PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College

Protein Synthesis
Gene—DNA segment that carries a blueprint for building one protein Proteins have many functions

Cells and Tissues

Building materials for cells Act as enzymes ( y (biological catalysts) g y ) RNA is essential for protein synthesis

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PART C

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Role of RNA
Transfer RNA (tRNA) Transfers appropriate amino acids to the ribosome for building the protein Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Helps form the ribosomes where proteins are p p built Messenger RNA (mRNA) Carries the instructions for building a protein from the nucleus to the ribosome

Transcription and Translation
Transcription Transfer of information from DNA’s base sequence to the complimentary base sequence of mRNA Three-base sequences on mRNA are called codons d

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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and translation begins Nuclear pore Nuclear pore Nuclear membrane Nuclear membrane Large ribosomal subunit U A G U CC Codon Small ribosomal subunit Figure 3. ribosome moves the mRNA strand along sequentially as each codon is read Figure 3.16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.. Inc.. Inc. step 2 2 . and translation begins Nuclear pore Nuclear membrane Growing polypeptide chain Synthetase enzyme mRNA Correct amino acid attached to each species of tRNA by an enzyme Met Gly Ser Phe Released tRNA reenters the cytoplasmic pool. Inc..16.Transcription and Translation Translation Base sequence of nucleic acid is translated to an amino acid sequence Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins Protein Synthesis Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template Amino acids mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.. ready to be recharged with a new amino acid Peptide bond As the ribosome moves along the mRNA. step 1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 3. a new amino acid is added to the growing protein chain Ala Incoming tRNA recognizes a complementary mRNA codon calling for its amino acid by binding via its anticodon to the codon tRNA “head” bearing anticodon C G G AU U U C G C C A U A G U C C Large ribosomal subunit Portion of mRNA already Small ribosomal translated subunit Codon Direction of ribosome advance.16. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protein Synthesis Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template Protein Synthesis Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template mRNA mRNA mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome.

Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education...16. and translation begins Nuclear pore Nuclear membrane Growing polypeptide chain Amino acids mRNA Correct amino acid attached to each species of tRNA by an enzyme mRNA Correct amino acid attached to each species of tRNA by an enzyme Synthetase enzyme Met Gly Ser Phe Peptide bond As the ribosome moves along the mRNA. a new amino acid is added to the growing protein chain Ala Incoming tRNA recognizes a complementary mRNA codon calling for its amino acid by binding via its anticodon to the codon tRNA “head” bearing anticodon C G G G C C A U A G U CC Codon Direction of ribosome advance.Protein Synthesis Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template Protein Synthesis Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template Amino acids mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome.. and translation begins Nuclear pore Nuclear membrane Growing polypeptide chain Synthetase enzyme mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome. Inc. Inc.16. step 3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education. and translation begins Nuclear pore Nuclear membrane Synthetase enzyme mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 3. step 5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education. ribosome moves the mRNA strand along sequentially as each codon is read Figure 3. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 3. and translation begins Nuclear pore Nuclear membrane Amino acids mRNA Correct amino acid attached to each species of tRNA by an enzyme mRNA Correct amino acid attached to each species of tRNA by an enzyme Synthetase enzyme Incoming tRNA recognizes a complementary mRNA codon calling for its amino acid by binding via its anticodon to the codon tRNA “head” bearing anticodon Large ribosomal subunit U A G U CC Codon U A G U CC Codon Large ribosomal subunit Small ribosomal subunit Small ribosomal subunit Figure 3. a new amino acid is added to the growing protein chain Ala Met Incoming tRNA recognizes a complementary mRNA codon calling for its amino acid by binding via its anticodon to the codon Gly Ser Phe Released tRNA reenters the cytoplasmic pool. step 4 Protein Synthesis Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template Protein Synthesis Nucleus (site of transcription) DNA Cytoplasm (site of translation) mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template Amino acids mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome.16.. ready to be recharged with a new amino acid Peptide bond As the ribosome moves along the mRNA. step 6 3 . Inc.16. ribosome moves the mRNA strand along sequentially as each codon is read Large ribosomal subunit tRNA “head” bearing anticodon C G G AU U U C G C C A U A G U CC Large ribosomal subunit Small ribosomal subunit Portion of mRNA already Small ribosomal translated subunit Codon Direction of ribosome advance.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.17a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 4 ... Inc. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Epithelium Characteristics Cells fit closely together and often form sheets The apical surface is the free surface of the tissue The lower surface of the epithelium rests on a basement membrane ( pp y) Avascular (no blood supply) Regenerate easily if well nourished Epithelium Characteristics Figure 3.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education. Inc. Inc.Body Tissues Tissues Groups of cells with similar structure and function Four primary types Epithelial tissue (epithelium) p ( p ) Connective tissue Muscle tissue Nervous tissue Epithelial Tissues Locations Body coverings Body linings Glandular tissue Functions F ti Protection Absorption Filtration Secretion Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.

.Classification of Epithelia Number of cell layers Simple—one layer Stratified—more than one layer Classification of Epithelia Shape of cells Squamous flattened Cuboidal cube-shaped b h d Columnar column-like Figure 3..17a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.18a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 3. Inc.17b Simple Epithelia Simple squamous Single layer of flat cells Usually forms membranes Lines body cavities Lines l Li lungs and capillaries d ill i Simple Epithelia Figure 3. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 5 .. Inc. Inc. Inc.

18c Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education. Inc.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 6 . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.. Inc.18b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Simple Epithelia Simple columnar Single layer of tall cells Often includes mucus-producing goblet cells Lines digestive tract Simple Epithelia Figure 3.Simple Epithelia Simple cuboidal Single layer of cube-like cells Common in glands and their ducts Forms walls of kidney tubules Covers th ovaries C the i Simple Epithelia Figure 3.. Inc. Inc.

Simple Epithelia Pseudostratified columnar Single layer. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 7 . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.. p y tract May function in absorption or secretion Simple Epithelia Figure 3. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stratified Epithelia Stratified squamous Cells at the apical surface are flattened Found as a protective covering where friction is common Locations Skin Mouth Esophagus Stratified Epithelia Figure 3. such as in the respiratory .. Inc.18d Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education. but some cells are shorter than others Often looks like a double layer of cells Sometimes ciliated.. Inc.18e Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.. Inc. Inc.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stratified Epithelia Glandular Epithelium Gland One or more cells responsible for secreting a particular product Figure 3.18f Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education... Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 8 .Stratified Epithelia Stratified cuboidal—two layers of cuboidal cells Stratified columnar—surface cells are columnar. cells underneath vary in size and shape Stratified cuboidal and columnar Rare in human body y Found mainly in ducts of large glands Stratified Epithelia Transitional epithelium Shape of cells depends upon the amount of stretching Lines organs of the urinary system Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.. Inc. Inc. Inc.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings 9 . Inc..Glandular Epithelium Two major gland types Endocrine gland Ductless since secretions diffuse into blood vessels All secretions are hormones Exocrine gland Secretions empty through ducts to the epithelial surface Include sweat and oil glands Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education.