Adjective Clauses

What is an Adjective Clause? An adjective clause is a dependent clause that contains a subject and a verb. It describes, identifies, or gives further information about a noun. Students who are intelligent understand adjectives. (The adjective clause is underlined. It is an "adjective" clause because it describes the noun "students.") Students whom I admire want to become English teachers. (Again, the adjective clause is underlined and modifies the subject "students.") Adjective Clauses are introduced by the following words: who, whom, whose, which, that, where, or when. Clause Marker Use Who People (subject) People (object) People/Things (possessive) Things (subject/object) People/Things (subject/object) Place (adverb) Time (adverb) Example The tribes who lived in the Great Plains used smoke signals. The woman whom we met was called Lightning Cloud. I know the man whose bicycle was stolen. That is a story which interests me. (subject) The drumbeats which we heard sent a message. (object) The Apache is a tribe that lives in Arizona. (subject) The smoke that you see is from the hills. (object) That is the valley where the tribe lived. This is the day when we get the signal.

Whom Whose Which That Where When

I love the teacher whom you sent souvenir . Who (used for people) Example: .Adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. Whom (used for people) Examples: . That (used for both people and things) Examples: .The man that I saw was Mr. identifies.I thanked the woman who helped me. Jones .The man whom I saw was Mr. Adjective clause using object pronouns (whom. And adjective clause is also called relative clause. . that) a. Which. That): a.The music that we listened last night was good .I saw the man that closed the door 2. Which (used for things) Example: . Jones . 1.I love the teacher whom you are talking about b. Adjective Clause using subject pronouns (Who.The book which is on the table is mine .The dog which you beat was caught by animal preservers c.I thank the woman that helped me .The movie which we saw last night wasn’t very good . Which (used for things) Examples: .The book that is on the table is mine .I saw the man who closed the door . That (used for both people and things) Examples: . or gives further information about noun.The book which I read was good . It describes. which.The movie that we saw last night wasn’t very good .The dog which bite me was caught by animal preservers .The music which we listened last night was good c.I love the teacher who taught me how to read arabic b.

Adjective clauses are rarely modify personal pronouns. room.I will never forget the day when I met you . Using adjective clause to modify pronouns Adjective clauses can modify indefinite pronouns (someone. her.The building where he lives is very old . Whose usually modifies people. country. Catt has a painting whose value is inestimable 4.Anybody who wants to come is welcome - . Examples: . but it may also be used to modify things. and their. Adjective clause using whose Whose is used to show possession.).). It carries the same meaning as other possessive pronouns used as adjectives: his. whose is connected to a noun: . day. the preposition is omitted.Her composition → whose composition Both whose and the noun it is connected to are placed at the beginning of the adjective clause. her. Examples: . its.The city where we spent our vacation was beautiful .There is someone I want you to meet .). If where is not used. time. house. its. Examples: . Whose cannot be omitted. the preposition must be included.Monday is the day when we will come 6. The use of a preposition in an adjective clause that modifies a noun of time is somewhat different from that in other adjective clauses: a preposition is used preceding which. If where is used.The town where I grew up is small 5. Examples: .July is the month when the weather is usually the hottest .I know the man whose bicycle was stolen . etc. century.The student whose composition I read writes well . a preposition is not included in the adjective clause. etc. etc. etc.Everything he said was pure nonsense . Adjective clause using where Where is used in an adjective clause to modify a place (city.Mr.His bicycle → whose bicycle . which. Like his. everybody. Otherwise. and their.3. Adjective clause using when When is used in an adjective clause to modify a noun of time (year.) are usually omitted in the adjective clause. Object pronouns (whom.

In my class there are 30 students. It is possible to combine the following two sentences to form one sentence containing an adjective clause: The children are going to visit the museum. many of. 8. The children who are on the bus are going to visit the museum. The expression of quantity precedes the pronoun. only a few of which were valid . Examples: . and whose are used in this pattern. Examples: .7. They are on the bus. who teaches chemistry. | adjective clause | In the sentence above.The teachers discussed Jim. isan excellent lecturer . most of. The children on the bus are going to visit the museum. Use commas if the adjective clause simply gives additional information and is not necessary to identify the noun it modifies.The man whom I met teaches chemistry b. none of. Smith. one of whose problems was poor study habits. which.He gave several reasons. etc. Examples: . Punctuation of adjective clauses General guidelines for the punctuation of adjective clauses: a. who is a retired teacher.Mrs.The professor who teaches chemistry is an excellent lecturer . does volunteer work at the hospital. Commas are used. Only whom. Do not use commas if the adjective clause is necessary to identify the noun it modify. there are two other ways to write the sentence correctly using the second sentence as the adjective clause. Adjective clause that begin with an expression of quantity are more common in writing than speaking.Professor Wilson. . The children that are on the bus are going to visit the museum. An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. Using expressions of quantity in adjective clause An adjective clause may contain an expression of quantity with of: some of. most of whom are from north sumatera .

) My English book. Some adjective clauses need to be set off by commas and others don’t. The adjective clause identifies which ones he likes best. the adjective clauses are underlined.Some other sentences can be combined into a sentence using adjective clauses in a variety of ways. in which my grandparents were married is old. Set these off with commas. is used mainly as a door stop. (Once again. Some adjective clauses are like gossip. (This isn‟t pure gossip any longer. it just provides a gossipy sort of detail about him. Because it helps identify. All answers are correct. It doesn‟t identify the English book. it just provides a gossipy. and they are all correct. which my grandparents were married in is old. the adjective clause is underlined. don‟t set if off with commas. Note the use of the word "in" and how and where it is used. My grandparents were married there. Note the variety of ways in which the following two sentences can be combined. The The The The The church church church church church where my grandparents were married is old. Examples: My English teacher. (The adjective clause is underlined. my grandparents were married in is old.) Now take a look at these: The English teachers that I like best forget to go to class. The writer doesn‟t like all English teachers equally well. The church is old. which is a monument of boredom. In the sentences above. who wears old fashioned ties. that my grandparents were married in is old. Put commas around those. editorial comment about it. is laughed at by the students. ) . Set this clause off with a comma. they provide additional detail about someone (or something) whose identity we already know. It doesn‟t identify the English teacher.

Some examples are: without a penny. Here are some examples: Extra buttons came with the coat. devoid of life. and man of the hour. The man covered with sweat. of great importance. so don‟t put commas around it. An adjective phrase gives more information about a noun or pronoun. running in the park. covered with dirt. (Once again. Something in the corner was moving. Adjective phrases can also modify objects and will follow the word they are modifying. Following are some sentences with the phrases underlined:      The very small kitten jumped at the big dog. or give more information about a noun or pronoun. Other adjective phrases modify the predicate of the sentence.) Adjective Phrases An adjective phrase is a group of words that does the work of an adjective. It‟s not gossip. Examples are:      . The cost of the car was way too high. The big bug under the blanket is moving towards me. Adjective phrases act just like adjectives. We were saddened by the news of his demise. Some also modify noun phrases. I was delighted that he was chosen. Gremlins cause mischief inside of machines. They modify. Some adjective phrases modify nouns or noun phrases. A great way to understand adjective phases is to see them at work in a few sentences. The brownies smell deliciously sweet. trudged his way home.Anyone who reads all of this will go away happier and wiser. this clause identifies who will go away happier and wiser. describe. it‟s essential information.

or plastic. cooking. tanned. Mexican. twenty. most beautiful. Other adjectives like those that do not have two levels of comparison and examples of these include: total. Here are the basic categories of adjectives with a few examples:    Quantity . ideal. northern. and important. svelte.Some adjectives compare words like curlier. worse. round.        A rose by any other name would smell as sweet The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune And shining morning face. hideous. huge. some. bumpy. smooth. I sometimes pity people living in large cities.     She wanted to paint her room lemony yellow. racing. shape. recent. all. and less worrisome. wooden. best.Words to describe the purpose and composition of an object would include: hunting. gigantic.There are many descriptive adjectives that tell the size. Origin . unique. We are collecting money for children born with heart defects. curliest.    . like: polar. blue. none. or Swiss. chief. Composition . antique. They were proud of their team winning the championship. and several. it might help you if you understand the basic functions of adjectives. oblong. Opinion . few.Where an object came from or where it is located would be an adjective of origin. Some examples are: tiny. Famous Adjective Phrases Here are some famous adjective phrases from William Shakespeare. age. amazing. evil.Adjectives can tell the quantity. Descriptive . creeping like a snail unwillingly to school Eaten out of house and home Even at the turning of the tide How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is to have a thankless child I will wear my heart upon my sleeve Understanding Basic Adjectives To better understand the adjective phrase. like any. each.Adjectives that are based on opinion include: gorgeous. and yellowish. least. My new kitten makes me very happy. youthful. silk. every. modern. angelic. and unbroken. Comparison . and color of a noun or pronoun. pale. fatal.

like that. Remember. like your. Possessive . this. In sentence 1. like which or what. “an”.    . Sometimes a group of words does the work of an adjective. (Here the adjective kind modifies the noun man. (Here the adjective phrase „with a kind heart‟ modifies the noun man.  Articles . It qualifies the noun man as an adjective does. Here are some examples: Susan is [AP clever] The doctor is [AP very late] My sister is [AP fond of animals] The pre-Head string in an AP is most commonly an adverb phrase such as very or extremely. Adjective Heads may be followed by a post-Head string: [AP happy to meet you] [AP ready to go] [AP afraid of the dark] A small number of adjective Heads must be followed by a post-Head string. In an ADJECTIVE PHRASE (AP). The workers belonged to a hill tribe. Study the following examples. the group of words ‘of great wealth’ also says the same thing. Another example:   The magistrate was a kind man. and interrogative. the Head word is an adjective.) They lived in a stone house.The articles “a”. It therefore does the work of an adjective and is called an adjective phrase.Adjectives can be possessive. the adjective wealthy says what sort of man the mayor was. mine. The adjective Head fond is one of these.) The magistrate was a man with a kind heart. In sentence 2. The mayor was a man of great wealth. or their. They lived in a house built of stone. the purpose of an adjective or an adjective phrase is to change the meaning of a noun or pronoun or to describe it. and “the” are adjectives.   The mayor was a wealthy man. demonstrative. or those.

Examples: 10. Study the following adjectives and the adjective phrases that are equivalent to them. or that are reduced to modifying adjective phrase. It does not contain a subject and a verb. Only adjective clause that have a subject pronoun who. Clause: Ann is the woman who is responsible for preparing the budget Phrase: Ann is the woman responsible for preparing the budget 12. It modifies a noun. Changing an adjective clause to an adjective phrase Adjective phrase is a reduction of an adjective clause.        A golden necklace – a necklace made of gold A white coat – a coat of white color A jungle track – a track through the jungle A deserted city – a city with no inhabitants The French flag – the flag of France A wooden hut – a hut built of wood A blank page – a page with no writing on it 9. Clause: The man who is talking to John is from Korea Phrase: The man talking to John is from Korea Phrase: The boy playing the piano is Ben 11. Clause: English has an alphabet that consist of 26 letters Phrase: English has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters 13. which. Clause: anyone who wants to come with us is welcome Phrase: anyone wanting to come with us is welcome . The workers belonged to a tribe dwelling in the hills.

The study analyzed the hearing ability of men who went to rock concerts and discos twice a month or more. Jan 06 (Reuters Health) -. The researchers note that previous studies showed that regular personal stereo use was linked to an average hearing loss of about 3 decibels.'' But in those men who had a history of ear infections.'' and recommend that young people who have a history of recurrent ear infections "be warned that personal stereo use is a risk factor for . according to a study published in The Lancet. a level of "limited clinical importance.Headphones up risk of hearing loss NEW YORK. While concerts and loud workplace noise did appear to affect hearing. or otitis media.Young people who suffered from frequent ear infections as children may risk hearing loss if they use personal stereo headphones.'' according to the report. Previous studies have shown that regular listening to loud music using stereo headphones is a risk factor for hearing loss in young people. men who worked in noisy occupations. the use of personal stereos "was associated with a mean extra hearing loss of 11 (decibels) relative hearing loss. They conclude that their results "show the importance of curing otitis in childhood. it appeared that those who suffered hearing loss not only used personal stereos but also had a history of repeated episodes of middle ear inflammation. and men who listened to personal stereos.'' The team also reports an increased risk of acute acoustic trauma and frequent tinnitus in this group of men. However. indicated that the harmful effect of the headphone usage was "strongly dependent on the presence (or) absence of repeated episodes of otitis media in infancy or childhood. in the new study of more than 1.000 young men entering the army in France. in infancy or childhood.

And analysis of the men's medical histories Article Copyright 1999 Reuters Limited.'' factor influencing hearing loss in this group of men was use of SOURCE: The Lancet 1999. Lesson © 1999 English To Go limited .the researchers found that the major deafness.353:35. personal stereos.