Unit-Level Objectives 1.

Students will conjecture about the relationship between the symbolic form of an exponential function and its domain, range, asymptotes, and “limit”. 2. Students will use the structure of equations or expressions to identify useful ways to rewrite problems. 3. Prove that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals. 4. Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table), or a contextual problem. Schedule of Lessons * Note: Class periods are 95 minutes each so there may be multiple “lessons” – linking to another topic – per day. Lesson Topic Lesson Learning Objective(s) Students will develop an exponential function from a series of measurements. Students will recognize the difference between growth factor and growth rate. Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function. Description of how lesson contributes to unit level objectives Students organically construct exponential form using the context – focusing on initial amounts and the way the disease is growing/mutating. Students identify the factor and the amount of times the factor appears as the exponent on the base. The base is no longer the variable, but rather the exponent is the number which varies – the number of times the base factor appears. Looking at the growth patterns, students will begin to generalize about minima/maxima and their existence. (1/3/4) See “Tasks/Activities” section at end of document. Task finishes with discussion of situations identified by students to be exponential Tasks/Activities for the Lesson See “Tasks/Activities” section at end of document.

Exponential Growth 1. Growth Factor 2. Growth Rate (1 Day)

Exponential Decay 1. Decay Factor 2. Decay Rate (1/2 Day)

Students will develop an exponential function from a series of measurements. Students will conjecture

Using the exponential form generated from the previous day, students will link the presence of a fraction to decay – losing an amount each

about the relationship between the base value and whether the function is exponential growth or decay. Students will relate exponential growth to real-life phenomena of their own choosing.

day. Since the radioactive material is breaking down, by losing half each day, students can begin to conceptualize why the decay will never reach zero. The decay causes the difference between successive points to decrease – or, in other words, the numbers are multiplied by a constant fractional factor. Students also start to break down the difference between percent increase/decrease vs. a constant integer factor. Students are generating these conclusions from a multitude of contexts. The introduction of the “limit” will occur here as students begin to conceptualize how the graph is approaching a certain value though not reaching it. (1/3/4)

growth or decay.

Graphing Exponential Functions Skills-based – summative assessment of last two class periods (1/2 Day) Part of Exponential Decay

Students will conjecture about the relationship between the base value and whether the function is exponential growth or decay. Students will move between representations of functions – algebraic, contextual, graphical, and etc.

This is simply an assessment of the previous activities. Students will be given a graph, a table, and a function in which they need to discuss domain, range, asymptotes, and growth/decay.

Assessment: Moving between representations – focusing on from a ________ to a graph: 1. Function 2. Table 3. Description/Context

(1/3/4) See “Tasks/Activities” section

Compound Interest

Students will use the

Students will develop

* Actual lesson schedule flip-flopped “compound interest” and “same-base equations” to coincide with the work students were producing; however, this was the idea. (1 Day)

properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions. For example the expression 1.15t can be rewritten as (1.151/12)12t ≈ 1.01212t to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%.

the notion of compounded-ness through conversation and exploration – “summing amount before applying interest each period.” Using same factors, students can use exponents to begin to approximate investment opportunities. Connection to samebase equations. (2)

at end of document.

Same-Base Equations The end serves as the launching point for logarithmic functions – an example where the bases cannot easily be seen as equal. (1 Day)

Students will use properties of exponents to find equality in problems with different bases – bases where they are multiples of the same prime number.

Students breakdown different factors into their prime (or most basic) numbers and reason that same base allow for equality of exponents. Students will also hypothesize where such assumptions may be false. Showing equality through exponents – all questions ease into the notion of rewriting for simplification. Students can conceptualize how visually different mutations can actually result in the same number of victims. Throwing in unequal bases can allow students to begin to approximate exponent values and lead into the introduction of logarithms and the change of base property. (2)

See “Tasks/Activities” section at end of document.

Task/Activities EXPONENTIAL GROWTH

Name: __________________________________

Class: __________________

Date: ______________

Day 1 Research: The Disease Won’t Stop Growing! Student “X” has just passed the virus to one other classmate. Current research has placed the number at 4 for the number of humans each infected human can infect. Should we begin panicking or is the spread slow enough to avoid a catastrophe? 1. Think about the situation and create a visual aid to show the spread across a number days (for example: chart, graph, picture, diagram).

2. Will our whole school be suffering (or deceased) from “Coughing Veins” in 12 days? What should be our panic level? (Assume our school has 500 persons.)

3. Come up with a description that will help us figure out how fast this disease can spread for a given number days, such as n days.

4. Describe how you came up with your solution.

Name: __________________________________

Class: __________________

Date: ______________

Day 1 Research: The Fall of the Human Race? So far, we have looked at the spread of the disgusting “Coughing Veins” disease and found that we are in a world of trouble if we can’t find a way to stop it. But what is happening to our race? Are we on our way out of existence? Let’s assume the outbreak began in Michigan which has a population of 9,969,727 persons. Days Number of Humans Left

1. How many Michiganders are still alive after 5 days? What about 20 Days?

2. In what ways are the two situations mathematically related?

3. Write a generalization (in other words a function) for the decline of the humans.

Name: __________________________________

Class: __________________

Date: ______________

Day 1 Research: The Disease is Mutating! Our research indicates that variations of “Coughing Veins” are beginning to appear throughout the state of Michigan. The scientists provided us with the equations, but we need to figure out what the equations say about that particular strain of “Coughing Veins”. Describe each function in terms of the spread of Coughing Veins. 1.

2.

3.

EXPONENTIAL DECAY

Name: __________________________________

Class: __________________

Date: ______________

Day 2 Research: The Stone is Decaying
Scientists have stated that the meteorite is breaking down at a rate half its size per day. As of today, the weight is 25 kilograms. As the radioactive material decays, the powerful effects begin to dwindle. Use your knowledge of exponential growth to determine how long it will take for the Solanum to reach a stable state – where it does not affect humans any longer. 1. After the fifth day, how much radioactive Solanum is left in the meteorite? (Creating a chart may help, there are also scissors and paper to help visualize exactly what is happening.)

2. Create a graph describing the situation. What does the y-intercept of the graph tell us?

3. If the Solanum no longer affects humans at a weight of about 0.01 kilograms, how many days will it take for stability to happen? [HI NT: If we quarantined the Solanum for 5 days, is that long enough? What about 20 days?]

4. Apparently scientists also miscalculated the decay of the radioactive Solanum. Instead of halving each day, the stone decays by 5% of its starting size each day. Write a function matching this description.
SAME-BASE EQUATIONS

Name: __________________________________

Class: __________________

Date: ______________

Day 3 Exploration: Meanest Diseases
A couple classes ago, we took some time to explain translations in exponential growth using mutations. Since then, the disease has mutated what seems like an endless number of times – each more sinister than the last. Today, our job is to find on what day different mutations result in the same amount of infections. Each pair of mutations is represented differently, so we will need to be creative with how we generate the equations.

1. Using the chart, write the function that describes the spread of new infections for this mutation: Day Number of New Infections (Mutation A) 0 1 1 2 3 On what day will Mutation A infect 2 4 8 new victims?

2. On what day will Mutations B and C infect the same number of new victims? Mutation B: Mutation C:

3. On what day will Mutations D and E infect the same number of new victims? Mutation D: Mutation E:

4. On what day will Mutations F and G infect the same number of new victims? Mutation F: Mutation G:

5. Which mutation should the human race worry about the most? ______________________ How do you know? 6. On what day will Mutation H infect 724 people? Mutation H:

How is this problem different from the previous 5 questions?
COMPOUND INTEREST

Name: __________________________________

Class: __________________

Date: ______________

Day 4 Exploration: Prepping for Doomsday
Many people prepare for hard circumstances by saving money; however, at the end of the world, money doesn’t really mean much does it? So, instead of saving for the future, as the head of your family, you started saving for the date, 01 January 2012. Taking out all of your monetary gains from banks in Michigan on this date would give your family enough time to spend the money in preparation before the 22 December 2012 end of the world. Let’s say your doomsday fund began in 1997. DIRECTIONS: Using the information sheet provided, answer all of the following questions. Preliminary Question: What does “compounded” actually mean – as in, “The money was compounded quarterly”?

1. Consider the list of items provided. In order to create your fund, you sold all non-essential belongings. Take some time and determine the non-essentials.

2. Add up the monetary worth of all your non-essential belongings. You have sold all of them at a silent auction for the given values – record the worth of your “freed” assets.

________________________

3. At first glance, which investment plan seems as if it will provide your family with the most monetary gain? Why?

4. Using each plan, find the total worth of your investment from the time you opened the account.

5. Which investment opportunity provided you with the best financial position? Explain why you think that investment gave the most?

6. Why is it beneficial to be compounding as much as possible? Use “growth rate” in your explanation.

Doomsday Reference Sheet
List of Family Possessions and Values:
Possession Victorian-era Home Mid-size Sedan ‘02 Refrigerator Furniture Family Heirloom Canned Food Cat (x5) Baby Crib Cell Phone (x3) Value ($) 81,000 7,500 500 2,000 300 100 10 100 300 Possession SUV ‘11 Antique Coin Collection Plasma TV Anti-Burglary System Sports Memoralbilia Dog Social Security Number Kidney (Black Market) Computer/Laptop (x2) Value ($) 23,000 5,000 500 200 4,000 30 5000 93,000 900

List of Investment Opportunities: Institution Prudential Vanguard Edward Jones Merill-Lynch Your Rich Uncle Interest Rate (%) 11.7 11.8 11.8 12 N/A – Doubles Investment Compounded Monthly Bi-monthly Quarterly Annual When You Need It Min/Max Investment ($) 25,000/None 20,000/None 35,000/None 32,500/None None/7,000