1.25 1.90 _ _
Pressure Out
(bar)
3.10 3.30 _ _
Diameter(m) _ _ 0.80 0.75
Height/Length
(m)
_ _ 2.40 2.25
Orietionnt _ _ Horizontal
Horizontal
Intenals _ _ _ SS
Demister
Op. Pressure
(bar)
_ _ 1.0 1.63
Maximum
Allowable
Op.Prs.(bar)
_ _ 3.0 3.2





Preliminary equipment summary table for acetone process
(cont’d)
Equipment

T-401 H-401 R-401
MOC

Corban steel Carbon steel Carbon steel
Diameter

0.32 _ Width=4.57m
Height/Length(m)

3.20 _ Depth=6.10m
Height=5m
Orientation

vertical _

Vertical
Internals

2.5m of packing
(1”Ceremic
Rashing Rings)

_
Fluidized bed
Containing 7.5m
3
of
catalyst+7.8m
3
of
inert particle
HTA=188m
2

Op. Pressure
(bar)

1.6 3.0
Tube side
2.16 in bed
2.70 in tube

Maximum
Allowable
Op.prs.(bar)

3.2 4.0 3.2 in bed

4.0 in bed
Type

_ Fired heat _
Design
Duty(Mj/h)
_ 3436 3436
Maximum Duty
(Mj/h)
_ 3800 _
Area Radiant
(m
2
)
_ 13.0 _
Area Convectiv
(m
2
)
_ 37.0 _


Design Calculations
Vertical Tube Vaporizer

Conditions
Vapor leaves at 2.16 bar and 101°C (saturated vapor). The shell side is assumed to be well
mixed and at 101°C.
Heat Transfer Calculations
1. Regulate steam pressure to give a 10°C temperature driving force ¬T sat = 111°C which
corresponds to a P sat = 1.48 bar.
2. Heat Duty = 2850 MJ/h , C
pl
= 2880 J/kgºC
3. Limiting heat transfer resistance is on boiling organic side, s
hell
= 1000 W/m
2
shell °C.
U~h shell = 1000 W/m
2
°C
AT
ln
= AT = 10°C
A=Q/U•AT
lm
(F=1)
= 2850×10 6 /3600/1000/10 = 79.2 m
2


111
0
c
101
0
c
T

32
0
c
Lenth along tubes

Note: over the range of ∆T = 7 to 25
0
c it is known that h·AT
1/3
for boiling isopropanol.












Shell side well mixed
Reactor
Heat Transfer Calculations
Assume that the fluidized bed is well mixed, thus the feed gas immediately heats to the
reactor temperature of 350°C. The molten salt approach temperature is 10°C and therefore
the molten salt temperature leaving the reactor is 360°C. The temperature vs. Q diagram is
shown below:

T
in
360
0
c
350
0
c 350
0
c

101
0
c
Length of reactor
Q=3436 MJ/h
Cp,gas = 1780 J/kgºC (inlet) and 2500 J/kgºC (outlet)
Use Hi Tec
TM
molten salt with the following average physical properties:
C p = 1.72 kJ/kg K, µ = 1980 kg/m
3
, µ = 2.1 cP,
Maximum operating temperature = 1000°C
Use a AT = 50°C for the circulating salt Tin = 410°C
AT
lm
= (410-360)/ln[(410-350)/(360-350)] = 27.9°C

Energy balance on molten salt
Q=MC
p
AT¬ 3436×10
6
= (M)(1720)(50)
M = 39,950 kg/h = 11.10 kg/s
Vol flow of salt = M/µ = 11.10/1980=5.605×10
-3
m
3
/s
Evaluation of U
Fluidized Bed to tube wall, ho = 200 W/m
2
°C
[this will not change much with fluidization velocity in the range of 2 – 5 u
mf
]
Inside heat transfer coefficient [molten salt to wall], h i = ?
Assume that the velocity in the tubes is 2 ft/s = 0.61 m/s
Use ½” diameter tube 18 BWG with inside diameter = 0.01021 m
Re = (0.61)(0.01021)(1980)/(0.0021) =5872
Nu = 0.023Re 0.8 Pr 0.33 = (.023)(5872) 0.8 (1720×0.0021/0.606) 0.33 = 42.9
(actually Seider-Tate is only good for Re>10,000 - check this later)
h
i
= Nu[k/d] = (42.9)(0.606)/(.01021) = 2546 W/m
2
°C
Below 500°C molten salt should not foul so h f = very large Overall heat transfer coefficient,
U = [d
0
/(d
i
h
i
) + 1/h
o
]
-1
= [1.244/2546+1/200]
-1
= 182 W/m
2
°C
Heat transfer area, Ao = Q/Uo AT lm = (3436×10)/[(3600)(182)(27.9)] = 188 m
2




Check tube arrangement and molten salt velocity
External surface area of 20 ft tubes =•tdoL = (3.142)(0.0127)(20)(0.3048) = 0.243 m
2

Number of tubes = (188)/(0.243) = 773
Use 110 parallel sets of 7 tubes piped in series
Cross sectional area (csa) for flow of molten salt = (110)(3.142)(0.01021)
2
/4 = 0.0090 m
2

Velocity of molten salt in tubes = 5.605×10
-3
/0.0090 = 0.622 m/s
This gives Re = 5988 and Nu = 43.6 and h
i
= 2588 and U = 182 W/m
2
°C no change
For Re<10,000 we should use correlation from Walas [1]:
Nu=0.012[Re
0.87
÷280]Pr
0.4
[1-(d/L)
2/3
]
This gives Nu = 41.1 and h = 2438, thus U = 181 W/m 2 °C same as before.
Arrangement of tubes in Fluidized Bed

110 parallel banks of 7 tubes in Fluidized Bed Reactor



Height of Catalyst and Filler in Bed
Use a square tube pitch of 1.5 inches
Dimensions of tube bank are 110×1.5/12 by 7×1.5/12 by 20 ft = 13.75 by 0.875 by 20 ft
Assume bed width and depth of 15 by 20 ft respectively
Volume of solids to just cover the tubes, assuming bottom row of tubes is 6” from distributor
plate and 6” of solids above tube bank = Vsol
V sol = (15)(20)(1+0.875) – volume occupied by tubes
= 562.5 – (770)(20)(•)(0.5)
2
/(4×144) = 541.5 ft 2 = 15.3 m
3
Calculate the amount of catalyst required for 90% conversion
For a first order, isothermal, irreversible reaction at constant pressure we have the following
expression for the conversion of component A,X
A
:
Kτ = (1+ԑ
A
)ln (1/1-X
A
)-ԑ
A
X
A
From the kinetics expression, at a reactor temperature of 350°C, we have:
k=k
0exp
[-E
a
/RT] =3.51×10
5
exp[72,380/ (8.314)(273+350)]
=0.2996m
3
gas/m
3
bulk catalyst
ԑ
A
= (number of mole if completely reacted – number of moles initially)/ number of moles
initially
= (96.48-57.84)/(57.84)=0.668
Using above values and 90% conversion we get:
Kτ = (1+0.668)ln (1/1-0.9)-(0.668)(0.9)=3.2395
τ =(3.2395)/(0.2996) =10.813 m
3
bulk catalyst s/ m
3
gas
V
catalyst =
υ
gas
τ

Now the volumetric flow rate of gas, υ
gas
=0.696 m
3
/s
V
catalyst =
(0.696)(10.83) =7.5 m
3
bulk catalyst
Amount of catalyst required is 7.5 m
3
, therefore we must add 7.8 m
3
of inert filter to give a
total of 15.3 m
3
of bed solids. This will give a slumped bed height approximately 6 above the
top of the tube bank.
Check minimum fluidizing velocity
Cross sectional area (csa) of bed = 300 ft
2
= 27.9 m
2
Properties of gas flowing through fluidized bed:
µ= 1.067 kg/m
3
, µ= 18.2×10
-6
kg/m.s
flow of gas = 2670 kg/h
vol flow of gas = (2670)/[(1.067)(3600)] = 0.696 m
3
/s
Superficial gas velocity, u = (0.696)/(27.9) = 0.0250 m/s
catalyst particles are approximately 100 •m in diameter, and have a density of 2500 kg/m
3

and bulk density of 1200 kg/m
3
. Calculate minimum fluidizing velocity using the correlation
due to Wen and Yu [2]
Re
pmf
= [33.7
2
+ 0.0408Ar]
1/2
-33.7 where Ar = d
p
3
ρ
g

s

g
)g/µ
2
Ar = (10
-4
)
3
(1.067)(2500 – 1.067)(9.81)/(18.2×10
-6
)
2
= 78.97
Re pmf = [33.7
2
+0.0408(78.97)]
1/2
– 33.7 = 0.0478
u
mf
= (0.0478)(18.2×10
-6
)/[(1.067)(10
-4
)] = 0.00815 m/s
u/u mf = 0.0250/0.00815 = 3.06 ¬ O.K.
Cyclones can handle solids and gas in the range 1< u/u mf <5
Pressure Drop Across Fluidized Bed
Height of solids in fluidized bed = 1.875 ft = 0.57 m
AP
bed
= =hµ
bulk
g = (0.57)(1200)(9.81) = 6727 Pa = 0.067 bar
Distributor loss = 0.6 AP
bed
= 0.040 bar
Internal cyclone losses = 0.14 bar
(The design of the cyclones has been based on a maximum superficial gas velocity of 5u
mf
)
Total loss across bed = 0.067 + 0.040 + 0.14 ~0.25 bar
Use a reactor height of 5.0 m to accommodate solids bed, plenum, freeboard, and cyclones.
Pressure Drop of Molten Salt through Heat Transfer Tubes
Re for molten salt flow = 5988
Roughness of drawn tubes, e = 0.0015 mm
e/d = 0.0015/10.21 = 0.00015
f = 0.0087
d = 0.01021 m
µ = 1980 kg/m
3

Leq = length of tube + equivalent length of 12-90° bends = (7)(20)(.3048) + (12)(30d)
= 46.3m
AP
f
= 2µfL
eq
u
2
/d = (2)(1980)(0.0087)(46.3)(0.622)
2
/(0.01021) = 60443 Pa = 60.4 kPa


UTILITIES
Utilities required for manufacturing acetone include electric power, potable and cooling
water, and steam.

Electricity
The power required for electrochemical processes; motor drives, lighting, and general use,
may be generated on site, but will more usually be purchased from the local supply company
(the national grid system in the UK). The economics of power generation on site are
discussed by Caudle (1975). The voltage at which the supply is taken or generated will
depend on the demand. For a large site the supply will be taken at a very high voltage,
typically 11,000 or 33,000 V.
Transformers will be used to step down the supply voltage to the voltages used on the site. In
the United Kingdom a three-phase 415-V system is used for general industrial purposes, and
240-V single-phase for lighting and other low-power requirements. If a number of large
motors is used, a supply at an intermediate high voltage will also be provided, typically 6000
or 11,000 V.
A detailed account of the factors to be considered when designing electrical distribution
systems for chemical process plants, and the equipment used (transformers, switch gearand
cables), is given by Silverman (1964).

Water:
Cooling water
Natural and forced-draft cooling towers are generally used to provide the cooling water
required on a site; unless water can be drawn from a convenient river or lake in sufficient
quantity. Sea water, or brackish water, can be used at coastal sites, but if used directly
will necessitate the use of more expensive materials of construction for heat exchangers
Water for general use
The water required for general purposes on a site will usually be taken from the local
mains supply, unless a cheaper source of suitable quality water is available from a river,
lake or well.


Demineralised water
Demineralised water, from which all the minerals have been removed by ion-exchange,
is used where pure water is needed for process use, and as boiler feed-water. Mixed and
Multiple-bed ion-exchange units are used; one resin converting the cations to hydrogen
and the other removing the acid radicals. Water with less than 1 part per million of
dissolved solids can be produced.
ANNUAL CONSUMPTION OF UTILITIES AND COST
Description

Unit of
Measure
Qty.

Cost in '000 Birr

Electricity

kWh

33,100

16

Furnace oil

m
3


140

757
Water

m
3


15,040

83
Total

856

Control and instrumentation
Instrumentation is provided to monitor the key process variables during the plant operations.
They may be incorporated in automatic control loops, or used for the manual monitoring of
the process operation. They may also be part of an automatic computer data logging system.
Instruments monitoring critical process variables will be fitted automatic alarms to alert the
operations to critical and hazardous situation.
It is desirable that the process variable to be monitored be measured directly ; often however,
this is impractical and some dependent variables, i.e. easier to measure, is monitored in its
place for example, in the control of the distillation columns the continuous , online analysis
of the overhead product is desirable but difficult and expensive to achieve reliably, so
temperature is often monitored as an indication of composition . The temperature instrument
may form a part of a control loop controlling, say reflux flow; with the composition of the
overhead checked frequently by sampling and laboratory analysis.
Instrumentation and Control Objectives
The primary objectives of the designer when specifying instrumentation and control
objectives are;
1. Safe Plant Operation:
- To keep the process variables within known safe operating limits.
- To detect dangerous situations as they develop and to provide alarms and automatic
shutdown systems.
- To provide interlocks and alarms to prevent dangerous operating procedures.
2. Production Rate:
To achieve the design product output.
3. Product Qualities:
To maintain the product composition within the specified quality standards.
4. Costs:
To operate at the lowest production cost, commensurate with the other objectives.
These are not separate objectives and must be considered together.
The order in which they are listed is not mean to employ the precedence of any objective over
another, other than that of putting safety first.
Product quality, production rate and the cost of production will be dependent on sale
requirement. For example, it may be better strategy to produce a better quality product at a
higher cost in a typical chemical processing plant these objectives are achieved by a
combination of automatic control , manual monitoring and laboratory analysis .
Automatic Control System:
The detail design and specification of the automatic control schemes for a large product is
usually done by specialists.
Guide Rule:
The following procedure can be used when drawing up preliminary P&I DIAGRAM:
1. Identify and draw in those control loops that are obviously needed for steady state plant
operation such as:
- Level control
- Flow control
- Pressure control
- Temperature control
2. Identify the key process variables that need to be controlled to be achieved the specified
product quality. Include control loops using direct measurement of the controlled variable,
where possible; if not practicable, select a suitable dependent variable.
3. Identify and include those additional control loops required for safe operation.
4. Decide and show those ancillary instruments needed for the monitoring of the plant
operation by operators; and for trouble shooting and plant development .It is well worthwhile
including additional connection for instruments which may be needed for future trouble
shooting and plant development, even if the instruments are not installed permanently. This
would include: extra thermo wells, pressure tapings, orifice flanges, and extra sample points.
5. Decide on the location of the sample points.
6. Decide on the need for recorders and the location of the read out points, local or control
rooms. This step would be done in conjunctions with step 1 to 4.
7. Decide on the alarms and interlocks needed; this would be done in conjunction with step 3.


9.3 Typical Control System:
Level Control:
In any equipment where an interface exists between two phase (e.g. liquid –vapour), some
means of maintaining the interface at required level must be provided. This may be
incorporated in the design of the equipment. Figure shows a typical arrangement, as is usually
done for the decanters by automatic control of the flow from the equipment.
Level control arrangement finds position at the base of column. The control valve should be
placed on the discharge line from the pump.
Pressure Control:
Pressure control will be necessary for the most systems handling vapour of gas. The method
of control will depend on the nature of the process. Typical schemes are proposed. When
vented gas was toxic, or valuable. In these circumstances the vent should be taken to a vent
recovery system, such as scrubber.
Flow Control:
Flow control is usually associated with inventory control in a storage tank or other
equipment. There must be a reservoir to take up the charge ion flow rate.
To provide flow control on a compressor or pump running at a fixed speed and supplying a
near constant column output ,a by pass control would we used.
Heat exchangers:
In the simplest arrangement, the temperature being controlled by varying the flow of the
cooling and heating medium. If the exchange is between two process streams whose flow are
fixed, by-pass control will have to be used.
Condenser Control:
Temperature control is unlikely to be effective for condensers, unless the liquid streams are
sub cooled. Pressure control is often used or control an be based on the outlet coolant
temperature.
Reboiler And Vaporizer:
As with condensers, temperature control is not effective as the saturated vapour temperature
is constant at constant pressure. Level control is often used for vaporizers ; the controller
controlling the stream supply to the heating surface , with the liquid feed to vaporizer on flow
control. An increase in the feed results in an automatic increases in stream to the vaporizer
the increased flow and maintains the level constant.

Cascade Control:
With this arrangement, the output of one controller is used to adjust the set point .cascade
control can give smoother control in situation by direct control of the variable would lead to a
unstable operation. The “Slave” controller can be used to compensate for any short –term
variations in, say, a service. Stream flow, which would offset the controlled variable; the
primary (master) controller long term variations.
Ratio Control:
Ratio control can be used for it is used where it is desired to maintain two flows at a constant
ratio; for example, Reactor feeds and distillation column reflux.
Distillation Column Control:
The primary objective of distillation column control is to maintain the specified composition
the top and bottom products, and any side streams; correcting for the effects of disturbances
in:
. Feed flow rate, composition and temperature.
. Stream supply pressure
. Cooling water pressure and heater temperatures.
. Ambient composition, which cause changes in internal reflux.
The compositions are controlled by regulating reflux flow and boil up. The column overall
material balance must be controlled; distillation column has little surge capacity (hold up)
and the flow of distillate and bottom product (and side streams). Must match the feed flows.
A variety of control schemes has been devised for distillation column control. Column
pressure is normally controlled at a constant value.
The feed flow –rate is often set by the level controller on a preceding column. it can be
independently controlled if the column is fed from a storage or surge tank. feed temperature
is not normally controlled, unless a feed preheated is used.
Temperature is often as an indication of composition. The temperature sensor should be
located at the position in the column where the rate of change of temperature with change in
composition of the key component is maximum. Near top and bottom of the column the
change is usually small .with multicomponent systems, temperature is not unique function of
the composition. Top temperature is usually controlled by varying the reflux ratio, the bottom
temperature by varying the boil-up rate. If reliable on-line analyzers are variables they can be
incorporated in the control loop, but more complex equipment will be needed.
Differential pressure control is often used on packed columns to ensure the packing operates
at the correct loading.
Addition temperature indication or recording points should be included up the column for
monitoring column performance and for troubleshooting.
Reactors Control:
The schemes used for reactor control depend on the process and the type of reactor. If reliable
on-line analyzer is available, and the reactor dynamics are suitable, the product composition
can be Monitored continuously and the reactor conditions and feed flows controlled
automatically to maintain the desired product composition and yield.
Reactor temperature will normally be controlled by regulating the flow of heating or cooling
medium. Pressure is usually held constant. Material balance control will be necessary to
maintain the correct flow of reactants to the reactor and the flow of products and unreacted
materials from reactor.

Alarms, Safety Trips and Interlocks
Alarm:
Alarms are used to alert operators of serious and potentially hazardous deviations in process
conditions. Key instrument are filled with switches and relays to operate audible and visual
alarms on the control panels and enunciators panels, where delay or lack of response, by the
operator is likely to lead to the rapid development of a hazardous situations, the instrument
would be fitted with a trip system to pumps, closing valves, operating emergency systems.

The basic components of the automatic control system are:
1. A sensor to monitor control variable and to provide an output signal when a preset
value is exceeded.
2. A link to transfer the signal to the actuator, usually consisting of a system of
pneumatic or electrical relays
3. An actuator to carry out the required action; close or open a valve, switch off a motor


Safety:
A safety trip can be incorporated in a control loop. In this system, high temperature alarm
operates a solenoid valve, releasing the air on the pneumatic activator, closing the valve on
high temperature. However the safe operation of such a system will be dependent on the
reliability of the control equipment, and for potentially hazardous situation it is better practice
to specify a separate trip system. Provision must be made for the periodic checking of the trip
system to ensure that the system operates when needed.
Interlocks:
Where it is necessary to follow a fixed sequence of operations for example, during a plant
start-up and shut-down , or in batch operations interlocks are included to prevent operators,
departing from the required sequence. They may be incorporated in the control system design
as the pneumatic or electric relays, or may be mechanical interlocks. Special locks with
various properties and key system are available.
Computers and microprocessors an Process Control
Computers are being increasingly used for data logging, process monitoring and control.
They have largely superseded the strip charts and analog controllers seen in the older plants.
The long instrument panels and “mimic” flow charts displays have been replaced by
intelligent video displays units. These provide a window on the process. Operators and
technical supervisors can call up and display any section of the process to review the
operating parameters and adjust control settings. Abnormal and alarm situation are
highlighted and displayed.

Historical operating data is retained in the computer memory. Averages and trends can be
displayed, for plant investigation and trouble shooting.

Software to continuously update and optimize plant performance can be incorporated in the
computer control systems. Programmable logic controllers (PLC‟s) are used for the control
and interlocking of the processes where a sequential operating steps has to be carried out,
such as in the batch processes and in the start-up and shut-down of the continuous process.




SAFETY DATA SHEET
ACETONE
1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE SUBSTANCE/PREPARATION AND THE
COMPANY:
PRODUCT NAME: ACETONE
CHEMICAL NAME 2 : PROPAN-2-ONE
2 HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION:
Highly flammable. Irritating to eyes. Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or
Cracking. Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness.
3. FIRST AID MEASURES:
GENERAL: IN ALL CASES OF DOUBT OR WHEN SYMPTOMS PERSIST, ALWAYS
SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION
IN HALATION: Move affected person to fresh air. If recovery not rapid, seek medical
attention. If breathing stops, provide artificial respiration. Keep affected person warm and at
rest.
IN GESTION: Only when conscious, rinse mouth with plenty of water and give plenty of
water to drink - (approx 500ml). DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. In case of spontaneous
Vomiting, be sure that vomit can freely drain because of danger of suffocation. Keep
patient at rest and obtain medical attention.
SKIN: Remove contaminated clothing. Wash affected area with plenty of soap and water.
Obtain medical attention.
EYES: Rinse immediately with plenty of water for at least 5 minutes while lifting the eye
lids.
Seek medical attention. Continue to rinse.
4. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES:
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: Water spray, fog or mist. Dry chemicals, sand, dolomite etc.
Halon. Powder, foam or CO2.
SPECIAL FIRE FIGHTING
PROCEDURES:
Move container from fire area if it can be done without risk. Take measures to retain water
used for extinguishing. Do not release contaminated water into drains, soil and surface water.
Dispose of contaminated water and soil according to local regulations.

UNUSUAL FIRE & EXPLOSION
HAZARDS:
Forms explosive mixtures with air. Extremely flammable. May explode in a fire. Vapour may
travel considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back.
HAZARDOUS COMBUSTION
PRODUCTS:
Burning may release oxides of carbon and other hazardous gases or vapours.
PROTECTIVE MEASURES IN FIRE: Fire fighters should wear self-contained breathing
apparatus.
6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES:
PERSON AL PRECAUTION IN SPILL: Avoid direct contact with skin, eyes and clothing.
Do not breathe vapour or fumes.
PRECAUTIONS TO PROTECT ENVIRONMENT:
Prevent contamination of soil, drains and surface water.
SPILL CLEAN UP METHOD S: Accidental release measures - avoid ignition sources.
Take-up spillage with absorbent, inert material and place in a suitable and closable labelled
container for recovery or disposal. Wash the area clean with water and detergent, observing
environmental requirements. Absorb small quantities with paper towels or other inert material
and allow to evaporate in safe place (fume hood/cupboard).
7. HANDLING AND STORAGE:
USAGE PRECAUTIONS: HANDLING - Product should be used in accordance with good
industrial principles for handling and storing of hazardous chemicals. Avoid vapour
inhalation, skin and eye contact. Do not use contact lenses. Avoid vapour formation and
ignition sources.
Ensure good ventilation and local exhaust extraction in work place. (engineering controls
must be to explosion/flameproof standard). Earth container and transfer equipment to
eliminate accumulation of static charge.
STORAGE PRECAUTIONS: Avoid direct sunlight. Store in a cool, dry, well ventilated
place, in securely closed original container.
STORAGE CRITERIA: Flammable liquid storage.
8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS AND PERSONAL PROTECTION:
INGREDIENT NAME: CAS No.: STD LT EXP 8 Hrs ST EXP 15 Min
ACETONE 67-64-1 OES 750 ppm 1500 ppm
INGREDIENT COMMENTS: Refer to the current edition of HSE Guidance Note EH
40/200* for occupational exposure limits;
VENTILATION: Work in fume cupboard. Respiratory protection required in insufficiently
ventilated woking areas.
RESPIRATORS: For short periods of work, a suitable RPE fitted with a combination
charcoal or organic vapour cartridge is recommended.
PROTECIVE GLOVES: Use impervious gloves made of butyl rubber of PTFE (teflon).
EYE PROTECTION: Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical!
Where the potential for eye contact exists, splash-proof goggles or face shield must be worn.
OTHER PROTECTION: Wear protective clothing and closed footwear. Wear personal
protective equipment appropriate to the quantity of material handled.
HYGIENIC WORK PRA CTIC ES: DO NOT SMOKE IN WORK AREA!
SKIN PROTECTION - use appropriate barrier cream to prevent defatting and cracking of
skin.










Safety
Flammability
The most common hazard associated with acetone is its extreme flammability. It auto-ignites
at a temperature of 465 °C (869 °F). At temperatures greater than acetone's flash point of −20
°C (−4 °F), air mixtures of between 2.5% and 12.8% acetone, by volume, may explode or
cause a flash fire. Vapors can flow along surfaces to distant ignition sources and flash back.
Static discharge may also ignite acetone vapors.
Health information
Acetone has been studied extensively and is generally recognized to have low acute and
chronic toxicity if ingested and/or inhaled. Inhalation of high concentrations (around 9200
ppm) in the air caused irritation of the throat in humans in as little as 5 minutes. Inhalation of
concentrations of 1000 ppm caused irritation of the eyes and of the throat in less than 1 hour;
however, the inhalation of 500 ppm of acetone in the air caused no symptoms of irritation in
humans even after 2 hours of exposure. Acetone is not currently regarded as a carcinogen, a
mutagenic chemical or a concern for chronic neurotoxicity effects.
Acetone can be found as an ingredient in a variety of consumer products ranging from
cosmetics to processed and unprocessed foods. Acetone has been rated as a GRAS (Generally
Recognized as Safe) substance when present in beverages, baked foods, desserts, and
preserves at concentrations ranging from 5 to 8 mg/L. Additionally, a joint U.S-European
study found that acetone‟s "health hazards are slight.
Toxicology
Acetone is believed to exhibit only slight toxicity in normal use, and there is no strong
evidence of chronic health effects if basic precautions are followed.
At very high vapour concentrations, acetone is irritating and, like many other solvents, may
depress the central nervous system. It is also a severe irritant on contact with eyes, and a
potential pulmonary aspiration risk. In one documented case, ingestion of a substantial
amount of acetone led to systemic toxicity, although the patient eventually fully recovered.
Some sources estimate LD
50
for human ingestion at 1.159 g/kg; LD
50
inhalation by mice is
given as 44 g/m
3
, over 4 hours.
Acetone has been shown to have anticonvulsant effects in animal models of epilepsy, in the
absence of toxicity, when administered in mill molar concentrations. It has been hypothesized
that the high-fat low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet used clinically to control drug-resistant
epilepsy in children works by elevating acetone in the brain.
- EPA EPCRA Delisting (1995). EPA removed acetone from the list of “toxic
chemicals” maintained under Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community
Right to Know Act (EPCRA). In making that decision, EPA conducted an extensive
review of the available toxicity data on acetone and found that acetone “exhibits acute
toxicity only at levels that greatly exceed releases and resultant exposures,” and
further that acetone “exhibits low toxicity in chronic studies.”
- Genotoxicity. Acetone has been tested in more than two dozen in vitro and in vivo
assays. These studies indicate that acetone is not genotoxic.
- Carcinogenicity. EPA in 1995 concluded, “There is currently no evidence to suggest a
concern for carcinogenicity.”(EPCRA Review, described in Section 3.3). NTP
scientists have recommended against chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity testing of
acetone because “the prechronic studies only demonstrated a very mild toxic response
at very high doses in rodents.”
- Neurotoxicity and Developmental Neurotoxicity. The neurotoxic potential of both
acetone and isopropanol, the metabolic precursor of acetone, have been extensively
studied. These studies demonstrate that although exposure to high doses of acetone
may cause transient central nervous system effects, acetone is not a neurotoxicant. A
guideline developmental neurotoxicity study has been conducted with isopropanol,
and no developmental neurotoxic effects were identified, even at the highest dose
tested.
- Environmental. When the EPA exempted acetone from regulation as a volatile
organic compound (VOC) in 1995, EPA stated that this exemption would “contribute
to the achievement of several important environmental goals and would support
EPA‟s pollution prevention efforts.” 60 Fed. Reg. 31,634 (June 16, 1995). 60 Fed.
Reg. 31,634 (June 16, 1995). EPA noted that acetone could be used “as a substitute
for several compounds that are listed as hazardous air pollutants (HAP) under section
112 of the [Clean Air] Act.
Environmental effects
Acetone evaporates rapidly, even from water and soil. Once in the atmosphere, it is degraded
by UV light with a 22-day half-life. Acetone dissipates slowly in soil, animals, or waterways
since it is sometimes consumed by microorganisms, but it is a significant groundwater
contaminant due to its high solubility in water. The LD
50
of acetone for fish is 8.3 g/l of water
(or about 0.8%) over 96 hours, and its environmental half-life is about 1 to 10 days. Acetone
may pose a significant risk of oxygen depletion in aquatic systems due to the microbial
activity consuming it.
Acetone peroxide
When oxidized, acetone forms acetone peroxide as a by-product, which is a highly unstable
compound. It may be formed accidentally, e.g. when waste hydrogen peroxide is poured into
waste solvent containing acetone. Acetone peroxide is more than ten times as sensitive to
friction and shock as nitro-glycerine. Due to its instability, it is rarely used, despite its easy
chemical synthesis
Potential Health Effects

Inhalations
Inhalation of vapors irritates the respiratory tract. May cause coughing, dizziness, dullness,
and headache. Higher concentrations can produce central nervous system depression,
narcosis, and unconsciousness.
Ingestion:
Swallowing small amounts is not likely to produce harmful effects. Ingestion of larger
amounts may produce abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Aspiration into lungs can
produce severe lung damage and is a medical emergency. Other symptoms are expected to
parallel inhalation.

Skin Contact:
Irritating due toe defatting action on skin. Causes redness, pain, drying, and cracking of the
skin.
Eye Contact:
Vapors are irritating to the eyes. Splashes may cause severe irritation, with stinging, tearing,
redness and pain.
Chronic Exposure:
Prolonged or repeated skin contact may produce severe irritation or dermatitis.
Aggravation of Pre-existing conditions
Use of alcoholic beverages toxic effects. Exposure may increase the toxic protentian of
chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as chloroform, trichloroethane
First Aid Measures
Inhalation
Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult,
give oxygen. Get medical attention.
Ingestion
Aspiration hazard. If swallowed, vomiting may occur spontaneously, but DO NOT INDUCE.
If vomiting occurs, keep head below hips to prevent aspiration into lungs. Never give
anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Call a physician immediately.
Skin Contact
Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove
contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical attention. Wash clothing before reuse.
Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse.
Eye Contact
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting upper and lower
eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention.
Fire Fighting Measures
Fire
Flash point: -20
o
C (-4F) CC
Auto ignition temperature: 465
o
C (869 F)
Flammable limits in air % by volume:
Lel : 2,5; uel : 12,8
Extremely flammable liquid and vapor! vapor may cause flash fire

Explosion
Above flash point, vapor-air mixtures are explosive within flammable limits noted above.
Vapors can flow along surfaces to distant ignition source and flash back. Contact with string
oxidizer may cause fire. Sealed containers may rupture when heated. This material may
produce a floating fire hazard. Sensitive to static discharge.
Fire Extinguishing Media
Dry chemical, alcohol foam or carbon dioxide. Water may be ineffective. Water spray may
be used to keep fire exposed containers cool, dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures, protect
personnel attempting to stop leak and disperse vapors.
Special information
In the event of a fore, wear full protective clothing, such as breathing apparatus with full face
piece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Handling and Storage
Protect against physical damage. Store in a cool, dry well-ventilated location, away from any
area where the fire hazard may be a cute. Outside or detached stroge s preferred. Separate
from incompatibles. Containers should be bonded and grounded for transfers to avoid static
sparks. Storage and use areas should be NO SMOKING AREA. Use non-sparking type tools
and equipment, including explosion proof ventilation. Containers of this material may be
hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (vapors, liquid); observe all
warning and precautions listed for the product.
Exposure Controls/Personal Protection
Ventilation system
A system of local and/or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee exposures below
the airborne exposure limits. Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it can
control the emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion of it into the
general work area.
Personal respirators
If the exposure limit is exceeded and engineering controls are not feasible, a half-face organic
vapor respirator may be worn up to ten times the exposure limit, or the maximum use
concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever
is lowest. A full face-piece organic vapor respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure
limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or
respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure
levels are not known, use a full-face piece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
WARNING: air-purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient
atmospheres
Skin Protection
Wear impervious protective clothing, including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron or coveralls, as
appropriate, to prevent skin contact.
Eye contact
Use chemical safety goggles and/or a full face shield where splashing is possible. Maintain
eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.
Stability and Reactivity
Stability
Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage.

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may form when heated to decomposition.
Hazardous Polymerization:
Will not occur.
Incompatibilities:
Concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid mixtures, oxidizing materials, chloroform, alkalis,
chlorine compounds, acids, potassium t-butoxide.
Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, flames, ignition sources and incompatibles





















PLANT LOCATION
The geographical location of the final plant can have strong influence on the success of an
industrial venture. Considerable care must be exercised in selecting the plant site, and many
different factors must be considered. Primarily, the plant should be located where the
minimum cost of production and distribution can be obtained, but other factors, such as room
for expansion and safe living conditions for plant operation as well as the surrounding
community, are also
important.
A general consensus as to the plant location should be obtained before a design project
reaches the detailed estimate stage, and a firm location should be established upon
completion of the detailed-estimate design. The choice of the final site should first be based
on a complete survey of the advantages and disadvantages of various geographical areas and,
ultimately, on the advantages and disadvantages of available real estate. The following
factors should be considered in selecting a plant site:
1. Raw materials availability
2. Markets
3. Energy availability
4. Climate
5. Transportation facilities
6. Water supply
7. Waste disposal
8. Labor supply
9. Taxation and legal restrictions
10. Site characteristics
11. Flood and fire protection.
12. Community factors
PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
The factors that must be evaluated in a plant-location study indicate the need for a vast
amount of information, both quantitative (statistical) and qualitative. Fortunately, a large
number of agencies, public and private, publish useful information of this type greatly
reducing the actual original gathering of the data.



Raw materials availability.
The source of raw materials is one of the most important factors influencing the selection of a
plant site. This is particularly true if large volumes of raw materials are consumed, because
location near the raw-materials source permits considerable reduction in transportation and
storage charges. Attention should be given to the purchased price of the raw materials,
distance from the source of supply, freight or transportation expenses, availability and
reliability of supply, purity of the raw materials, and storage requirements.
Markets
The location of markets or intermediate distribution centers affects the cost of product
distribution and the time required for shipping. Proximity to the major markets is an
important consideration in the selection of a plant site, because the buyer usually finds it
advantageous to purchase from nearby sources. It should be noted that markets are needed for
by-products as well as for major final products.
Energy availability
Power and steam requirements are high in most industrial plants, and fuel is ordinarily
required to supply these utilities. Consequently, power and fuel can be combined as one
major factor in the choice of a plant site. Electrolytic processes require a cheap source of
electricity, and plants using electrolytic processes are often located near large hydroelectric
installations. If the plant requires large quantities of coal or oil, location near a source of fuel
supply may be essential for economic operation. The local cost of power can help determine
whether power should be purchased or self-generated.
Climate
If the plant is located in a cold climate, costs may be increased by the necessity for
construction of protective shelters around the process equipment, and special cooling towers
or air-conditioning equipment may be required if the prevailing temperatures are high.
Excessive humidity or extremes of hot or cold weather can have a serious effect on the
economic operation of a plant, and these factors should be examined when selecting a plant
site.
Transportation facilities
Water, railroads, and highways are the common means of transportation used by major
industrial concerns. The kind and amount of products and raw materials determine the most
suitable type of transportation facilities. In any case, careful attention should be given to local
freight rates and existing railroad lines. The proximity to railroad centers and the possibility
of canal, river, lake, or ocean transport must be considered: Motor trucking.
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
facilities are widely used and can serve as a useful supplement to rail and water facilities. If
possible, the plant site should have access to all three types of transportation, and, certainly,
at least two types should be available. There is usually need for convenient air and rail
transportation facilities between the plant and the main company headquarters, and effective
transportation facilities for the plant personnel are necessary.
Water supply
The process industries use large quantities of water for cooling, washing, steam generation,
and as a raw material. The plant, therefore, must be located where a dependable supply of
water is available. A large river or lake is preferable, although deep wells or artesian wells
may be satisfactory if the amount of water required is not too great. The level of the existing
water table can be checked by consulting the state geological survey, and information on the
constancy of the water table and the year-round capacity of local rivers or lakes should be
obtained. If the water supply shows seasonal fluctuations, it may be desirable to construct a
reservoir or to drill several standby wells. The temperature, mineral content, silt or sand
content, bacteriological content, and cost for supply and purification treatment must also be
considered when choosing a water supply.
Waste disposal
In recent years, many legal restrictions have been placed on the methods for disposing of
waste materials from the process industries. The site selected for a plant should have
adequate capacity and facilities for correct waste disposal. Even though a given area has
minimal restrictions on pollution, it should not be assumed that this condition will continue to
exist. In choosing a plant site, the permissible tolerance levels for various methods of waste
disposal should be considered carefully, and attention should be given to potential
requirements for additional waste-treatment facilities.
Labor supply
The type and supply of labor available in the vicinity of a proposed plant site must be
examined. Consideration should be given to prevailing pay scales, restrictions on number of
hours worked per week, competing industries that can cause dissatisfaction or high turnover
rates among the workers, and variations in the skill and productivity of the workers.




Taxation and legal restrictions
State and local tax rates on property income, unemployment insurance, and similar items
vary from one location to another. Similarly, local regulations on zoning, building codes,
nuisance aspects, and transportation facilities can have a major influence on the final choice
of a plant site. In fact, zoning difficulties and obtaining the many required permits can often
be much more important in terms of cost and time delays than many of the factors discussed
in the preceding sections.
Site characteristics
The characteristics of the land at a proposed plant site should be examined carefully. The
topography of the tract of land and‟ the soil

PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
structure must be considered, since either or both may have a pronounced effect on
construction costs. The cost of the land is important, as well as local building costs and living
conditions. Future changes may make it desirable or necessary to expand the plant facilities.
Therefore, even though no immediate expansion is planned, a new plant should be
constructed at a location where additional space is available.
Flood and fire protection
Many industrial plants are located along rivers or near large bodies of water, and there are
risks of flood or hurricane damage. Before selecting a plant site, the regional history of
natural events of this type should be examined and the consequences of such occurrences
considered.
Protection from losses by fire is another important factor in selecting a plant location. In case
of a major fire, assistance from outside fire departments should be available. Fire hazards in
the immediate area surrounding the plant site must not be overlooked.

Community factors
The character and facilities of a community can have quite an effect on the location of the
plant. If a certain minimum number of facilities for satisfactory living of plant personnel do
not exist, it often becomes a burden for the plant to subsidize such facilities. Cultural
facilities of the community are important to sound growth. Churches, libraries, schools, civic
theaters, concert associations, and other similar groups, if active and dynamic, do much to
make a community progressive. The problem of recreation deserves special consideration.
The efficiency, character, and history of both state and local government should be evaluated.
The existence of low taxes is not in itself a favorable situation unless the community is
already well developed and relatively free of debt.
Selection of the Plant Site
The major factors in the selection of most plant sites are (1) raw materials, (2) markets,
(3) energy supply, (4) climate, (5) transportation facilities, and (6) water supply. For a
preliminary survey, the first four factors should be considered. Thus, on the basis of raw
materials, markets, energy supply, and climate, acceptable locations can usually be reduced to
one or two general geographical regions. For example, a preliminary survey might indicate
that the best location for a particular plant would be in the south-central or south-eastern part
of the United States. In the next step, the effects of transportation facilities and water supply
are taken into account. This permits reduction of the possible plant location to several general
target areas. These areas can then be reduced further by considering all the factors that have
an influence on plant location. As a final step, a detailed analysis of the remaining sites can
be made. Exact data on items such as freight rates, labor conditions, tax rates, price of land,
and general local conditions can be obtained. The various sites can be

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Inspected and appraised on the basis of all the factors influencing the final decision. Many
times, the advantages of locating a new plant on land or near other facilities already owned
by the concern that is building the new plant outweigh the disadvantages of the particular
location. In any case, however, the final decision on selecting the plant site should take into
consideration all the factors that can affect the ultimate success of the overall operation.

PLANT LAYOUT
After the process flow diagrams are completed and before detailed piping, structural, and
electrical design can begin, the layout of process units in a plantand the equipment within
these process units must be planned. This layout can play an important part in determining
construction and manufacturing costs, and thus must be planned carefully with attention
being given to future problems that may arise. Since each plant differs in many ways and no
two plant sites are exactly alike, there is no one ideal plant layout. However, proper layout in
each case will include arrangement of processing areas, storage areas, and handling areas in
efficient coordination and with regard to such factors as:

1. New site development or addition to previously developed site
2. Type and quantity of products to be produced
3. Type of process and product control
4. Operational convenience and accessibility
5. Economic distribution of utilities and services
6. Type of buildings and building-code requirements
7. Health and safety considerations
8. Waste-disposal requirements
9. Auxiliary equipment
10. Space available and space required
11. Roads and railroads
12. Possible future expansion
Preparation of the Layout
Scale drawings, complete with elevation indications can be used for determining the best
location for equipment and facilities. Elementary layouts are developed first. These show the
fundamental relationships between storage space and operating equipment. The next step
requires consideration of the safe operational sequence and gives a primary layout based on
the flow of materials, unit operations, storage, and future expansion. By analyzing all the
factors that are involved in plant layout, a detailed recommendation can be presented, and
drawings and elevations, including isometric drawings of the piping systems, can be
prepared.










FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
The financial analysis of the acetone project is based on the data presented in the previous
chapters and the following assumptions:-
Construction period 1 year
Source of finance 30 % equity
70 % loan
Tax holidays 3 years
Bank interest 8%
Discount cash flow 8.5%
Accounts receivable 30 days
Raw material local 30 days
Raw material, import 90 days
Work in progress 5 days
Finished products 30 days
Cash in hand 5 days
Accounts payable 30 days










A. TOTAL INITIAL INVESTMENT COST
The total investment cost of the project including working capital is estimated at Birr 6.17
million, of which 27 per cent will be required in foreign currency.
The major breakdown of the total initial investment cost is shown in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1
INITIAL INVESTMENT COST
Sr
No.
Cost Items Total Cost („000
Birr)
1 Land lease value 700.0
2 Building and Civil Work 1,500.0
3 Plant Machinery and
Equipment
2,841.2
4 Office Furniture and
Equipment
100.0
5 Vehicle 250.0
6 Pre-production Expenditure* 440.9
7 Working Capital 342.0
Total Investment cost 6,174.2
Foreign Share 27








PRODUCTION COST
The annual production cost at full operation capacity is estimated at Birr 3.29 million (see
Table 7.2). The material and utility cost accounts for 65.16 per cent, while repair and
maintenance take 3.45 per cent of the production cost.
ANNUAL PRODUCTION COST AT FULL CAPACITY ('000 BIRR)
Items Cost %
Raw Material and Inputs 1,288.26 39.15
Utilities 856 26.01
Maintenance and repair 113.65 3.45
Labour direct 147.24 4.47
Factory overheads 49.08 1.49
Administration Costs 98.16 2.98
Total Operating Costs 2,552.39 77.57
Depreciation 484.12 14.71
Cost of Finance 254.09 7.72
Total Production Cost 3,290.60 100

FINANCIAL EVALUATION
1. Profitability
According to the projected income statement, the project will start generating profit in the
first year of operation. Important ratios such as profit to total sales, net profit to equity
(Return on equity) and net profit plus interest on total investment (return on total investment)
show an increasing trend during the life-time of the project.
The income statement and the other indicators of profitability show that the project is viable.
Break-even Analysis
The break-even point of the project including cost of finance when it starts to operate at full
capacity (year 3) is estimated by using income statement projection.
BE = Fixed Cost / (Sales-Variable Cost) = 24 %


3. Pay Back Period
The investment cost and income statement projection are used to project the pay-back period.
The project‟s initial investment will be fully recovered within 6 years.
4. Internal Rate of Return and Net Present Value
Based on the cash flow statement, the calculated IRR of the project is 14 % and the net
present value at 8.5% discount rate is Birr 1.71 million.
D. ECONOMIC BENEFITS
The project can create employment for 20 persons. In addition to supply of the domestic
needs, the project will generate Birr1.2 million in terms of tax revenue. The establishment of
such factory will have a foreign exchange saving effect to the country by substituting the
current imports.
Equipment
Heat Exchanger (E-401):
This unit heats, vaporizes, and superheats the feed to 235°C at 2.2 bar. A pump, which is not
shown and which you do not have to be concerned with this semester, increases the pressure
of the feed to the indicated pressure.

Reactor (R-401):
Following development of a new catalyst, only the following reaction occurs:


acetone IPA
2 3 3 3 3
H COCH CH CHOHCH CH + ÷

(1)

The reaction occurs at 350°C, and the conversion at this temperature is 90%. The reactor exit
pressure is 1.9 bar. The reaction is endothermic with heat being supplied by hot molten salt.
Fired Heater (H-401):
This unit heats the molten salt that provides heat to the reactor. Energy is supplied by
combustion of natural gas, which may be assumed to be pure methane. The molten salt
enters the fired heater at 360°C (Stream 3) and leaves the fired heater at 410°C (Stream 4).
The heat capacity of molten salt is 1.56 J/g K.



Heat Exchanger (E-402):
This unit cools and partially condenses the reactor effluent. None of the hydrogen condenses.
The exit pressure may be at any pressure below 1.6 bar and any temperature below 50°C that
can be achieved by using cooling water (cw) or refrigerated water (rw) is possible.
Separation Vessel (V-401):
This unit disengages the vapor and liquid effluent from E-402. In this separator, all hydrogen
in the feed enters the vapor phase, Stream 7. All other components distribute according to
Raoult‟s Law at the temperature and pressure of E-402. The combination of E-402 and V-
401 is often called a flash operation.

Absorber (T-401):
Here, additional acetone is recovered by absorption into pure process water. The absorber
operates at the same temperature and pressure as V-401 Stream 11 contains all of the
hydrogen and the acetone and water which are not in Stream 10. Stream 10 contains all of
the IPA in Stream 7, 95% of the water in Streams 7 and 9. The amount of acetone in Stream
10 can be calculated from:


6
7
11
1
1
A
A
y
y
stream
stream
÷
÷
= (2)

Where y is the mole fraction of acetone,


mV
L
A = (3)

L is the total molar flowrate of liquid in Stream 9, and V is the total molar flowrate of liquid
in Stream 7. The parameter m is an equilibrium constant that is a function of temperature and
pressure


P
T
m
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
3598
92 . 10 exp
(4)
where T is in Kelvin and P is in atm.
Distillation Column (T-402):
In this distillation column, the acetone, IPA, and water in Stream 12 are separated. The
column operates at 1.4 bar. Specifications are as follows. The acetone must be 99.9 mol%
pure and 99.5 mol% of the acetone in the feed must be recovered in Stream 13. Stream 14
contains most of the water and IPA from Stream 12.

Heat Exchanger (E-403):
In this heat exchanger, the contents of Stream 13 are condensed from saturated vapor to
saturated liquid at a rate three times the flow of Stream 13. The cost is for the amount of
cooling water needed to remove the necessary energy.
Heat Exchanger (E-404):
In this heat exchanger, you may assume that one-half of the flow of Stream 14 is vaporized
from saturated liquid to saturated vapor at 1.4 bar and is returned to the column. The cost is
for the amount of low-pressure steam needed to supply the necessary heat.
An additional distillation column (T-403):
You may choose to add an additional distillation column to process Stream 14 further. This
column can recover a near azeotropic mixture of water and IPA (88 wt% IPA – with all of the
acetone remaining in Stream 14) out of the top, with residual water and IPA out the bottom.
If you choose to do this, you must recycle the IPA/water top product to the beginning of the
process. The bottom product goes to waste water treatment. This distillation column needs
two heat exchangers with similar energy specifications to E-403 and E-404. This distillation
column operates at 1.2 bar. You should only include this column if you decide it to be
economically attractive

Other Equipment
It is required for two streams that mix to be at identical pressures. Pressure reduction may be
accomplished by adding a valve. These valves are not shown on the attached flowsheet, and
it may be assumed that additional valves can be added as needed at no cost. Flow occurs
from higher pressure to lower pressure. Pumps increase the pressure of liquid streams, and
compressors increase the pressure of gas streams. You may assume that a pump exists where
ever you need one. For this semester only, there is no cost for pumps.



Equipment Costs
The equipment costs for the acetone plant are given below. Each cost is for an individual
piece of equipment, including installation.

Equipment

Installed Cost
in millions of $

Reactor, R-401 1.5
Absorber, T-401 0.03
Acetone distillation column T-
402
including reboiler and
condenser
2.8
IPA distillation column T-403
(if added)
including reboiler and
condenser
0.1
Vessel, V-401 0.07
Any heat exchanger 0.05

Fired heater installed cost in dollars:
x
10 11×
where
Q x
10
log 8 . 0 5 . 2 + =
where Q is the heat duty in kW



Utility Costs

Low-Pressure Steam (446 kPa, saturated) $5.00/1000 kg

Medium-Pressure Steam (1135 kPa, saturated) $7.31/1000 kg

High-Pressure Steam (4237 kPa, saturated) $8.65/1000 kg

Natural Gas or Fuel Gas (446 kPa, 25°C) $3.00/GJ

Electricity $0.05/kW h

Boiler Feed Water (at 549 kPa, 90°C) $2.54/1000 kg

Cooling Water $0.16/GJ
available at 516 kPa and 30°C
return pressure > 308 kPa
return temperature should be no more than 15°C above the inlet temperature

Refrigerated Water $1.60/GJ
available at 516 kPa and 10°C
return pressure > 308 kPa
return temperature is no higher than 20°C

Process Water $0.04/1000 kg
available at 300 kPa and 25°C


Data
Use data from Reference [1] or from any handbook (such as Reference [2]). The following
data are not readily available in these references.
Liquid Heat Capacity
For IPA: 145 J/mole K
Vapor Heat Capacity
for IPA: 27.87 + 0.176 + 2.12×10
-4
T

2
- 4.09×10
-7
T

3
J/mole K T (K)
Vapor Pressures – Antoine‟s Equation constants


C T
B
A p
+
÷ =
*
ln (5)
(p
*
in mm Hg, T in K)
A B C
IPA 17.664 3109.3 -73.546
acetone 16.732 2975.9 -34.523


Normal heat of vaporization
for IPA: 56,900 kJ/kmole







Economic Analysis
When evaluating alternative cases, the following objective function should be used. It is the
equivalent annual operating cost (EAOC), and is defined as
EAOC = -(product value - feed cost - other operating costs - capital cost annuity)
A negative EAOC means there is a profit. It is desirable to minimize the EAOC; i.e., a large
negative EAOC is very desirable.
The cost for acetone is $0.88/kg. The cost for IPA is $0.72/kg IPA in the feed solution. The
value for hydrogen is $35/1000 std m
3
.
Other operating costs are utilities, such as steam, cooling water, natural gas, and electricity.
The capital cost annuity is an annual cost (like a car payment) associated with the one-time,
fixed cost of plant construction. A list of capital costs for all pieces of equipment will be
provided by early March.
The capital cost annuity is defined as follows:
Capital cost annuity = 0.2(capital cost)











Cost Data
Raw Materials
Isopropanol (88 – 91 wt%) see Chemical Marketing Reporter
Utility Costs
Low Pressure Steam (618 kPa saturated) $6.62/1000 kg
Medium Pressure Steam (1135 kPa saturated) $7.31/1000 kg
High Pressure Steam (4237 kPa saturated) $8.65/1000 kg
Natural Gas (446 kPa, 25°C) $3.00/GJ
Fuel Gas (use this price for fuel gas credit) $2.75/GJ
Electricity $0.06/kW h
Boiler Feed Water (at 549 kPa, 90°C) $2.54/1000 kg
Cooling Water available at 516 kPa and 30°C $0.16/GJ
return pressure > 308 kPa
return temperature is no more than 15°C above the inlet temperature.
Refrigerated Water available at 516 kPa and 10°C $1.60/GJ
return pressure > 308 kPa
return temperature is no higher than 20°C.
Deionized Water available at 5 bar and 30°C $1.00/1000 kg
Waste Treatment of Off-Gasincinerated - incinerated-take fuel credit
Equipment Costs (Purchased)

Piping $/m = 5.0 (diameter, in)
Valves $100 (flow diameter, in) 0.8 for control valve with orifice plate,
double the price
Pumps $630 (power, kW) 0.4
Heat Exchangers $1030 (area, m 2 ) 0.6 add 25% additional for boilers or evaporators
Compressors $770 (power, kW) 0.96 + $400 (power, kW) 0.6 assume 70%
efficiency
Turbine $2.18•10 5 (power output, MW) 0.6 assume 65% efficiency
Fired Heater $635 (duty, kW) 0.8 assume 80% thermal efficiency assume can
be designed to use any organic compound as a fuel
Vessels $[1.67(0.959 + 0.041P - 8.3•10-6 P 2 )]•10 z z = (3.17 + 0.2D +
0.5 log 10 L + 0.21 log 10 L) D = diameter, m 0.3 m < D < 4.0 m L = height, m 3 < L/D < 20 P =
absolute pressure, bar
Reactor assume to be $1 million











Equipment Cost Factor:
Pressure Factors
Pressure <10 atm,0.0 Does not apply to turbines,
(absolute) 10-20 atm,0.6
compressor,vessels,packing
20-40 atm,3.0 trays or catalysts, since
their 40-50 atm,5.0 cost equations
includepressure
50-100 atm,10 effects.

Material factors
Carbon steel -0.0
Stainless steel- 4.0
Total installed cost=Purchased cost(4+material factor+pressure factor )
Heat Exchangers:
For heat exchangers that do not have to be designed in detail, use the following
approximation for heat transfer coefficients to allow you to determine the heat transfer area
and heat exchanger cost.
SITUATION h(w/m
2
c
0
)
Condensing Steam 6000
Condensing Organic 1000
Boiling Water 7500
Boiling Organic 1000
Flowing Liquid 600
Flowing Gas 60
























SUMMARY
The process purpose is to produce acetone from isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at the given conditions. This report is formed, some properties, manufacturing process of acetone. In manufacturing process, feed drum, vaporizer, heater, reactor, furnace, cooler, condenser, flash unit, scrubber, acetone and IPA columns are used. This profile envisages the establishment of a plant for the production of acetone with a capacity of 100 tons per annum. The present demand for the proposed product is estimated at 70 tons per annum. The demand is expected to reach at 137.7 tones by the year 2017. The plant will create employment opportunities for 20 persons. The total investment requirement is estimated at Birr 6.17 million, out of which Birr 2.84 million is required for plant and machinery. The project is financially viable with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 14 % and a net present value (NPV) of Birr 1.71 million, discounted at 8.5%.

NOMENCLATURE MW=Molecular Weight [kg/kmol] N = mole [mol/h] Y = mol or mass fraction of gas stream X = mol or mass fraction of liquid stream P Tn = Total Pressure [bar] Pi*n= Vapour Pressure of Component [bar] Pv* = Vapour Pressure [bar] F = Feed Flow Rate [k mol/h] V = Flow Rate of Vapour [kmol/h] L = Flow Rate of Liquid [kmol/h] T = Temperature [° C] ∆ Hvap = Latent Heat of Vaporization [kJ/kg] TC = Critical Temperature [° C] PC = Critical Pressure [bar] Tb = Normal Boiling Point [° C] Q = Heat [kJ] M = Mass Flow Rate [kg/h] K = Activity Coefficient

Introduction:Acetone is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO, a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid, the simplest example of the ketones. Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically as the solvent of choice for cleaning purposes in the laboratory. About 6.7 million tons were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner. It is a common building block in organic chemistry. Acetone is naturally produced and disposed of in the human body as a result of normal metabolic processes. It is normally present in blood and urine. Diabetic people produce it in larger amounts. Reproductive toxicity tests show that it has low potential to cause reproductive problems. In fact, the body naturally increases the level of acetone in pregnant women, nursing mothers and children because their higher energy requirements lead to higher levels of acetone production. Ketogenic diets that increase acetone in the body are used to reduce epileptic attacks in infants and children who suffer from recalcitrant refractory epilepsy. Acetone (dimethyl ketone, 2-propane, CH3COCH3) formulation weight 58,079 is the simplest and the most important of the ketones. It is a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid with a mildly pungent and somewhat aromatic odour. It is miscible in all proportions with water and with organic solvents such as ether, methanol, ethyl alcohol, and esters. Acetone is used as a solvent for cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose, as a carrier for acetylene And as a raw material for the chemical synthesis of a wide range of products such as ketene, Methyl methacrylate, bisphenol A, diacetone alcohol mesityl oxide, methyl isobutyl ketone, Hexylene glycol (2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol), and isophorone. Acetone is produced in various ways; 1. The Cumene Hydro peroxide Process for Phenol and Acetone 2. Isopropyl Alcohol Dehydrogenation 3. Direct Oxidation of Hydrocarbons to a Number of Oxygenated Products Including Acetone 4. Catalytic Oxidation of Isopropyl Alcohol 5. Acetone as a By-Product of the Propylene Oxide Process Used by Oxirane 6. The p-Cymene Hydro peroxide Process for p Cresol and Acetone 7. The Diisopropylbenzene Process for Hydroquinone (or Resorcinol) and Acetone In this report isopropyl alcohol dehydrogenation was investigated.

:Colour: Density/specific gravity (g/ml):Melting Point Boiling Point Vapour Pressure: 20Evaporation Rate: Volatile by vol.60C 56.0 Liquid. Materials to avoid: Sources of ignition Potassium sulphate.6 Stability and Reactivity: Stability: Conditions to avoid: Stable under normal conditions of use. Avoid contact with: Strong oxidising agents.130C (at 760 mm Hg) 24 . hydrogen peroxide. .Product Thermal decomposition or burning may release oxides Of carbon and other hazardous gases or vapours . sodium hydroxide. Bromine. Clear. sulphuric acid. Avoid heat. activated Carbon.079 Colourless. Nitric acid. chloroform. Hazardous Decomp.7 KP at Temperature (°C): . Avoid Contact with acids. 100 540 2.79 Temperature (°C): 20 -94.1 13. (%):Solubility description: Solubility Value (g/100g H 2O20°C ):Auto Ignition Temp. 0. 58. flames and other .PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES: Appearance: Molecular wt. (°C):Flammability limit (lower) (%):Flammability limit (upper) (%):10 Miscible with water.

Solvent use: Acetone is a good solvent for most plastics and synthetic fibers including those used in laboratory bottles made of polystyrene. which is esterified: (CH3)2C (OH) CN + CH3OH → CH2= (CH3) CCO2CH3 + NH3 The third major use of acetone (about 20%) entails its condensation with phenol to give bisphenol A (CH3)2CO + 2 C6H5OH → (CH3)2C (C6H4OH) 2 + H2O . It is also useful for high reliability soldering applications to remove solder rosin after soldering is complete. which cannot be safely pressurized as a pure compound. It is used as a volatile component of some paints and varnishes. Storage of acetylene Although flammable itself. vinyl and adhesives. This helps to prevent the Rusty bolt effect from occurring due to dirty solder contacts. One litter of acetone can dissolve around 250 litters of acetylene. It is ideal for thinning fibreglass resin. it also thins polyester resins. the nitrile is hydrolyzed to the unsaturated amide. acetone is also used extensively as a solvent for the safe transporting and storing of acetylene. and a quarter is consumed as a precursor to methyl methacrylate. Vessels containing a porous material are first filled with acetone followed by acetylene. As a heavy-duty degreaser. which dissolves into the acetone. it is useful in the preparation of metal prior to painting. polycarbonate and some types of polypropylene.Uses-: About a third of the world's acetone is used as a solvent. Methyl methacrylate This application begins with the initial conversion of acetone to acetone cyanohydrins: (CH3)2CO + HCN → (CH3)2C (OH) CN In a subsequent step. cleaning fiberglass tools and dissolving two-part epoxies and superglue before hardening.

acetone is used as a polar aprotic solvent in a variety of organic reactions. It is a common solvent for rinsing laboratory glassware because of its low cost and volatility. Make-up artists use acetone to remove skin adhesive from the netting of wigs and moustaches by immersing the item in an acetone bath. Common agents used today for chemical peels are salicylic acid. is sometimes used as well. it is not effective except by bulk displacement and dilution. This process is known as defatting. the toner of the image transfers to the destination surface. The use of acetone solvent is also critical for the Jones oxidation. Laboratory uses In the laboratory. Domestic and other niche uses Acetone is often the primary component in cleaning agents such as nail polish remover. and trichloroacetic acid (TCA). . glycolic acid. Ethyl acetate. the skin should be cleaned properly and excess fat removed. then removing the oftened glue residue with a stiff brush. Acetone is commonly used in chemical peeling. Acetone is a component of superglue remover and it easily removes residues from glass and porcelain. Acetone can be cooled with dry ice to −78 °C without freezing. it does not form an azeotrope with water (see azeotrope (data)). It can be used as an artistic agent. such as SN2 reactions. Medical and cosmetic uses Acetone is used in a variety of general medical and cosmetic applications and is also listed as a component in food additives and food packaging. acetone/dry ice baths are commonly used to conduct reactions at low temperatures. polyurethanes. or a combination of these agents is commonly used in this process. Septisol. and epoxy resins. another organic solvent. when rubbed on the back of a laser print or photocopy placed face-down on another surface and burnished firmly. H\however. Prior to chemexfoliation. Acetone. Despite its common use as a supposed drying agent. Acetone is fluorescent under ultraviolet light.Bisphenol A is a component of many polymers such as polycarbonates. and its vapour may be used as a fluorescent tracer in fluid flow experiments. 30% salicylic acid in ethanol.

7 154.MARKET TREND -: Past Supply and Present Demand The country's requirement for acetone is totally met through import.6 90.5 84.Tons) 41.2 85.0 34.6 52.8 .7 47.5 74.3 57. Data obtained from the Ethiopian Customs Authority with regard to import of acetone for the period covering 1997 2011 is given in Table- IMPORTANCE OF ACETONE YEAR 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 QUANTITY(Mt.8 91.2 70.7 24.3 34.9 80.

. cellulose acetate. In 1998. By looking to the above argument. 1999 and 2000 the import figure dropped to 52.e. an annual average growth rate of 7% (which is recorded by the industrial sector in the past) is applied to arrive at the current (year 2007) demand.2005 import ranges from only 34 tonnes to about 58 tonnes. This clearly indicates that demand for acetone is directly related with the development of the industrial sector.2.e.7 137. the present effective demand is estimated using the following methodology.Projected Demand -: Acetone is used as a solvent in the production of paint. The forecasted demand up to the year 2017 is given in Table 3. the import figure was about 90. Hence.e. some portions of the imports were distributed among the subsequent years in which recorded import figures were found to be comparatively low. import figure in the year 2001 was about 154 tones while in the following four consecutive years.Tons) 98. PROJECT DEMAND OF ACETONE YEAR 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 QUANTITY(Mt. i. lacquer.2006 is taken as an effective demand for the year 2007 since the product is directly related with the growth of the manufacturing sector. i..7 . from 2002 . varnish.3 128. This probably indicates that the high imports in some years were used as buffer stocks for the following years.4 120. 55-6 import figures were much higher than the imports in the following years.2 105. Similarly. i.7 tonnes and 24. Taking this in consideration.7 tonnes respectively.6 tonnes while in the following years. The average import figures in the recent past six years. It is also used to clean dry parts of precision equipments. potassium iodide and permanganate.. annual average growth of 7% is applied to forecast the future demand.1 112. delusterant for cellulose acetate fibre and specification testing of vulcanized rubber products. 2001.

CH3CH═CH2 + H2O CH3CHOHCH3 + O2 CH3COCH3 + H2O2 (d) Oxidation of Isopropyl Benzene (Cumene):Cumene is synthesised from propylene and benzene.H2O2 process: When Glycerine is produced from propylene via acrolein then acetone is produced as a by product. CH3CH2CH2CH3 + O2 CH3COOH + CH3COCH3 CH3COCH3 (c) Co product of Glycerine. The overall reaction is as follows C3H6+1/2O2 (b) Oxidation of Butanol: Catalytic oxidation of n butane using either cobalt or manganese acetate produces acetic acid at 75-80% yield. By products of commercial value are obtained in variable amounts.H2O2 process (d) Oxidation of Butanol (e) Oxidation of Propylene (a) Acetone by oxidation of Propylene: A process for acetone production by direct oxidation of propylene using air. The crude products are then fractionated to get pure acetone and phenol.METHODS OF PRODUCTION:(a) Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Isopropanol (b) Oxidation of Isopropyl benzene (c) Co product of Glycerine. In this process the catalysis consists of a solution of copper chloride containing small quantities of palladium chloride. In the Celanese process the oxidation reaction is performed at a temperature range 150-2250C and pressure of approx 505 atm. followed by oxidation for the formation of hydro peroxide and splitting the same into acetone and phenol. .

Using the catalyst which will be employed throughout this analysis.(e) Dehydrogenation of Isopropanol: Acetone is produced from catalytic dehydrogenation of isopropanol.38 MJ/kmol and k=351.000 cubic m gas/cubic m reactor sec. (CH3)2CHOH (CH3)3CO + H2 The acetone produced in the reactor passes into a phase separator and then into a separation system that includes one stripping and two distillation columns.The crude product obtained from this process is fractioned and pure product is obtained. Catalytic dehydrogenation of isopropanol gives approx 99% pure product. The reactions occurring within the reactor are as follows: CH3-CHOH-CH3 Isopropyl alcohol (IP) CH3-CHOH-CH3 + ½ O2 IP  CH3-CO-CH3 Acetone (AC)  + H2 Hydrogen (HY) CH3-CO-CH3 Acetone + H2O Water . Catalytic dehydrogenation of isopropanol can be chosen as a synthetic route when high-purity acetone is required. A recycle stream takes a mixture of unreacted isopropyl alcohol and water. Reason for selecting the process: (Catalytic dehydrogenation of Isopropanol): Acetone production from Cumene process is a serious competitor for the isopropanol dehydrogenation process. the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of isopropanol and has an Arrhenius dependence on temperature with E=72. an aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol is fed into the reactor. back into a mixer that feeds the reaction system. where the stream is vaporized and reacted over a solid catalyst at 2 atm. such as in biomedical applications. with a trace amount of acetone. In this process 88% of isopropanol is recycled so this process is cost effective. Catalytic dehydrogenation of isopropanol: In the simplified process. The catalyst used in this process is ZNO.

Flow Sheet of Acetone Production .

The pressure is 1. The mixture includes acetone. respectively. The pressure is 1. water was used. Better results may get. The temperature of the feed stream is assumed to be 250C at 2 bar pressure. it is not condense in the condenser. the mixture cooled down to its dew point. and assumed to be constant. it wasn‟t chosen as the cooling material. In this process. which is 109. molten salt was used. for this reason the reactor has to be heated. But hydrogen was not taken into consideration in the calculations.5 bar. It stays in the for this reasons it has no affect on bubble and dew point calculations. The temperature values for the entering and leaving streams were found from literature. and the load is mostly on the condenser.50C. i. For heating.890C. The entrance and leaving temperatures are 109.50C. And the leaving temperature is the bubble point temperature of the mixture.propyl -alcohol. But in reality the unit cannot cool that much. Flash unit was assumed to be isothermal..50 C and 3250 C. respectively. by the energy balance around feed drum. But since it costs too much. and assumed to be constant. for this reason temperature was not changed. and assumed to be constant. (V / F) value was found to be .890C. The temperature of the leaving stream was calculated as 32. which are 3250C and 3500C. The pressure is 2 bars. The temperature at the entrance of the unit is the temperature of the mixture leaving the feed drum. The unit is working at 2 bars. Trial and error was used with the help of Excel. From the temperature values it‟s easily seen that the load is on the cooler not on the condenser. which is 32. In the condenser water was used as cooling material.The temperature of the entering stream is the dew point and the leaving temperature is the bubble point of the mixture. Also since it does not affect the temperature calculations it‟s not taken into consideration on mole and mass fraction calculations. By trial and error method. The reaction taken place inside is endothermic. It is 81 0C in the entrance and exit. for this process.5 bar. The pressure is 1. Instead of water a refrigerant may be used. and assumed to be constant. The entrance temperature of the cooler is 350 0C and leaving is 94. The temperature of recycle stream was calculated as 111. which is assumed to be constant. The pressure is 1. Since the condensation temperature of hydrogen is very low. and assumed to be constant.5 .5 bar. The leaving and entering temperatures are 94. For cooling. In the vaporizer molten salt was used for heating. and assumed to be constant.Process Description: Feed drum is a kind of tank used for the mixing of the recycle stream and feed stream.8 bar. water and hydrogen.70 0C and 81 0C. Since the temperature leaving the vaporizer is not enough for the reaction a pre-heat was used.70C. The reactor was the starting point for the calculations. Recycle stream concentration was assumed to be same with the feed stream. In the calculation of the dew and bubble points Antoine Equation was used.

since a lot of water is used in the unit. but if it was its dew point the (V/F) value would be much higher.1. The temperature of water entering the unit was assumed to be 25 0C. and assumed to be constant Raw Material Propylene or ISO-propyl alcohol is the only raw material used for manufacturing of acetone in the presence of a catalyst. But this assumption is too high.26 T. The entrance temperature of the unit is the bubble point of the mixture.C 1080 20 0. The annual materials requirement and cost of the plant is given in Table 4. The temperature of the off gas. ANNUAL CONSUMPTION OF RAW MATERIALS AND COST ANNUAL CONSUMPTION OF RAW MATERIALS AND COST Description Propylene Catalyst (silver or copper) Water Packaging Total Unit of meas. a lower temperature should have been assumed. It should have been around 40 0C – 50 0C. The temperature of the leaving stream was found to be 28.2.C 162 3 0.26 . F. tonnes " 3 Qty.5 bar. Scrubber was assumed to be adiabatic.1 0C. including hydrogen and a very little amount of acetone.The pressure of the unit is 1.26 1288.0.C 120 0. was assumed to 70 0C.5 80 625 935 Cost in '000 Birr L. Packaging materials are required for delivering this product.26 m Barrel 918 17 - 188 188 353.

25kmole/hr Yacetone =90/239.7.25= o.25 =.9 =90 kmole/hr NH2o 5 =49.25= 0.2.1= 10 kmole/hr Ntotal= naceton +nh2o + nh2 5 +nipa =239.206 yipa=10/239.25kmole/hr Nipa =100*0.2 MATERIAL BALANCE: 7.042 .25 =0.9 =90kmole/hr Nh25 =100*0.1 Material Balance on Reactor: CONVERSION = 90% Nacetron5= 100*0.376 YH2o= 49.25/239.376 Yh2 5=90/239.

02/ (227.092 =0.7. Ki == pi*/pp= yi/xi For Acetone Logp*aceton =7.89 (at bubble point = 810c) .467 For IPA Log p*= 8.0947 – 1161/ (224+81) P*aceton= 1651.96681 – 1668.89/1125.2.1788.37895.6/ ((1.6mmHg Kaceton =1651.89 mmHg Kipa = 381. and pressure.013)*760) = 1.5/1.2 Material Balance on Flash Unit: It is assume that there is no change at temp.438+81) P*ipa =381`.21/ (228+81) P*H2O = 369.339 For H2O Log p*H2O = 7.

551 Yv = 0.467 * xL 90=29.85 * yv + 119.339 * xL 10= 29.2 Solving V = 29.381 Yv = o.026 .89/1125.809 For IPA Yv = 0.328 For Trail error F/V = 0.25 = 29. L= 119.85kmole/hr YV = K * xl F*ZF = Vx *yv + z* xl For Acetone Yv = 1.KH2O = 369.125 Yv = 0.077 For water Yv = 0.2 Ft= nacetone +nH2O + nipa =149.4* xL After solving Xl=0.328 *xl 49.25 F=V+L V/F =0.85 yv + 119.4 * xl After solving Xl ==0.4 Kmole/ hr .092 = 0.4 * xl X l = o.85 * yv + 119.

Yacetone= 0.766 kmol/hr YH2O =0.125 NH2O= (0.4) = 65.077)*(119.85) =3.809 Nacetone8= (0.551)*(119.381)*(119.731kmol/hr At Stream 9 L= 119.4kmol/hr Xacetone=0.4) = 9.026 Nipa8= 0.85 kmol/hr.026*29.125)*(29.809)*(29.551 Xipa=0.149 kmol/hr nacetone= (0.077 Xwater=0.4) = 45.789 kmol/hr nipa9= (0.85= 0.148 kmol/hr Yipa= 0.85) = 24.At Stream 8: V= 29.491 kmol/hr .381 nacetone= (0.

124kmol/hr Ntotal= nacetone+nH2.48 .15 take P=1. Nacetone12= 0.2.776 = 118.5bar Assume: 1/1000 of inlet acetone is off gas.655 kmol/hr 0.148+90+3.024148=24.024= 2.655 =0.68*10-4 Yacetone8= 24.92-3598/T)/P 24.15 K.024kmol/hr Where A =L11/m* V8 T=354.3 Material balance for Scrubber: T=(81oC) = 354.7.148/118.203 Yacetone12/ Yacetone8=1-A/1-A6 M= e (10.024148 kmol/hr Nacetone10=24.12 Yacetone=0.731+0.148-0.024148/90.024148+90 = 90. P=1.8+nH2O+nipa nacetone12= nacetone12+nH2.

Nacetone15=89.772+0.445*3.97 kmol/hr NH2o13= NH2o9+ NH2o10= 45.203 = 1.063kmol/hr .263 kmol/hr Assume: 1/1000 of acetone is in bottom product.2.089= 89.523 L11= m*A*V8= 1.772 kmol/hr 24.655 = 604.68*10-4/0.6724 kmol/hr 7.01/.124= 89.824*(0.491+607.913/1000= 0.124+607.99)= 0.445 Yacetone12/ Yacetone8=2.913-0.089kmol/hr Nacetone14= 89.194+0.776= 632.M= 1.913kmol/hr Nipa13= Nipa9+ Nipa10= 9.97-0.789+24.731+604.907kmol/hr Nipa15=nipa13-nipa14=9.320*10-3= 1-A/1-A6 From trial error A is found is 3.772=653.907=9.10+nipa10 3.776 = 9.041 =607.4 Material balance for Acetone Column Nacetone13= Nacetone9+nacetone10= 65. Nipa14=89.041 kmol/hr NH2O10= nH2O8+ nH2O11 Ntotal10= nacetone10+nH2.523*118.824kmol/hr Since acetone purity is 99%.

67 N H2O 17 = 9.469kmole/hr nwater = nwater .729kmole/hr 7.9.6 Material Balance for Feed Drum: INPUT = OUTPUT Nipa 12 = nipa .089kmole/hr Assume the composition of the recycle stream is as feed stream so that Yacetone = 0.063 = 90.33 yipa =o.824 kmole/hr * 58.063 kmole/hr Nacetone17 = nacetone15 = 0. these new value are shown in lable Amount = 89.33/o.786kmole/hr Sience 115000tonns/day acetone is wanted to produce all of these calculation should be correlated as this amount.263 .08 kg/1 * 1 ton/1000 * 8760/1 yr .464 = 648.464 = 44.933kmole/hr NH2O = nH2O + nh2o 17 NH2O = 49.nipa 17 = 100 .nwater = 653.063 * 0.5 Material Balance for IPA column: All the ipa is at the top product Nipa17 = nipa 15 = 9.4.67 = 4.263kmol/hr 7.2.2.25 .4.NH2O15=nH2o13=653.

75 kg/hr .516 7.3.785kg/hr 1 Feed Drum 2 T=32.890C Mipa=15120.966= 15779.966kg/hr T=250C Mipa=13749.87)+(4178*0.3 ENERGY BALANCE 7.pia=2497kj/kg Cp.water=4178kj/kg For stream 1.293kg/hr 3 Mipa=1370.1 For Feed Drum MH2O=2029.13) =2715 kj/kg Mtotal1=13749.726 = 2.= 45700.159kg/hr Mwater=2232.726 tpy Scale factor Sf = (115000ton/yr)/ 45700.326kg/hr Tref =250C Cp.2 and 17 calculate Cpmix Cpmix = (2497*0.785+2029.369kg/hr Mwater=202.

695*2.830C MIPA =15120.H2O = H [(Tc-T)/(Tc-Tb)]o.293kg/hr At 32.5-25) = 17352.413 kj/kg K .715*(111.154+2232.Mtotal2=15120.154 Kg/hr Mwater = 2232.3.369+202.75*2.2 For Vaporiser: T=32.970 kj/kmole 2.38 = 41370.50C Mipa=15120.326= 1572.179 kj/kg K For Water Tc = 508.447*2.399K ΔHf = 39838 kj/kmole ΔHvap .293kg/hr T =109.83 0c Cpipa = 145kj/kmole K = CpH2o = 4.715*(T-25) T=32.15kg/hr MH2O =2232.293=17352.3 K Tb = 394.715*(25-25) +1572.695 kg/hr Qin=Qout 15779.447kg/hr Mtotal3=1370.830C 7.

358 tons 7.38 =40253.652 * 106 kj Molten Salt: We assume Δ T = 20 Q = m * Cpmolt.505 kj/kmol = 66982kj/kg Q = (mipa * Cpipa * Δ T) + ( mwater * Cpw * ΔT) + (mw *Δ H vep.pia=24.154kg/hr Mipa=2232. ipa = 40683[(647.3 Pre Heater: Heater T=109. wat) + (mpipa * ΔHvap .50C Mwater=2232.3k-375k)]0.3k-382.293kg/hr Tref=109.652*10^6 kj = 156 kj/kg * m * (20) M = 309.3.154kg/hr T=3250C Mwater=15120.50C Cp.3 K Tb = 375K ΔHf = 40683kj/kmole ΔH vap .4731 kj/kg For IPA Tc = 647.= 2296.6kj/kgk CpH2O=2019kj/kgk .5k)/(647.salt * Δ T 9.ipa) = 9.253kg/hr Mipa=15120.

5)] = 1.293kg/hr Mwater= Macetone=13151.44 T=3250C T=3500C Reactor =1512.4 For Reactor: (CH3)2CHOH COMPOUND Nin kmol/hr (CH3)2CO+ H2 Hf kj/kmol Nout kmol/hr =[(2232.16 CH3)2CO 0 -216.293*2.845*106 kj Molten Salt: We assume ∆T= 1500C Q=m*Cp molten salt*∆T= 1.015kg/hr Mipa=15120.468*(325- (CH3)2CHOH 251.855 ton 7.144kg/hr Mipa 2232.154*2.019*215.154kg/hr Mwater=2232.685 226.293kg/hr .6 -272.5)+(15120.290 25.845*106=156*m*150 M=7.Q=(mwater*Cpwater*∆T)+(mipa*Cpipa*∆T) 109.44 H2 0 0 226.3.635kg/hr MH2=435.

886*10-1T+6.685/1 =12591kj Q= ∑outniHi .1*10-2T+12.691 ∆Hout acetone= -216.466 kj/kmol ∆Hr0=(-216.4100C) = 156kj/kg Q=m*Cp*∆T 30521.44(-182.∑inniHi+∆Hr Q= [ 25.745)+226.44*55.6(-252.29+25∫325(32.476*10-8T3)dT ∆Hout acetone= -182.8698*10-12T3)dT H2= 25∫ H2=9.00765*10-5T-0.96+20.67 kj Molten Salt Cp(molten salt b/w 3600C.104 = -252186 kj/mol ∆Hout ∆Hout ipa= -27229+25∫350(32.405*10-5T2-9.466)] – [252.84*10-3+0.3288*10-8T2+0.691)+226.∆Hin ipa= -272.16( -249.78*10-5T2+3.427+1886*10-1T+6405*10-5T2-9261*10-8T3)dT kj/kmol ipa= -249.685kj/kmol)-(-272.427+1.196 Q=30521.300kg/hr .44(9.685+25∫350(71.745 kj/mol ∆Hout ∆Hout 350 (28.605kj/kmol ∆Hr=226.261*10-8T5)dT ∆Hin ipa= -272.29)kj/kmol ∆Hr0= 55.106)] +2591.67=156*m*50 M=391.29+20.

179 kj/hr .608 kj/kg K CpH2O= 2.293 Tref = 94.015kg/hr m H2O =2232.70c CpH2 = 12.536kj/kg K Cpacetone = 1.035 kj/kg K Cpipa =2.293kg/hr Macetone = 13151.096 kj/kg K We know Q =[(mH2 *CpH2) + (mH2O * CpH2O) + (mipa * Cpipa) + (macetone * Cpacetone)] * del T Q = .7.20 =20 CpH2O =4.3.123 * 106 kj Water Δ T water = 35. mipa =1512.10.144kg/hr = T= 94.144kg/hr kg/hr Macetone =13151.635kg/hr MH2 = 455.635 kg/hr MH2 455.70c .015kg/hr MH2O = 2232.5 For Cooler T = 3500C MIPA = 1512.

Q = m * CpH2o * Δ T 10.123 *106kg = 4.179kj/kg * m * 20 m = 121.117 ton/hr

7.3.6 For Condencer:

T T = 81 0c MIPA =1512.O15Kg/hr MH2O =2232.293 kg/h Macetone = 1315.635kg/hr =13151.635kg/hr Mh2= 455.144 kg/hr

=

94.70C

mh2o= 2232.293kg/hr m acetone

mH2 = =455.444k/hr

Log P* = a – b/(c+Tdp) Assumption = PT = 1.5 bar = 1125 mmHg [(yacetone * pt )/(p*acetone * Tdp)] + [(yh2o * pt )/(p*water *Tdp)] + [(yipa * pt)/( pipa* * Tdp)] + [(yH2 *pt)/(pH2* * Tdp)] From Literature : For acetone A = 7.02447 For H2O A = 7.96681 For IPA B = 1668.21 C = 228 B = 1161 C = 224 =1

A = 8.3789 Using By trial error For aceton At 14.70C &

B = 1788.02 yaceton = 0.6 Tdp = 94.7 0C yH2o = 0.33

C = 227.938 yipa = 0.07

1.5 bar

Cpacetone = 1.297 kg /K Qacetone== m * Cp * del T = 13151.6322 * 1.297 [(81+273.15) - (943.7 +273.15)] = - 233.690 * 10-6 kj Δ Hvep = Δ Hf [(Tc - T)/(Tc-Tb)]0.38 = 29140 kj/kmole Tc 508.1 K Δ Hvap
=

Tb= 341.5 K = 487.07 kj/ kg

=28289.029kj/kmole

For IPA At 94.70c & 1.5 bar Cpipa
=

1.761 kj / g KS

Cpipa = 1.761 kj.kg K Qipa = =1512.015 * 1.761 *(354.15-367.85) = -36.487 * 10^-3 Kj ∆ H vep =delHf [(Tc -T)/(Tc –Tb)]0.38 ∆HF = 39850 kj/kmole Tc =508.3K ∆Hvap = 4116935kg/kmole Tb = 366.6K

∆Hvap = 685128 kj/kg For H2O At 94.7 oC & 1.50bar CpH2o = 1.898 kj/kgK QH2o = 2232.293 *1898 *(354.15 -367.85) = -58.045 *10^3 kj ∆Hvap = 40683 kj/kmole Tc = 647.3 K Tb = 385.106K

∆HVAP = 40683 * [(6473-354)/(6473-385.126)].38 = 42442.0561 kj/kmole =2356845 kj/lg For H2 At 94.70c & 1.5 bar CpH2 = 13.255 kj/kg K QH2 = 435.144 kg * 13225 * (354.15 – 367.85) = -82.464 * 103 kj ∑ m.Cp .∆ T = -410.677 *103 kg ∑mi ∆Hvap =12.702 * 106 kg QTOTAL = ∑mi CP,t ∆T + ∑mi . ∆Hvap
= 12.3 *10^6

For H2O ∆T for water = (35-15)= 20 Cpwater =40182 kj/lg

Q = m*Cpwater *∆ T 682691.799kj = 40182 kj/kg * m *20 m=147.038 ton/day ∆H vap == 40683 *[(647.3 -354)/(647.3 -385.186)]0.38 =2356.845 kj/kgmole

7.3.7 For Scrubber: Qin = Qout Tref = 250C 455.144 * 14.419 *(81-25)+ 3528.708 *1.259*(81- 25) + 169.107 * 4.193 *(81-25) + 117.307 * 1.716 *(81-25) = 455.144 *14.401 *(70-25) + 3.485 *1229*(70-25) + 35.25.224 * 1249 *(T-25) + 27547.709 *4.183 *(T -25) + 117.307 * 1710 * (T-25) 4222.8319 = 18777.661 + (T-25)*755114.9 T = 28.10C

7.3.8 For Acetone column: ∆ Hvap = ∆Hf[(Tc -T)/(Tc- Tb)]0.38 Befor the application the boiling temp (Tb) for each of the component must be find at 1.1 bar pressur. For the boiling point calculation, ln psat = A - (B/T ) will be used Condenser: For Acetone - Pc= 47 bar Tc= 508.1K P= 1.0133 bar T= 329.2K

1-375.2 then A=10.6= A-(B/508.24 kj/kg MT=13263.ln1.375/ Tb) Tb= 357.3) / (508.99+632.706K For ipa Pc=47.653K Substituting the result to the first equation: ∆Hacetone= 29140*[(508.3K P= 1.375 Tc=508.35) ln47.3-375.38 = 26160195 kj/ kmol ∆Hipa= 39858*[(508.1 bar pressure boiling point is ln1.1 bar pressure boiling point is.706) ]0.3) A=12.15K ln1.0133= A-(B/355.3K T= 355.417*0.807 B= 4546.1 = 12.1-331.618*0.1 At 1.045kg For the energy balance of the mixture: Q= mT*∆Hmix= 6*106 kj For Water: Pc= 220.0133 bar ln1.5 bar Tc= 647.15) .3 ln47= A-B/508.0133 bar T= 373.0133= A-B/329.3-357.3) / (508.1= 10.0133= A-(B/373.35K At 1.ln1.38 ∆Hipa= 38014 kj/kmol For the mixture: ∆Hmix= 450.653) ]0.3/Tb) Tb= 331.91-(3587.807-(4546.6 bar P= 1.01 = 452.91 B= 3587.

3-378)/(508.723)] 0.045 ∆H vap.39 At 1.39/Tb) Reboiler: ∆Hvap.38 ∆Hvap. ∆ x vap mix = 30993.5= A-(B/647. aceton =29140 *[(508.86*106kj 7.mix= 446915 *6364 *10-4 + 674872 * 0.706)]0. H2O = 40533.1-378)/(508.795 kj/kmole =446.1-375. ipa = 39838 *[(508.H2O = 40683*[ (647.043kj/kgmole = 474.6530C TbH2o = 102.1-331.7230C . Q = mt .653)]0.945 kj/kg Balance.38 =25956.72 B= 4743.872 ∆Hvap.364 * 10-4 yH2O = 0.ln220.951 kj/kg Tb=375.945 =20.722 kj/kmole Yacetone = 4.723K FOR H2O ∆Hvap.013*672.1 bar pressure boiling point ln1.3.3-337.3) then A=12.955 yipa =0.38 = 627.955 + 627.1= 12.045 =672.72-(4743.3-378)/(647.722*0.9 IPA Column Tb ipa = 84.

618 = 841.mix =2236.ipa = 38014 kj/kmole = 632.081*632.87 ∆Hvap.38 =40179.326*841.892*29407.13 Yipa = 0.3-384. water = 40683 * [(647.194 kj/kmole= 2236.195 kj/kmole sience aceton is neglected YH2O = 0. ∆Hmix = 1941.h2o =40294.aceton = 29140 kj/kmole del Hf.523 kj/kmole =2230.acetone = 26160.ipa =39858kg/kmole ∆Hvap.068 =1.633 *106kj Reboiler: ΔHvap.604 *106kj .ΔH.068 kj/kg For the energy balance for mixing Q = mT.1-375.5)/(647.∆Hf.H2o =40683kj/kmole ∆Hf.290 = 65.081kj/kg ∆Hvap.892kj/kg Q = mT.723)]0.618kj/kg ∆Hvap.vap.water = 2230.

0 Horizontal SS Demister 1.63 3.Temreperatu 32 0 ( C) Pressure In 1.10 (bar) Diameter(m) _ Height/Length (m) Orietionnt Intenals Op.25 (bar) Pressure Out 3.43 1.0 3.Prs.40 Horizontal _ 1.30 _ _ _ _ _ _ V-401 Carbon steel _ _ _ 32 _ _ 0.75 2. Pressure (bar) Maximum Allowable Op.90 3.(bar) _ _ _ _ _ .80 2.25 Centrifugal/ Electric Op.2 V-402 Carbon steel _ _ _ 20 _ _ 0.Preliminary equipment summary table for acetone process Equipment MOC POWER(Shaft) (KW) Efficiency Type/Drive P-401 A/B P-402 A/B Carbon Steel Carbon steel 0.58 40% 50% Centifugal/ Electric 360 1.

2 in bed 4.0 _ 3436 _ _ _ _ Op. Pressure (bar) Maximum Allowable Op.32 3.(bar) Type Design Duty(Mj/h) Maximum Duty (Mj/h) Area Radiant (m2) Area Convectiv (m2) 1.2 .10m Height=5m Vertical Fluidized bed Containing 7.0 3.5m3 of catalyst+7.57m Depth=6.prs.8m3 of inert particle HTA=188m2 2.0 in bed _ _ _ _ _ Fired heat 3436 3800 13.70 in tube 3.0 Tube side 4.20 vertical 2.6 3.Preliminary equipment summary table for acetone process (cont’d) Equipment MOC Diameter Height/Length(m) Orientation Internals T-401 Corban steel 0.0 37.16 in bed 2.5m of packing (1”Ceremic Rashing Rings) H-401 Carbon steel _ _ _ R-401 Carbon steel Width=4.

Design Calculations Vertical Tube Vaporizer Conditions Vapor leaves at 2.16 bar and 101C (saturated vapor). Cpl = 2880 J/kgºC 3. The shell side is assumed to be well mixed and at 101C. 2. Regulate steam pressure to give a 10C temperature driving force T sat = 111C which corresponds to a P sat = 1.  Uh shell = 1000 W/m2C Tln = T = 10C . Heat Transfer Calculations 1.48 bar. Limiting heat transfer resistance is on boiling organic side. shell = 1000 W/m2 shell C. Heat Duty = 2850 MJ/h .

.A=Q/U•Tlm (F=1) = 285010 6 /3600/1000/10 = 79.2 m2 1110c 1010c T Shell side well mixed 320c Lenth along tubes Note: over the range of ∆T = 7 to 250c it is known that hT 1/3 for boiling isopropanol.

Reactor Heat Transfer Calculations Assume that the fluidized bed is well mixed. The temperature vs.1 cP. The molten salt approach temperature is 10C and therefore the molten salt temperature leaving the reactor is 360C. Q diagram is shown below: Tin 3600c 3500c 3500c 1010c Length of reactor Q=3436 MJ/h Cp.9C . Maximum operating temperature = 1000C Use a T = 50C for the circulating salt  Tin = 410C Tlm= (410-360)/ln[(410-350)/(360-350)] = 27.gas = 1780 J/kgºC (inlet) and 2500 J/kgºC (outlet) Use Hi TecTM molten salt with the following average physical properties: C p = 1.  = 2.  = 1980 kg/m3.72 kJ/kg K. thus the feed gas immediately heats to the reactor temperature of 350C.

9 (actually Seider-Tate is only good for Re>10.000 .9)(0.244/2546+1/200]-1 = 182 W/m2C Heat transfer area.606)/(.33 = (.33 = 42.9)] = 188 m2 .8 Pr 0.01021) = 2546 W/m2C Below 500C molten salt should not foul so h f = very large Overall heat transfer coefficient. h i = ? Assume that the velocity in the tubes is 2 ft/s = 0.60510-3 m3 /s Evaluation of U Fluidized Bed to tube wall. U = [d0/(dihi) + 1/ho]-1 = [1.023Re 0.0021) =5872 Nu = 0. ho = 200 W/m2C [this will not change much with fluidization velocity in the range of 2 – 5 umf ] Inside heat transfer coefficient [molten salt to wall].950 kg/h = 11.check this later) hi = Nu[k/d] = (42.61 m/s Use ½” diameter tube 18 BWG with inside diameter = 0.01021 m Re = (0.Energy balance on molten salt Q=MCpT 3436106 = (M)(1720)(50) M = 39.01021)(1980)/(0.606) 0. Ao = Q/Uo T lm = (343610)/[(3600)(182)(27.10 kg/s Vol flow of salt = M/ = 11.61)(0.023)(5872) 0.10/1980=5.0021/0.8 (17200.

0090 m2 Velocity of molten salt in tubes = 5.0127)(20)(0.Check tube arrangement and molten salt velocity External surface area of 20 ft tubes =•doL = (3.000 we should use correlation from Walas [1]: Nu0.142)(0. Arrangement of tubes in Fluidized Bed 110 parallel banks of 7 tubes in Fluidized Bed Reactor . thus U = 181 W/m 2 C same as before.87 280]Pr 0.0090 = 0.012[Re 0.01021)2/4 = 0.243 m2 Number of tubes = (188)/(0.3048) = 0.4 [1-(d/L)2/3] This gives Nu = 41.243) = 773 Use 110 parallel sets of 7 tubes piped in series Cross sectional area (csa) for flow of molten salt = (110)(3.6 and hi = 2588 and U = 182 W/m 2C no change For Re<10.142)(0.60510-3/0.1 and h = 2438.622 m/s This gives Re = 5988 and Nu = 43.

5/12 by 71.3 m3 Calculate the amount of catalyst required for 90% conversion For a first order.5 ft 2 = 15.75 by 0. isothermal. irreversible reaction at constant pressure we have the following expression for the conversion of component A.5/12 by 20 ft = 13.668)ln (1/1-0.5 – (770)(20)(•)(0.380/ (8.48-57. we have: k=k0exp[-Ea/RT] =3.314)(273+350)] =0.813 m3bulk catalyst s/ m3gas .2395 τ =(3.5 inches Dimensions of tube bank are 1101.668)(0.XA : Kτ = (1+ԑA)ln (1/1-XA)-ԑAXA From the kinetics expression.5)2 /(4144) = 541. at a reactor temperature of 350C.2996m3gas/m3bulk catalyst ԑA= (number of mole if completely reacted – number of moles initially)/ number of moles initially = (96.Height of Catalyst and Filler in Bed Use a square tube pitch of 1.84)/(57.875) – volume occupied by tubes = 562.84)=0.51×105exp[72.668 Using above values and 90% conversion we get: Kτ = (1+0.9)=3.2996) =10. assuming bottom row of tubes is 6” from distributor plate and 6” of solids above tube bank = Vsol V sol = (15)(20)(1+0.9)-(0.2395)/(0.875 by 20 ft Assume bed width and depth of 15 by 20 ft respectively Volume of solids to just cover the tubes.

Vcatalyst =υgas τ Now the volumetric flow rate of gas.06  O.7 = 0.0250 m/s catalyst particles are approximately 100 •m in diameter.696)/(27.210-6 ) 2 = 78.067)(10-4)] = 0.0478)(18.696)(10.83) =7.s flow of gas = 2670 kg/h vol flow of gas = (2670)/[(1. υgas =0.067)(3600)] = 0. This will give a slumped bed height approximately 6 above the top of the tube bank.9 m2 Properties of gas flowing through fluidized bed: = 1.00815 = 3.0250/0.210-6 )/[(1. Check minimum fluidizing velocity Cross sectional area (csa) of bed = 300 ft2 = 27.696 m3/s Vcatalyst = (0.72 +0.0408(78.067)(2500 – 1. Cyclones can handle solids and gas in the range 1< u/u mf <5 .81)/(18.696 m3 /s Superficial gas velocity.5 m3. therefore we must add 7.0478 umf = (0. Calculate minimum fluidizing velocity using the correlation due to Wen and Yu [2] Repmf = [33.K.8 m3 of inert filter to give a total of 15.9) = 0.067)(9.5 m3bulk catalyst Amount of catalyst required is 7.7 where Ar = dp3ρg(ρs-ρg)g/µ2 Ar = (10-4 )3 (1.00815 m/s u/u mf = 0.72 + 0.97 Re pmf = [33. and have a density of 2500 kg/m 3 and bulk density of 1200 kg/m3 . u = (0.0408Ar]1/2-33.210-6 kg/m.97)] 1/2– 33. = 18.3 m3 of bed solids.067 kg/m3.

Pressure Drop Across Fluidized Bed Height of solids in fluidized bed = 1.0015/10.0015 mm e/d = 0.00015 f = 0.14 0. Pressure Drop of Molten Salt through Heat Transfer Tubes Re for molten salt flow = 5988 Roughness of drawn tubes.0087)(46.067 bar Distributor loss = 0.25 bar Use a reactor height of 5.14 bar (The design of the cyclones has been based on a maximum superficial gas velocity of 5umf ) Total loss across bed = 0.57)(1200)(9. e = 0. freeboard.21 = 0.6 Pbed = 0.875 ft = 0.01021 m  = 1980 kg/m3 Leq = length of tube + equivalent length of 12-90 bends = (7)(20)(.3)(0.040 + 0. and cyclones.57 m Pbed = =hbulkg = (0.067 + 0.81) = 6727 Pa = 0.0087 d = 0.01021) = 60443 Pa = 60.0 m to accommodate solids bed.4 kPa .040 bar Internal cyclone losses = 0.3048) + (12)(30d) = 46.3m Pf = 2fLequ 2/d = (2)(1980)(0. plenum.622) 2 /(0.

. and 240-V single-phase for lighting and other low-power requirements. typically 6000 or 11. For a large site the supply will be taken at a very high voltage. unless a cheaper source of suitable quality water is available from a river. Sea water. If a number of large motors is used. but if used directly will necessitate the use of more expensive materials of construction for heat exchangers Water for general use The water required for general purposes on a site will usually be taken from the local mains supply.000 V.UTILITIES Utilities required for manufacturing acetone include electric power. In the United Kingdom a three-phase 415-V system is used for general industrial purposes. and general use.  Electricity The power required for electrochemical processes. may be generated on site. lake or well. The voltage at which the supply is taken or generated will depend on the demand. is given by Silverman (1964). and steam. A detailed account of the factors to be considered when designing electrical distribution systems for chemical process plants. and the equipment used (transformers. or brackish water. can be used at coastal sites. lighting. but will more usually be purchased from the local supply company (the national grid system in the UK). Transformers will be used to step down the supply voltage to the voltages used on the site. motor drives. Water: Cooling water Natural and forced-draft cooling towers are generally used to provide the cooling water required on a site. a supply at an intermediate high voltage will also be provided. unless water can be drawn from a convenient river or lake in sufficient quantity. The economics of power generation on site are discussed by Caudle (1975).000 or 33.000 V. potable and cooling water. typically 11. switch gearand cables).

They may be incorporated in automatic control loops. .040 83 Total 856 Control and instrumentation Instrumentation is provided to monitor the key process variables during the plant operations. often however. i. The temperature instrument may form a part of a control loop controlling.e. Mixed and Multiple-bed ion-exchange units are used. from which all the minerals have been removed by ion-exchange. is used where pure water is needed for process use. Water with less than 1 part per million of dissolved solids can be produced. ANNUAL CONSUMPTION OF UTILITIES AND COST Description Unit of Measure Electricity kWh 3 Qty. easier to measure. Cost in '000 Birr 33. in the control of the distillation columns the continuous . this is impractical and some dependent variables. with the composition of the overhead checked frequently by sampling and laboratory analysis.Demineralised water Demineralised water. one resin converting the cations to hydrogen and the other removing the acid radicals. They may also be part of an automatic computer data logging system. is monitored in its place for example. It is desirable that the process variable to be monitored be measured directly . and as boiler feed-water. Instruments monitoring critical process variables will be fitted automatic alarms to alert the operations to critical and hazardous situation. or used for the manual monitoring of the process operation. online analysis of the overhead product is desirable but difficult and expensive to achieve reliably. so temperature is often monitored as an indication of composition .100 16 Furnace oil m 3 140 757 Water m 15. say reflux flow.

Product quality. Costs: To operate at the lowest production cost. Product Qualities: To maintain the product composition within the specified quality standards. 2. other than that of putting safety first. 4. Guide Rule: The following procedure can be used when drawing up preliminary P&I DIAGRAM: . 3. These are not separate objectives and must be considered together. commensurate with the other objectives. The order in which they are listed is not mean to employ the precedence of any objective over another. To provide interlocks and alarms to prevent dangerous operating procedures. manual monitoring and laboratory analysis . For example. Production Rate: To achieve the design product output. it may be better strategy to produce a better quality product at a higher cost in a typical chemical processing plant these objectives are achieved by a combination of automatic control . production rate and the cost of production will be dependent on sale requirement.Instrumentation and Control Objectives The primary objectives of the designer when specifying instrumentation and control objectives are. 1. Safe Plant Operation:    To keep the process variables within known safe operating limits. Automatic Control System: The detail design and specification of the automatic control schemes for a large product is usually done by specialists. To detect dangerous situations as they develop and to provide alarms and automatic shutdown systems.

7. some means of maintaining the interface at required level must be provided. select a suitable dependent variable. even if the instruments are not installed permanently. Decide on the location of the sample points. 3. This may be incorporated in the design of the equipment. this would be done in conjunction with step 3. Decide on the need for recorders and the location of the read out points. 4. This would include: extra thermo wells. and extra sample points. pressure tapings. Include control loops using direct measurement of the controlled variable. This step would be done in conjunctions with step 1 to 4. Figure shows a typical arrangement. Identify and draw in those control loops that are obviously needed for steady state plant operation such as:     Level control Flow control Pressure control Temperature control 2. liquid –vapour). and for trouble shooting and plant development . as is usually done for the decanters by automatic control of the flow from the equipment. 9.3 Typical Control System: Level Control: In any equipment where an interface exists between two phase (e.It is well worthwhile including additional connection for instruments which may be needed for future trouble shooting and plant development. Decide and show those ancillary instruments needed for the monitoring of the plant operation by operators. 5. Identify and include those additional control loops required for safe operation.g. orifice flanges. Identify the key process variables that need to be controlled to be achieved the specified product quality.1. Decide on the alarms and interlocks needed. where possible. local or control rooms. if not practicable. . 6.

temperature control is not effective as the saturated vapour temperature is constant at constant pressure.a by pass control would we used. with the liquid feed to vaporizer on flow control. .Level control arrangement finds position at the base of column. unless the liquid streams are sub cooled. or valuable. In these circumstances the vent should be taken to a vent recovery system. Pressure Control: Pressure control will be necessary for the most systems handling vapour of gas. the controller controlling the stream supply to the heating surface . Flow Control: Flow control is usually associated with inventory control in a storage tank or other equipment. The control valve should be placed on the discharge line from the pump. Pressure control is often used or control an be based on the outlet coolant temperature. An increase in the feed results in an automatic increases in stream to the vaporizer the increased flow and maintains the level constant. Level control is often used for vaporizers . such as scrubber. Heat exchangers: In the simplest arrangement. Condenser Control: Temperature control is unlikely to be effective for condensers. If the exchange is between two process streams whose flow are fixed. Typical schemes are proposed. To provide flow control on a compressor or pump running at a fixed speed and supplying a near constant column output . When vented gas was toxic. The method of control will depend on the nature of the process. There must be a reservoir to take up the charge ion flow rate. the temperature being controlled by varying the flow of the cooling and heating medium. by-pass control will have to be used. Reboiler And Vaporizer: As with condensers.

Cooling water pressure and heater temperatures. composition and temperature.Cascade Control: With this arrangement. . The feed flow –rate is often set by the level controller on a preceding column. If reliable on-line analyzers are variables they can be incorporated in the control loop. the bottom temperature by varying the boil-up rate. Stream supply pressure . distillation column has little surge capacity (hold up) and the flow of distillate and bottom product (and side streams). A variety of control schemes has been devised for distillation column control. unless a feed preheated is used. Column pressure is normally controlled at a constant value. The temperature sensor should be located at the position in the column where the rate of change of temperature with change in composition of the key component is maximum. Ambient composition. a service. correcting for the effects of disturbances in: . Feed flow rate. temperature is not unique function of the composition. Differential pressure control is often used on packed columns to ensure the packing operates at the correct loading. it can be independently controlled if the column is fed from a storage or surge tank. for example. Ratio Control: Ratio control can be used for it is used where it is desired to maintain two flows at a constant ratio. which cause changes in internal reflux. Top temperature is usually controlled by varying the reflux ratio. Reactor feeds and distillation column reflux. Must match the feed flows.with multicomponent systems. . Temperature is often as an indication of composition. and any side streams. say. . the output of one controller is used to adjust the set point . The “Slave” controller can be used to compensate for any short –term variations in. The column overall material balance must be controlled. The compositions are controlled by regulating reflux flow and boil up. Stream flow. Near top and bottom of the column the change is usually small .cascade control can give smoother control in situation by direct control of the variable would lead to a unstable operation. the primary (master) controller long term variations. which would offset the controlled variable. but more complex equipment will be needed. Distillation Column Control: The primary objective of distillation column control is to maintain the specified composition the top and bottom products. feed temperature is not normally controlled.

If reliable on-line analyzer is available. The basic components of the automatic control system are: 1. operating emergency systems.Addition temperature indication or recording points should be included up the column for monitoring column performance and for troubleshooting. Reactor temperature will normally be controlled by regulating the flow of heating or cooling medium. usually consisting of a system of pneumatic or electrical relays 3. by the operator is likely to lead to the rapid development of a hazardous situations. the product composition can be Monitored continuously and the reactor conditions and feed flows controlled automatically to maintain the desired product composition and yield. and the reactor dynamics are suitable. Pressure is usually held constant. 2. closing valves. the instrument would be fitted with a trip system to pumps. Reactors Control: The schemes used for reactor control depend on the process and the type of reactor. Material balance control will be necessary to maintain the correct flow of reactants to the reactor and the flow of products and unreacted materials from reactor. switch off a motor . A sensor to monitor control variable and to provide an output signal when a preset value is exceeded. where delay or lack of response. A link to transfer the signal to the actuator. An actuator to carry out the required action. close or open a valve. Safety Trips and Interlocks Alarm: Alarms are used to alert operators of serious and potentially hazardous deviations in process conditions. Key instrument are filled with switches and relays to operate audible and visual alarms on the control panels and enunciators panels. Alarms.

Provision must be made for the periodic checking of the trip system to ensure that the system operates when needed. Abnormal and alarm situation are highlighted and displayed. Software to continuously update and optimize plant performance can be incorporated in the computer control systems. closing the valve on high temperature. They may be incorporated in the control system design as the pneumatic or electric relays. high temperature alarm operates a solenoid valve. In this system. or in batch operations interlocks are included to prevent operators. Operators and technical supervisors can call up and display any section of the process to review the operating parameters and adjust control settings. and for potentially hazardous situation it is better practice to specify a separate trip system. Historical operating data is retained in the computer memory. The long instrument panels and “mimic” flow charts displays have been replaced by intelligent video displays units. such as in the batch processes and in the start-up and shut-down of the continuous process. These provide a window on the process. releasing the air on the pneumatic activator. departing from the required sequence. Programmable logic controllers (PLC‟s) are used for the control and interlocking of the processes where a sequential operating steps has to be carried out. . Interlocks: Where it is necessary to follow a fixed sequence of operations for example. Special locks with various properties and key system are available.Safety: A safety trip can be incorporated in a control loop. Averages and trends can be displayed. for plant investigation and trouble shooting. However the safe operation of such a system will be dependent on the reliability of the control equipment. process monitoring and control. They have largely superseded the strip charts and analog controllers seen in the older plants. Computers and microprocessors an Process Control Computers are being increasingly used for data logging. during a plant start-up and shut-down . or may be mechanical interlocks.

If breathing stops. FIRST AID MEASURES: GENERAL: IN ALL CASES OF DOUBT OR WHEN SYMPTOMS PERSIST. Do not release contaminated water into drains. EYES: Rinse immediately with plenty of water for at least 5 minutes while lifting the eye lids.(approx 500ml). Dispose of contaminated water and soil according to local regulations. In case of spontaneous Vomiting. ALWAYS SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION IN HALATION: Move affected person to fresh air. soil and surface water. . Take measures to retain water used for extinguishing. Halon. Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or Cracking. Obtain medical attention. Continue to rinse. SKIN: Remove contaminated clothing. IDENTIFICATION OF THE SUBSTANCE/PREPARATION AND THE COMPANY: PRODUCT NAME: ACETONE CHEMICAL NAME 2 : PROPAN-2-ONE 2 HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION: Highly flammable. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Keep affected person warm and at rest. provide artificial respiration. Dry chemicals. Keep patient at rest and obtain medical attention. 4. rinse mouth with plenty of water and give plenty of water to drink . Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. Seek medical attention. Wash affected area with plenty of soap and water. fog or mist. Powder. IN GESTION: Only when conscious. dolomite etc. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES: EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: Water spray.SAFETY DATA SHEET ACETONE 1. be sure that vomit can freely drain because of danger of suffocation. foam or CO2. SPECIAL FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURES: Move container from fire area if it can be done without risk. 3. seek medical attention. sand. Irritating to eyes. If recovery not rapid.

eyes and clothing. SPILL CLEAN UP METHOD S: Accidental release measures . 6. Ensure good ventilation and local exhaust extraction in work place.avoid ignition sources. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES: PERSON AL PRECAUTION IN SPILL: Avoid direct contact with skin.UNUSUAL FIRE & EXPLOSION HAZARDS: Forms explosive mixtures with air. Extremely flammable. Do not breathe vapour or fumes. HANDLING AND STORAGE: USAGE PRECAUTIONS: HANDLING . skin and eye contact. 7.Product should be used in accordance with good industrial principles for handling and storing of hazardous chemicals. 8. Vapour may travel considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back. well ventilated place. Earth container and transfer equipment to eliminate accumulation of static charge. drains and surface water. observing environmental requirements.: STD LT EXP 8 Hrs ST EXP 15 Min ACETONE 67-64-1 OES 750 ppm 1500 ppm . Take-up spillage with absorbent. in securely closed original container. Do not use contact lenses. STORAGE PRECAUTIONS: Avoid direct sunlight. inert material and place in a suitable and closable labelled container for recovery or disposal. Avoid vapour inhalation. HAZARDOUS COMBUSTION PRODUCTS: Burning may release oxides of carbon and other hazardous gases or vapours. STORAGE CRITERIA: Flammable liquid storage. Absorb small quantities with paper towels or other inert material and allow to evaporate in safe place (fume hood/cupboard). Store in a cool. Wash the area clean with water and detergent. Avoid vapour formation and ignition sources. May explode in a fire. (engineering controls must be to explosion/flameproof standard). EXPOSURE CONTROLS AND PERSONAL PROTECTION: INGREDIENT NAME: CAS No. PRECAUTIONS TO PROTECT ENVIRONMENT: Prevent contamination of soil. PROTECTIVE MEASURES IN FIRE: Fire fighters should wear self-contained breathing apparatus. dry.

splash-proof goggles or face shield must be worn. VENTILATION: Work in fume cupboard. Respiratory protection required in insufficiently ventilated woking areas. a suitable RPE fitted with a combination charcoal or organic vapour cartridge is recommended. OTHER PROTECTION: Wear protective clothing and closed footwear.INGREDIENT COMMENTS: Refer to the current edition of HSE Guidance Note EH 40/200* for occupational exposure limits. EYE PROTECTION: Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical! Where the potential for eye contact exists. HYGIENIC WORK PRA CTIC ES: DO NOT SMOKE IN WORK AREA! SKIN PROTECTION .use appropriate barrier cream to prevent defatting and cracking of skin. . PROTECIVE GLOVES: Use impervious gloves made of butyl rubber of PTFE (teflon). RESPIRATORS: For short periods of work. Wear personal protective equipment appropriate to the quantity of material handled.

At temperatures greater than acetone's flash point of −20 °C (−4 °F). At very high vapour concentrations. although the patient eventually fully recovered. It is also a severe irritant on contact with eyes. may explode or cause a flash fire. acetone is irritating and. Toxicology Acetone is believed to exhibit only slight toxicity in normal use. a mutagenic chemical or a concern for chronic neurotoxicity effects. by volume. Health information Acetone has been studied extensively and is generally recognized to have low acute and chronic toxicity if ingested and/or inhaled. however. In one documented case. and preserves at concentrations ranging from 5 to 8 mg/L. Acetone has been rated as a GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) substance when present in beverages. like many other solvents. .S-European study found that acetone‟s "health hazards are slight. Inhalation of concentrations of 1000 ppm caused irritation of the eyes and of the throat in less than 1 hour. desserts. Additionally. Acetone is not currently regarded as a carcinogen. and there is no strong evidence of chronic health effects if basic precautions are followed. a joint U. Acetone can be found as an ingredient in a variety of consumer products ranging from cosmetics to processed and unprocessed foods. Static discharge may also ignite acetone vapors. the inhalation of 500 ppm of acetone in the air caused no symptoms of irritation in humans even after 2 hours of exposure. may depress the central nervous system. air mixtures of between 2. Inhalation of high concentrations (around 9200 ppm) in the air caused irritation of the throat in humans in as little as 5 minutes. and a potential pulmonary aspiration risk.Safety Flammability The most common hazard associated with acetone is its extreme flammability.8% acetone. baked foods. ingestion of a substantial amount of acetone led to systemic toxicity. Vapors can flow along surfaces to distant ignition sources and flash back.5% and 12. It auto-ignites at a temperature of 465 °C (869 °F).

NTP scientists have recommended against chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity testing of acetone because “the prechronic studies only demonstrated a very mild toxic response at very high doses in rodents.” and further that acetone “exhibits low toxicity in chronic studies. in the absence of toxicity.634 (June 16. 1995).634 (June 16. described in Section 3.3). even at the highest dose tested.  Environmental. A guideline developmental neurotoxicity study has been conducted with isopropanol. The neurotoxic potential of both acetone and isopropanol. 1995). Carcinogenicity. These studies indicate that acetone is not genotoxic. have been extensively studied. 31. Reg. and no developmental neurotoxic effects were identified.Some sources estimate LD50 for human ingestion at 1.”  Neurotoxicity and Developmental Neurotoxicity. “There is currently no evidence to suggest a concern for carcinogenicity.  EPA EPCRA Delisting (1995). When the EPA exempted acetone from regulation as a volatile organic compound (VOC) in 1995. the metabolic precursor of acetone. EPA conducted an extensive review of the available toxicity data on acetone and found that acetone “exhibits acute toxicity only at levels that greatly exceed releases and resultant exposures. 31.” 60 Fed.159 g/kg. when administered in mill molar concentrations. EPA stated that this exemption would “contribute to the achievement of several important environmental goals and would support EPA‟s pollution prevention efforts.”   Genotoxicity. Reg. EPA in 1995 concluded. It has been hypothesized that the high-fat low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet used clinically to control drug-resistant epilepsy in children works by elevating acetone in the brain. over 4 hours. LD50 inhalation by mice is given as 44 g/m3. acetone is not a neurotoxicant. These studies demonstrate that although exposure to high doses of acetone may cause transient central nervous system effects. In making that decision. EPA noted that acetone could be used “as a substitute . 60 Fed. Acetone has been tested in more than two dozen in vitro and in vivo assays. EPA removed acetone from the list of “toxic chemicals” maintained under Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA). Acetone has been shown to have anticonvulsant effects in animal models of epilepsy.”(EPCRA Review.

8%) over 96 hours. even from water and soil. which is a highly unstable compound. narcosis. Due to its instability. Once in the atmosphere. Other symptoms are expected to parallel inhalation. and unconsciousness. Acetone peroxide When oxidized. Ingestion of larger amounts may produce abdominal pain. Aspiration into lungs can produce severe lung damage and is a medical emergency. despite its easy chemical synthesis Potential Health Effects Inhalations Inhalation of vapors irritates the respiratory tract. The LD50 of acetone for fish is 8. It may be formed accidentally. acetone forms acetone peroxide as a by-product. and headache.3 g/l of water (or about 0. nausea and vomiting. it is rarely used. animals.g. and its environmental half-life is about 1 to 10 days. Acetone peroxide is more than ten times as sensitive to friction and shock as nitro-glycerine. when waste hydrogen peroxide is poured into waste solvent containing acetone. e. Acetone may pose a significant risk of oxygen depletion in aquatic systems due to the microbial activity consuming it. Acetone dissipates slowly in soil. Higher concentrations can produce central nervous system depression. . or waterways since it is sometimes consumed by microorganisms. dizziness. Environmental effects Acetone evaporates rapidly.for several compounds that are listed as hazardous air pollutants (HAP) under section 112 of the [Clean Air] Act. it is degraded by UV light with a 22-day half-life. May cause coughing. but it is a significant groundwater contaminant due to its high solubility in water. Ingestion: Swallowing small amounts is not likely to produce harmful effects. dullness.

If swallowed. trichloroethane First Aid Measures Inhalation Remove to fresh air. Eye Contact Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. If not breathing. keep head below hips to prevent aspiration into lungs. but DO NOT INDUCE. with stinging. Aggravation of Pre-existing conditions Use of alcoholic beverages toxic effects. If vomiting occurs. lifting upper and lower eyelids occasionally. . redness and pain. give oxygen. vomiting may occur spontaneously. Skin Contact Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. tearing. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. If breathing is difficult. Get medical attention. Get medical attention.Skin Contact: Irritating due toe defatting action on skin. such as chloroform. pain. give artificial respiration. Call a physician immediately. drying. Splashes may cause severe irritation. Causes redness. Ingestion Aspiration hazard. Exposure may increase the toxic protentian of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Eye Contact: Vapors are irritating to the eyes. Get medical attention. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. and cracking of the skin. Chronic Exposure: Prolonged or repeated skin contact may produce severe irritation or dermatitis.

dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures. uel : 12. Containers should be bonded and grounded for transfers to avoid static sparks. Vapors can flow along surfaces to distant ignition source and flash back. Handling and Storage Protect against physical damage. Storage and use areas should be NO SMOKING AREA. wear full protective clothing. protect personnel attempting to stop leak and disperse vapors.Fire Fighting Measures Fire Flash point: -20oC (-4F) CC Auto ignition temperature: 465oC (869 F) Flammable limits in air % by volume: Lel : 2. Sealed containers may rupture when heated. Store in a cool. Water spray may be used to keep fire exposed containers cool. Water may be ineffective. Use non-sparking type tools and equipment. Fire Extinguishing Media Dry chemical. Outside or detached stroge s preferred. Special information In the event of a fore. Containers of this material may be .5. Separate from incompatibles. vapor-air mixtures are explosive within flammable limits noted above.8 Extremely flammable liquid and vapor! vapor may cause flash fire Explosion Above flash point. This material may produce a floating fire hazard. Sensitive to static discharge. away from any area where the fire hazard may be a cute. including explosion proof ventilation. such as breathing apparatus with full face piece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode. dry well-ventilated location. Contact with string oxidizer may cause fire. alcohol foam or carbon dioxide.

Personal respirators If the exposure limit is exceeded and engineering controls are not feasible. Exposure Controls/Personal Protection Ventilation system A system of local and/or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee exposures below the airborne exposure limits. Stability and Reactivity Stability Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. apron or coveralls. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known. including boots. whichever is lowest. use a full-face piece positive-pressure. as appropriate. or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier. WARNING: air-purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres Skin Protection Wear impervious protective clothing. A full face-piece organic vapor respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit. lab coat. or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier.hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (vapors. preventing dispersion of it into the general work area. . whichever is lowest. Eye contact Use chemical safety goggles and/or a full face shield where splashing is possible. to prevent skin contact. Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source. a half-face organic vapor respirator may be worn up to ten times the exposure limit. air-supplied respirator. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area. gloves. observe all warning and precautions listed for the product. liquid).

flames. ignition sources and incompatibles . Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur.Hazardous Decomposition Products: Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may form when heated to decomposition. Incompatibilities: Concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid mixtures. acids. alkalis. Conditions to Avoid: Heat. chloroform. chlorine compounds. potassium t-butoxide. oxidizing materials.

Water supply 7. are also important. both quantitative (statistical) and qualitative. The following factors should be considered in selecting a plant site: 1. The choice of the final site should first be based on a complete survey of the advantages and disadvantages of various geographical areas and. Considerable care must be exercised in selecting the plant site. . Labor supply 9. Primarily. ultimately. Climate 5. Waste disposal 8. Markets 3. on the advantages and disadvantages of available real estate. the plant should be located where the minimum cost of production and distribution can be obtained. Transportation facilities 6. Energy availability 4. public and private.PLANT LOCATION The geographical location of the final plant can have strong influence on the success of an industrial venture. A general consensus as to the plant location should be obtained before a design project reaches the detailed estimate stage. 12. Fortunately. publish useful information of this type greatly reducing the actual original gathering of the data. such as room for expansion and safe living conditions for plant operation as well as the surrounding community. Site characteristics 11. a large number of agencies. Community factors PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS The factors that must be evaluated in a plant-location study indicate the need for a vast amount of information. and a firm location should be established upon completion of the detailed-estimate design. Raw materials availability 2. and many different factors must be considered. Taxation and legal restrictions 10. but other factors. Flood and fire protection.

and highways are the common means of transportation used by major industrial concerns. Climate If the plant is located in a cold climate. Electrolytic processes require a cheap source of electricity. freight or transportation expenses. or ocean transport must be considered: Motor trucking. and fuel is ordinarily required to supply these utilities. and special cooling towers or air-conditioning equipment may be required if the prevailing temperatures are high. river. The kind and amount of products and raw materials determine the most suitable type of transportation facilities. Excessive humidity or extremes of hot or cold weather can have a serious effect on the economic operation of a plant. . and storage requirements. power and fuel can be combined as one major factor in the choice of a plant site. location near a source of fuel supply may be essential for economic operation. The source of raw materials is one of the most important factors influencing the selection of a plant site. Markets The location of markets or intermediate distribution centers affects the cost of product distribution and the time required for shipping. It should be noted that markets are needed for by-products as well as for major final products. purity of the raw materials. and plants using electrolytic processes are often located near large hydroelectric installations. Attention should be given to the purchased price of the raw materials. If the plant requires large quantities of coal or oil. railroads. distance from the source of supply. Energy availability Power and steam requirements are high in most industrial plants. and these factors should be examined when selecting a plant site. lake. because location near the raw-materials source permits considerable reduction in transportation and storage charges.Raw materials availability. because the buyer usually finds it advantageous to purchase from nearby sources. Consequently. careful attention should be given to local freight rates and existing railroad lines. This is particularly true if large volumes of raw materials are consumed. The proximity to railroad centers and the possibility of canal. Transportation facilities Water. In any case. Proximity to the major markets is an important consideration in the selection of a plant site. availability and reliability of supply. costs may be increased by the necessity for construction of protective shelters around the process equipment. The local cost of power can help determine whether power should be purchased or self-generated.

silt or sand content. and as a raw material. Labor supply The type and supply of labor available in the vicinity of a proposed plant site must be examined. it should not be assumed that this condition will continue to exist. therefore. If the water supply shows seasonal fluctuations. In choosing a plant site. bacteriological content. mineral content. the permissible tolerance levels for various methods of waste disposal should be considered carefully. steam generation. and information on the constancy of the water table and the year-round capacity of local rivers or lakes should be obtained.GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS facilities are widely used and can serve as a useful supplement to rail and water facilities. The plant. although deep wells or artesian wells may be satisfactory if the amount of water required is not too great. The temperature. Consideration should be given to prevailing pay scales. and effective transportation facilities for the plant personnel are necessary. the plant site should have access to all three types of transportation. Waste disposal In recent years. restrictions on number of hours worked per week. many legal restrictions have been placed on the methods for disposing of waste materials from the process industries. . must be located where a dependable supply of water is available. it may be desirable to construct a reservoir or to drill several standby wells. and. Water supply The process industries use large quantities of water for cooling. and attention should be given to potential requirements for additional waste-treatment facilities. There is usually need for convenient air and rail transportation facilities between the plant and the main company headquarters. competing industries that can cause dissatisfaction or high turnover rates among the workers. and variations in the skill and productivity of the workers. certainly. If possible. and cost for supply and purification treatment must also be considered when choosing a water supply. washing. at least two types should be available. The site selected for a plant should have adequate capacity and facilities for correct waste disposal. Even though a given area has minimal restrictions on pollution. A large river or lake is preferable. The level of the existing water table can be checked by consulting the state geological survey.

Protection from losses by fire is another important factor in selecting a plant location. If a certain minimum number of facilities for satisfactory living of plant personnel do not exist. nuisance aspects. and similar items vary from one location to another. if active and dynamic. Flood and fire protection Many industrial plants are located along rivers or near large bodies of water. even though no immediate expansion is planned. unemployment insurance. and history of both state and local government should be evaluated. as well as local building costs and living conditions. Cultural facilities of the community are important to sound growth. Community factors The character and facilities of a community can have quite an effect on the location of the plant. Fire hazards in the immediate area surrounding the plant site must not be overlooked.Taxation and legal restrictions State and local tax rates on property income. In fact. . Future changes may make it desirable or necessary to expand the plant facilities. zoning difficulties and obtaining the many required permits can often be much more important in terms of cost and time delays than many of the factors discussed in the preceding sections. schools. and transportation facilities can have a major influence on the final choice of a plant site. In case of a major fire. it often becomes a burden for the plant to subsidize such facilities. The problem of recreation deserves special consideration. local regulations on zoning. Similarly. The cost of the land is important. building codes. The topography of the tract of land and‟ the soil PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS structure must be considered. and there are risks of flood or hurricane damage. civic theaters. Churches. character. concert associations. since either or both may have a pronounced effect on construction costs. Therefore. Before selecting a plant site. and other similar groups. the regional history of natural events of this type should be examined and the consequences of such occurrences considered. Site characteristics The characteristics of the land at a proposed plant site should be examined carefully. do much to make a community progressive. libraries. a new plant should be constructed at a location where additional space is available. assistance from outside fire departments should be available. The efficiency.

For a preliminary survey. however.The existence of low taxes is not in itself a favorable situation unless the community is already well developed and relatively free of debt. structural. For example. the effects of transportation facilities and water supply are taken into account. and thus must be planned carefully with attention being given to future problems that may arise. and general local conditions can be obtained. and (6) water supply. storage areas. proper layout in each case will include arrangement of processing areas. tax rates. New site development or addition to previously developed site . there is no one ideal plant layout. (4) climate. markets. price of land. and electrical design can begin. Selection of the Plant Site The major factors in the selection of most plant sites are (1) raw materials. Many times. In the next step. labor conditions. (5) transportation facilities. Exact data on items such as freight rates. This permits reduction of the possible plant location to several general target areas. a detailed analysis of the remaining sites can be made. However. PLANT LAYOUT After the process flow diagrams are completed and before detailed piping. energy supply. As a final step. This layout can play an important part in determining construction and manufacturing costs. and handling areas in efficient coordination and with regard to such factors as: 1. on the basis of raw materials. (2) markets. acceptable locations can usually be reduced to one or two general geographical regions. the layout of process units in a plantand the equipment within these process units must be planned. the first four factors should be considered. These areas can then be reduced further by considering all the factors that have an influence on plant location. The various sites can be GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Inspected and appraised on the basis of all the factors influencing the final decision. a preliminary survey might indicate that the best location for a particular plant would be in the south-central or south-eastern part of the United States. Since each plant differs in many ways and no two plant sites are exactly alike. the final decision on selecting the plant site should take into consideration all the factors that can affect the ultimate success of the overall operation. In any case. the advantages of locating a new plant on land or near other facilities already owned by the concern that is building the new plant outweigh the disadvantages of the particular location. and climate. (3) energy supply. Thus.

Space available and space required 11. The next step requires consideration of the safe operational sequence and gives a primary layout based on the flow of materials. Type of process and product control 4. and future expansion. Type and quantity of products to be produced 3. Health and safety considerations 8. These show the fundamental relationships between storage space and operating equipment. unit operations. . a detailed recommendation can be presented. including isometric drawings of the piping systems. complete with elevation indications can be used for determining the best location for equipment and facilities. Economic distribution of utilities and services 6. and drawings and elevations. Type of buildings and building-code requirements 7. storage. Auxiliary equipment 10. Elementary layouts are developed first. Roads and railroads 12. can be prepared. By analyzing all the factors that are involved in plant layout. Waste-disposal requirements 9.2. Possible future expansion Preparation of the Layout Scale drawings. Operational convenience and accessibility 5.

import Work in progress Finished products Cash in hand Accounts payable 3 years 8% 8.FINANCIAL ANALYSIS The financial analysis of the acetone project is based on the data presented in the previous chapters and the following assumptions:Construction period Source of finance 1 year 30 % equity 70 % loan Tax holidays Bank interest Discount cash flow Accounts receivable Raw material local Raw material.5% 30 days 30 days 90 days 5 days 30 days 5 days 30 days .

of which 27 per cent will be required in foreign currency. 1 2 3 Land lease value Building and Civil Work Plant Machinery Cost Items Total Cost („000 Birr) 700.1 INITIAL INVESTMENT COST Sr No.0 6.1.0 1.0 .A. Table 7.174.500.9 342.841.0 and 2.0 440. TOTAL INITIAL INVESTMENT COST The total investment cost of the project including working capital is estimated at Birr 6.2 27 Furniture and 100. The major breakdown of the total initial investment cost is shown in Table 7.2 Equipment 4 Office Equipment 5 6 7 Vehicle Pre-production Expenditure* Working Capital Total Investment cost Foreign Share 250.17 million.

net profit to equity (Return on equity) and net profit plus interest on total investment (return on total investment) show an increasing trend during the life-time of the project.16 per cent.26 856 113.39 484.29 million (see Table 7.60 % 39.12 254.08 98.71 7.72 100 FINANCIAL EVALUATION 1.2).16 2.09 3. ANNUAL PRODUCTION COST AT FULL CAPACITY ('000 BIRR) Items Raw Material and Inputs Utilities Maintenance and repair Labour direct Factory overheads Administration Costs Total Operating Costs Depreciation Cost of Finance Total Production Cost Cost 1.45 per cent of the production cost.01 3. Break-even Analysis The break-even point of the project including cost of finance when it starts to operate at full capacity (year 3) is estimated by using income statement projection. Important ratios such as profit to total sales.45 4.PRODUCTION COST The annual production cost at full operation capacity is estimated at Birr 3. The income statement and the other indicators of profitability show that the project is viable. Profitability According to the projected income statement. The material and utility cost accounts for 65. while repair and maintenance take 3.47 1. BE = Fixed Cost / (Sales-Variable Cost) = 24 % .552.98 77.65 147.49 2.290.15 26. the project will start generating profit in the first year of operation.24 49.288.57 14.

Internal Rate of Return and Net Present Value Based on the cash flow statement. increases the pressure of the feed to the indicated pressure. Pay Back Period The investment cost and income statement projection are used to project the pay-back period. Equipment Heat Exchanger (E-401): This unit heats.9 bar.5% discount rate is Birr 1. and superheats the feed to 235°C at 2. 4. .2 bar. Fired Heater (H-401): This unit heats the molten salt that provides heat to the reactor.2 million in terms of tax revenue. which is not shown and which you do not have to be concerned with this semester. The establishment of such factory will have a foreign exchange saving effect to the country by substituting the current imports. The project‟s initial investment will be fully recovered within 6 years. vaporizes.3. The heat capacity of molten salt is 1. A pump. only the following reaction occurs: CH 3CHOHCH3  CH 3COCH 3  H 2 IPA acetone (1) The reaction occurs at 350°C. Reactor (R-401): Following development of a new catalyst. Energy is supplied by combustion of natural gas.71 million. The reactor exit pressure is 1. The reaction is endothermic with heat being supplied by hot molten salt. The molten salt enters the fired heater at 360°C (Stream 3) and leaves the fired heater at 410°C (Stream 4). In addition to supply of the domestic needs. D. and the conversion at this temperature is 90%. the project will generate Birr1. the calculated IRR of the project is 14 % and the net present value at 8.56 J/g K. which may be assumed to be pure methane. ECONOMIC BENEFITS The project can create employment for 20 persons.

Stream 10 contains all of the IPA in Stream 7. A L mV (3) L is the total molar flowrate of liquid in Stream 9. The absorber operates at the same temperature and pressure as V-401 Stream 11 contains all of the hydrogen and the acetone and water which are not in Stream 10. Separation Vessel (V-401): This unit disengages the vapor and liquid effluent from E-402. all hydrogen in the feed enters the vapor phase. The parameter m is an equilibrium constant that is a function of temperature and pressure 3598   exp10. None of the hydrogen condenses. 95% of the water in Streams 7 and 9. Stream 7.Heat Exchanger (E-402): This unit cools and partially condenses the reactor effluent. The exit pressure may be at any pressure below 1. All other components distribute according to Raoult‟s Law at the temperature and pressure of E-402. . The amount of acetone in Stream 10 can be calculated from: ystream 11 ystream 7  1 A 1  A6 (2) Where y is the mole fraction of acetone. In this separator.6 bar and any temperature below 50°C that can be achieved by using cooling water (cw) or refrigerated water (rw) is possible. Absorber (T-401): Here.92   T   m P (4) where T is in Kelvin and P is in atm. and V is the total molar flowrate of liquid in Stream 7. additional acetone is recovered by absorption into pure process water. The combination of E-402 and V401 is often called a flash operation.

Flow occurs from higher pressure to lower pressure. Equipment Costs . The cost is for the amount of low-pressure steam needed to supply the necessary heat. the acetone. If you choose to do this. Heat Exchanger (E-403): In this heat exchanger. You should only include this column if you decide it to be economically attractive Other Equipment It is required for two streams that mix to be at identical pressures. The column operates at 1. These valves are not shown on the attached flowsheet.5 mol% of the acetone in the feed must be recovered in Stream 13. This distillation column operates at 1. the contents of Stream 13 are condensed from saturated vapor to saturated liquid at a rate three times the flow of Stream 13. The bottom product goes to waste water treatment. with residual water and IPA out the bottom.9 mol% pure and 99. Pressure reduction may be accomplished by adding a valve. IPA. Stream 14 contains most of the water and IPA from Stream 12. and compressors increase the pressure of gas streams. This column can recover a near azeotropic mixture of water and IPA (88 wt% IPA – with all of the acetone remaining in Stream 14) out of the top. The acetone must be 99. and water in Stream 12 are separated. You may assume that a pump exists where ever you need one. This distillation column needs two heat exchangers with similar energy specifications to E-403 and E-404. Heat Exchanger (E-404): In this heat exchanger. Specifications are as follows. you may assume that one-half of the flow of Stream 14 is vaporized from saturated liquid to saturated vapor at 1. An additional distillation column (T-403): You may choose to add an additional distillation column to process Stream 14 further.Distillation Column (T-402): In this distillation column. Pumps increase the pressure of liquid streams. and it may be assumed that additional valves can be added as needed at no cost.4 bar.4 bar and is returned to the column. there is no cost for pumps. For this semester only. you must recycle the IPA/water top product to the beginning of the process.2 bar. The cost is for the amount of cooling water needed to remove the necessary energy.

8 log10 Q where Q is the heat duty in kW Utility Costs . Equipment Installed Cost in millions of $ Reactor.07 0. T-401 Acetone distillation column T402 including condenser reboiler and 1. including installation. R-401 Absorber.03 2. V-401 Any heat exchanger reboiler and 0.5  0.The equipment costs for the acetone plant are given below.05 Fired heater installed cost in dollars: 11  10 x where x  2. Each cost is for an individual piece of equipment.1 0.8 IPA distillation column T-403 (if added) including condenser Vessel.5 0.

05/kW h Boiler Feed Water (at 549 kPa. saturated) $7. saturated) $8. saturated) $5.00/GJ Electricity $0. 90C) $2.54/1000 kg Cooling Water available at 516 kPa and 30C return pressure  308 kPa $0.00/1000 kg Medium-Pressure Steam (1135 kPa.65/1000 kg Natural Gas or Fuel Gas (446 kPa. 25C) $3.60/GJ Process Water available at 300 kPa and 25°C $0.31/1000 kg High-Pressure Steam (4237 kPa.Low-Pressure Steam (446 kPa.16/GJ return temperature should be no more than 15C above the inlet temperature Refrigerated Water available at 516 kPa and 10C return pressure  308 kPa return temperature is no higher than 20C $1.04/1000 kg Data .

900 kJ/kmole Economic Analysis .664 16.Use data from Reference [1] or from any handbook (such as Reference [2]).176 + 2.523 Normal heat of vaporization for IPA: 56. Liquid Heat Capacity For IPA: 145 J/mole K Vapor Heat Capacity for IPA: 27.1210-4T 2 .546 -34. T in K) A IPA acetone 17.9 C -73.3 2975.732 B 3109.4.0910-7T 3 J/mole K T (K) Vapor Pressures – Antoine‟s Equation constants ln p*  A  B T C (5) (p* in mm Hg.87 + 0. The following data are not readily available in these references.

2(capital cost) Cost Data . The value for hydrogen is $35/1000 std m3. A list of capital costs for all pieces of equipment will be provided by early March. the following objective function should be used.e. fixed cost of plant construction. natural gas.capital cost annuity) A negative EAOC means there is a profit.other operating costs .72/kg IPA in the feed solution. cooling water. and is defined as EAOC = -(product value . and electricity. such as steam. The cost for acetone is $0. i. The capital cost annuity is defined as follows: Capital cost annuity = 0.When evaluating alternative cases. It is desirable to minimize the EAOC.feed cost . The capital cost annuity is an annual cost (like a car payment) associated with the one-time. It is the equivalent annual operating cost (EAOC). a large negative EAOC is very desirable. The cost for IPA is $0. Other operating costs are utilities.88/kg..

60/GJ $6.16/GJ see Chemical Marketing Reporter Equipment Costs (Purchased) .75/GJ $0.Raw Materials Isopropanol (88 – 91 wt%) Utility Costs Low Pressure Steam (618 kPa saturated) Medium Pressure Steam (1135 kPa saturated) High Pressure Steam (4237 kPa saturated) Natural Gas (446 kPa.65/1000 kg $3. 25C) Fuel Gas (use this price for fuel gas credit) Electricity Boiler Feed Water (at 549 kPa. 90C) Cooling Water available at 516 kPa and 30C return pressure  308 kPa return temperature is no more than 15C above the inlet temperature. Refrigerated Water available at 516 kPa and 10C return pressure  308 kPa return temperature is no higher than 20C.54/1000 kg $0.00/1000 kg incinerated-take fuel credit $1. Deionized Water available at 5 bar and 30°C Waste Treatment of Off-Gasincinerated $1.31/1000 kg $8.00/GJ $2.06/kW h $2.62/1000 kg $7.

m 2 ) 0.0 (diameter.6 add 25% additional for boilers or evaporators $770 (power.8. in) 0.67(0.21 log 10 L) D = diameter. m 3 < L/D < 20 P = absolute pressure. bar Reactor assume to be $1 million Equipment Cost Factor: . kW) 0.6 assume 70% $2. kW) 0.8 for control valve with orifice plate. $630 (power. kW) 0. m 0.0 m L = height.5 log 10 L + 0.8 assume 80% thermal efficiency assume can be designed to use any organic compound as a fuel Vessels $[1.2D + 0.3•10-6 P 2 )]•10 z z = (3.18•10 5 (power output.959 + 0.Piping Valves double the price Pumps Heat Exchangers Compressors efficiency Turbine $/m = 5.6 assume 65% efficiency Fired Heater $635 (duty.96 + $400 (power. in) $100 (flow diameter.041P . kW) 0.17 + 0.4 $1030 (area.3 m < D < 4. MW) 0.

packing 20-40 atm.0 Total installed cost=Purchased cost(4+material factor+pressure factor ) Heat Exchangers: For heat exchangers that do not have to be designed in detail.0 Does not apply to turbines. SITUATION Condensing Steam Condensing Organic Boiling Water Boiling Organic Flowing Liquid Flowing Gas h(w/m2c 0) 6000 1000 7500 1000 600 60 . use the following approximation for heat transfer coefficients to allow you to determine the heat transfer area and heat exchanger cost.3.0 trays or catalysts.vessels.0 their includepressure 50-100 atm.4.10 effects.5. 40-50 atm.0.0.6 Material factors Carbon steel -0.Pressure Factors Pressure (absolute) compressor. since cost equations <10 atm. 10-20 atm.0 Stainless steel.