Letter No.V-34564,Reg.

533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5,1-8 Advance Access publication 6 Mar.2011

A GANDHIAN CONCEPT TOWARDS “CONFLICT RESOLUTION & PEACE”
DR. A. D. RAI* *Assistant Professor, Faculty of Commerce, RGSC Barkachha (BHU)(U.P.) India. Abstract
This paper explore the Detailed perspective of Gandhian Philosophy towards Conflict Management .It also explain a Brief and Concise Outcome after a Completion of Conflict Resolution process and win win situation within self betterment and progress towards society development within a good management of conflicts strategy.

Keywords: philosophy,conflict,resolution ,development,strategy

Introduction Mutual trust and bilateral negotiations, preparedness to discuss the problem collectively with open mindedness, tendency to examine and change our own belief i.e. flexibility is required to escape conflict. Total disarmament is the need of the hour but it cannot take place unless and until the hearts and minds of persons who manufacture, sell and purchase weapons are changed. Public pressure could play an important role. Organizations, in addition to individual pacifists must pressurize the governments or the policy makers to adopt peaceful means to resolve problems. Gandhi accepted the potentiality of various kinds of conflicts as occasions to contemplate over the confirmed problems and also as an opportunity to search for peaceful means to resolve them, because of his positive attitude. He knew very well that the process of conflict resolution involved the painstaking task of restructuring the present world by liberating the human mind from dogmatism of various kinds such as economic and political barbarism, religious bigotry etc. To achieve simultaneously the negative aim of conflict resolution and the positive aim of establishing peace, Gandhi propounded his philosophy of peace. Our need is to proclaim again and again the significance of Gandhian pacifism to solve crucial problems of conflict and violence. To prevent structural violence, Gandhi proposed theories with the ideals of Satyagraha, Sarvodaya, Swaraj, Swadeshi, Buniyadi Talim, Decentralization of power and wealth, Trusteeship, Social harmony & Communal unity, Economic equality, Sarva Dharma Sambhava, Democracy of Enlightened Majority etc. Gandhi’s approach had always been holistic as human life is a synthetic whole, which can not be divided into watertight compartments of social, religious, political life etc. Trusteeship, Swadeshi, Bread Labour, Khadi and Village Industries, Decentralisation of Wealth, Eleven Vows or Ekadasha Vrata also recommends the solutions mentioned above and thus presents a constructive programme proposed by Gandhi. Once again it underlines (i) Removal of untouchability (ii) Prohibition, (iii) Upliftment of women (iv) Communal Unity (v) Service of backward class (vi) Village Sanitation (vii) National Language (viii) Basic education (ix) Adult education (x) Village Industries. Gandhi asserts that besides individual endeavour corporate actions are also needed. The most fundamental principle of his philosophy of peace is “Ahimsa” or nonviolence which is the law of love, life and creation as opposed to violence or Himsa, the cause of hatred, death and destruction. According to Gandhi the universal human value of Ahimsa ought to be cultivated not merely at a personal level, but at social, national and international levels too if we wish to avoid personal, social, national and international conflicts. It is a very powerful means to avoid conflict, since it springs from an inner realization of the equality of all human beings. It is absence of intention of injuring, harming, disturbing and agonising opponents. It is good will towards all human beings. Nonviolence at interpersonal and international levels can be defined as altruistic approach. As a peaceful

technique to resist injustice, it includes a concrete programme and leads to self-suffering and sacrifice. For Gandhi “Fasting unto death” is the last step to oppose injustice. Gandhi’s approach is ethical, as he believes, that moral degeneration is the root cause of all evils including conflicts. So he recommends acquisition of moral values such as truthfulness, nonviolence or love, self-control, forgiveness, non-enmity or friendliness, compassion, mercy etc. In fact values are the best equipments discovered by human beings to escape various types of conflicts. Researches also show that the root of all problems invariably lies in the infringement of values¯ moral, religious, spiritual, economic and political and moral principles. Undoubtedly conflicts are nothing but the illustration of the violation of moral laws, non performance of duties, negligence of human values, enjoyment of freedom without caring for responsibility etc. Hence Gandhi appreciates moral solution, which is inexpensive, and a single person can initiate and undertake the task of conflict resolution by attracting world wide attention. Gandhi, a great political thinker, therefore, recommends that politics should be a branch of ethics. Moral principles must be adhered to by politicians, ideologues, social activists as well as ordinary citizens of the world as there is no dividing line between private and public life. Assimilation of values in one’s character and their expression in conduct is required to avoid conflicts and this in turn is possible through awakening of “Conscience” at personal, social, national and global levels. Public awareness of those values which are conducive to peace building must be evoked through exhibition, education, public lectures, dialogues and mass communication¯T.V., Radio, Newspapers etc. Gandhi proposed and adopted “Satyagraha” as a moral equivalent to war and conflict. As we all know the successful conduct of war involves two things. On the one hand, suppression of the virtues of kindness, friendliness, forgiveness and consideration for the sufferings of fellow human beings, and on the other, encouragement of the feelings of unqualified hatred, anger and hostility towards so called enemies. Thus war leads to total violation of the liberal democratic principles of respect for persons and dignity of the individual. On the contrary, a satyagrahi while resisting injustice shows respect for his opponent by making moral appeals to him and expecting him to be responsive. A satyagrahi aims at conversion of the opponent’s heart by making him aware of his ill will or inhuman behaviour through self-suffering. Satyagraha aims at winning over the opponent by love and gentle persuasion and by arousing in him a sense of justice rather than forcing him to surrender out of fear. The method of Satyagraha is purely moral and humanistic as it involves faith in the inherent goodness and good sense of the opponent coupled with goodwill towards him and readiness to come to an understanding and compromise. In fact Satyagraha aims at settlement of issue or issues with the opponent without causing him even psychological injury as it implies soul-force, courage and determination. A wellconducted campaign of Satyagraha, absolutely untouched by violence in word and deed, makes the opponent suffer as his own moral consciousness exposes the immorality of his action. Gandhi believed in the technique of Satyagraha, because he had faith in the goodness of human nature. The moral and humanistic grandeur of Satyagraha as a method of resolving conflict and securing justice has been appreciated by several thinkers, politicians and social workers. If we wish to keep peace, we ought to follow the UN charter of human rights, according to which dignity of human life must be honoured and maintained without reference to caste, colour, creed, etc. We have to redefine the concept of development and progress as Human Welfare and well-being by replacing the prevalent misleading concept of development and progress in terms of Economic Development and material progress. If we want peace, we have to replace the humanity negating industrial consumerist culture by idealistic humanism. Belief in the spiritual constitution of man led Gandhi to affirm equality of all human beings and to declare innate goodness of men. Humanism as the philosophy of Globalism or Global philosophy implies non-discrimination with regard to race, sex, language, region, religion, political ideology, social and economic status, international status of the country etc., since the basic structure and nature of human beings all over the world is same. We must rationalise our ways of thinking and instead of thinking of the world in terms of maps and markets, we should think of it in terms of men, women and children i.e. in terms of mankind. To prevent conflicts caused by religious bigotry, Gandhi suggested “Sarva Dharma Sambhav”. According to him all religions are true and man cannot live without religion so he recommends an attitude of respect and tolerance towards all religions.

Role of Academics It is very shocking to note that no serious and sustained consideration is given to human search for peace or peace studies in academic institutions and syllabi, while ours is a world of nuclear giants and moral infants. Each and every citizen of the world must be educated to escape conflict, as ultimately the person himself is the insurmountable barrier in conflict resolution. Every educated person should be made aware of the fact that issues relating to peaceful co-existence basically belong to each citizen. So every person must be trained to rise above communal pressures, religious loyalties, regional and other interests etc. Harmonious interpersonal relationships must be developed through formal and informal education. Hence reconstitution of the present education system by re-considering its goal is a very urgent task. Awareness and awakening of creative qualities must be a part of the education policy and curriculum. Instead of over-emphasizing destructive instincts, we must try to emphasize constructive aspects of peoples personalities, because constructive aspect is related to human values and virtues as well as their incorporation in cognitive, co-native and affective dimension of our personality. The foregoing outlines of Gandhi’s philosophy of peace endorses the truism that Gandhi is one of the very relevant precursors of conflict-resolution movement with his comprehensible philosophy of peace based on the psychology of human nature, awareness of social realities and knowledge of economic and political systems and situations. If conflict is not properly handled, it may lead to large-scale war, threatening the very existence of human survival. At times, the cooperative behaviour of a particular society or community may affect the peaceful life of others in the society. For example, the extreme form of nationalism of a particular country affects its relations with its neighbouring countries. In the same way, the conflicting behaviour of a given society may develop group cohesiveness and strong identity. (e.g. at the time of war and emergency, people show national solidarity). Thus dealing with conflict requires enormous potentiality, skills, strategies etc. Normative forms and natural way (leaving it to its natural course of its end) of dealing with conflicts very often proves stereotypic, uncreative and less effective. Since the causes for conflicts are multiple due to changing situations, the methods to deal with and respond to conflict cannot remain single and one dimensional. Albert Einstein said, “The significant problems we face today cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them.” Thus we require multiple and more creative approaches to respond to conflict. This will not happen through repetitive way of using the normative techniques of conflict resolution. What is required is an in depth study on various dimensions and dynamics of conflicts and more effective and creative ways of coping with them. This necessitates the need for education on conflict resolution. To bridge the gap between knowledge and action in conflict resolution, intensive training and wider exposure in this field becomes necessary. In order to improve human conditions at the micro and macro levels, education, research and training in conflict studies that is now phrased, as ‘Conflictology’ is needed. This comes very much under the purview of the academic field. We are passing through the era of information. Information is considered as one of the main sources of power. Academics, as the upholders of this power, have a significant role to play in the field of conflict resolution through their educational activities such as teaching, research and training. Intellectuals, the responsible citizens of civic society, are bound to do this work not only to make the world free from destructive conflicts but also to create an atmosphere where conflicts can be resolved creatively and effectively.

Gandhi’s Methodological Perspective Though all minds do not think and feel alike, the best way to understand another man’s mind is through observing one’s own mind. When one watches one’s mind, one sees that the emotions that arise in one’s mind are not permanent. They do not always have the same intensity. Sometimes, we can be in the grip of an emotion, and at the same time see how the emotion has gripped our mind and is twirling our mind around as a storm twirls a tree around. We can also see how the storm passes, and the mind or the tree slowly¯sometimes quickly¯settles down and experiences the calm that follows the storm. We thus see that emotions arise in our mind, but are not part of our mind. If they were part of our mind, there would have been no variations in the

no changes. it was his duty and his Sadhana to serve all creation. It is therefore clear that the mind of the human being. Democracy bases itself on the belief that the human mind can be transformed. Love is a reflection of this force of cohesion among the sentient. He saw Satyagraha as a mental. Conversely. this would have led to a perpetual desire to eliminate or contain the other. Dictatorship then will be the natural way of governance. the readiness to sacrifice one’s possessions or happiness. we can also see the consequences of holding the two as one. we have many instances that show. One of the major reasons why Gandhi was able to do this was Gandhi’s success in making people distinguish between evil and the evil doer. If this is a valid and verifiable distinction. Such an attitude of mind would be inconsistent with the gregariousness or interdependence that characterizes the human species. if not to the point of wholesale acceptance of other views and the abandonment of one’s earlier views. if views are unalterable and there is no way of achieving (eliciting) consent or acquiescence through persuasion and consent. has to be treated and approached as distinct from the views and emotions that arise. love was the only force that could overcome hatred and conflict. A cause could create only the effect that was inherent in it. He therefore looked upon Truth and Love as two sides of the same coin. Given the fact that human beings think and feel differently. if they are the same. therefore. and was accessible only through the ‘inexorable law of cause and effect’. no arising and no disappearance. arising and disappearing. It may be argued that the psyche of the individual and the psyche of collectives do not always react in an identical fashion. and suppression will be the natural way of dealing with a mind that dares to think for itself. it could be resolved only through a mental process or mental force. but can also respond with equal intensity to pity or love or compassion or loyalty or devotion to ideals or to God. Gandhi pointed out that since conflict took birth in the mind. Collective minds also share the same nature. a desired effect could be brought about only by creating the cause that could produce the effect (that contained the seeds of the effect). and social systems can be sustained only through ‘force’. Secondly. there is hardly any way of changing or transforming views or emotions. Firstly. etc. as the law of gravitation is its reflection in the realm of the inanimate. and the distinction has to be used to deal with problems that arise from differences in views and emotions. To Gandhi truth is the core of reality. the readiness to suffer for a cause. not through the deployment of physical force. or the mind that holds wrong views and the views themselves. which as we have seen. If this is a necessity to bring about changes or compromises in the short term. We should learn from this that the intolerance. the readiness to overcome hatred. moral and spiritual force that the mind used to work on other minds and to correct attitudes and acts that were inconsistent with truth. as it has evolved in the species. viz. Gandhi too believed that Truth manifested in itself. they can be roused to a high pitch of fury. The Buddha is a remote figure in history and the interventions he made to preempt . An evil effect or negativity can be removed only by the power of its antithesis or antidote. The problems that arise from differences can only be resolved by the physical isolation or annihilation of the other person. “All creation” includes not only the sentient but also the non-sentient. are not an inherent and irremovable part of the mind. and disappear. it is also a necessity to preserve the integrity of human society and to protect it from the violent and destructive effects of frequent fission. that views can be transformed. and not reason. Means and ends therefore become almost indistinguishably interwoven. at least to the point of acquiescence and tolerance. But it is also true. Both The Buddha and Gandhi were men of action. how they both react similarly. and declared that as a votary of Truth or Satyagraha. anger and aggressiveness that we encounter from other minds are also capable of waxing and waning. social changes can be brought about. There is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the similarity of responses to similar stimuli or to the same appeal. and the sentient as Gandhi explained includes the “creepy-crawlies” or the “meanest” of creations. To Gandhi. love. The Indian struggle for independence under Mahatma Gandhi is replete with instances that show how similar emotions arose and worked in the minds of individuals and groups. the law that governs the universe and gives it its form: Dharma or the force of cohesion that sustains an entity. the purpose of individual and social life was the pursuit of Dharma through means consistent with Dharma or the force of cohesion. justice or the principle of cohesion that is the essence of Dharma. transit. It is therefore possible to believe that similar stimuli and appeals may help to decelerate the momentum of negative and divisive emotions and bring it below the level of the threshold of active confrontation or conflict. So to him too.intensity of our emotions.

And the world has been in the grip of a series of crises in Korea. I reject the word ‘passive resistance’. we fall. The shadow of a thermo-nuclear war with its incalculable hazards continues to hang over mankind. Relying as it did on persuasion and compromise. money. Gandhi’s ideas and techniques may suggest a way out. the Congo. to insist on Truth. it was the satyagrahi’s duty never to feel helpless. nonviolent resistance demands courage of a high order. His rejection of violence stemmed from choice. ignore the alien government and build alternative institutions to harness the spontaneous. His technique of Satyagraha was designed not to coerce the opponent. The least he could do was to make a beginning with himself. Gandhi did not think it possible to bring about radical changes in the structure of society overnight. Nor did he succumb to the illusion that the road to a new order could be paved merely with pious wishes and fine words. why not act on the assumption that the country was already free. no wholly evil men”. Gandhi has explained why he became a man of “direct action”. into introspection and self-correction.” The rate of social change through the nonviolent technique was not in fact likely to be much slower than that achieved by violent methods. arms. because of its insufficiency and its being interpreted as a way of the weak. if an age-old evil like untouchability was to be fought. and tolerance for the residual differences that might remain on peripheral matters. On my side. I have my comrades in armlessness. He answered the charge that such direct action could become divisive and cause confrontation or conflict in society. and all the rest. the desire to discover Truth. who is prepared to die for his convictions rather than submit to your brute force. to unite the utmost firmness with the utmost gentleness. graphically describes the attitude of the nonviolent resister to his opponent: “On your side you have all the mighty forces of the modern State. going more than half way to understand and win him over? Though he may . a controlled press.” Gandhi affirmed. to invite suffering but not to inflict it. and only direct action could shock them out of selfishness or intransigence. he could walk through it. mediation or arbitration. but because he considered violence in the long run. However heavy the odds. the Vietnam. it was definitely faster than that expected from the normal functioning of institutions which tended to fossilize and preserve the status quo. entering into the minds and hearts of those who were going through the ordeal. From this predicament. Horace Alexander. If he was crusading for a new deal for peasantry. persons of undoubted spiritual eminence like the Buddha and Jesus were men of direct action.” Thus Gandhi’s recipe for the resolution of conflicts was Satyagraha. “that nothing enduring can be built upon violence. the Middle East. and said that men of peace. Gandhi did not make the facile division of mankind into “good” and “bad” He was convinced that every human being—even the “enemy¯had a kernel of decency: there were only evil acts. Here we stand. introspection. to die but not to kill. and abandon all that dilutes Truth or deviated ever so slightly from Truth. “It is my firm conviction. and South Africa with a never-ending trail of blood and bitterness. and his interventions and struggles are still remembered and studied. survives and prospers through interdependence. This could be achieved through a joint review of facts and issues. He had found that human beings were sometimes (often) impervious to the appeal of reason when their interests or views were involved. what could be a more effective symbol of defiance for a reformer than to adopt an untouchable child? If the object was to challenge foreign rule. constructive and cooperative effort of the people? If the goal was world peace. It was not enough to blame the opponent or bewail the times in which one’s lot was cast. “Never has anything been done on this earth without direct action. why not begin today by acting peacefully towards your immediate neighbour. the courage to resist injustice without rancour. not from necessity. and here if need be. but the results were likely to be more durable for having been brought about peacefully. an ineffective weapon. I have nothing but my conviction of right and truth. he could go to a village and live there. But Gandhi lived in the recent past. the unquenchable spirit of man. who knew Gandhi and saw him in action.” Far from being a craven retreat from difficulty and danger. Gandhi’s method was not always quick in producing results. He advocated nonviolence not because it offered an easy way out. but to set into motion forces which could lead to his conversion. According to Gandhi. if he wanted to bring peace to a disturbed district.or resolve social conflicts or ensure justice to sentient beings are not remembered or recounted. The manner in which Gandhi’s techniques have sometimes been invoked even in the land of his birth in recent years would appear to be a travesty of his principles. direct action that promoted introspection and reminded one of the need for reconciliation in a society that comes into being.

there should be sufficient provision to make students conscious about denouncing extreme inequality in distribution of wealth. Conflict and Defence A General Theory. Gandhi used his nonviolent technique on behalf of his fellow-countrymen in South Africa and India. It is possible that “applied non-violence” is at present having the same value to maintain “global peace” for ever. Nonviolence. London. KEVIN (1998). KENNETH (1962). Publishers. . Philadelphia. Keeping aside these basic facts. REFERENCES AVRUCH. only a slogan for ‘peace’ can not change the society. Gandhi would have been the first to deny that his method offered an instant or universal panacea for world peace. He did not dream heavenly dreams nor see things unutterable in trance. This is the biggest challenge faced by society.have appeared a starry-eyed idealist. The Functions of Social Conflict. hatred of the upper caste people on the lower caste people. Proper concept of human welfare should be cultivated through education. Naturally this wide discrimination is a constant source of discontent and conflict. DEACON. as Gandhi expounded it. New York. ESSER. New Society Publishers. In the study of history of human civilization it is found that there was a continuous trend of torturing the weak by more powerful individuals or groups. Culture & Conflict Resolution. Syracuse University Press. ELISE (1990). Washington. Conflicts help in material and intellectual advancement. nations because of differences of opinion. A reasonable economic order through equitable distribution of wealth among different nations and more particularly among the people of the same country is very much needed to avoid conflicts and clashes. may have seemed utopian thirty years ago but not today. when “the still small voice” spoke to him. It is shame that a small section of our population including public servants and political leaders are living such a luxurious and expensive life which is in sharp contrast with the common people. There was a deep mystical streak in him. Extreme poverty and illiteracy among a major section of the population is the greatest tragedy for India. LEWIS. BOULDING. but he did not conceive it only as a weapon in the armory of Indian nationalism. CHARLES. Gandhi’s attitude to social and political problems was severely practical. Far from distracting him from his role in public affairs. Resource Manual for a Living Revolution. CHRISTOPHER (1985). Sage publications. Philadelphia. access to education and health care and freedom. MOORE. DEDRING. people are now gradually getting more and more concerned with Human Rights that demand social justice to all sections of the society. A humanistic education covering various aspects responsible for creating social discontents giving rise to conflicts and emphasizing on maintaining peace in resolution of conflicts. JUERGEN (1976). Such social injustices are a constant source of discontent giving rise to conflicts. Gandhi’s religious quest gave him the stamina to play it more effectively. will create a society worth living as Gandhi visioned and worked for. In education along with spreading ideas of universal love and tolerance and importance of maintenance of peace for sustaining human development. ELLEN. shelter. establishment of superiority and various other factors. and became a necessity. in the global context there is sharp contrast between the rich and poor countries. (1956). New York. Economic deprivation and social subjugation are the basic causes of conflicts in human society. clash of interest. ceased to be a pious exhortation. socially over-powering women by men and such other injustices. In the progress of civilization and development of humanistic attitude. the dissection of ancient texts. BOULDING E. The advice he gave to the unfortunate Abyssinians and Czechs during the twilight years before the Second Word War. groups. Instead of solving those conflicts they were always suppressed. clothing. VIRGINIA. The free Press. Recommendation and Conclusion In a human society conflicts will always be there between individuals. but even his mysticism seemed to have little of the ethereal about it. Every human being must be provided with their basic needs of food. Harper & Row. Also. exploitation of the poor by the rich and landed people. or even the practice of cloistered virtue: it had to be lived in the challenging context of political and social life. To him true religion was not merely the reading of scriptures. Building a Global Civic Culture Education for an Interdependent World. neglect of the illiterate people by the educated people. His method is capable of almost infinite evolution to suit new situations in a changing world. United States Institute of Peace. Recent Advances in Peace and Conflict Research: A Critical Survey. A mindset will be prepared that will help in developing a society where equitable distribution of wealth will be given due emphasis. COOVER. COSER. it was often to tell how he could fight a social evil or heal a rift between two warring communities.

Conflict Resolution and Gandhian Ethics. On Advancing Truth and Morality in Conflict Resolution. Conflict Resolution Through Non-Violence: Role of Universities. The Psychology of Nonviolence. ITUNG.P. New Delhi. Out of these MSMEs 72 percent are engaged in manufacturing and 28 per cent in service enterprises.. (a) Manufacturing Enterprises : The enterprises engaged in the manufacture or production of goods pertaining to any industry specified in the first schedule to the industries (Development and regulation) Act. Albany SPRING. Peace Studies from a Global Perspective.55 million registered-source MSME annual report. Research and Practice.9-14 Advance Access publication 23 Dec.P. MSME sector is better employment generating sector. Conflict Resolution and Peace making from the Bottom Up: The Roles of Social Movements and Peoples’ Diplomacy. K. New Delhi. Madhyam Book Services.2010 SIGNIFICANCE OF MICRO SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISE (MSME) IN LIBERALISED ERA DR. JAMES (1996). Govenrment of India) million employing about 59. It generates employment at low cost and helps the society to move on the path of prosperities & growth. Harish Chandra P. SOHAN LAL YADAV*AND PRIYANKA SRIVASTAVA** *Associate Professor and Head. 1951). SHARONI. MSME Definition Enterprises from small scale to medium scale grouped together are called “Micro Small and Medium Enterprises” (MSME). whereas the MSME sector generates employment of 1. Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University Jaunpur (U.27 persons with the same investment. R. Conflict Resolution: Theory. Yale University Press. JOHAN (1992). 2006 the Micro. Ahmedabad. The Resolution of Conflict. LEROY (1974). . WEBER.) India. URSULA OSWALD. A.V-34564.67 million rupees to generate employment of one person. PELTON H. (1973). According to the Fourth Census of MSME in 2006-07 in India. Concept Publishing Company. In terms of size of enterprises 94.1 (only 1. New Delhi. New Haven. Dossier. The Gandhi Peace Foundation. Pergamon Press Inc. GANGRADE. Small & Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act. (1989). ♦ Letter No. & MISRA.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. New York.25 per cent are medium enterprises. This sector contributes to more than 45 per cent of the total manufacturing output and accounts for over 40 per cent of the total exports of the country and forms the second largest source of employment.D.67 per cent are micro enterprises. SCHELLENBERG. SIMONA (2000). Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) are classified in two Classes. In accordance with the provision of Micro. IUPIP International Course.G.(2000). P. The Way is the Goal: Gandhi Today.G. THOMAS (1991). the number of MSMEs was estimated at 26. Italy.) India **Research Scholar. The organized industrial sector requires an investment of 0. Introduction MSME plays a vital role in the process of development. College Varanasi (U.P. ed.73 million persons. KRIESBERG. Department of Commerce.DEUTSCH. M.05 per cent are small enterprises and the rest 0.2009-10. 5.Reg. State University of New York Press. Gujarath Vidyapith. LOUIS. The Manufacturing Enterprise are defined in terms of investment in Plant & Machinery.

O. as notified.29-09-2006 are as under : Manufacturing Sector Enterprises Micro Enterprises Small Enterprises Medium Enterprises Service Sector Enterprises Micro Enterprises Small Enterprises Medium Enterprises Investment in equipments Does not exceed ten lakh rupees More than ten lakh rupees but does not exceed two crore rupees More than two crore rupees but does not exceed five core rupees Investment in plant & machinery Does not exceed twenty five lakh rupees More than twenty five lakh rupees but does not exceed five crore rupees More than five crore rupees but does not exceed ten crore rupees Significance of MSME in India The Small Scale Industry (SSI) has been one of the major planks of India’s development strategy and consequentially. Apart from making significant contributions to output. the sector accounts for 8% of GDP. 1642(E) dtd. vide S. employment. 45% of manufactured output and 40% of exports. Investment and Empoyment Source:MSME annual report 2009-10 Government of India . contribution in GDP and exports overtime has been explained in the following tables and graph: MSME Growth. investment. it has been accorded a high priority status from the very beginning.(b) Service Enterprises : The enterprises engaged in providing or rendering of services and are defined in terms of investment in equipment. The Indian governments have been pursuing support policies since independence to make these enterprises viable and vibrant over time. the small and medium enterprises (SME) have led to social developments in terms of nursing entrepreneurship and drawing fresh talent. All India Performance Trend MSME growth in units. More importantly. employment and exports. The limit for investment in plant and machinery / equipment for manufacturing / service enterprises. it promises jobs to 60 million people producing 8000 commodities annually both for the domestic and the international market. Currently.

Reserve Bank of India 2005-06 . data with reference to micro. (** The data for the period upto 2005-06 is only for small scale industries (SSI). Exports from MSME (in Rs. Another important factor is over the last one decade this sector has always inched up its contribution to GDP. small and medium enterprises are being reflected.86 per cent of GDP at that time.From the above table it is observed that at end of year 2008-09 an estimated total of 28.53% than previous year) million MSME units are present in the country and generating employment of about 65.94 million people a growth of 5. In the year 2007-08 this sector had given an estimated contribution of around 45 per cent of total industrial production and 8 per cent of GDP which was about 39.35% than previous year. Crore) 150242 160000 124417 140000 120000 86018 100000 69797 71244 80000 44442 48979 60000 25307 29068 40000 9664 20000 0 1990-91 1991-92 13883 1992-93 17784 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 36470 1996-97 39248 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 54200 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 97644 2004-05 Source: Handbook of Statistics on Indian Economy (2009). small and medium enterprises are being compiled. (The figures in brackets show the % growth over the previous year.74 per cent of industrial production a decade ago (1999-2000) and was contributing to 5. The data for the period up to 2005-06 is only for small scale industries (SSI). Subsequent to 2005-06. From this data it is clear that there has been a positive growth in industrial production and contribution to GDP in all the years of last one decade. crores) Exports from small scale industries (in Rs.52 (a growth of 4. data with reference to micro. **Projected) Contribution of Msmes Sector in The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India Source:MSME annual report 2009-10 Government of India) From the above Table it can be seen the contributions of MSME sector to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country and also the growth trend. Subsequent to 2005-06.

has been one of the important policy measures for promoting this sector. export-oriented SMEs are likely to be impacted from imminent global slowdown. Moreover. Engineering goods. Readymade garments. the Government of India announced the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme (NMCP) during the budget speech 2005-06. The phased deletion of products from the list of items reserved for the exclusive manufacture by micro and small enterprises is being continued. came into being with effect from 2nd October. In October 2008. only 21 items are reserved for exclusive manufacturing in the MSE sector. These include bread. both the Central and State Governments took effective measures towards implementation of the Act.50. which was capital intensive in nature and thus could not solve the problem of unemployment. forcing its member-countries (including India) to drastically scale down quantitative and nonquantitative restrictions on imports.664 crore in 1990-91 to Rs. One of the objectives of NMCP is to ensure healthy growth of the MSME sector. No more the MSME sector continued to be treated as ‘infant industry’. wooden furniture. got dereserved. five components have been made operational. The MSME Development Act 2006. incense sticks. Since the late 1980s. which has held back the growth of SMEs and impeded overall growth and development. exports from SMEs continues to be dominated by just eight product groups. Electronic and computer software. (b) Accessing credit on easy terms has become difficult in the backdrop of current global financial crisis and the resultant liquidity constraints in the Indian financial sector. support for entrepreneurial and managerial development through incubators. However. particularly longer tenure loans. 9. pickles. safety matches. fireworks. Under the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme (NMCP). and (c) domestic economic reforms. Reservation of items for exclusive manufacture in SSI sector statutorily provided for in the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act. labour market rigidity is considered as a barrier to the overall growth of the economy. it created regional disparity in development outcomes. 1951. subsequent to which. After the liberalisation of the economy. and stainless steel and aluminium utensils.242 crore in 2005-06. The Karve Committee Report (1955) was one of the earliest of the exercises. which include quality management systems and quality technology tools. exercise books and registers. pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. 1. Under the current paradigm of neoliberalism. In order to increase the competitive edge of the MSMEs vis-à-vis the multinational corporations (MNCs). the government deleted 14 items from this list. setting up of new mini tool rooms and marketing assistance/ support to MSEs. Processed foods. The MSME sector today faces competitive environment owing to: (a) liberalisation of the investment regime during the 1990s. Chemicals and allied products. Basic chemicals. Policy changes in the reforms era India went for rapid industrilisation during the 2nd and 3rd Five Year Plans. 2006. Finished leather and leather products and Plastic products) accounting for over 90 per cent of total value of exports. government’s attitude towards the MSME sector changed and many of the products exclusively manufactured by these units earlier. .The above Graph shows that exports from the small scale industry has increased from Rs. Presently. which recommended a protective environment for the growth of small industries in India. Labour market flexibility (a cost cutting strategy) is often prescribed to enhance productivity. (namely. favouring foreign direct investment (FDI). building awareness on intellectual property rights. (b) the formation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 1995. Little progress has been made to diversify our export basket. Factors affecting MSMEs Some of the key constraints that are being faced by the Indian MSMEs are: (a) Accessing adequate and timely financing on competitive terms. wax candles.

The critical components before SMEs are speed of services. skills about decision-making and good management and accounting practices. Japan. It is estimated that to achieve the target of 10 per cent growth by 2011. Many economists believe that the License-Permit Raj prevailing in India before the 1990s. Ministry of Micro. Small and Medium Enterprises. . Annual Report Reserve Bank of India (2009).5 lakh required in the large organised sector. China. Report on Effect of Economic Slowdown on Employment in India (October-December. Doing Business 2010: Reforming through Difficult Times. Vol. Corporate Governance Reforms in India (May. where several large industries are on the verge of collapse. The World Bank. MSMEs are the second largest source of employment after agriculture. 2008). credit and performance ratings and marketing support. 37. 2009. Technology transfers (such as green technology) and networking can revive the growth of MSMEs. Ministry of Labour and Employment. institutional weaknesses (absence of good credit appraisal and risk management/ monitoring tools). bankruptcy and contract enforcement). It is estimated that to create one job in the MSME sector. affected the growth of businesses and industry. In India. (e) Access to skilled manpower. REFERENCES Annual Report. IT usage by the SMEs raises productivity of the sector in particular and the economy in general. Malaysia. R&D facilities and marketing channels is limited. and lack of reliable credit information on SMEs. and access to modern technology.000 is required as against Rs 5. Suggestions More support is needed for MSMEs from the government in the form of priority sector lending. fast and accurate decision-making and facilitating collaboration. In the present scenario of global recession. it is found that we lag far behind. (f) Availability of finance at cheaper rates. 2002) by Ananya Mukherjee Reed. the role of MSMEs assumes significance. SMEs have various needs to function in an aggregative manner in order to reach out for value addition by keeping in mind the variable cost model. Journal of Business Ethics. However if we compare the growth of MSMEs in India with those in the neighbouring countries in South East Asia like Thailand. Bribery and corruption emanates from red-tapism and high-handedness of the bureaucracy. controlling cost. Conclusion World over. Government of India. Hence.(c) The financing constraints faced by Indian SMEs are attributable to a combination of factors that include policy. only Rs 72. creating differences in the perceived versus real risk profiles of SMEs. raising productivity. government procurement programme. expanding customer base. (d) It has become difficult for lenders to be able to assess risk premiums properly. 34 percent of the exports and manufacture over 6000 products. Government of India. empowering employees in terms of skill and delivering highest valued services at competitive cost. etc. the Micro Small and Medium Enterprises or MSMEs have been recognised as engines of economic growth. lesser intervention by the government in the functioning of the market is being demanded. They account for almost 40 per cent of industrial production. 95 per cent of the industrial units. MSME Annual Report (2009-10). SMEs need IT-based solutions in terms of multi-tasking. the MSME sector needs to grow at 12%. January. 2008-09. Information technology or Internet-enabled environment helps in fast and accurate decision-making by the SMEs due to increased mobility. access to information. working remotely. Global Corruption Barometer 2009 prepared by Transparency International. legal/ regulatory framework (in terms of recovery.

) India. Implementation of social insurance for financing health services has yielded different patterns depending on a country’s economic level and its government’s political ideology. .transparency. Public sector ownership is divided between central and state governments.gov. Other countries followed.gov. 2009. Private Sector. and China after its 1949 revolution developed health insurance for designated groups of workers and dependents. delay. reduce or altogether avoid payment for health care incurred by individuals and households.in/Report_on_EOFEMP_Jan09. its main goal was to compensate workers against sickness and work accidents. Introduction Health insurance in a narrow sense would be ‘an individual or group purchasing health care coverage in advance by paying a fee called premium. this was the responsibility of the employers. By 1980. Economic Development.doingbusiness. Since the cost of appropriate medical care is beyond the economic means of the majority of the population. By the late 19th century. Hi is considered as a socioeconomic device which aims at protecting individuals and families against financial losses associated with sickness.in http://www. Thess funds are used for insurance against the cost of sickness. After World War II. Indian Economy and Health insurance at a Glance The health care system in India is characterised by multiple systems of medicine.IN INDIAN SCENARIO DR. we would adopt.” Keywords: Health Insurance. In 1883 Germany’s Chancellor Bismarck led the enactment of a law mandating enrollment by low-income workers.pdf http://www. this is the definition. with France completing Western European coverage in 1928. April. by collection of money from a group of people (called a premium) into a fund or poor to help in time of hardship. ANAND DEO RAI* *Assistant Professor. Given the appropriateness of this definition in the Indian context. Main Report.pdf http://nceus.in ♦ Letter No. www.P. Volume-I. Faculty of Commerce. April. mixed ownership patterns and different kinds of delivery structures.Reg.Small enterprises and their access to finance (Memo). thousands of small sickness funds operated in Europe. Health Policy.org/Documents/CountryProfiles/IND. so it is a financial mechanism aiming to help people to budget their medical cost.org/publications/gcr/gcr_2009#press http://www.nic. Scandinavian countries extended coverage to everyone and Britain introduced its National Health Service covering everyone with comprehensive care and financed by general revenues in 1948. The health insurance market in India is very limited covering about 10% of the total population.2011 HEALTH INSURANCE .’ In its broader sense.V-34564. it would be any arrangement that helps to defer.msme. and Public Policy. some 85 countries had enacted social security programs to finance or deliver health services or both.15-22 Advance Access publication 19 Mar.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. India covered 3.5 percent of its large population with the Employees’ State Insurance Corporation in 1948.labourbureau. Abstract “Attitude towards Health Insurance varies from country to country and even person to person. National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS). 2008 The Challenge of Employment in India: An Informal Economy Perspective. RGSC Barkachha (BHU)(U.

Health insurance can be defined in very narrow sense. Private health care expenditure is 75% or 4. Most of the public funding is for preventive. and health posts. post and telegraph and mines among others. At present. The country is now in the midst of a dual disease burden of communicable and no communicable diseases. CGBS . The 1990s have also seen an increase in mortality on account of non-communicable diseases arising as a result of lifestyle changes. 70% of hospital beds were in Public Sector. the existing health insurance schemes can be broadly divided into categories such as: • • • • Government or State-based systems Market-based systems (private and voluntary) Employer provided insurance schemes. Infrastructural. first-level referral hospitals (rural hospitals). Health insurance is very well established in many countries. where an individual or a group.municipal and Panchayat local governments. promotive and primary care programmes while private expenditure is largely for curative care. Health Insurance is considered one of the financing mechanisms to overcome some of the Problems of our system. government employees (CGHS). dispensaries. Based on ownership. Whereas until 1978. Number of private doctors and private clinical facilities are also expending exponentially.75%) is government funding. Health Insurance Schemes in India The existing Health Insurance schemes can be categorized as: 1) Social / statutory health insurance:. defence.demographic. Also included are public facilities for selected occupational Groups like organized work force (ESI). Eighth Plan for the first time has commended: “It is time that the concept of free medical care is reviewed and people are required to pay. high financial burden on the poor and erosion in their incomes. This is coupled with spiraling health costs. Not only have communicable diseases persisted over time but some of them like malaria have also developed insecticide-resistant vectors while others like tuberculosis are becoming increasingly drug resistant. But in India it is a new concept except for the organized sector employees. in advance.3% of the outlay in the First Plan.25% of GDP and most of the rest (1. to 0. secondary level hospitals. This is the result of the opening up of medical care of Private Sector during and after the sixth plan. Given the above scenario exploring health financing option becomes critical. While India has made significant gains in terms of health indicators . health coverage by paying a fee called premium.84% per annum and for each one per cent increase in per capita income the private health care expenditure has increased by 1. railways. There are various types of health coverage in India. • High financial burden on poor eroding their incomes • Neglect of preventive and primary care and public health functions due to under funding of the government health care. in 1998 80% of hospital beds were in Private Sector. the insurance coverage is negligible. which are: • Increasing health care costs. Over the period the private health care expenditure has grown at the rate of 12.ESIS.7% in the Eighth Plan. Indian health financing scene raises number of challenges. purchases. primary health centres (PHCs). HIV / AIDS have of late assumed extremely virulent proportions.47%. But it can be also defined broadly by including all financing arrangements where consumers can avoid or reduce their expenditures at time of use of services. Health Care Scenario in India has changed rapidly in the last 20 years. even if partially for the services” — of course according to the capacity to pay!” India spends about 6% of GDP on health expenditure. The private sector (for profit and not for profit) is the dominant sector with 50 per cent of people seeking indoor care and around 60 to 70 per cent of those seeking ambulatory care (or outpatient care) from private health facilities. Member organization (NGO or co-operative)-based systems. Public health facilities include teaching hospitals. In view of this development. it continues to grapple with newer challenges. sub-centres. Government expenditure on health has been declining over the plan periods from 3.

Yazbeck et al 2002]. internationally. greater than 80 per cent of total expend{ture on health in India is private (figure for 1999-2001 [World Health Organization 20041) and most of this flows directly from households to the private-for-profit health care sector. for example. and the nature of the ‘communities’ around which they have evolved is quite diverse: from people living in the same town or district. CBHIs have tended to exclude the poorest among their target . etc Community health insurance — SEWA.NIAC. But studies of voluntary CHE schemes have yielded less promising results. the main reason for not seeking care was cost. to members of a work cooperative or microfinance groups. because the poor lack the resources to pay for health care. ‘local health insurance’ [Criel 2000] and ‘mutuelles’ [Atim C 2001]. noted that prepayment schemes represent the most effective way to protect people from the costs of health care. In recent years. health insurance appears to be an equitable alternative to out of pocket payments. they are far more likely to avoid going for care.000 people or less) thus limiting the extent to which there can be pooling and resource transfers (International Labour Office (Universitas Programme) 2002). However. including: ‘micro health insurance’ [Dror et al 1999].6 times more likely than the richest to forgo medical treatment when ill [Peters. Social health insurance in these countries. Furthermore. the schemes are initiated by a hospital. health financing mechanism such as social health insurance in Europe and Japan. and called for investigation into mechanisms to bring the poor into such schemes (World Health Organisation 2000). ACCORD. Community health insurance programmes in India offer valuable lessons for policy-makers. and in which the members participate in its management. and that out-of-pocket spending on hospital care might have raised by 2 per cent the proportion of the population in poverty [Peters. ICICI 3) Community Health Insurance:. Often. community health insurance (CHI) has emerged as a possible means of: (1) improving access to health care among the medical expenditures. Various other terms are used in reference to community health insurance. Often. Singh et al 2000]. According to the World Health Organization. They are generally targeted at low-income populations. membership is almost always voluntary rather than mandatory. We define CHI (along the same lines as [Atim 1998]) as “any not-for-profit insurance scheme that is aimed primarily at the informal sector and formed on the basis of a collective pooling of health risks. ACCORD. Most studies of health care spending have found that out-of-pocket spending in India is actually progressive. or to become indebted or impoverished trying to pay for it. Historically. On average. Yeshaswini Community is usually an organized group who support in getting health care to tribal epically farmers who had some problem to access health care or suffer from any finance related problem. The richest quintile of the population is six times more likely than the poorest quintile to have been hospitalised in either the public or private sector [Mahal. in fact. Enthusiasm for such schemes was fuelled in part by studies showing disproportionate increases in utilisation among the poorest with the implementation of insurance [Yip and Berman 20011 or mandatory prepayment schemes [Diop. The World Health Report 2000.” CHI schemes involve prepayment and the pooling of resources to cover the costs of health-related events.2) Private Health Insurance:. Aside from cases where people believed that their illness was not serious. as a proportion of nonfood expenditure. Community health insurance is an important intermediate step in the evolution of an equitable. and targeted at residents of the surrounding area. there is a shortage of empirical evidence to assess whether or not CHI schemes have improved access andfinancial protection among the poor. Given this context. during the peak of the industrial revolution workers’ unions developed insurance mechanisms which were eventually transformed.SFWA. or equity neutral. the schemes enrol relatively small populations (of 1. Peters et al (2002) estimated that at least 24 per cent of all Indians hospitalised fall below the poverty line because they are hospitalised. the poorest quintile of Indians is 2. As opposed to social health insurance. The studies and reviews that have been undertaken suggest that many schemes are short-lived and fail even to meet the goals they set for themselves [Bennett. evolved from a conglomeration of small community’ health insurance schemes. Yazbeck et al 2001]. Creese et a! 1998]. richer Indians spend marginally more than poorer Indians on health care. Yazbeck et al 1995] in developing countries.

Senegal and India. It aims at providing comprehensive medical care to the Central Government employees and the benefits offered include all outpatient facilities. with premiums ranging from Rs 15 to Rs 150 per month based on salary scales. and their impact. community health insurance has a long history. The earliest such scheme was started in Kolkata in 1952 as part of a student’s movement. It is usually compulsory for certain groups in the population and the premiums are determined by income (and hence ability to pay) rather than related to health risk. 1994). their impact — it is intended to serve as an update on earlier work by one of the authors [Ranson 2003j. Carrin et al 2001] in Rawanda. This scheme provides protection to employees against loss of wages due to inability to . Beneficiaries at this moment are around 432 000. Currently there are more than 20 documented CHI programmes. freedom fighters and journalists are covered under the Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS).In India. judges. Inpatient facilities in government hospitals and approved private hospitals are also covered. Subscribers have complained of high out-of-pocket expenses due to slow reimbursement and incomplete coverage for private health care (as only 80% of cost is reimbursed if referral is made to private facility when such facilities are not available with the CGHS’). the administrative challenges faced by them. their design and management. The CGHS has been criticized from the point of view of quality and accessibility. all employees of the Central Government (present and retired).populations. Poorest are usually not covered by CHI Social Insurance or mandatory health insurance schemes or government run schemes (namely the ESIS. The purpose of this paper is to describe Indian CHI schemes. The Student’s Health Home (SHH) caters to the students in the schools and universities of West Bengal. The benefit packages are standardized and contributions are earmarked for spending on health services The government-run schemes include the Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS) and the Employees State Insurance Scheme (ESIS). spread across 22 cities. Characteristics of CHI in India ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Initiated by NGOs / CBOs Mainly to improve access to health care Covers about 1. The coverage of this scheme has grown substantially with provision for the non-allopathic systems of medicine as well as for allopathy. The names and locations of the programmes included in this summary are given in the accompanying table. CGHS) Social insurance is an earmarked fund set up by government with explicit benefits in return for payment. even among the insured. Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS) Since 1954.000 people Covers mostly poor and near poor. Based on visits to twelve of the schemes. Employee and State Insurance Scheme (ESIS) The enactment of the Employees State Insurance Act in 1948 led to formulation of the Employees State Insurance Scheme. in part because they generally charge a flat (or uniform) premium that is unaffordable to the poorest. This scheme was designed to replace the cumbersome and expensive system of reimbursements (GOl. of which five were initiated in the past three years. MPs.000 to 100. some autonomous and semigovernment organizations. the authors describe the context in which they are operational. and preventive and promotive care in dispensaries. This scheme is mainly funded through Central Government funds.and where data are available. low income remained a significant constraint to health care utilisation. Under the three schemes reviewed by Preker et al [Preker.

or an organization offering health benefits as good as or better than ESIS. which provides a profit to third party and provider institutions. A slab wise group discount is admissible if the group size exceeds 100. Premiums are based on an assessment of the risk status of the consumer (or of the group of employees) and the level of benefits provided. ICICI Lombard: ICICI Lombard offers Group Health Insurance Policy. Medical care is also provided to employees and their family members without fee for service. The sum insured is minimum Rs 15. Later. with the sum assured ranging from Rs 100 0000 to 500 000. owned. disability and death due to employment injury. The premium for adults aged up to 45 years is Rs 125 per year. The Life Insurance Corporation offers Ashadeep Plan II and Jeevan Asha Plan II. The Medical Insurance Scheme or Mediclaim was introduced in November 1986 and it covers individuals and groups with persons aged 5. their spouses and dependent children. rather than as a proportion of the consumer’s income. Critical Illness Policy and Hospital Cash Daily Allowance Policy. buyers are willing to pay premium to an insurance company that pools people with similar risks and insures them for health expenses. Characteristics of State run health insurance schemes in India 1) 2) 3) 4) It is employment based Compulsory for certain group in a population Contributory with premiums determined by income rather then related with health risk Service delivered through specially designated. 2000) Of the various schemes offered. The key distinction is that the premiums are set at a level.000/. Cancer Insurance policy. Originally. restaurants. road transport and news papers printing are now covered. In the public sector. the ESIS scheme covered all power-using non-seasonal factories employing 10 or more people. (with children being covered with their parents) and is given to corporate bodies. It offers cashless benefit and medical reimbursement for hospitalization expenses (pre and post-hospitalization) at various hospitals across India. The policy covers reimbursement of hospitalization expenses incurred for diseases. Bhavishya Arogya policy and Dreaded Disease policy (Srivastava 1999 as quoted in Bhat R & Malvankar D. This policy is available to those aged 5 — 80 years.80 yrs. Service establishments like shops. Oriental Insurance Company and United Insurance Company) and the Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) of India provide voluntary insurance schemes. 6 500. for those aged more than 45 years is Rs 175 per . hotels. No age limits apply. Overseas Mediclaim policy. Raj Rajeshwari policy. the General Insurance Corporation (GIC) and its four subsidiary companies (National Insurance Corporation. cinema houses. The premium chargeable depends upon the age of the person and the sum insured selected. maternity. Health Guard. it was extended to cover employees working in all non-power using factories with 20 or more persons. This scheme provides for reimbursement of medical expenses (now offers cashless scheme) by an individual towards hospitalization and domiciliary. Jan Arogya policy.and a maximum of Rs 500. preventive and promotive care and health education. Bajaj Allianz: Bajaj Alliance offers three health insurance schemes namely. Mediclaim is the main product of the GIC.75% by employees.work due to sickness. institutions. often govt. with a prepayment contribution in the form of a payroll tax of 1. It offers medical and cash benefits. The monthly wage limit for enrolment in the ESIS is Rs. The General Insurance Corporation offers Personal Accident policy. Royal Sundaram Group: The Shakthi Health Shield policy offered by the Royal Sundaram group can be availed by members of the women’s group. are specifically excluded. Mediclaim policy. New India Assurance Company. Children (3 months —5 yrs) are covered with their parents. The Health Guard scheme is available to those aged 5 to 75 years (not allowing entry for those over 55 years of age). and associations.000/-. health care providers Voluntary health insurance schemes or private-for-profit schemes In private insurance. While persons working in mmes and plantations.

year. with a ceiling so that the insured will not truly become wealthy from this procedure. Extra health covers like general health and eye examination. Health insurance in India needs to be customized to suit our conditions. at a minimum.employed individuals are at a disadvantage. This means that. COBRA and more recent legislation has been passed in an attempt to address the latter concern. hospital benefits up to Rs 7 000 per annum can be availed. This means that unemployed individuals and self. Over 130 minor surgeries that require less than 24 hours hospitalization under day care procedure are also covered. he may find that his premiums have greatly increased. reimbursement of the expenses during pre. To care providers. 2. they are less likely to scrutinize or negotiate the costs of the health care received. If insurance companies try to charge different people different amounts based on their own personal health. This practice is especially criticized by those who have already tried. Cholamandalam General Insurance: The benefits offered (in association with the Paramount Health Care. When a claim is made. is having accountants or other administrators essentially making medical decisions for customers by deciding which types of medical treatment will be covered and which will not. a re-insurer) in case of an illness or accident resulting in hospitalization. 5. or that rates vary only by age of the insured. making the premiums very expensive. In 1978. particularly for a sizeable amount. it may be deemed in the best interest of the insurance company to use paperwork and bureaucracy to attempt to avoid payment of the claim or. But when we look . Some percentage of insureds will simply give up. Some states require that insurance companies cover all who apply at the same cost. The Health maintenance organization (“HMO”) type of health insurance plan has been according to critics. 8. Conclusion Health insurance is like the knife. 6. and not benefited from. In response to this. and full tax deductibility for health insurance premiums paid by the self-employed has recently been passed by Congress as well. are cash-free hospitalization in more than 1 400 hospitals across India. people will feel they are unfairly treated.S. This reduces the employee’s bargaining power in negotiating service with the insurance provider and also increases their dependence on the employer. In the surgeon’s hand it can save the patient. usually 25% or occasionally even 50%. a programme called ‘Health for All by year 2000’ was chalked out. As the health care recipient is not directly involved in payment of health care services and products. due to the tremendous costs associated with this procedure and other organ transplantation. all “standard” medical treatments for their condition. It also leads to many insurers claiming or attempting to claim that procedures are still “experimental” well after they have become standard medical practice in many instances. leading to lower costs for the insurance company. insured care recipients are essentially seen as customers with relatively limitless financial resources who don’t look at prices. Children are covered at Rs 65 per year. Insurance companies do not announce their health insurance premiums more than a year in advance. if this is proven to be the case. first became standard medical practice.. while in the hands of the quack. the insured is awarded with a percentage of the amount that the insurer would have otherwise paid for this disputed item or items. Health insurance is often only widely available at a reasonable cost through an employer-sponsored group plan. many insurers have implemented a program of bill review in which insured are allowed to challenge items on a bill (particularly an in-patient hospital bill) as being for goods or services not received. it can kill. This largely defeats the purpose of having insurance in the eyes of many. and thus frequently only those in poor health buy insurance. during Alma Atta Declaration (1978). Under this policy. if one becomes ill. In the U. The health care company has few popular and many unpopular ways of controlling this market force. 4.hospitalization (90 days after discharge) stages of treatment. with a limit per claim of Rs 5 000. Employers can write some or all of their employee health insurance premiums off of their taxable income whereas traditionally individuals have had to pay taxes on income used to fund health insurance. local ambulance service.hospitalization (60 days prior to hospitalization) and post. Health was always a priority in India. (This phenomenon was especially seen after organ transplants. Common complaints of private insurance Some common complaints about private health insurance include: 1. 3. Experimental treatments are generally not covered. 7. Other benefits include maternity benefit of Rs 3 000 subject to waiting period of nine months after first enrolment and for first two. particularly kidney transplants. greatly delay it. this rule has the effect (called adverse selection) that healthy people subsidize sick ones.

(2002). Institute of the Americas. Private health insurance in social health insurance countries market outcomes and policy implications.Reg. health insurance in the form of healthcare financing (Mediclaim) was introduced in India in 1986-1987 by four subsidiaries of General Insurance Company (GIC) to support the ailing healthcare industry.V-34564. Organization for Economic Development. As a result. International Journal of Health Services.V. This is due to the focus of public finance on disease control rather than on the well-being of the person.oecd. due to high-value diagnostics and drugs. GREB S. GLASER. (1997). JOST TS (2003). Current issues prospects and programme in health insurance in Zimbabwe. ZECKHAUSER RJ (1999). facilities at public hospitals are grossly lacking.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. NIMS University Jaipur (Rajasthan) India. Handbook of Health Economics. LEWIS M. D. p. New York University Law Review.back. and rich—poor. it is clear that we are far behind the projected scene. Private health care in Latin America: emerging opportunities. MOSSIALOS.2011 ANALYSIS OF LUCKNOW AS A POTENTIAL CULINARY TOURISM DESTINATION WITH THE HELP OF THE EXTENDED MARKETING MIX CONCEPT POOSHAN UPADHYAY* *(Consultant-Tourism Marketing and Branding) Ph. Moreover. ♦ Letter No. Washington. Public hospitals have failed to provide free and low-cost quality care to people. 76:419-492. The basic aim was social welfare and provision of good health are for individuals and groups. At the same time. Geneva: World Health Organization. 19-88. The World Health Report 2000. So.J. Karen in Jost TS. there is an increased financial burden (83 per cent of the estimated Rs 1. DAVIS (2003). Hence. (2002. Geneva: World Health Organization. THOMSON. Vol 32 No.: 77-114. Newhouse JP.ZIGORE TA.: The World Bank. editor. . which is found to be one of the important reasons of indebtedness in rural areas. 1 p. Health Systems: Improving performance. (2000). In: Culyer AJ. Health insurance works on the basic principle of cross subsidisation between young—old.(1991). Private insurance: principles and practice. OKMA KGH. 23-32 Advance Access publication 25 Mar. public health financing is also inadequate in meeting the rising cost of healthcare. New York University Law Review. Jossey Bass Ltd: Oxford. Though India has experienced a rapid increase of private players in healthcare. in 2002’s National Health Policy the main objective was to achieve an acceptable standard of good health amongst the general populace of the country. Statistics for the year 2000. Private or public approaches to insuring the uninsured: lessons from international experience with private insurance. S. Current issues prospects and programme in health insurance in Zimbabwe. Health insurance in Practice: International Variation in Financing Benefits and Problems. ZIGORE TA.036 is out-of-pocket expense). editors. Strength Weakness Opportunity Threat (SWOT) analysis of the insurance shows the following: REFERENCES CUTLER DM. www. The anatomy of health insurance. 57ff. LAYER R. Mobilization of domestic resources for health. CHOLLET DJ. W. 76:419-492. the cost of healthcare has gone up drastically... Private or public approaches to insuring the uninsured: lessons from international experience with private insurance.org W ORLD H EALTH O RGANIZATION (2000). Voluntary Health Insurance in the European Union: A Critical Assessment. WASEM J.C. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002).). In: Schieber G. Elsevier Science B. E.D in Management. Innovations in Health Care Financing. healthy—sick.

which include a marketing orientated approach. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the role of marketing with special reference to Lucknow as a tourism destination. before. and the consumer’s search for value and satisfaction. Traditionally marketing has focused on external customers. The author provides an introduction to the traditional marketing mix. Marketers increasingly realise the importance of relationship management activities and are showing greater concern for society and the environment. Marketing brings the five major sectors of the tourism industry together. they should shift to customer satisfaction or even customer delight. growth. but applying the same principles to the company employees (internal marketing). and travel organisers. wants. ♦ the attitudes and decisions of producers/culinary service providers concerning their production of goods and services for sale. The last important principle that will be discussed is the product life cycle. interests and ability to pay. consisting of the four Ps: Product. 1994: 17). embedded deep in consumer relationship generation and retention activities in direct contrast with the traditional image of product and market orientations. Marketing comprises the following elements: ♦ the attitudes and decisions of customers (target market) concerning the perceived utility and value of available goods and services. Place and Promotion. Price. introduction. The core principles of marketing. which is becoming as important. namely the market demand in the area of origin. the product supply at the destination. according to their needs. The aim is to avoid the decline stage. and do so with imprecise knowledge about their customers. namely People. Three additional Ps that are important decision factors in tourism. Marketers must necessarily delve into consumers wants. in the context of their business environment and long term objectives and ♦ Lastly it includes the ways in which producers/culinary service providers communicate with customers. which suggests that all products pass through various life stages namely. After the actual sale or the booking. Marketing is about systematically and thoughtfully coming up with plans and taking actions that get more people to buy more of a supplier’s . market segmentation. but not all visitors are influenced by marketing activities. are described. Physical evidence and Processes will also receive attention. is emphasised. replete with mouth watering and exclusive local Nawabi cuisines. which form the key decision factors in any marketing plan. Marketing managers often have to use judgement in balancing the conflicting needs of the parties. The author focuses on the supply side of the local cuisine market and will indicate how these principles affect small businesses since local culinary service providers tend to operate from single delivery sites. Marketing influences visitors’ demands. In practice there is usually continuing tension between a producer’s need for profit and the efficient use of assets. and develop the right product or service. For example. through comprehensive marketing research. the marketing mix and the product life cycle. The marketing mix refers to different components or instruments that can be used to influence consumers. and what producers are able or willing to provide. in terms of the value he/she receives. maturity and decline. Frequent reviews also need to be made to develop a quick response mechanism to counter competitor activities. during and after the point of sale. the smaller the marketing expenditure will need to be as a proportion of sales revenue. and about the decisions of other producers marketing competitive products.Introduction Marketing is a never ending phenomena. domestic travellers who travel by private car and who stay with friends and relatives may not have been influenced by marketing. Their judgement is expressed in the communication and distribution upon which the bulk of the marking expenditure is spent. The better the balance between the interests of the two parties. the transportation or physical access to destinations. There is no automatic harmony between what customers want and will pay for. and distribute or provide access to their products (Middleton. so as to ensure and earn his/her loyalty in terms of repeat purchases and recommendations to others. They must then inform customers about the product or service through promotion. the distribution organisations.

physical evidence and processes actually are integral elements of the product. even if it has to be at a discount (Zyman. Each of these contains many sub-elements and Middleton (1994: 65) is of the opinion that people. Cooper et al. and place which includes the location of the facility and all the points of sale that provide access to the product to prospective customers. Marketing is not about creating an image. as Tourism products therefore is very challenging since the production and consumption takes place on the premises of the producer. Service marketers therefore use an extended marketing mix. this means selling every available cuisine. The delivery of a service generally reveals a relatively high fixed cost to operate available capacity (Middleton. and the consumer needs to be present at the fixed location to access the product and its associated services/hospitality. No possibility exists to create or hold stock to satisfy daily fluctuations in demand inspite of the consumers’ propensity to consume. 1994: 32). Kulfi. as opposed to the usage of an extended marketing mix. and people. Stronger emphasis is placed on personal selling and word-of-mouth advertising.1999: 6). Biryani. The expanded marketing mix for services The marketing mix may be defined as the mixture of controllable marketing variables that the organisation uses to pursue the sought level of sales in the target market. or how good salespeople are. Gilaori. Intermediaries may be invited to familiarising trips to gain experience for recommendation purposes. and differences in the types of services/hospitality offered. In addition to these characteristics of intangibility. More emotional promotion appeals are used and suppliers need to build relationships. which cannot be replicated with the exact same precision or emotional impact. pricing which is used to manage the volume of sales. It is also impossible to generalise whether satisfied customers will be loyal or not. physical layout and atmosphere carry greater significance than in the case of physical products. so that more money is made (Zyman. but also with other organisations within the industry. The four basic controllables are the product formulation according to the changing needs of target customers. (1998: 410) share this view and believe that the four Ps offer an adequate framework into which the differences between product and services marketing can be incorporated. Lakhnavi Chaat etc. and no guarantee covers the element of risk associated with the variance in quality manifesting in a given situation. It does not really matter how efficiently a culinary product is being manufactured or distributed. A good marketer will sell everything that a company has the ability to offer. Marketers overcome these complexities by providing personal touches and tangible evidence (signals or cues) of what can be expected. inseparability and variability. Middleton consequently encourages the usage of the terms product-mix.1999: 20). is determined by employees’ attitude and behaviour. more often and at higher prices. Supply and demand needs to be managed by adapting opening times. Employees need to be enabled to deliver services and keep promises made. Positioning local cuisines like Kababs. but it does not motivate them to do anything. The expanded marketing mix for services is depicted in the following figure: . if nobody wants to buy the product. promotion to make potential customers aware and favourably disposed towards buying it. Makkhan Malai. services in the form of hospitality revolving around the local cuisine products are highly perishable because the service delivery is fixed in time and space.product. Revenue from capacity not used cannot be recovered. having an image just means that people know who you are. employing part-time staff or through tactical discounting. not only with internal clients and staff. promotion-mix and so forth. The variation in the range. Marketing of Cuisines Local cuisines are consumable yet perishable goods supplemented by services which are performed to satiate not only the gastronomic requirements but the psychological instincts of a visitor. The service performance can consequently not be evaluated beforehand.

All of the human actors who play a part in the service delivery.Expanded Marketing Mix For Services Adapted from Source: Zeithaml & Bitner. The resource is principally consumed as an affective. enjoyable experience of tangible and intangible factors.1999: 198). Visitors will most probably develop a rich and meaningful appreciation for the local cuisines and relish it. However. 2001: 274). in order to enrich their own interpretation of the taste and presentation of the local cuisines. but is primarily reliant on stimulating the senses of taste and aroma. only in rare instances does the tourism marketer have the option of shaping the product from the bottom up. to create and penetrate a niche market. The key to success for a small firm in the tourism industry is to customise its product offering to meet the needs of a narrowly defined target market that is difficult for competitors to match or exceed. 2000: 226). Visitors will be inclined to take more than a passing interest in the environment and share their knowledge with others. Once visitors enter the tourist establishment they are greeted and served by operations people and in this interaction they either play a prominent or insignificant role (Bennett. influence the buyer’s perception of the service itself. namely the firm’s personnel. . the customer and other human players in the service environment. worthwhile. as only small bits of a destination may be modified. In other words. and a service culture must be developed through internal marketing. People Hospitality is often described as a people industry and people are becoming a way in which companies differentiate themselves to gain competitive advantage in the marketplace (George. 2000: 19 Product The inclusive tourism product is a themed culinary experience that provides an immediate context to its visitors. Service delivery people could provide realtime promotion of the culinary service. Marketing is a function that belongs to everyone in the organisation (Zyman.

the market and demand set the upper limit (Kotler et al. Thus. including space. Consequently. Pricing The tourism industry is particularly preoccupied with price because of product/service characteristics. corporate objectives. consumer perceptions. layout. the other components of the marketing mix and overall costs of providing and promoting the offering (George. This all the more imperative in case of culinary offerings. 2001: 281). designed to reach a predetermined . signage. and between the culinary product provider and customers. the price elasticity and competition. orderly.. and the development of long-lasting relationships and repeat business The owner may be an excellent host just by keeping close face-to-face contact with guests. too are important indicators of quality. provides customers with evidence on which to judge the service. the “servicescape” contributes to how customers actually judge the quality of the service. sales promotion and public relations and is built around a single theme or idea. ambience. such as the appearance of brochures. 2001: 280). They may be able to differentiate themselves from others with respect to consumer knowledge. local cuisine providers should attract compatible customers and educate them about the intricacies of their cuisines. but is also a powerful tool for the destination to achieve strategic business objectives and a tactical tool to manipulate last minute demand through incentives (Middleton. Operating systems and mechanisms. fast. convenient. 2001: 281). 1994: 97). and people form part of the process and delivery by means of friendliness. it is the tangible component that facilitates performance and includes equipment and the environment in which the service is delivered. The price structure reflects strategic marketing decisions regarding product positioning. Seasoned customers want services that are organised. helpfulness and efficiency. letterheads. Internal factors that influence pricing decisions include the culinary destination’s marketing objectives. and operators should pay attention to the way in which front -line employees interact with customers during the process of creation and delivery of the service (George. artefacts. Processes A service is performed and not handed over as in the case of a manufactured item. The external factors that destination marketers should consider when making pricing decisions include the nature of the demand for the offering. or the flow of activities by which the service is delivered. and return on investment requirements. Prices must continually be evaluated and adjusted. 1996: 381). the performing process is a crucial part of the offering. Communications of the service. Pricing does not only determine profitability. responsiveness. While costs set the lower limits of prices. It must reflect and reinforce the other components of the marketing mix and should accurately reflect the value of the offering. and the actual steps in the delivery and procedures. which require a tactical pricing response because there is no possibility of stockholding.For instance. though tangible in nature require a substantive reinforcement from many a tangible evidence which are usually looked for by the culinary patrons to evaluate the offering before purchasing (George. It generally encapsulates advertising. In case of food/culinary tourism products there are often unpredictable fluctuations in demand. carried out in order to influence those on whom sales depend. Promotion Promotion is the descriptive term for the mix of communication activities. interaction between customers. both personal and through the mass media. Physical evidence Culinary offerings. Internal and external factors affect pricing decisions. The quality of the offering must meet the expectation the price has generated in the customer’s mind. and either uniform or customised.

other than price. the targeted volume and revenue will not be achieved. but today there are more selling tools such as direct mail. the killing of a lady tourist by a roadside thug in the by-lanes of old Lucknow could receive front-page newspaper coverage.1999: ix). and so can a fatal accident of some jaywalking tourists caused by a negligent truck driver. but also to influence trade contacts such as retail agents and opinion makers. However. not only to influence the target market. If sufficient budget allocations for advertising are not made by the stakeholders including the state tourism department to accomplish the necessary tasks. From the consumers’ perspective promotion is a risk reduction mechanism (Seaton & Bennett. A minimum level of plan expenditure is necessary to achieve a measurable impact. Independent and small. The state tourism authorities need to be not only active. namely magazines. Very few consumer industries are in quite the same position to obtain unpaid publicity as the hospitality industry (Middleton.A case in point is television programmes like Khana Khazana. Public relations Public relations is an important promotional tool for culinary tourism destinations. 1996: 183). because travel products are intrinsically interesting. and is becoming less significant (Postma. For example. However. the degree of interactivity and sensory stimulation (Postma. multimedia CD-ROMs. the reach part of the process becomes relatively simple.The advertising expenditure through recognised advertising agencies that receive a commission from media owners when they purchase media space is referred to as above-the-line expenditure. and many reality culinary programmes. the Internet. Very few prospective visitors will be sufficiently interested in the particular cuisine. radio and television. but for small organisations public relations may be their entire promotional effort. no medium can work in isolation. The . which is by definition all other promotional expenditure (Middleton.. 1994: 149). the converse is also true. for example journalists and travel writers. shows and so forth (Kotler et al. violence or crime against tourists. 167). 1994: 139). These promotion vehicles are likely to co-exist. which they may not do for bigger commercial ventures.goal (Middleton. There is a need. audio and video-tapes. Additional image and promotion tools not under a marketer’s control can help or hurt the destination such as film. Inevitably the promotional material does not capture the attention of the total media audience and the message or creative execution might not appeal to everyone. 1993: 172-190). Luckily small may often be more beautiful to the tourism media than big (Seaton. yet. high pollution levels and so forth.1994:175). the future increasingly belongs to database marketing. television. intranet. billboards. There used to be five media vehicles for mass communication. e-mail and fax-mail (Postma.1999: 94).1999: 101). People are interested in stories about the travel and eating habits of glamorous people and exotic destinations. commercial on-line services. Specifically. But prospective visitors have barriers and filters in their minds and will be influenced in ways they have been conditioned to perceive and understand things. which is paid for. telephone marketing. Above-the-line advertising expenditure is relatively low in the tourism industry. Consumers have a choice and marketers must give them a reason. for there is an extensive media appetite for horror stories such as transport disasters. but also vigilant to capitalize on the benefits of promotion.1994:163. A larger portion of the communication budget of tourism operators is spent below -the-line. newspapers. and the promotion vehicle will therefore have limited impact in terms of interest and recall. unusual tourism offerings have inherent media value as novelties. Advertising Advertising is mass communication through the media. Media editors may feel responsible to promote local culinary delights as tourism ventures. The potential of a medium to bring about a transaction depends on the degree of personalisation. Provided the culinary product and service provider knows which market segment he wishes to influence. 1999: 4). for deciding to buy their products (Zyman.

demonstrations and various non-recurrent selling efforts. Brochures are used especially for relatively exclusive and infrequently promoted tourism products such as multi speciality cuisines since customers may seek information to get the most value out of their purchase and enhance satisfaction. However. films and computerised images among others. Producers are willing to pay relatively large amounts for the advantage of extending their points of sale away from the location of their business (Middleton. as it must secure adequate flow of customers to its area and past its door. Brochures are distributed through tourist information centres of the state tourism department and retail travel outlets where they create awareness in lieu of physical products. It is also important when competition grows. the . could be perceived as part of the normal product and tend to lose their effectiveness. or when the business grows in size and it is important to draw first time visitors. Place or Physical Distribution The nature of the distribution systems and processes is one of the principal ways in which the marketing of culinary tourism services differs from the marketing of goods.1996: 209). and when there is a need to reduce dependence on day-to-day sales by selling capacity ahead of production. maps and guidebooks sold through bookstores. These could be used to enhance the awareness of the tourists and patrons about the different cooking styles and the ingredients used therein. Conflicting messages. for example: displays. and the concept of distribution has little relevance other than a telephone for reservations. The location is both place of production and the primary point of sale. but they are a mixture of emotion and information. if. the choice of location is the most important business decision. 1994: 200). However. For businesses with only one ‘production unit’ such as proprietor owned restaurants. need to be managed by showcasing positive features and solving problems that give rise to the negative impressions about a culinary destination. Creating and manipulating access is a way to manage demand for highly perishable products. in addition to free samples price cuts and discount vouchers. such incentives.power of photographic images in the media lies in their ability to seemingly objectively represent reality. shows and exhibitions. Sales promotions are marketing activities. sustained for too long. The role of the front-cover design of brochures can be compared to the role of packaging of fast moving consumer goods on a supermarket shelf. Brochures and other printed sales literature Brochures and other printed sales literature represent a distinctive group of paid-for marketing communications which excludes commercial publications such as directories. Personal selling and sales promotion Personal selling involves persuading customers in a face-to-face situation to purchase products. The greater the volatility of daily demand. too. Middleton (1994: 190) warns against massive wastage of printed material and recommends that culinary service providers endeavour to achieve improvements in the effectiveness of brochures. advertising and publicity that stimulate purchasing and dealer effectiveness. supplementary points of sale are required when customers need to travel a long distance to reach the unit. The state tourism department and local authorities should conceive and use alternative forms of communication such as audio and video DVDs. In-house printed material creates a sense of welcome and provides psychological proximity especially in case of the most popular culinary joints of a destination. This could be a very effective tool for culinary offerings to visiting tourists since all front-line personnel carry out selling activities as they encourage customers to buy/eat extra items which they had not otherwise considered to purchase (Horner & Swarbrooke. and stimulate demand among their existing and prospective customers. Retailers are aware that brochures reduce the contact time they spend on answering questions. when there is excess capacity in a location. other than personal selling.

e. The most important decisions that would have to be taken concern the objectives of the culinary tourism product i. Distribution outlets at different vantage locations for speciality culinary offerings may offer a convenient customer access and points of sale. Marketing accommodation with special reference to Local Cuisine Outlets While a destination like Lucknow’s heritage and historical attractions are likely to remain the dominant motivation for most visitors. In order to generate demand it is necessary to move the purchase decision to places that prospective customers find more convenient. This is significant for pre-pack orders and mail delivery.. and the second level is operational or tactical. with the additional requirement that e-mail users expect a fast response. The more volatile a market is in terms of annual fluctuations in customer demand. Destinations. Understanding the concept and stages is helpful in determining the appropriate marketing strategies to extend the life of a particular product or brand within the category (Cooper. for this endeavour. A strategy lays out a target. achievable. perceptively may be at this stage. 1996: 301). so integral to channel marketing. which should aim at sensitising the visitors through not only the physical elements associated with the local cuisines and food and . namely: product development. although it would not be so popular with a large number of culinary aficionados’. both tangible and intangible. maturity and decline (Kotler et al. however. Product life cycles vary dramatically in their life span. covering the whole destination over the long term (three years or more). their perceptions and expectations of the plethora of mouth watering cuisines available may also be influenced by the strategic use of the concept of the extended marketing mix. too. Planning strategy and tactics At any given time the state tourism department of Uttar Pradesh and other local authorities would be faced with a wide range of choices and will have to make decisions with unclear implications. 1994: 201-204). A definite market begins to emerge and sufficient income justifies improvements and the provision of infrastructure (George. The life cycle is applicable to sales behaviour of product categories. The basic criteria for objectives are that they should be specific. provides a framework for thinking and has to be at the heart of everything that is being done (Zyman.Objectives will have to be set at two levels. covering specific markets and products in the short term. The first level is strategic. go through a life cycle evolution similar to the life cycle of a product. destination . Lucknow. Marketing managers should. In essence it is a personal system of distribution that excludes all the impersonal distribution activities. 1994b: 341). growth. measurable. the more important it is to work within a framework of agreed objectives. The new truth for destination marketing is that if one is not on-line one is not on-sale. sets some guidelines. Tourist volumes are constrained by lack of access and infrastructure. ensure that they have systems in place to handle electronic requests from users in the same way that telephone and postal inquiries are processed. Product life cycle and destination evolution Products go through a life cycle of five distinct stages.1999: 32).greater the imperative to sell forward so as to reduce the risk and achieve high consumption rates (Middleton. and is S-shaped. This will be the case when the objectives are spelt out for developing and positioning Lucknow as a culinary tourism destination and would have to encompass all the drivers. The development of tourism is closely linked to the evolution of destinations (Butler. The cycle starts off with discovery or exploration where a few adventurous tourists visit sites. realistic and set against time limits. 2001: 296). introduction. A balance needs to be achieved between promotion and distribution to make the output available to target populations. These places are collectively known as a distribution or access system. It moves on to the involvement stage when local communities have decided to encourage tourism and begin to provide for visitors and advertise the destination by word of mouth. 1997: 66).

Conclusion This paper provided an overview of the basic concepts and methods within the tourism marketing process. rather customer delight which is paramount in case of a culinary tourist. access to group brochures and representation at trade shows. JOHN SWARBROOKE & SUSAN HORNER (2001). co-operative marketing may be used to harmonise quality assurance schemes. sight. differences in inherent characteristics and consumer profiles were taken into consideration in suggesting a marketing approach for culinary offerings i. and psychological benefits experienced as mental states of well-being. who would have to be catered to according to their gastronomic inclinations. which match the needs of identified customer segments. pricing. focussing on personalised attention and greater visibility could do wonders in promoting Lucknow as an internationally acclaimed culinary tourism centre.beverages but also sensual benefits experienced through touch. 1994: 283). Obviously marketing integration is easily secured through ownership. et al. the local cuisines. distinctive products. BUTLER’S (1980). and therefore the direction of marketing strategy and tactics.e. 3rd edn (Harlow: Prentice Hall). (2005) Tourism Principles and Practice. Nearly all forms of tourism offerings are vulnerable to highly variable demand patterns. single-site operations oriented niche culinary outlets. or to cope with sudden unpredictable losses of business as a result of economic or political events. a sequence of strategic decision areas and planning functions. It may also cover joint advertising of different culinary products with a common target market. C. but the advantages of voluntary coordination are spreading (Middleton. promoting and distributing Lucknow as a culinary tourism product or destination. sound. It can also enable the network members to spread fixed cost and unsurpassed benefits from differentiated learning and experience across the system. The author subscribes to Sheldon’s (1994: 402) belief that small. It was suggested that small. Tourism: The State of the Art. REFERENCES AV SEATON (1994). especially for a new culinary destination like Lucknow. the main contribution of marketing is to secure additional marginal sales from targeted buyers at times when footfalls are likely to be less than optimal. While in any tourism destination attraction and accommodation offerings share some similarities. Tactically. individual operators(culinary service providers) are most successful if they are able to carve out special niches for themselves by providing special interest culinary tours to a well-researched and understood market segment.Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) model. Most of the marketing tasks for a city destination like Lucknow would be strategic. Location. or conveyed as status. designed to build customer satisfaction. Chichester. and can provide springboards for building culinary brands targeted for global distribution. This could have adverse multiplier impact on the culinary tourism of Lucknow. Strategic decisions are expected to generate a profitable mix of bookings and room occupancy through the production and distribution of appropriately priced. both the geographical location of a tourist destination as well as the ease of accessibility of popular local cuisine outlets would largely determine profitability and the customer mix which the entire destination can achieve. In the case of a popular local cuisine outlet these segments are the different categories of leisure and business visitors. Business Travel and Tourism Butterworth Heinemann . was given within which individual elements of services marketing can be used for managerial action in the form of developing. Adapting the universally acceptable concept of the extended marketing mix a framework. comfort and satisfaction. Distribution co-operation by way of referrals between units or a central reservation system through the intranet are also possibilities deserving investigation. 1994: 283). Strategic alliances can build networks of partners for efficiency and domestic impact. Occupancies normally vary between 55 and 65 percent and in extremes they may drop to 40 percent (Middleton. smell. Since most of the culinary service providers are proprietary in nature. Wiley. COOPER. Editor.

(1994). Professor. (1999): The New Marketing Era.. this age bracket will nearly triple.A.D in Management Singhania University (Rajasthan) India. in comparison to seniors.G.C.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. And as business interest and efforts to tap these segments have grown. Another focus of our research was on factors that motivate people to choose specific brands of foods and alcoholic .2011 “THE MATURING MARKET PLACE” BUYING HABITS OF BABY BOOMERS AND THEIR PARENTS SANDEEP A. The Maturing Marketplace This “aging” trend is a global phenomenon with increasing relevance. One of our interests was in investigating changes in preferences for food products. SERGIO ZYMAN: The End of Marketing as We Know It. the number of people age 65 and over is expected to double in just 30 years. Food Stores.) & Ph. so has the concern of various consumer groups that attempt to protect vulnerable consumers from persuasive and unethical business practices. (2003).MIDDLETON. and patronage of restaurants. Services Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus across the Firm. we asked questions about food products and beverages. The Buying Habits of Baby Boomers and Seniors We were interested in the buying and consumption habits of baby boomers as well as older age cohorts. New York. • Baby boomers have become more knowledgeable about nutrition during the past ten to fifteen years. Food and Beverages. The term “sandwich generation” has recently emerged to describe family members who must spend time and money on elderly relatives and growing children.J. POSTMA P.P.33-34 Advance Access publication 9 Apr.C. The Marketing of Nations .V-34564. Labels for “new” market segments such as “mature market” and “care givers” of older relatives have been devised to communicate information about the growing sub segments of the consumer market.Management College LKO (U. and Restaurants One area of focus of our studies was the buying habits of various age groups with respect to food products. While such public and social concerns are becoming widespread. In China. G. M. 3rd ed. Some findings concerning baby boomers and seniors: • Although baby boomers have fewer children than seniors..R. Marketing in travel and tourism.Reg. MISHRA* *Asst. While policy makers are concerned with issues of generational equity and federal entitlement programs like Social Security. businesses regard the changing demographics as opportunities for satisfying new and emerging needs of the aging consumers and their younger family members. V. In the United States. families must address issues of long-term care. BITNER. New York: McGraw-Hill. PHILIP KOTLER. they are ten times more likely to count on their offspring for care in their old age. SOMKID JATUSRIPITAK & SUVIT MAESINCEE (1997). VICTOR T.A Strategic Approach to Building National WealthThe Free Press. Specifically. Harper Paperbacks ZEITHAML. New York. McGraw-Hill. ♦ Letter No. patronage of food stores.

People have to face and tolerate the problem of drought.V-34564. ( 1996). we find poverty and the rapid increment of the crime in Rajasthan. NJ: Jeremy P. Finally. sources of information about electronic products. MOSCHIS GEORGE P. Vol. 58 (January-February): 140-148. In such situation its very necessary to study and analyse the problem of drought and trick to get rid of. Chicago: Probus Publishing Co. and tried to identify and profile adults who consume dietary products. this stage is the most cursed state. Englewood Cliffs.beverages.D in Geography. BIBLIOGRAPHY BARTOS RENA. ( 1991). MOSCHIS GEORGE P. ( 1994). From the area point of view Rajasthan is situated in near about 10. Apparel and Footwear Clothes and shoes are necessity items.P. Lucknow (U. MOSCHIS GEORGE P. but only 1% of water is available here. Gerontographics.) & Ph. here. including their preferences for buying direct and for methods of payment. here. No.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. and how their consumer behaviors differ from those of their younger counterparts. We designed questions to gather information on preferences for selected products and services. NIMS University Jaipur (Rajasthan) India. large-tag appliances such as cars. 2. Here because of continuity of drought. we examined how people pay for food products they consume at restaurants. Marketing Strategies for the Mature Market. . because of which we find a small number of animals. and telecommunication services. ♦ Letter No. but the consumption of these products also has a symbolic meaning. Technology Products and Telecommunication Services Many questions in our surveys were designed to help us learn how baby boomers and their elders react to high-tech products. and many of us use such products to project a desired self-image to others. Consequently. Marketing Management. “How They Are Acting Their Age”. We were also interested in learning how these older consumers prefer to buy such products. CT: Quorum Books. Animals are migrating from Rajasthan to other states due to the lack of availability of animal food. Westport. ( 1989). DYCHTWALD KEN & JOE FLOWER. Harvard Business Review. we were interested in learning about people’s motivations for purchasing and consumption habits with respect to apparel and footwear. Preferences for clothes are often dictated by social norms. Vol. “Over 49: The Invisible Consumer Market”. We also investigated the reasons people choose specific grocery stores and restaurants. 2: 3950. Age Wave. Thus agriculture gets negatively and harmfully effected due to drought.Reg. and telecommunication services. The Mature Market: A Gold Mine of Ideas for Tapping the 50+ Market.4% of whole nation. Tarcher. MENCHIN R OBERT S. Westport. Therefore from the availability of water point of view. Rajasthan is the most drought effected state in India.CT: Quorum Books. ( 1980).2011 COLONEL IN RAJASTHAN DROUGHT AND TRICKS TO GET RID OF IT GYANENDRA KUMAR* *Lucknow Public College.35-36 Advance Access publication 25 Mar. ( 1993).

harvesting are the factors which are responsible for drought. and Natural. 4. (12)In absence – possessed areas the arrangement of lure or animal food’s supply. After then so many terrible got occurred even after the Independence. Because of this near about 10 lacks people got died along with a lot of animals. (4) The program of the exchange of grain and labour must be channelised . under the both techniques. on the minimum transport expense. Thus the absence of proper patronage of rain-water is also responsible for such problem. people sold their children for a little bit of food. we will find that the looseness of political will power and the lack of proper and well-mannered policy are like the boosters to promote such problems.period. To finish the above causes. (5) The cash-help should be given to the farmers immediately. (3) The National rural employment programs should be started in an effective way in effected area . and long-periodical. (3) The collection of credits either should be stopped for a certain time. from which more than 50% are always get effected from droughts. here the incidents of drought have been occurred from even the ancient time. The drought in 1899 was the most terrible Tri-drought (Water. Uncontrolled animal farming and of the forest. With the analyse of the table it is perceived that between the time period 2002-2003 all the districts were effected with the drought. land-less farmers and rural cultivators. (7) The proper manage of water must be happened and the government should try to find such options with the help of which the progress in agriculture do not stop even in the drought. After the above emergency solutions of the drought problem the following stable – solution must be channelized : (1) Thus the special plan organization should me situated. (8) The opportunities of labour for the farmers should be encouraged with te encouragement of construction-works. and some people use grass with an aim to satisfy or fulfill their hunger. In short to tackle the problem of drought in Rajasthan the following short-period actions must be taken : (1) After the announcement of drought. In Rajasthan’s desert areas the. lacks. 2. Social. utilization of the labour of farmers. There are so many causes of Rajasthan drought which create the situation of drought in Rajasthan.short – periodical. Economical. in the efforts. food and animal drought ). 3. if we observe the drought in Rajasthan. 5. due to hunger. Ultimately. And Rajasthan faced 23 terrible drought from 1557 to 1958. 6. In Rajasthan’s western area the lack of forest and in South-Eastern area the large amount forest. called ‘fifty sixth’ (Chhappania). the tax must be banned. (13)Public – distribution system should be spread.food and harvesting the help must be given. In which it is shown that from 1980 to 2003 the situation of drought was lying in Rajasthan. continuously. The main droughts are presented in Index-1. A vast lach of rainfall in Rajasthan. should be available. This is also called “Macro Drought”. (11)Tube wells should be electric. It is cleared that that all the four factors.Political. (2) The Bio Gas programs should be encouraged in the order to solve the problem of power.If the situation of drought gets studied from the historical point of view we come to know that. (2) The interest and credits of farmers must be avoided. (6) For the loss of animal of animal. (9) The new wells must be constructed and old and retaining wells must be more deep. In Rajasthan there are 32 districts.In Jaislmer the recorded annual rainfall is 16 cm and out of 100 years 75 years here in which the rainfall is totally absent. (10)The supply of folder should be assured in other states. where the rainfall did not get found for 12 years”. After just 40 years of Chhappania people faced a terrible drought again in 1939. “An historian has described the drought in Rajasthan in 11th centaury. 1. are the responsible for the drought in Rajasthan. Colonel Fumes Tod . are going on. . While the drought. animal.

Introduction With the formation of Uttarakhand in the year 2000. Rajasthan. In order to achieve this. Without sounding wary the author feels that the long-term future of the Uttar Pradesh tourism industry is linked to the sustainable management and developments of its products – in this case its remnant tourist assets and still to be identified. It is no secret that substantive public and private investment can do wonders for an economy from creating jobs to transferring technology and knowledge. It means. . and to a lesser extent Uttarakhand among others. The desert development progamme must be began and to make desert land green the programe should be spread out. So to solve such problems the technique and plans should be come in to existence. will be a key strategic objective. NIMS University Jaipur (Rajasthan) India. quantitative high volume. What are the strategic (natural characteristics) assets Uttar Pradesh has at its disposal and how to competitively position them vis-à-vis Kerala. an “Emerging Tourism Market” that depends largely on heritage and religious tourism for survival.Reg.V-34564.37-46 Advance Access publication 25 Mar. REFERENCES Rajasthan Patrika Dainik Jagaran Yearly India Today Oxford Journal ♦ Letter No.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. positive attitude and self service organization’s mixed effort may be proved fruitful in the aspect. Within this context. aggressive. To determine the correct positioning of Uttar Pradesh. effective marketing and the management of the diverse interests of all stakeholders in the industry area are all vital components of sustainability. Uttar Pradesh needs to critically analyze and determine its key strategic assets and find out why it does not have the same amount of tourists than comparatively other states in India -despite excellent inherited factor conditions. whether to pursue a niche positioning or a focused.2011 RE-POSITIONING UTTAR PRADESH AS AN EXCELLENT YET INEXPENSIVE TOURISM DESTINATION POOSHAN UPADHYAY* *(Consultant-Tourism Marketing and Branding) Ph. Madhya Pradesh. sustainability means achieving growth in a manner that provides the visitor with a meaningful experience. without causing an adverse impact on the states resources and social fabric. In short Rajasthan is the most drought processed state of the nation. Power and water saving problems should be highly encouraged. to raising labour and product standards. a “glocally” oriented marketing strategy needs to be developed to re-position Uttar Pradesh successfully in the global and national tourism arena and earn revenue. unique factor conditions. The make the climate favorable or please the progarme like plantation should be spread.D in Management. Price sensitivities. the geographically truncated Uttar Pradesh should be euphemistically called. low cost driven strategy. marketing oriented tourism strategy to attract not only higher number of foreign visitors but domestic tourists as well. growth driven. with the state policies the social awareness.(4) (5) (6) (7) Rural land – less employment guarantee programs must be started. Uttar Pradesh needs to develop a coherent. image building.

culture and macro-climate that is essential to its long-term success. Jhansi. Uttar Pradesh could reap greater benefits by re-positioning itself as a Quality. especially after the loss of the Garhwal and Kumaon regions to Uttarakhand. What are the strategic options the government has to pursue? Is it a “Resource Based” approach or is the “Environmental Fit” model that suits Uttar Pradesh? Or is it a combination of both? Uttar Pradesh’s Attractions and Opportunities: A Question of Branding the Right Assets The need of the hour is to currently develop a distinctive brand identity for Uttar Pradesh tourism. catering to the South east Asian countries. before looking at it through the prism of a global viewpoint. Part of its positioning statement simply means that UP’s attractions and key messages will be product and image based rather than location based. peaceful destination in a friendly welcoming environment for high yield visitors. all in the context of a secure. the most important argument in UP’s favour. The author feels otherwise.These destinations/states have a similar geopolitical and socio-economic composition –notwithstanding. Uttar Pradesh needs to pursue a niche positioning in order to create differentiation and thereby reaping above average profits. It needs to identify its main markets and engage in a meaningful target marketing exercise.revenue generating assets it has inherited are mainly the heritage/historical destinations of Agra. Without doubt. The implications of this positioning require Uttar Pradesh to redefine its principle products. what are the strategic and tactical objectives that need to be achieved. yet inexpensive tourist destination. Mathura. The intention of this paper is to provide a strategic framework for the government to assess their strengths and weaknesses and develop a corresponding action plan by critically asking. Allahabad. strive for “Positioning of Inexpensive Excellence” in all of its endeavours. Allahabad. is the state’s commitment. Uttar Pradesh has been targeting Western and Asian tourists simultaneously to emotionally satisfy their diverse needs and wants by clearly differentiating its tourist sites-Agra as an integral component of the Golden triangle and the Buddhist circuit. as an attractive tourist destination. as a future draw to western and South east Asian tourists. The aim of this research paper is furthermore indicative of the government’s ability to create a sustainable value proposition and minimize existing income inequalities. and above all. Uttar Pradesh has to specify its competitors and how it benchmarks itself within that competitive set? The government should be and most certainly is aware that the specific . both to further developing its well-known tourist sites and identifying and developing sites that have not yet been featured in package tours. the intrinsic value proposition why people should come to Uttar Pradesh. the potential for the development of lesser-known sites should also not be underestimated. What are Uttar Pradesh’s specific factor conditions. Recent government talk evolves about repositioning Uttar Pradesh as a “Boutique” destination” that draws on its core cultural and geographic assets and brand themes from its patrimony of heritage and nature. Indian perspective. Lucknow. In order for Uttar Pradesh to position itself in a highly competitive tourism destination it needs to clearly define its objectives and goals of what it wants to achieve as far as re-positioning and target marketing is concerned. These natural assets have to be placed under the jurisdiction of the Department of Tourism for the future generations to see. Given the success Uttar Pradesh has had in branding the Taj Mahal as one of the world’s premier un-missable sites. especially after its division and how effectively does the government promote the remaining tourism assets to attract tourists? What concrete measures does Uttar Pradesh undertake to design a long-term successful competitive strategy to re-position itself as a key player in the ever changing tourism environment of India and the world per se? The ultimate goal is to obtain sustainable competitive advantage by providing greater value to customers through differentiation. Ayodhya and ecotourism spots like Dudhwa National Park. religious centres like Varanasi. Tourism in Uttar Pradesh has to be understood from a microeconomics. .

The strategy becomes thus a marketing strategy based on design and deliberate planning rather than by accident. Uttar Pradesh. largely unwarranted. long-term sustainable competitive advantage. However. Harnessing the power of this specific region by offering service. The challenge with academic language dealing with strategic management. in particular with competitive advantage and positioning is. A permanent suntan or a thrilling ski was part of being hip and trendy. It is about changing the mind share of consumers and being perceived as different. now trends are shifting to a more placid culturally interacting vacation that enriches body mind and soul. Achieving clear. This type of “strategic cross border marketing” needs to be embraced by all parties in order to create a new destination in itself. managers to adopt the either or approach and thus automatically narrows the alternatives for further strategic options. This has become more imperative after its geographical division and the subsequent loss of the “Himalayan assets” displacing it as an ideal ECO destination. that it compels marketing executives to adopt the “Environmental Fit” approach or the “Resource Based” approach. the Varanasi. This dichotomy literally forces. Uttar Pradesh will be in a powerful position to create a regional tourism brand where all stakeholders benefit. To compete with the other tourism hot spots in India and create another successful heritage and religious destination would be sub-optimizing of marketing rupees and efforts as the competitors like Kerala. and what is the best method to identify its available resources? Management literature that deals with strategic and business management refers to positioning strategies based on the resource availability or environmental fit strategies . as its outcome determines the future ability of the Uttar Pradesh government to increase its revenue from the tourism segment. Uttarakhand. The aging baby booming generation has the highest disposable income of all generations.depending on which school of thought one wants to follow and what are the particular circumstances. Forming a strategic alliance with. the Uttar Pradesh tourism industry is in a stage of churn after the loss of the snow clad hill stations to Uttarakhand and has. Both strategic approaches have the potential to build upon each other. complemented with a proactive domestic market Uttar Pradesh is in a formidable position to successfully market its heritage and culture. Uttar Pradesh is in an excellent position to highlight its assets primarily in the “Golden Triangle”. Rajasthan. Buddhist Circuit. rate and price parity -at every level of the service spectrum -whenever an interaction with a consumer occurs. historical and cultural perspective.from a geographical. The “Resource Based Approach” To Marketing Tourist Assets Vs. there is compatibility between the resource-based view and the environmental fit model as a potential source to . Being environmentally friendly and showing the appropriate behaviour is the latest trend among politically correct vacationers. By carving thus out a niche in the international tourist arena for itself. Holiday seekers associate Uttar Pradesh with the Taj Mahal and other historical destinations listed on UNESCO’s protected world heritage sites. a long way to go to re-optimize its earning potential from tourism. therefore. to a vacation that is culturally and intellectually rewarding. With the perpetual shift of demographics. in-depth analysis. as they are getting older their vacation preferences shift from a typical beach holiday. Lucknow and Terai hubs. in particular. It is at that level where the inter-dependence of states and their dual purpose of national cross promotion and regional brand building becomes a strategic option.Niche Marketing And The Future Of Heritage/Cultural And Religious Tourism: Promoting Uniqueness And Differentiation Looking through the prism life cycle planning. consumer behaviour and spending habits have also changed. can only be possible by designing a business model that pursues a strategy of differentiation. Heritage/cultural and religious tourism is emerging as a new worldwide trend where Uttar Pradesh is in an ideal position to make its presence felt. Hence. Uttar Pradesh is predestined and blessed with a variety of factor endowments unique to its location . Madhya Pradesh and Bihar among others are well entrenched in their present positioning. Bihar and Delhi. What are the strategic choices available for decision makers. The “Environmental Fit” Model This is a very important question that warrants further. with its long and eventful history is predestined to become a leader in inter-regional cluster marketing by setting the benchmark for other states to follow.

Consequently this unilateral perception is not in the interest of strategic management as in practice . the fact is that customer perceptions are changing faster than economies and industries can adapt to their new needs and wants. is thus narrowing the strategic options. Vietnam. but for the complementary function it can provide. that is Cambodia. and adopting. By capitalizing on its unique factor conditions. the environmental fit approach to optimize its position.gain competitive advantage over other competing states. and at the same time became more experimental. Uttar Pradesh will now have to devise a new position to capitalize on the prevailing circumstances and begin promoting itself as the new “Must see Destination”. The equivocality of that concept has to be challenged and closely scrutinized -not for its authority. Successful marketers understand it cannot be all things to all people . and Uttar Pradesh . which stemmed from the physiological and psychological desire to get away to an annual summer holiday. That statement is potentially prejudiced as it restricts creative thinking and prevents decision makers from lateral thinking and explores other opportunities. must continually adapt its mix of internal strengths and weaknesses to the opportunities and threats of its external environment. India’s 28 states. Uttar Pradesh. The average Indian/Asian/global customer became more sophisticated than ever before. Laos and Myanmar. The critical success factor however is identifying the right cultural niche in attracting these markets and. is for obvious reasons not in a position to change its tourist assets but it has opportunities to augment its income by adding special features to its existing tourist sites. a resource based strategy due to factor specific conditions that are unique to itself and cannot be changed before altering its strategy. primarily. it is evident that it needs to follow.as proven throughout this paper -is that a complementary view is perfectly feasible on a macro-economic level. Once it reaches that level of critical mass. There is no empirical evidence that both strategies cannot build (coexist) upon each other and evolve gradually over time into the next stage. The conventional Bain/Mason paradigm of Industrial Organization. The basic conceptual framework of the premise of the “environmental fit” model claims that a firm. who can now obtain a single entry tourist visa. structural nation building processes to enhance a nations competitive advantage. in this case Uttar Pradesh. yet the loss of the Himalyan snow clad peaks to Uttarakhand has most certainly dented the domestic tourism of Uttar Pradesh . the states have to continually reinvent themselves to maintain their competitive advantage and stay abreast of market dynamics. What is still missing is clear identification of new feeder markets that have been neglected in the past -for instance religiously oriented domestic tourists. Michael Porter in his groundbreaking book “The Competitive Advantage of Nations” argues that a company. Like product life cycles. The top Indian favourite tourist destinations have not actually changed very much over recent years. the inbound tourists from the recently included five countries belonging to the Southeast Asian Nations. A tourist market in particular is never static but subject to perpetual activity as the market dynamics and variables are always changing.trying to satisfy everybody thereby sub-optimizing its efforts and underselling its tourist assets and products. valid for a month after arriving in India. Identifying and Assessing Demand Conditions Adopting the resource-based strategy of positioning Uttar Pradesh’s factor endowments enables it to create its own demand conditions by adopting a two-pronged strategy. In the case of Uttar Pradesh. in this case Uttar Pradesh.These new initiatives can be capitalized to develop markets on a complementary basis to the already existing market. needs to follow one of his prescript strategies to succeed. will thus be in an excellent position to capitalize on its assets in the long-term. Uttar Pradesh. on which Porter built most of his work that became known as the “Structure-Conduct-Performance Paradigm” is hence not only applicable to traditional business models but also leads to the same results in conventional. it will need to morph into new revenue generating ventures to sustain its competitive advantage in India and not losing market share to other Indian states.examined for their compatibility. thereby optimizing the return on public relations and marketing expenditure. The scholastical perception of the resource based view and the environmental fit model needs thus be re. Whilst we like to think that. Philippines. This convergent thinking process -as opposed to a more divergent process. the market is consistently evolving or morphing into a new state of being.

labour.as well as opportunities. in this case holiday seekers. are culturally and geographically too diversified to adopt one strategy to meet all the inherent needs and demands of consumers. The report of A F Ferguson & Co. a possible rise in the incidence of poverty and concurrently lower self-esteem for the unemployed. Socially. estimated region wise direct and total employment in the tourism services sector in Uttar Pradesh. which is provided below: Direct Employment Current Estimates. however the last decade has seen fundamental changes in the occupational and skills mix of the employed work force. it is India’s most populous state. unemployment is associated with an array of problems. The same applies to targeting of the domestic tourism sector. as well as the world’s most populous sub-national entity. The earning potential. In a time of crisis .or even become nonexistent -where commercial goods are traded on the Internet and transcend borders.is no exception. has not yet been understood as the sensitivity of the political situation precedes the economical urgency unfortunately. The aggregate of tourism forecast on a conservative basis for the whole of UP over the next 10 years period has been assessed by several agencies including A F Ferguson & Co. not least a lower standard of living. The pilgrim category represents primarily the domestic low-income mass pilgrim segment which is less constrained by the lack of adequate infrastructure.. 7240 80200 13800 13800 531000 16000 1800 663840 2011-2020 Estimates 11440 333000 41200 36400 2103000 36900 5220 2567160 From an economic standpoint. In a time where borders shrink . The above mentioned agencies have given an approximate forecast of tourist traffic to Uttar Pradesh which is provided below: (In nos.) Pilgrims Current Estimates 2011-20 Estimates 570 lakhs 930 lakhs General Interest 114 lakhs 310 lakhs Total 684 lakhs 1240 lakhs Within the tourism service sector. government decisions must reflect a fundamental understanding of how consumers react to governmental proaction. “strategic cross border marketing” and a viable “inter-regional tourism cluster” are the key words. unemployment represents the under-utilization of one of the economy’s main resources. employment trends have been erratic. from a macro tourism perspective. and Tourism Ministry of the Government of India . A case in point is Madhya Pradesh. Growth Opportunities in the Tourism Service Sector With a population of over 190 million people. Interdependence and integration is now more important than ever before.. Uttar Pradesh would be the world’s sixth most populous country. With unemployment of approximately 8. What is required is an even distribution of the tourism marketing budget to key markets and new emerging markets selected nations in Southeast Asia that were identified in the past as potential markets. which has adopted an aggressive marketing approach to attract potential travellers-both inbound as well as domestic. In the age of globalization and a borderless world. Tour operators of various regions point out that the elasticity of visitage for the non-pilgrim category to the popular tourism destinations and facilities in Uttar Pradesh is considerably higher than for the domestic mass pilgrim segment. South West UP South East UP Varanasi South East UP Allahabad Central UP Western UP East UP Others Total 3020 33300 5940 5900 226000 6600 800 281560 2011-2020 Estimates 4820 137800 17600 15700 894000 15200 2310 1087430 Total Employment Current Estimates. Were it a nation in its own right.8% Uttar Pradesh’s thriving commercial industry is severely . -all available resources ought to be allocated to the most promising target markets and have it equally distributed -or at least to these nations that contribute the largest tourist shares.

disadvantaged to achieve double digit growth as lack of qualified labour makes it impossible to growth faster. all in anticipation that the economy and business will gradually improve and restore healthy margins. This phenomenon. it is clear that further steps would have to be taken to encourage growth. . as demographics will inevitably change and shift the balance of responsibility increasingly to younger workers. Tourism trends in India are in principle characterized by regional political stability (or instability) and general safety perceptions. Germany and the UK actually fell. in addition to value for money. called jobless growth is witness in both industrial and developing societies. it is difficult to achieve long-term sustainable competitive advantage. That corroborates the findings that in order to become commercially competitive the school curriculum. with the rest from increased capital investment . has to be seen from a broader inter regional perspective where various states compete for the same market segments. Perhaps the most important reason for India’s impressive record of accomplishment in human development over the past few years has been the country’s sustained effort to educate all of its citizens. drive down profit margins further. The alternative is to invest in vocational training. already a high concentration of tour operators who function as suppliers and intermediaries to hotels. in this case heritage and religious endowments. employment in countries like France. in this context. Those tour operators that successfully achieved backward and forward integration of their operation have generally managed their value chain to the best of their advantage. Some of these tour operators have overcome this dire situation by backward and forward integration managing their own charter. irrespective of productivity and performance. What is evident from the previous findings is that the quality of basic education in India is not internationally competitive. First. And secondly. The government needs to determine what its long-term labour policy is: To employ cheap unqualified labour for the sake of employing them. under the current economic circumstances difficult to achieve. That high level of stakeholder concentration has two consequences.In addition to the intense rivalry prevailing in this region.If the current trend continues unabated. An unviable alternative with grave socio-economic ramifications is to employ qualified professional technicians and industrial scientists and improve productivity levels but continue to leave scores of people unemployed. needs to be modified to reflect the changing demands on the working environment. focus on quality education. although idiosyncrasies do exist on a micro level. Philip Kotler in his book “The Marketing of Nations” argues that technology improves productivity but may reduce the number of jobs. Three quarters of the rise in output in these countries came from increases in total productivity. particularly labour and skill-intensive productive activities like tourism is imperative. Without a clear product differentiation. Most of the surveyed states have similar or complementary factor conditions that are appealing to a broad spectrum of consumers. it will have catastrophic consequences on the macroeconomic performance of Uttar Pradesh. This holds true for Uttar Pradesh as well. With the service sector growing rapidly in importance. it adds pressure on each of the state government to develop competitive strategies to secure a sustainable competitive advantage -which is. 6Between 1973 and 1987. Focus on continuing economic growth.The situation is further compounded by lack of access to state-of-the-art technology. The growth in GDP and unemployment in many countries and states indicates that employment has consistently lagged behind economic growth. and get them off the street (a shortterm tactic commonly applied in countries with abundance of labour ). tour operators supply lines and hotels to achieve a certain level of independence and control their own commercial destiny.without creating new jobs. respective syllabus. males and females’ alike-Right to education is a case in point. The Competitive Environment in India: A Question of Inter State Rivalry and Structural Reforms Rivalry. the intensity of price wars lowers profit margins to a level were tour operators and hotel companies operate at break even or even less. and gradually diversify from an agricultural driven society to services driven society. even though they had respectable GDP growth rates.

whether in a non-profit organization or in the private sector. shaping market conditions by creating an environment of stability and peace. The long-term responsibility of any leader. healthy business environment should be the ultimate goal of governments in the age of globalization and free markets. it is measured is exceeding guest expectation and quantified by increasing tourist arrivals and a high return ratio. the positioning of products and product life cycles. demographics and human resources. This traditional “marketing concept” has undoubtedly its validity for industrial and commercial consumer products. Investments will only materialize with government projecting sound policies that safeguard the investment of national and multi-national companies. customer focused philosophy of marketing is not only about market segments. such as food vendors. position Uttar Pradesh in the highly competitive environment. The conventional. finding new distribution channels.19% as per the 2010-11 budget. should determine the correct value of a destination. The government’s share of tourism related expenditure stands at a meagre 0. groundbreaking ideas that will lead to long-term sustainable growth of GDP per capita. it became evident that the service sector is key to the success of Uttar Pradesh’s economic progress. it will be very difficult to compete with its highly proactive and aggressive neighbours. It is hence of paramount importance to understand the inherited raison d’etre of the decisionmaking process from a historical context. ideally. Marketing and the Government in a World of Globalization In addition. tour guides etc. suppliers. Marketing has become an overlapping multi functional. create economic alignments and strategic alliances by adopting a national policy of interdependence. lies at the heart of strategic marketing to attain sustainable competitive advantage.Economic Challenges and the Creation of Wealth Marketing of states is all about outperforming competition. Michael Porter argues in his book "The Competitive Advantage of Nations” that a nation can create new advanced . and de facto. satisfying customers and the gaining of market share. 2. “Successful” marketing of states is strategic and requires a long-term perspective. especially in case of the inbound marketthis notion and the underpinning concept of the zero-sum game. be the gain of another state. The creation of a conducive. During the course of the research for this paper. to promote an entrepreneurial spirit among the business community and promote innovative. are the creation of wealth and work towards equalization and a fair distribution of income and wealth. Government policies play a big role in marketing by influencing. and labour-intensive investment opportunities. it is imperative to encourage risk taking and bold decision making. sociology and economics. The loss of market share of one state should. especially with states like Bihar. for the government to succeed in its marketing endeavours to successfully. Marketers must possess a flawless deep understanding of the political and socio-economic conditions of a state/destination before developing a successful marketing plan. without interference of any political body. encourage capital. Uttarakhand and Delhi . If businesses have a corporate and social responsibility to make profits then governments have an economic responsibility to project a free market oriented approach without interventionism for instance impetus to robust PPP models. The author feels that with such an abysmally low budget. That “out of the box” mentality and thinking process will set Uttar Pradesh apart from its competitor states that have all the same aspirations. It is also not (only) about identifying affluent customers and selling products for healthy profits margins.5 more people indirectly are employed in associated industries. Market forces only. The government needs to have a relook at its tourism policy and allocate at least 5% of its total planned expenditure to ensure sustainability in an already weak positioning of the states inherent tourism strengths. very diverse field that has impacts on sales.unique to their core competencies and location. targeting the right clientele. An environment of perfect competition does in reality not exist as all participants have different variables to consider . The figure corroborates the long held view that for every direct employee in the hotel and tourism industry. Marketing of destinations is more complex and requires a fundamentally different understanding of cultural habits and peculiarities of people.

Is it measured in terms of room nights sold. Having access to unspoiled beaches and almost all year round sunshine facilitates decision making to open business in these locations. the same methodology to measure brand power cannot be applied in promoting states/destinations and consequently determining its positioning strategy. which in return encourages more national and international investors to follow suit. Thus. Now the question is-what is the value of the brand Uttar Pradesh? How does one measure brand value of states/ destinations? How is brand value measured in the intangible environment of measuring competitiveness of states/destinations? Whilst it seems to be relatively easy to determine the market capitalization or general valuation of a public listed company in the world of fast moving consumer products in terms of units sold or total revenue generated. it is not sufficient to respond to consumer demands once they are already in the state/destination . well educated and homogenous workforce. They have a responsibility to dismantle internal barriers that obstruct competition. It is difficult. International customers expect language competencies in their interactions with service personnel. a strong technology and knowledge base. .hence this reactionary approach to engender and awaken a desire in inbound as well as domestic travellers to visit Uttar Pradesh is insufficient. Like companies who are in the business of promoting consumer products who have a commercial obligation to develop a brand and exploit it through its life cycles. promote cooperation and ultimately ensure their interests are protected against competitor destinations/states. a competent police force. if not impossible to measure factor conditions of one state and compare them objectively to another as the intrinsic values and motives of tourists are not rationally measurable why they visit one state/destination over another one. elementary infrastructure such as street and traffic lights that work. Parallel to that. As simple and logical as this statement sounds it is not always heeded as personal interests precede over the wider interest of the community at large. and investment laws that are attractive to the banking and insurance industry. High brand valuation justifies increasing marketing investments. Without using clichés. To successfully reposition Uttar Pradesh among its competitors. The government’s role is to be a facilitator. They have a very high brand recognition and subsequent brand value (partly) due to a competitively. this has certainly its validity in the fierce competitive tourism environment of our country. Uttar Pradesh needs to take the cue to develop a minimum threshold competence level to compete with other tourism destinations for market share. Consumer product companies call it their most valuable intangible asset. which delivers the luggage safely and a public transportation network that connect the major cities. A pro-active approach will reach new markets and strengthen the brand equity among the international and domestic tourist markets per se. ministries have a duty towards their inbound and domestic visitors that a fully functional infrastructure is in place and provide a secure environment. an easy luggage transport facility.factor endowments such as skilled labour. or tourist arrivals or tourist receipts or growth in the service sector? The pertinence of this question is undoubtedly of paramount importance in consumer marketing but it is very difficult. encourage investment. Building and Leveraging the Brand Uttar Pradesh The ultimate question for marketers is what is the value proposition of a product? The answer to that question leads to correct brand positioning. Goa and Kerala are a case in point. the relevant tourist authorities must embark on a positioning strategy to move from a reactionary marketing approach to a pro-active approach. Uttar Pradesh needs to pick up from Butler’s destination life cycle theory to develop a corresponding brand strategy that supports the various life cycles and maximizes its return. government support and culture. ensure performance of all enterprises and compliance to environmental standards. Classical examples are Coca Cola and Microsoft with limited disposable assets to convert to cash but invaluable brand power. if not impossible. focussing only the Taj Mahal/Agra and a few others during this endeavour. In its positioning and brand building process. to answer conclusively in promoting states/destinations where many intangible factors are a vital ingredient that determines the value proposition. a positive investment cycle begins. Uttar Pradesh has reached only the elementary stage.

Oxford. M U R P H Y. but the author believes that re-positioning with a penetration pricing strategy could do wonders to the religious tourism sector. New catalogues with new pictures need to be designed along with cutting-edge web offerings with high-resolution pictures.Marketing the competitive destination of the future. GO. PRITCHARD. MICHAEL E. Marketing Tourism Destinations. (1990). M.) & Ph.N. July 29. elicit emotions and projecting new trends. have never completely fathomed the concept that advertising. Uttar Pradesh has to re. Number 1: 79-88 Great Indian hospitality can be biz too. Branding for Success in Destination Branding. & WALL. REFERENCES BUHALIS..P. E. 38. Creating the unique destination proposition. A Strategic Planning Approach. 21.Management College. S. Marketing in travel and tourism. F. Number 1: 43-52. G. Domestic travel. The Free Press: New York. & B. F.G. (1994). G. Determinants of Market Competitiveness in an Environmentally Sustainable To u r i s m I n d u s t r y. 2005. HASSAN. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. SOMKID JATUSRIPITAK & SUVIT MAESINCEE (1997) .Reg.R. marketing and awareness creation needs to change corresponding to demographics.(2000). Butterworth Heinemann. The Destination Product and its Impact on T r a v e l l e r P e r c e p t i o n s . Tourism Management 21(2000) pages 97-116 Final report on 20 years perspectvie plans for uttar Pradesh. LKO (U. or does it want to pursue a quality driven niche positioning concentrating on high yield customer and attracting the top tier consumers with a high disposable income – a strategy successfully pursued by Goa and the seven sisters? Attempts to create. Vol. VICTOR T. The entire point of sales experience at trade fairs and exhibitions has to be redesigned to create a new experience. the “Boutique Brand Uttar Pradesh” and focus on high-end market segments certainly seems a step in the right direction. New York. and is by far the most relatively inexpensive – compared to its competitors The question that needs to be answered is twofold: Does Uttar Pradesh want to become a cheap destination to attract large quantities of tourists at lower rates – a strategy successfully pursued by Orissa and Gujarat and thereby tarnish its image.build its reputation as a virgin destination that replete with religious and heritage monoliths. Integrated Quality Management for Tourist Destinations:A European Perspective on Achieving Competitiveness.47-50 Advance Access publication 9 Apr. The Marketing of Nations . (3):. P.. P O R T E R. Professor. D.D in Management Singhania University (Rajasthan) India. To re-position and nurture the “Brand Uttar Pradesh” is the most beguiling and challenging task of marketers. (2002).A Strategic Approach to Building National WealthThe Free Press. States.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. Tourism Management Vol.(1992). socially and politically. vol. – Management Consultancy Division GILMORE. especially the Buddhist circuit which is fed by at least eighteen nations of South and Southeast Asia. Journal of Travel Research. A. SMITH (2000).V-34564. PHILIP KOTLER. Consumers become saturated and easily bored with seeing always the same pictures and brochures. GOVERS (2000). & Pride. R. A F Ferguson & Co. 21. 239-245. (2000). & Pritchard. too could be enhanced with an “Inexpensive Quality” positioning to achieve above average returns. Tourism Management.C. & R. New York. . Edited by Morgan. John Wiley & Sons.2011 A RESEARCH PAPER ON FINANCIAL INNOVATION MINALI MEHRA* *Asst. ♦ Letter No.Conclusion Evidently. consumer behaviour and a change in taste of a society as it evolves economically. MIDDLETON. HEATH.. The Economic Times (India).C.

Examples include office automation and use of computers with accounting and client data management software. It has lowered transaction costs. debt market. risk transfer and credit. ATM. deposit. It have increased available credit for borrowers and given banks new and less costly ways to raise equity capital. relate to changes in business structures. This has reduced the usage of cheques. usually by creating a source of new supply for in-demand securities while also providing some kind of pick-up in yield. Technological changes like Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) and Electronic Debits and Credits. or setting up a completely new service structure. a. This is sometimes used to the creation of new types of securities. . With this technology advancement money can be easily transferred from one account to another within a short span of time by incurring no extra cost. A payment system advances altering or modifying the role of banks. leasing. A. Money market I. B. hire purchase and other financial products. Sources of financial innovation The changes in creation of investment happens because of changes in technology. improved resource allocation and supported economic growth. Financial Inclusion. insurance. its types of financial innovations. Types of Financial Innovation Financial innovation can be of various types. Phone banking the rapidity and reliability of settlement at the NSE or the mobile phone banking being implemented around the country indicate that much of the system is at the Internet age and beyond. Use of centralized banking facility more facilitate the customers as well as create the opportunity for banks to deal in various other financial products. III. equity generation. Financial system/institutional innovations :Such innovations can affect the financial sector as a whole. to the establishment of new types of financial intermediaries. Use of ATM facility for cash with drawls.Abstract This paper depicts us about financial innovation. Amortization mortgage. and a financial institutions in general act as intermediaries between suppliers and users of funds. Process innovations :Such innovations cover the introduction of new business processes leading to increased efficiency. “Financial innovation” consists of “improving” on existing securities. Financial innovation is all about offering an idea or that is different from earlier one and has the potential to be extremely desirable in the long run. Product innovations :By introducing new products like credit. etc. Financial Innovation means creation of a new investment vehicle. Introduction Financial innovation is a broad term that is used to describe the generation of new and creative approaches to different financial investment. EFT. Financial innovations have an important role to play in promoting efficiency in the financial intermediation process and in supporting economic growth. formalizing informal finance systems. sources. Key words: Equity Generation. Important examples include the use of the group mechanism to retail financial services. II. c. Financial innovation can increase efficiency and profits for certain parties. money market funds and subprime mortgage . b. scope and suggestions. market expansion.

Commercial banks. If history is any indication. Meeting this need will require a more developed capital market and especially a more developed long-term corporate bond market. Examples like giving loan by pledging home. Greater capital and liquidity requirements : Greater capital and liquidity requirements will promote more prudent behavior as a financial intermediary seeks to grow its balance sheet through product innovations. IV. Indian authorities are targeting an increase in infrastructure spending of some $500 billion during the current five-year plan. realized money market funds as a key competitor and over the course of many years have developed many deposit products (sweep accounts for example) which seek to provide depositors the same flexibility which money market funds provide. money market mutual funds and other financial products and services we now take for granted. Home ownership was even more of a challenge for the class of borrowers below the ‘prime’ category. In India. needs to be careful in taking personal financial decisions. With the gradual liberalization of portfolio guidelines of insurance companies and pension funds would help transform India’s large pool of savings into investable funds for long-term financing. Here seems to be a great role for public policy in fostering and improving awareness of financial matters and in promoting economic and financial education. to pay only interest. as well as interest rate and currency futures. credit cards. become as accepted as fractional reserve banking. housing loans have become a major asset category for commercial banks only in the last 10 years more specifically in the last 5 to 6 years.C. . sub-prime mortgages and mortgage securitization. Housing loans now account for around 12 per cent of total bank credit it is likely to increase further strongly in the medium term. F. Suggestions For the individual or the firm. Moreover. Equity generating innovations includes issue of shares by banks a less costly way to raise equity capital from public. Scope of financial innovation in India The RBI has undertaken important initiatives to promote financial inclusion. so that not only do appropriate financial products get innovated but end-users also are enabled to make the most optimal financial decisions. The India Infrastructure Finance Corporation Limited (IIFCL) has been established with a mandate to cofinance projects and issue local currency-denominated bonds. with an option for the borrower to pay up principal. The sub-prime mortgage and related innovations such as mortgages with adjustable rates. Long-term amortizing mortgage : The mechanism of long-term amortization has played a very critical role in enabling millions of households to acquire their own homes by borrowing. V. repos for corporate bonds have been introduced. low ‘teaser’ interest rates in the initial period of the loan and other exotic structures were all designed to take mortgage finance to such a class of borrowers. Risk transferring includes transfer of credit risk from one person to another. though they have become notorious concepts now. E. G. are likely to. This therefore was an innovation which triggered greater efficiency in the intermediation of savings and investments in the financial system. D. though its initial impact was to modify the characteristics of the deposit base of the banking system. In addition. with the goal of having a banking outlet in every village of more than two thousand residents by 2011. This is likely to be a major thrust area in global financial regulation. Financial innovation has played an important role in supporting economic growth and like innovation in other industries. is part of the process of ‘creative destruction’ that makes the working of the economy more efficient. gold or any other property. Money market funds.

For making survival as well to attract customers existing and new it is necessary to innovate new ideas so that end up by more & more sales. keep it simple. Increasing Foreign Participation In The Local Debt Market : Increasing Foreign Participation in the Local Debt Market would provide additional liquidity and more robust pricing of local bond market issues. Thus.org www.com ♦ . The recently released Senior Supervisors Group report which highlighted ongoing problems in the governance. In approving new products. VI. Introduce products that are relatively straightforward and that offer clear valueadded. 3. Investors should be able to calculate the risks being undertaken without undue reliance on credit ratings agencies or other outside advisors. Close attention should be paid to ensuring adequate disclosure. This should help to prepare India for ongoing and even accelerated modernization. new financial products should be understood by regulators. firm management. Indian regulators have been a part of the global standard setting process and will continue to be early adopters of new standards. Modernizing Financial Systems : Each country will develop its own approach to fostering appropriate and useful financial innovation. This requires both adequate resources to hire skilled professionals. by sellers and by prospective buyers. In this regard. Banks’ risk management systems and the regulatory system keep up with the pace of innovation. Second. 1. Despite the current difficulties and challenges. An effective resolution scheme must be created for systemically important firms. As you know. long-term institutional investors—including insurance companies. so that governments will be able act promptly and effectively when an institution becomes troubled. b. and risk management in many of the world’s largest financial institutions. BIBLIOGRAPHY www. 4. Conclusion Product innovations are introduced to respond better to changes in market demand. together with political support to ensure that regulations and supervisory recommendations are taken seriously.com www. while providing institutional investors with the opportunity to earn higher yields by taking on some of the risks of underlying loans.wisegeek.imf.a. keep incentives aligned throughout the process. because they can and should form a stable and sophisticated investor base. Develop a robust resolution scheme. ensure that the interests of the originators of loans and securitized assets are aligned with the interests of investors. financial innovation will continue to play an important role in promoting global growth. internal control programs. Such regimes should minimize potential market disruption as well as dampen moral hazard. mutual funds and pension funds—are vital to securitization markets. Apart from that they play a vital role in the growth of economy as well.industrialeconomist. especially in emerging markets and developing countries. First. 2. This development would have the added benefit of facilitating better diversification by banks of their credit and maturity risks. the RBI has adopted a retention rule and a lock-in period for securitized instruments designed to align incentives—although it will be important to see what impact these will have on issuers. Regulation and supervision also must keep up with innovation.

royal seema and telangana are the parts of the nation where the drought occurs after every three years. Actually. Punjab. even from the beginning of 20th century the British’s started the system of industrialization in India and for the goodness of England they used India’s natural recourses. After then in different time period the nation faced drought. It gets cleared that the bad management of the land has been responsible for 100 years. But even then any solid or fruitful plan is not made yet in the order to utilize the land because of which we can be able to get rid of the problem of drought. After Independence. Situational Development plans get started.Reg.. Tamil Nadu. Lucknow (U. will be called drought possessed area” If we study the drought in India. In west Bengal. To improve the salty land Rural Development Ministry also takes steps for drought Management: 1. Kerala. is a big problem. Andhra pradesh. The table also shows that in 1972 and 1987 the drought was terrible in nature. 44. Water plan develop 3. It’s is cleared that the problem of drought in India is very big. In 1943 the drought of Bengal killed more than 15 lakhs people. Such exploitation of nature has promoted the pre-matured natural changes and before us it’s output is coming in the form of drought. The thought of agriculture department is that 75 cm. In India. This table shows that the 49. M.2011 THE DROUGHT MANAGEMENT IN INDIA GYANENDRA KUMAR* *Lucknow Public College.) & Ph. To start the fuel and lure plans. The continue drought in India. About 2000 years ago (Maurya period) Kautitya has described the help works in the order to make the people escape from the problem of drought. special contribution programs get started. rural architects get affected broadly. Gujarat.D in Geography. many times.4% land. If we see the fundamental point of this problem. For the drought problem management the agriculture ministry encourages these steps: 1. Because of this the positive capability of nature got affected and animal farming started looking difficult. 3.4% land was effected. For the plantation. with the study of drought possessed area it is known that the both areas of Rajasthan are under the drought areas. into the wood and the mines of raw material. Thus from the atmosphere and forest ministry some steps come into existence: 1. In the nation the situation of drought from 1951 to 2002 is shown in the table 1. western Uttar Pradesh.V-34564. 42. The 6 crores land less labours. To start the desert area development programs. Today if we see carefully we will find that the other animals and birds are consciously on the way to end apart from mammals. For Drought expecting areas. In 1965.Letter No.P. 2.P. 3. Middile Maharashtra. National water-saving programs get development 2. 39.9% land and in 1979.2% land was effected with the drought of 1987 then in 1972. Bihar and Orissa states the drought occurs after 5 years. In India near about 14 time terrible drought occurred of which the drought of the year 1987 was most terrible. As it’s result in past 100 years they converted the forest of India. To develop the Samanvit Jalagam Vikas Pariyogana.51-52 Advance Access publication 25 Mar. 2. The maximum area of the Nation is distressed due to this problem.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. to start special employment programs. from the historical point of view then we may have to face the problem of view of drought. NIMS University Jaipur (Rajasthan) India. .

Among the entire girl student in Zahedan city. in our notion in near about 4 months the water of rain gets . Survarnrekha.C given the historical order to the state .533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. . Krishna. REFERENCES Oxford Journal India Today Times of India Danik Jagaran Yearly ♦ Letter No.. lack of political will power etc. **Department of Psychology. and then assertion behavior be substituted. in 1972 the study of Water – storage got happened after making 4 parts of the nation . apart from this atmosphere related Programs are also the couse to decrease the speed of such schemes. Iran. Available and may be in use to maintain the water – lenel for this . pariyar scheme . Islamic Azad University. Thus . Satlaj and their main helping riers should e joint. For this . 32 subjects were selected after pre-assessment and interview. cause are coming before . Tonekabon. we have to main water flows which are going to get join : (1) Northen indian Himalayan water flows –it’s main rivers – Ganga .53-59 Advance Access publication 11 Apr. Young Researcher Club. To give the practical form to above schemes. with control and comparison groups. sindu . Extra experises. Tasti and other main rivers. vajas. Ramganga pariyojana .Islamic Azad University. that the step of joint the rivers till 2012 should be taken. JAVAD KHALATBARI*. ****Department of Psychology. Tonekabon Branch. the work is under processing. Iran. the backward Techniques. Tonekabon. SHOHREH GHORBANSHIROUDI**. Jhelum.Reg. Bramhaputra . Method: This research is a semi. Tonekabon Branch . vaitarni.in the and of 2002 the respectable S.assessment pre-assessment study. Islamic Azad University. Iran. ***(Corresponding Author) Department of Psychology. rajasthan Kenal scheme and sharda scheme etc. It we use the suitable way to store the water then our nation can be escaped from the problem of drought . After then the state government promised to joint the Himalyan rivers.V-34564. Zahedan. (2) South Indian water flows – To joint it’s main rivers – Narmada.Islamic Azad University. MOHAMMAD MOJTABA KEIKHAYFARZANEH*** AND SAEEDEH MOTAMED**** *Department of Psychology. the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of assertive training group therapy in aggression reduction and academic achievement among high school students in the city of Zahedan. DR. Ravi. Young Researcher Club. that the state . Iran. Apart from this under the protection of ‘Yojna Ayog ‘ on vyas satlaj sampark kenal. till 2043. Along with on the base of the flow. Tonekabon. Chinao.experimental post. kaveri.2011 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ASSERTIVE TRAINING SKILLS IN DECREASING AGGRESSION AND IMPROVING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN ZAHEDAN GIRL STUDENTS DR. Abstract Background: As it is believed that assertive should be learned and they could be eliminated by learning.Apart from the above steps the plan committee is trying to face this problem with the help of different programs. Tonekabon Branch. Zahedan Branch .

mentioned involvements are based on the assumption that some negative behaviors as aggression are caused due to lack of essential skills for an effective and suitable communication 1519 . and behavioral aspects and manifests the individual’s compatibility in effective encounter with environmental demands 23.term reduction has not been necessarily associated with an increase in socially. aggression is one of the significant issues of adolescence 2-4. assertive training is applied in test group in twelve 90minutes sessions. Conclusion: Assertive training group therapy is effective in decreasing aggression and improving academic achievement in girl student. This function consists of cognitive. . making decision independency grows and social and mental problems will be appeared. in most cases parents and School authorities have conflicts with them and therefore it sometimes leads them to be expelled from school 8. Results: Analysis of variance in post test assessment showed significant difference between the variables of aggression and academic achievement in the three groups (p<0. anxiety. and Scheffe post hoc test. aggressive behaviors short. Key words: aggression.01). Data were analyzed using statistical tests. formation of a negative image about school which leads to avoiding it. at the same time. After this. Assertion is a function contributing to agreement in social interactions 22. rejection by others. academic failure. selecting and moving toward knowing himself. On the other hand. thinking about suicide 9-11. Also among normal student 32 subjects selected as comparison group. The above.01).6 .who had the highest level of aggression. is assertion training that is demonstrated in its multi efficacy investigations 20. In addition. Then they divided in test and control group randomly. More constant behavior improvement and acceptance of others using involvements based on social skills training has resulted in increasing application of these methods in aggressive children and adolescents treatment. Aggressive adolescents are usually unable to control their behavior and they easily violate the norms and the values of the society they live in. 12 leaning towards drug consumption.2 Applying the factorial methods such as encouragement and punishment have been influential in short term but they failed to indicate constant long-term effects 2. academic achievement. aggression decreased in the experimental group and a significant improvement in education took place (p<0. this method could be applied among student to improve social relations and academic achievement. One of the skills which is considered among treatments based on intended social skills. analysis of one-way variance. making use of stimulant drugs and factorial methods. An individual with a proper assertion not only confronts the problems and intensive elements better but also he/she has a more positive cognitive evaluation due to successful encounter with these elements and therefore he/she will experience more positive excitements and emotions 24. drug consumption and crime 7. social character and new interests. For all 3 groups postassessment is applied after training period. So. Aggression has also some negative consequences on the victims of such behaviors including depression. feeling of loneliness. excitatory. Introduction Adolescence is transient period between childhood and adultness. During the last three decades the attempts of researches and therapists have resulted in introducing various and effectual treatments as social skills training. They would also know themselves as vulnerable members among the group of their own age and therefore they would submit to the aggressive behaviors of the group.accepted behaviors or agreements of friends and classmates of adolescents’ own age 14. the best description of this time is making progress process which increasing ability of overcome confusing educational exercises and searching talents. and the problems related to anger such as hostility and aggression are of important reasons which refer children & adolescents to consultants and psychotherapists 5. In other words. are its signs 1. Thus the victimization tragedy is repeated 13. Normal and aggressive group did not receive any therapy in this stage.21. Aggressive questionnaire (AGQ) and clinical interview is done by psychology. Teenagers are investigating. assertiveness training. low self-esteem. Additionally. What have attracted the attention of researchers about aggressiveness are the consequences of such behaviors for adolescents such as formation of a negative image among their teachers. during it relationship with the persons in the same age is deep. friends and classmates of their own age.

structural clinical interview and assertion questionnaire have been used in this research. skills of initiating a relationship/ communication and the logic of therapy. After choosing the samples and organizing them into test and evidence groups and determining the normal control group.34 . The subjects for the test group during these 12 sessions were determined as the following: The 1st session: members meet each other and also the therapist for initial acquaintance.esteem and mental health and reduces social anxiety 33. The 4th session: defining and explaining the necessity of assertion and its advantages in human life. 2. innovation. Wehr and Kaufman (1987) investigated the effect of assertive training on a vexatious adolescence group and their results showed increasing of self-steem. Simultaneously 32 students were chosen for comparison from the normal group of the same high school and the same classes.28. The investigated society was the girl high school students in Zahedan. Method The present research is a semi-experimental plan of pre-assessment post-assessment type containing control and comparison groups. The 6th session: explaining about a healthy relationship. some homework were assigned too.focused treatment group is influential in educational progress in girl students.Assertion.focused treatment group is influential in aggression reduction in girl students. Moreover the conducted researches in effectiveness of assertion training. The 7th session: correct methods in assertive encounters to control aggressiveness. beside decreasing of worry and aggression 30. setting assignments on reminding situations in which the person acts assertively and his/ her reaction. In order to measure the aggression in the research. dutifulness and maintenance of professional features 29. In fact it means that people communicate with one another in a regular framework based on certain purposes. recognition of their emotions. Sexually.focused treatment group in Zahedan high school students was of the purposes of the research. the quality of non-assertive and aggressive relationship and awareness of cognitive errors. 32 students who had the necessary criteria for involving in the research were selected and assigned into 2 groups of test and control. Crozier (1981) says social anxiety is high in shy people and calls them social low assertive person 32. discussing about saying “yes” and “no” to a request. the aggression questionnaire (AGQ) was used. The reasons of being unable to say “yes”. The reasons of being unable to say “no”. Furthermore culturally in interactions. According to researches this amount in men is more than women. a communication on the basis of reliance. Using the aggression questionnaire (AGQ) and diagnostic interview by the clinical psychologist. It includes 3 elements and 30 articles. Half. the mentioned questionnaires were used in all 3 groups. Determining the efficacy of assertion. The followings were the assumptions of the research: 1. It should be mentioned that assertion does not mean aggression at all. During this treatment program the taught skills in each session were performed through role playing. have reported its efficacy reduction of anxiety 34 and improvement of educational progress 31.Assertion. The 5th session: offering the report of the previous session and providing feedback. the amount of assertion differentiates among males and females. Why should we say “yes” and “no”?. self. The 2nd session: awareness. woman in Asian societies have got less assertion in comparison with women in western societies 27. . In another research on boys’ junior high school students in Ahwaz demonstrated that assertion training increases assertion.26. The 3rd session: producing insight and awareness in individuals the importance of a healthy relationship.Researchers have shown assertive training can overcome behavioral problems such as worry and social fears 25. Then the test group was kept under observation of treatment group (with the emphasis of on assertion training) for twelve 90-minute sessions. The 8th session: recognition of incorrect methods for expressing opinions. Deluty (1981) performed a research about assertive training effects on shy students and achieved positive results 31. Normal students were those who had not received aggression diagnosis in the first stage.

deviation 4. “can it be considered as a very destructive excitement?”.15+_ 4. for insurance of difference in test and control groups. Comparing aggressive marks in 3 groups.43 8.096 sig . discussing about “why should we criticize?”.893 4.001).05). Before intervention.00 To investigate first hypothesis. Therefore. respectively in test.43 and 57.583 36. some signs of hidden anger and “when do we express our anger?” Setting an assignment on maintaining ones calmness and controlling ones anger in various situations.15 57. LSD test and Scheffe post-hoc test show this difference among 3 groups (p<0. proper and effective encounter with criticism. acquiring illogical thoughts). T A B L E 1 Two variable t test results to compare average aggression in normal and aggressive groups Variables Aggression Group Normal Aggressive Mean 34. LSD evaluation.000 Second hypothesis. Setting an assignment on compromising with anger. assertive training effect on educational progress of student in sample group.378 df 2 45 47 Mean square 23.12 Std. Data analysis was carried out by t statistic evaluation. compromising with criticism. one-way variance is applied. two independent samples T-Test. conflict.The 9th session: discussion about “why do we get angry?”. continuance of anger.917 df 2 45 47 Mean square 1565. emphasis on expressing views and opinions. demonstrate significant difference in post assessment (p<0. discussing about advantages (mental pressure evacuation.010 .750 4765.328 F 43.167 1634. “does anger have any advantages?”. Obtained Results Average age of investigated person is 16 years and 1 months. T A B L E 2 Analysis one-way variance to compare average of aggressive dependent variable in three groups Aggression Between Groups Within Groups Total Sum of squares 3131. The 11th session: offering the report of the previous session assignment and providing feedback. one-way variance analysis. emotional release. The 10th session: offering the report of the previous session assignment and providing feedback.001).785 212. intimacy increase) and disadvantages of anger (producing contradiction. reviewing the presented subjects and materials during previous 11 sessions. The 12th session: offering the report of the previous session assignment and providing feedback.01 average mark for normal and aggressive person.97 sig 0. compromising with anger and confronting criticism. and prove effect of assertive training on educational progress in test group compare to evidence group. T A B L E 3 Analysis one-way variance results to compare average of educational progress dependent variable among three groups. is applied.12+_8. some guidelines for expressing anger. compromising with anger. 17 years and one month. is tried utilizing one-way variance analysis test and meaningful difference obtained (p<0. Scheffe post-hoc test.001). Educational progress Between Groups Within Groups Total Sum of squares 47. achieving the purposes.01 T 13. Table 1 shows 34. saying yes and no. requesting. 16 years and 5 months. evidence and normal groups.057 sig . shown in Table 2. advantages and disadvantages of criticism. opposition.724 F 5. Analyze average difference.593 260. which is meaningful difference. using Scheffe post-hoc test and LSD test show this meaningful difference among three groups (p<0.

people always face condition that they don’t defend their need 33. P. 246-269. W. Arjmand press. they influence an assertiveness training.J.. E. 20. Lack of assertion in student result in aggression . In comparison with similar work. 60. SUKHODOLSKY. 7. Tehran. making pattern. so similar work might be performed for comparing boys and girls in other environments. (1992). D. E. A development-clinical integration. after learning. besides providing assertion training books.B. CARPENTER.D.38 obtained results. KASSINOVE. 57. aggression and educational improvement. J.change in front of environmental threats and.. 551-562. Journal of consulting and clinical Psychology. H. H. 881-892. REFERENCES B.. J. there is inverse relation between assertion and aggression 18. & GORMAN. behavioral practice. & ZELJO. A. Cognitive behavioral therapy for anger in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. make the train easier. character. Finally. Rezayi (2008). FISHER. like other socials skills. British Developmental Psychology. Aggressive students with their behavior make stressful environment. Learning Assertive. so they could be eliminated by learning and assertion behavior is substituted 35. A longitudinal study of bullying dommance. Social skills training as a treatment for aggressive children and adolescent. Relational aggression and language development in preschoolers. 2. Moreover.. 6.. This result upholds previous 8. by Ashouri et all 38. Considering all the results. SADOCK.H. 9. C. 5. (2003).Discussion One of the most important issues in every society is improvement of people behavior and preserving social and mental damage. 3. ERDLEY. 259-280. SADOCK.A..37. and its treatment features are includes: guidance. in Shiraz city and among boy students. Aggression and Violent Behavior. Media can train these skills generally. Social Development. It is believed that uncertainty and assertive should be learned. NANGLE. This fact demonstrates non sexual difference in influence of the mentioned method. YESHOVA. This research shows concentrated group treatment decrease aggression among student. Increasing number of sessions could be done in future works. D. On the other hand. (2002).S. PELLEGRINI. and victimization during the transition from primary school through secondary school.. A. (2002). Kaplan & sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry behavioral sciences clinical psychiatry.. playing role. & LONG. Translator: F.A.21. the way of growing children applied by parents and many other factors. (2004). In this stressful life. Aggression and Violent Behavior. M. D.H. assertiveness training will cause differences in students and such a method is applicable in other researches. their attention is confined in high level excitation . This result is the same as Deluty (1981) reports 31. C. learning these skills increase protection sense and self confident and high level of self confident . K. R.would improve educational works 39. 12.. G. by inviting specialist and students who may play role to learn the skills. who report effect of assertive training on student aggression. feedback. First session..36. participating in this work and hope best wishes for them who make the future of this country. Attention-deficit hyper-activity and conduct disorder: Comorbidity and implication for treatment.As this skill should be learned.20. student could use it in interpersonal relations. V. we gratitude all the students. 169-199. 1. Another result in this research is the influence of assertive training on academic achievement of students.D. educational organization can train these skills to school’s staff and parents. G. Moreover. . & KELIN. ARNOLD. which is a multiple container. and as they don’t have proper social skills for control themselves. 4. Some of the most important contains: worry and depressing. This paper is just about girls. as a result they don’t understand what is necessary. is based on psychotherapy and behavioral treatment 35. it could be shown that assertive training was effective for both boy and girl students in aggression reduction and academic achievement improvement. BONICA. ABIKOFF. & NEWMAN. There were some limits in performing this research. confine the research.

B. L. Psychology and pedagogy science journal. (2007). 5th ed. EURELIGS. L. 19-23.Vingerhoets (Ed) . Assertion strategies and aggression during early childhood: A short-term longitudinal study. Cognitive and emotional approach to assertiveness. 28. BELL.L..W.A. European Journal of Pediatrics. There is bullying and bullying. M. 17. A. D. 12.. R.(1987). & DUMAS. G. L. PRINZ. 21. 13. and psychosocial functioning in early adolescence. WEHR . BOOTH-LAFORCE. N.R. Aggression. K. H. ABEDI. 6(42) . In: M.M. 26. MYATT. & CARTLEDGE. KOLBERT. 194-200. (1995). Child Development. 117-118. 1522-1533. OSTROV. Bully/victim problems in middle school children: Stability. RUBIN.D. 27. gender. SLAVIN-SPENNY OLGA M. Psychological Reports. PILAT.SH. VAN dER WAL. PARRIS GEORGE P. C. S.L.. SADEGHI. KEGEL K. AZAIS F. British journal of developmental Psychology. (2000). 62. The effect of social skills instruction and parental involvment on the aggressive behaviors of African-American males.. 403-416.J.LOCHMAN. and social-psychological adjustment. 15. MILLER. Amesterdam Amesterdam University Press. 19. G. BURGESS. 23. characteristics. Relational aggression. 22. M. 74. 621-622.J. CHARLES. A academicself-efficacy and psychosocial adjustment among international graduate student .. TAVAKOLI SH. 39-46.23. BLASIK. Charlotte North Carolina. 24. P. L. 20. 14.J. 195-205.D. CRICK. social acceptance and race as predictors of negative adolescent outcomes. (2005). (2006). a different voice profession .. & CRICK. 24.Personality and personality disorder : An overview and therapeutic considerations . GREISLER. van Tilburg &Ad . selfperceived competence. 11.. L. B. St. 173-181.V. BIERMAN.A. R.SP.. (1995). H. (1987). Perceptions and functions of play and real fighting in early adolescence. KIM.E. Community health nursing. Effectiveness of assertiveness training in modifying aggressive behaviors of young children. 16. Journal of Early Adolescence. FRANKEL. 76-83. 19. KAUFMAN .. J Multicultural Counseling and Development. Nursing outlook.(2004).. M. A. & HOLLIMAN. 30. 38. STEWART. M.(2002) Relation between assertiveness. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. & SMITH. DEBRAY Q. Behavior Modification . K. (1994). A.(2009).32-42. BOULTON. 8.143145. R.E.B. M. KILLKUS .K. & KEENER. K. Training outpatient boys to conform with the social ecology of popular peers: Effects on parent and teacher ratings.J.J. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. Assertion training and trainer effects on unassertive adolescents. 25. J. K.. P. 315-329. 300310. 21.F. 91. M. S. 56(4) .E. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. DUCROIX C.M.J.(1990). K.. Journal of Counseling Psychology. friendship. & GROTPETER. 192-210..Self assertiveness and nursing. 29. 12. 567-590.E. 39..ME . 1026-1035.J. 193-203. Psychological aspects of geographical moves : Homesickness and acculturation stress .. A randomized trial.(1994). 164. 9. MIDDLETON. & CANTWELL. 1-23.J.. J. 52-62.BONTEKOE . TANNER. (1994). Investigating of group training of anger control effects on aggression reduction. D.... PELLEGRINI. diagnostic assessment and treatment.J. BLECHMAN. Counseling and Human Development. 3. 710-722. 24.(2009). (1995). FIELD.M. 7..H. C. (1991).. STANHOPE M. J Counseling Psychology. 21. Academic advising international student. LANCASTOR J.J.A. (1998). Homesickness in international colleg students.J. Paper based on a program presented at the American counseling association annual conference and exposition.K.B. PENTZ. AHMADI. (1980). 10. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. K. Child Development. 27. . (2003). Effect of assertiveness training and expressive writing of acculturative stress in international student. & WAYLAND. N.(1999). E.Homesickness.The effects of assertive training on performance in highly anxious adolescents . HIJAZ ALAA M. Attachment. Relational aggression in childhood and adolescence: Etiology. A. 55. M. DWYER. R. 326-356. M. & ROSE-KRASNOR. 18. An evaluation of peer coping-skills training for childhood aggression. CROTHERS.College Student Development. R.F.H. GRANGER B. Louis: Mosby.(2005). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology... 353-357.M. M. LUMLEY MARK A. POYRAZLI S. Improving the social behavior and peer acceptance of rejected boys Effects of social skill training with instructions and prohibitions. CAMIC. & STABB. 66.M. 19. (1988).

(1997). Y. M. 46-51.)India Abstract With the globalization trends world over it is difficult for any nation big or small. M. No. B ORNSTEIN.R. Shyness and self. In this regard the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran has stressed the urgent necessity of reform in Payment and Settlement Systems in Iranian banking system to provide quality services for customers exploiting the latest ICT related technologies but Iranian banks are far behind as compare to developed countries therefore this paper is going to shows the present scenario of e-banking in Iran. (2001). Investigating of cognition-behavioral treatment effects on aggression control. Assertiveness in children: some research considerations. 34. Social skills training for highly aggressive children. (2002). new online banking features. BELLACK. Investigating of relation between transient ignition and aggretion with educational performance among boys and girls student in third level of guidance school in Ahvaz. The Effectiveness of Assertive Training Group Therapy in Decreasing Aggression and Improving Academic Achievement in High School Students. Information technology with recent progresses allows the banking industry in each part of the world to establish direct link to customers.389. Growth of electronic banking in a country depends on many factors.Vol.P. Consular message journal. The effect of two kinds of role playing on self-evaluation of improved assertiveness Journal of Clinical Psychology .533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5.2011 ECONOMICAL PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC BANKING IN IRAN MAJID KARIMZADEH* *PhD scholar.Reg.V-34564. HAGHIGHI. TOUZANDEHJANI. 7. A. TORKAMAN MALAYERI. SHAHNI. Economics department. E-banking can offer speedier. H.(1981). & HERSEN. 220-222.(1981) . Psychology and pedagogy science journal of Shahid Chamran university. (1980). A. Aligarh Muslim University. Introduction A feature of the banking industry across the globe has been that it is increasingly becoming turbulent and competitive. 33. 36. Iranian Psychiatry and Psychology Journal. As a response and aided by technological developments. 173-186.H. takeovers and consolidation of the banking industry. 48 . 149-157. Z. N.393-4. 32. Psychology and pedagogy science journal. ATARI. KAMALPOUR.esteem . ASCHEN SR. ASHURI.Behavior Modification. 38. 11(1).W. 37. (2000). 1130. FADAYI. Z. ♦ Letter No. Assertive training effects on assertion. features of electronic payment system and at the end to identify and explore the challenges which slowing down progress of e-banking in Iran. Assertive training therapy in psychiatric milieus.20 . CROZIER . to remain isolated from what is happening around. 4. self steem and social anxious im boy atudent in Ahvaz highschool. 3 (1). mergers. 10. characterized by an increasing trend towards internationalization. Archive of psychiatric nursing. 39. electronic payments.. (2008). J. 112-117.. services available. such as success of internet access. banks have . KHANEHKESHI. 1-16. 246-250. legal and regulatory framework. 31. Keywords: e-banking. developed or developing.Journalof Clinical Child Psychology.DELUTY. A. challenges and opportunities. 1. NISSI. M.British Journal of Social Psychology .(1992).. M. household growth of internet usage. 14th year. KIPPER D. Aligarh (U.A. quicker and dependable services to the customers for which they may be relatively satisfied than that of manual system of banking.60-67 Advance Access publication 11 Apr. R. 35.

the Internet fits in well with the characteristics of banking. Thus the banking industry has been constantly innovating and with the advent of technological developments.. This is an exploratory research based on secondary data obtained through the Net. Growth of Electronic banking in a country depends on many factors. A websites gives global presence without any in-country set up and infrastructure costs. 2006).attempted to build customer satisfaction through providing better products and services and at the same time to reduce operating costs. there is chance to preach to the converted. This paper is aimed at to determine economical prospects of e-banking and to explain the present scenario of e-banking sectors. P. ( Kesseven. reasons for not achieving the overall objectives of previous plans investigated and with the necessary modifications. E-banking system not only generates latest viable return. Marketing costs in this medium can be concentrated on creating an effective website that attracts potential as well as existing clients. J. Third. E-banking can offer speedier. Finally. therefore. at the same time it demonstrates the progress of payment system in Iran. P. After reviewing the activities being mechanized. the time-to-market for new products and services is dramatically reduced due to the standardized technology that characterizes the Internet.e. Second. 2007) Basically. multiple updates provided and individuals can work easily from different locations at their convenience.2010). such as success of internet access. finally according to the General Assembly of banks’ . This paper also tries to present actual situation of e-banking in the marketing point of view and explores challenges which slow down development of e-banking in Iran. Research Methodology The study has been done mainly based on secondary sources of data or information. (iv) Books. Fourth.K. books and related journals including different publications: (i) Central Bank of Iran (ii) Papers International and local Publications (iii) Information from Internet. Later in early 90s the Iranian banks by slowing upgrading their automation standards once again started installing ATM devices (Alagheband. legal and regulatory framework. very clear.B.( Shanmugan. 2003). et al. success carries few penalties because growth can be accommodated centrally without resource to building and operating new ‘services center’ (bank branches). iii) To investigate the main challenges and opportunities for e-banking in Iran. there are five main reasons for banks to go online. i. But because of vast changes in nation’s banking and economic system plus the US embargo on Iran from the 80s the use of these machines actually was discontinued. The overall Automation plan to the country’s banking system formally was announced in 1372 (1993-94). it can get its better dealings with customers (Nupur. quicker and dependable services to the customers for which they may be relatively satisfied than that of manual system of banking. First. Objectives of The Study The main purposes of this study are : i) To know the performance of e-banking activities of commercial banks in Iran. ii) To analyze the status of electronic banking in Iran. new online banking features. Review of E-Banking Practice in Iran Commercial Banks The appearance of electronic banking in Iran goes back to the late 70s when two banks installed the first Automated Teller Machine (ATM) in Tehran. The reasons for going online are. thousands of transactions can be conducted daily. Internet banking removes the need for physical presence in new territories. household growth of internet usage.B and Guru.

Considering the weaknesses in the electronic interbank transactions infrastructures. Create the necessary background to reduce cash transactions and carrying money. The holders of centralized accounts and Interbank Telecommunication Network cards may make use of this service. (vi). 2010).Act. Checking of account balances at any time of day or night. reduce transformation of documents in the branches and reducing urban travels. Since then almost all Iranian banks have provided their customers with the card payment services focusing on cards with debit function and ATM services to tackle the problem of heavy branch traffics. (vii). In pursuing such an ambition CBI had restructured the so called Interbank Information Exchange Department to form a new organizational unit of the Payment Systems Department. Transfer funds to other accounts. Set up standing orders from any of your Bank accounts are services which banks provides through internet for their customers in Iran. has caused usability of all the cards issued by the banks at all the ATMs and sales terminals (shop-based card readers) and the increasing statistics of its transactions indicate a general welcoming to such services (Rahimi . 2010). Saving time for staff and customers of banks. the National Payment System project has been defined. 2007) The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran has stressed the urgent necessity of reform in Payment and Settlement Systems in Iranian banking system to provide quality services for customers exploiting the latest ICT related technologies. (v).(Abasinejad. (iv). Inquire about the status of checks issued. Creation of required coordination for better link with foreign banks. and declared to banks for implementation (CBI. the legal foundation for the Scripless Securities Settlement System (TABA) as the electronic infrastructure for issuance and settlement of various securities and one of the components of the comprehensive and integrated payment system was established in this year. Iran Bank Account Number (SHEBA) was established. save or print account statements. Offer of accurate and timely services to customers. 2005). View. (ii) Description of executive operations of the banking system and upgrade its quality. Moreover. Inform Bank of the amounts stated on your issued checks ahead of check clearance.et al. The Automated Clearing House System (PAYA) as the main infrastructure for processing individual and multiple payment orders was put into operation in January 2010. The introduction of modern payment instruments in Iran can be traced back to early 1990s where commercial bank of Sepah launched its Aber Bank Debit Card and ATM services. Bank cards network came into the Islamic Republic of Iran in the year 2002. automated plan for banking system was formed(Allahyarifard. and it established a specialized center for regulating the Payment System and setting industry-wide standards. 2007). In 2009/10. . agree upon the methods and minimum services and also coordinate in operations and technologies so the benefits of Cooperation and Competition are best sensed by the whole banks as well as their customers and the public. Creating on time access to information for decision making on monetary and banking policy. Objectives of plan were: (i) Reduce performance problems in branch and head offices and increase system performance. and by starting the operation of the in-banking data exchange network (Shetab) as the national switch and a link placed among 17 banks card switches all over the country. For the facilitation and standardization of interbank transactions of the Iranian banks. M. Electronic banking services Internet banking: This service is defined as rendering e-banking services and providing access to bank accounts via Internet. banking system infrastructures for electronic payment and settlement experienced major changes and developments. designed and prepared for bidding process since 2001 (CBI. Place a stop payment order on issued checks. The new structure preserves the basic functions of clearing and settlement of the legacy structure. (iii). It also formed a forum for the whole banking system to share the ideas.

According to Informatics Services Co. which is responsible for handling of e-banking in Iran. Transfer funds to other Bank accounts are services which are offered by banks in Iran through M-banking. Pay utility and phone bills are services that customers can have access through telephone banking.2009/10. It is expected that by the .9 percent. along with the expansion of electronic payment technology and equipment.2 percent to 17. 14.6 percent). Pay utility and phone bills.959 POSs 763.2 50. Inform Bank of amounts stated on checks issued prior to check clearance.944 million.885 million successful calls took place through telephone banking which shows growth as compare to amount of last year 6. the highest share in total electronic.5 percent (424 thousand) credit cards. Electronic Payment Instruments In 2009/10.133. the number of ATMs went up by 32. 2010).4 million) prepaid cards. 77.6 million) were debit cards.2 percent. revealing banks’ favorable performance in expanding electronic payment devices. respectively. banks’ electronic transactions increased remarkably.5 percent to 87. 22. Receive information on your Bank card transactions.4 million. indicating limited activity of banks in this respect. Receive account balance. and 0. The number of Pin Pads and POSs rose 17. Almost all banks providing this facility for their customers. electronic payment instruments. equipment. Receive account activity reports. Check account balances.133 1. Statement request and Bill payments are the main services that customers applying by telephone in Iran.602 31. SMS banking: SMS Banking is a system whereby customers could receive or check the turnover and balance of their accounts on cell phone. Share of Pin Pads in total transactions was 12.853 Percentage change 45. about 12 thousand e-money cards were issued by banks till end-2009/10. Moreover.5 32. in terms of volume and value. Inquire about the status of issued checks. Internet banking shows 63 per cent growth in 2010 as compare to last year and Iranian customers are using Internet banking facility mainly for transfer of money between different accounts (Hamshahri.7 and 127. grew by 78.856. Receive daily account transaction information. The number of cards issued by the banking system rose 45.425 17.2 17. Access account information.147. Telephone banking: It is a system for customers to receive e-banking services through telephone lines.8 percent. Interbank electronic transactions processed by the banking system.078 ATMs 12.938 Pin Pads 27.146.8 and 50.2 percent (19.7 percent.8 Electronic Transactions In 2009/10.4 percent (67. The account holders who have cell phones may use the system via completion of the related form and submission of the phone’s bill or deed. Transactions still belonged to ATMs by 77. Mobile banking: This service provides the customer with software capable of being installed on his/her cell phone enabling him / her to receive e-banking services via call phone round the clock. Among these cards. Place a stop payment order on issued checks. In 2009/10. Transfer funds to other Bank accounts. the number of POSs was raised to more than one million by end.5 percent. Despite the high growth in the number of transactions processed through POSs by 138.048 Source: Central bank of Iran annual report 2009-10 2009-10 87. Hear details of the last three transactions on your account. In May 2010. Therefore. respectively. and Receive information on status of your Bank loan applications. and systems in banks network expanded with an admissible growth. T A B L E 1 Electronic Payment Instruments (Year-end) 2008-09 Bank Cards (Thousands) 60. indicating a surge against the respective figure for previous year (9.

9 174. indicating 244. the number and value of transactions processed through Pin Pads went up by 311.452 524. T A B L E 3 Volume and Net Value of Transactions Processed Through SHETAB Volume (Thousands) 2008-09 ATMs POSs Total Transactions 468. The number of transactions processed via the Internet for funds transfer went up 79.3 percent to over 647 and 164 million in 2009/10.2 191. registering a rise of 128.6 trillion compared with previous year.extensive use of credit cards.1 and 131.658 60.7 million transactions were settled by ATMs through Retail Funds Transfer System (SAHAB). indicating a rise in the use of new payment instruments in daily transactions by the public. 136.6 131.6 times compared with 2008/09.4 trillion were settled through SAHAB.590 128. over 28.555 114. In 2009/10. respectively.8 million interbank transactions worth Rls.493 164. are processed through Interbank Information Transfer Network (SHETAB). Further use of electronic payment instruments raised total interbank transactions processed through SHETAB to 811. The number of daily transactions through POSs rose by 138.937 38.427 56. nearly 29.2 and 191.7 Percentage Net value (Billion rials) 2008-09 32. in 2009/10 compared with last year.5 percent growth compared with preceding year. Iran-Checks and notes relatively decreases.4 Percentage Note: include transactions processed through SAHAB which were reflected in total electronic transaction processed through banking system Source: Central bank of Iran annual report 2009-10 Satna The positive trend of developing and extending the customer to customer real time electronic payment services through RTGS (Real Time Gross Settlement) by the CBI and the banking system in 2009/10 brought about a .224 2009-10 73. the share of transactions through POSs increases and the use of notes decreases. T A B L E 2 Volume and Value of Electronic Transactions Processed Thorough the Banking System Volume (Million) 2008-09 ATMs POSs Pin Pads Total electronic Transactions 800 89 39 928 2009-10 1. prepaid cards. and POSs.3 54. about 679 thousand transactions were settled via Pin Pads for interbank electronic transfer of funds through SAHAB.9 Percentage change Source: Central bank of Iran annual report 2009-10 Shetab Interbank transactions.6 percent.879 2009-10 647.7 percent from 89 million in 2008/09 to 212 million in the review year. raising total value of transactions through POSs by 174. Moreover.7 311.7 Percentage change Value(Trillion rials) 2008-09 263 48 371 682 2009-10 565 132 858 1. The number of interbank electronic transactions processed through ATMs and POSs increased by respectively 38.1 78.8 138.1 127. which account for a large number of electronic transactions processed through the banking system.444 811. 73.1 percent.4 percent in net value of interbank transactions cleared through SHETAB at Rls. Moreover.285 212 161 1. therefore. it is expected that retail funds transfer increases in the future and the use of interbank checks. Regarding this upward trend.9 million.

up 17. 4. In this regard the Central Bank of Iran provided many services for better implementation and expansion of e-banking which some of them are: • • • 1. in terms of volume and value.9 87. Bulletin Board system (BBS).467 137. 2010.463 3. point of sell (POS) machines.983 2009-10 258. preventing parallel and non-standard activities. Authorization of electronic bill payment transactions using POS terminals to increase level of access to E-banking through more than current 500000 terminals in the country. especially those concerned with value-added services of SHETAB. Developing and notifying guidelines. It has important outcome for the cardholders.813 177. Defining mobile phone as authorized terminal in the banking network makes payments of bills and purchased goods and services possible.524 8. Sort Message Sending (SMS) services. Connecting of the SHETAB switch to the Qatar switch and development of international connections of card payment network. reached 4.7 Percentage Net value (Trillion rials) 2008-09 391 148 070 2009-10 1. This upward trend was also witnessed for the bank to bank transactions. in terms of volume and value. intraday liquidity facility.333 1.1 and 9 times compared with the respective figures of last year.859 - 2. easier and cheaper Interbank transactions. by respectively 19. Alireza. Integrated and compatible regulations.087 1. serious actions has been done from 2002 by CBI.significant rise in the use of these services.271 82. credit cards. specifications and execution procedure of applying “SATNA” for customer to customer (C2C) and customer to bank (C2B) transactions. 5.671.1 Source: Central bank of Iran annual report 2009-10 Prospectrs for E-Banking Development In order to support e-commerce Iran’s banking system has been developed and now offers different services such as automated teller machines (ATMs).561 4. Negotiations with the central bank of Kuwait on connection to the switch system of that country led to an agreement. total transactions.701 4. 6.( Ministry of Commerce. 7. and transactions settled by the CBI. transactions channeled through the Interbank Clearing House and those processed through SHETAB. T A B L E No 4 Volume and value of transactions processed through SATNA Volume (Thousands) 2008-09 Bank-to-Bank Customer-toCustomer Settlement of payment systems and interbank clearing house Intraday liquidity facility and transactions settled by the CBI Total 20. debit cards. automated telephone banking.375. Making negotiations and preparing preliminaries of linking to switch system of the United Arab Emirates and the Saudi Arabia through Bahrain GCC switch.5 and 2. This gives the possibility to allocate resources to further expansion of the infrastructures and improvement of services quality. Thus.972 7. 3.6 times compared with the corresponding figures of 2008/09.0 267. etc (Abbasi.701 trillion. standards and instructions concerned with banking payments and electronic money facilitates. Following realization of the shortcomings and regulation constraints.7 million and Rls.701 159.408 228. Necessary updates made in the regulations and standards. Facilitating private sector participation in development of the electronic payment (Payment Service Providers) Development of the inter-bank settlement and large-value funds transfer system “SATNA”. Development of the cross-border and international card-based network via SHETAB.) . online payment systems. bill payment systems.0 Percentage 4.838 29. 2. 2007).646 13.8 1.049 107. saves expenses and investments of the banking system.

The ATMs are the most widely accepted and highly utilized delivery channel in Iran but ATMs are not up to date and mostly out of service. Disproportion between New and traditional banking functions. Therefore the following are recommended to strengthen the e-banking system in Iran: develop a comprehensive regulatory and legal framework for e-banking. Reliability. F. Although new ISPs (in-ternet service providers) are being introduced every day and broad band connections like ADSL with up to 2 Mb/sec speed are available in recent years. Inadequate information and telecommunication technology infrastructures can negatively impact the adoption and diffusion of electronic transactions. Security concern (Pour Mirza. Customers in Iran may be looking for some type of assurances and guarantees of protection against fraud from the banks. Lack of appropriate legal framework (Abbasi. poor telecommunications network. Look and design long-term strategic planning for better implementation and elimination of obstacles for development of e-banking. Iranian customers are not still aware completely about e-banking. and technological innovations. Alireza. Lack of awareness. and Usefulness) have the first rank between different obstacles for development of e-banking in Iran. Conclusion With the globalization trends world over it is difficult for any nation big or small. Trust. especially if the banks fail to verify the authenticity of the individual online. and e-banking. . An inadequate number of well-trained technicians are also a factor. 2009). In Iran.E-Banking Challenges in Iran Banking in Iran despite of many efforts which have made by CBI and banks for better implementation. They are not fully understand the power of technology and seek to leverage it to enjoy better control over their banking operations. Suppliers/ sellers are not trusted by people as they do not provide satisfactory information about themselves. Distribution of educational packages for customers of banks in branches and Training Courses for improving skills of employees should be held by banks. Information technology allows the banking industry in each part of the world to establish direct link to customers. developed or developing. Almost all banks have invested in expanding and improving the IT systems and a number of new e-banking services have been developed. Law cooperation between different responsible sectors in electronic payment. Cost. and lack of awareness among developers. Maintenance and management of websites problems. Minimum level of English language is required. Iranian banks have also rapidly introduced innovative banking technologies and e-banking services in recent decades. encourage the current efforts to develop and expand ICT infrastructure and improvement of network security. users and decision makers in any country and Iran is not an exception.2009). Features of Socio-Economical Groups (Speed. faces numerous challenges to fully adopt and adapt e-Banking applications and seize the opportunities presented by ICT applications in general. Main Challenges for e-Banking applications are: Online payment and fund transfers are not available for most of the people who use debit cards of the most Iranian banks. The banking industry is now a very mature one and banks are being forced to change rapidly as a result of open market forces such as threat of competition. Amadeh. Lack of infrastructure and weak telecommunication. Absence of technical knowledge among traders. H. 2010. to remain isolated from what is happening around. (Hamidnava. 2007). there seem to be inadequate information and telecommunication technology infrastructures. But the slow development of an electronic banking system can be related to many reasons like low levels of personal computer ownership. businessmen and user and non-user customers. A. penetration of Internet and e-banking products in rural areas. still there are lots of people that only have access to low speed internet connection at high prices which makes the electronically transactions vulnerable. customer demand. Low internet connection speed and high prices of connecting to the internet. (The National Report on E-commerce in Iran. 2004). Disintegrate between organizational and Information Technology infrastructures. Another impeding factor that may throw a big blow to the electronic banking system in Iran is the language barrier. provide incentives for financial institutions to invest rigorously on ICT and use of e-banking. Among all ITs products . e-commerce. raise public awareness on the use of ICT. Lack of adequate experts in e-banking context.

68-78 Advance Access publication 11 Apr.O. HAMIDINAVA. DR.201-209. M & ALIPOUR . Ministry of Commerce. Zahedan Branch . 2007. Iran. ministry of commerce. 2010. ISSN: 1653-0187. Central Bank of Islamic Republic of Iran. 2009. AMADEH . 2005.REFERENCES ALAGHEBAND.. Journal of International Review of Business Research Papers. pp.Islamic Azad University. J (2005).REGULATION CONTROL AND IMPULSIVITY OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BOYS’ MOTHERS IN RASHT CITY DR. (2003). (2010).2567-2575. 2010.A. Proceedings of the 2007 Computer Science and IT Education Conference. JANNATUL MAWA NUPUR. **Department of Psychology . “E-banking in Malaysia”. The National Report on E-commerce in Iran. M. Tonekabon Branch . “Analyzing the Factors that Influence the Adoption of Internet Banking in Mauritius”.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. KOZAK. (2007). Young Researcher Club. Tonekabon Branch. ***(Corresponding Author) Department of Psychology. Iran. SHANMUGAN.M (2009). No:26.T .Reg.”Adoption of Internet Banking by Iranian Customers: An empirical investigation”.K. 2004. (2009).(2010) E-Banking and Customers’ Satisfaction in Bangladesh: An Analysis.78-94. H & JAFARPOOR . Progress Report of the Islamic Republic of Iran.A. (2009). Journal of Academy of Business and Economics. POUR MIRZA.2011 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANGER MANAGEMENT TRAINING IN ANGER SELF.(2007). MOHAMMAD MOJTABA KEIKHAYFARZANEH*** AND SAEEDEH MOTAMED**** *Department of Psychology . JAVAD KHALATBARI**. 9(14). Islamic Azad University. “Annual Report of Banking in Iran”. (2010). KESSEVEN PADACHI. pp. Iran. & POUR MIRZA. Tonekabon. (2006). WALLSTROM. 2.V-34564. No. Abstract Background and Purpose: The general purpose of this paper is to determine the efficacy of anger management training and self. 2010. SALEHI . RAHIMI. Master Thesis. 145 – 156. Journal of Danesh va Tose. CBI. 2004. September 2010. Iran.4-6. 2009. No:6. Published by Institute bank-bank Malaysia. S.p. SAWKUK ROJID. 1. PP.B.13. HAMIDI.Islamic Azad University. Vol. . M. Number 4. November 26.F & MADHOUSHI. Lulea University of Technology. Young Researcher Club.Vol.6.regulation control and impulsivity of elementary school boys’ mothers in Rasht City. Pp.35. “E-Banking in Emerging Economy: Empirical Evidence of Iran”. ****Department of Psychology. 28th AFACT Plenary Yokohama – Japan. December 2010. “The role of information technology in the profit and cost efficiency improvements of the banking sector”. & BOOPEN SEETANAH. Journal of Applied Science. pp.M. Zahedan.B & GURU. Tonekabon Branch. “Evaluating the features of Electronic Payment Systems in Iranian Bank Users’ View”. “Adoption of Electronic Banking Services by Iranian Customers”. International Review of Business Research Papers Volume 6. MASOUD. “Summary of Report of Settlement and Payment System Development in Electronic Banking”. SHOHREH GHORBANSHIROUDI*. International Journal of Economics and Finance. pp. “Specification of Obstacles and Solutions of Electronic Banking Development within the Framework of ‘Iran at 1404’ Prospective”. ♦ Letter No. Islamic Azad University.

These 30 mothers were randomly arranged into two groups of test and control. and at the same time destructive. it is suggested to offer this model to applicants/ customers of treatment and council centers as one of the training models for increasing self-regulation methods and impulsivity reduction. it activates our internal system and prepares us to encounter with the surrounding potential risks 3. For instance. In this research STAXI-2 questionnaire and Bart’s impulsivity scale were used. the individual’s weakness in anger management leads to disorder in public health and interpersonal relationships. were confirmed. However.regulation skills and decreasing impulsivity. inattention toward damages. On the other hand. cognition and thoughts related to hostility 1.regulation skills or in fact it has decreased anger levels (p= 0. In order to separate these three concepts anger can be considered as emotion. B) Accompanying of one of the options with the possibility of unpleasant outcomes. the definitions of impulsivity from behavioral stand point. These behaviors are hasty. Furthermore. they involve high risk and lead to considerable undesired outcomes 7. while aggression is known as an observable behavior which is done with the intention of hurting or harming 2. Therefore. Impulsivity and impulsive behavior have three basic characteristics separating them from similar terms as overreaction. In order to examine the hypotheses the multivariate analysis of covariance (Mancova) was used and the data were analyzed by SPSS. Sampling is taken using random multi. ample attention to rewards. Anger is described as an emotional state which is the basis of hostility and aggression. Impulsivity is a wide spectrum of behaviors which less thought has been devoted on them. Key Words: anger management training. a drug user might exhibit such an impulsive behavior due to tendency to risky behaviors. maladaptivity and harmful results of aggressive behavior. In addition to personal distress and trouble. they are displayed as developed (behaviors) for gaining a reward or a joy. without thinking .process method and the statistical sample involves 30 mothers whose score in the pretest based on anger and impulsivity total index score is higher than the society’s average.001) and impulsivity (p=0. Anger is a satisfactory emotion. Introduction The concept of anger. hostility as attitude and aggression as behavior. impulsivity. interest in new experiences or other psychological features. Consequently. self-regulation skills. involves short-term however less worthy advantages compared to long-term but more worthwhile achievements 8. unscheduled. By hostility an aggressive attitude is meant. The complicated point in studying impulsive behaviors is the variety of reasons which can lead to an impulsive behavior. Findings: According to the results. Impulse is the insistence and strong desire to take an action in response to a mental and an external stimulus. These behaviors should involve three factors: A) Choosing an option/ a choice among two or more with possible reward. offering an exact definition of the impulsivity is difficult since there are many disagreements on calling a behavior as impulsive or not impulsive 7. Most people exhibit impulsive behaviors in their routine life 6.posttest type with control group. each containing 15 members and anger management training program was applied to the test group during fourteen 1. the posttest was applied on both groups. The harmful consequences of anger are focused on both the person’s inner being and outside. impulsive behaviors. The statistical society involves all mothers with elementary school boys in Rasht City.004). are performances which are however to some extent accompanied with probable damages and disadvantages. which in some approaches are also called risky behaviors.5-hour sessions and at the end of training. C) Ambiguity of the possibility of the unpleasant outcome at the time of behavior occurrence 5.Method: The current study is experimental and of pretest. anger management training has significantly increased self. Although providing examples of impulsive behaviors seems simple. they also provide the possibility of earning a kind of reward 4. anger can be defined as an emotional state or an inner feeling arising from physiological arousal. Conclusion: The results of this research confirm the influences and persistence of anger management program training in anger self-regulation skills increase and impulsivity decrease. irascibility and aggression are sometimes used interchangeably and offering a clear definition of each of these concepts and showing their differences seem difficult. the two hypotheses of the research based on the effectiveness of anger management training in increasing anger self. leading an individual to aggressive behavior.

while in overreaction instead of the speed of showing reaction. the emphasis is on the intensity and duration of the reaction 9. Impulsive behaviors are also opposed to compulsive behaviors in which the individual is aware of the existence of behavior and the purpose of the behavior is not enjoying but generally avoiding of an anxiety. & Bry. intensity and duration of physiological arousal using relaxation strategies. There are ample researches in which anger management has been used as experimental variable.Barry. They reported the efficacy of anger management treatment-educational intervention for many target groups in different environments such as schools. or people who are about to come down with it. (1986). & Glik. In most programs cognitive reconstruction. These programs which are flexible between two to six months are held in eight to sixteen sessions. & Weisner. (2005). Anger management training program is an organized psychological – educational intervention carried out for anger management skills development and vulnerability reduction in normal individuals or in a special group from clinical population 3.15. The participants become familiar with various aspects of anger experience and expression and also its consequences. reform and training centers.P . they learn small behavioral skills of anger control and they practice it. cognitive and behavioral components and take advantage of adaptive and problem solving strategies in response to interpersonal conflicts 12. J.B. (1999). . Lazarus. and along with cognitive reconstruction. J..T. Some investigations have been conducted on the effectiveness of anger management interventions including Feindler. Nowadays anger management training is one of the major components of life skills training programs 10. It’s predicted that the participants would be able to modify their inaccurate understandings. R. S.A (2003).11. From the cognitive theory viewpoint.D. outcomes of anger events. learning a small/ minorskills in problem solving. (1984) and Glass . Feindler E. This treatment-educational intervention is mostly appropriate for individuals suffering from some physical and behavioral disorders in anger management and also the improper way of expressing it. anger stimuli. The main parts of the provided programs are relatively similar. About the efficacy of anger management training programs from psychoanalysis viewpoint.FitzGerald. Zillman. The concept of excitation transfer emphasizes applying relaxation and stress reduction methods as part of treatment program 3. by formulating the concept of “Excitation Transfer Effect” represented that the excitation resulting from a past event can be combined with the next excitations.H.H.E .and prone to mistake. physiologic arousal control and practicing behavioral skills are emphasized.P. D. R. intensify anger experience and increase the individual’s capacity for aggressive behavior. Cognitive reconstruction. reduce the excess.L.M. intimacy. psychiatric treatment centers. S. (anger experience. Kellner.D & Pardini. J.E. etc) in order to be able to direct anger and its physiologic. if not vacated/ emptied/ evacuated. B. Lochman.L. M.& Singer. impulsive behaviors are different from behaviors resulting from inadequacy in judgment and decision making and the person suffers disturbances in the judgment stage. A. (1987). Lochman. have conducted studies on anger management training programs with various groups including imprisoned adults. D.cognitive . Between the training sessions. (1972) investigations raised the subject of cognitive intervention. (1999). Research studying demonstrates that cognitive-behavioral approaches and methods and various educational tools. The content of the programs were relatively similar and they are applicable regarding flexibility in different situations. J. enrich (their) social behaviors treasury and eventually react adaptively while encountering situations that cause anger. E. they learn about the necessity of effective management of anger force.14. assertiveness and self-relaxation are emphasized. Participants are learnt (how) to recognize accurately different aspects of anger excitement. can be transferred to the present events. & Folkman.S. elementary school children and athletic champions 13. Furthermore. wherever required. & Whidby.B. Goldstein. which includes the main core of the research about anger and development of behavioral. have been used in anger management training programs. boarding houses. & Ecton. participants focus on their anger experiences using anger events recording forms and they practice anger control. It means that the excitation remainders.

parents are more probable to express anger to their children and criticize and punish them. 2. In the first case the positive communication continues and in the second one the negative or refraining message occurs 21.: 1. Research Tools 1 Bart’s impulsivity scale: The eleventh edition of this questionnaire has been produced by Professor Ernest Bart 24. sample and sampling method The statistic society of the current research includes all methods with elementary school boys in Rasht City in 2009. Conversely.interventions in this matter. in turn. they will praise and encourage their children more and criticize or reproach them less. causes a new link in the interaction chain. using the random sampling method half of the subjects are arranged into the first group and the other half are placed in the second group. impatience. Society. angry behavior and contradictions. According to this model angry and aggressive children encounter problems in each of the stages of social information processing. Method This research is experimental and of pretest-posttest type with control group which contains two groups. Direct influences in family interactions are observed as calling warm. evaluated by Spielberger’s STAXI2 questionnaire (1999) and impulsivity which is evaluated by Bart’s impulsivity scale (1997). Using random sampling method. These two following hypotheses are put forward and investigated. Both groups are evaluated two times. both groups were similar and evaluation of the dependent variable is made for both groups simultaneously and under similar conditions. and “ immunization against stress for anger control” approach 18.19. These people usually possess hostile attributions and they lack adaptive skills of problem solving and when they become physiologically aroused. In recent years education and upbringing experts and psychologists have conducted ample researches in parent-children interactions and related and influential variables in this relationship. In addition to the mentioned subjects. they act impulsively. in the family interactions the response of all members are related to each other. these influences are direct and indirect. in an anxious and hostile life. in turn. For required calculations SPSS16 software was used. This research uses multivariable analysis of covariance as a statistic method that allows the examination of the effect of one independent variable on more than one dependant variables. If the parent’s marriage tie is intimate. Many researches and hypotheses have also been done on ways of raising children and effective methods in improvement of motherchild interaction. and provoking irascibility. Each of these reactions. it has a very good correlation with the Eysenck impulsivity questionnaire and the structure of the gathered questions of both questionnaires indicates aspects of hasty decision making and lack of providence. This group of people along with cognitive reconstruction can learn the required skills. .Anger management training program is effective in anger self. The statistic sample of this research were thirty mothers whose score in the pretest is higher than the society’s average score based on the anger expression total index scores. by participating in anger management training programs and they can adaptively react in different situations by enriching their behavioral treasury 20.Anger management training program is effective in impulsivity reduction in elementary school boys’ mothers. In order to form the test and control group. friendly and affectionate and patiently relationship and supportive and peaceful responses.regulation increase in elementary school boys’ mothers. Therefore in the current research the effectiveness of anger management training in selfregulation control and impulsivity of elementary school boys’ mothers has been investigated. The first evaluation is carried out by applying a pretest and the second evaluation is made after applying an independent variable for the test group with a posttest on both test and control group.

they learn how to distract (their) attention from the situations that makes them angry and how to challenge their thoughts and decisions. assertiveness and problem solving skills. anger control and anger total index 25. STAXI-2 obtains scores for six scales and an anger expression total index. body tension and the feelings of the observer about these two states are compared and their differences are stated in simple words and the practices related to the relaxation strategy are fully done in details. Eleventh Session: displaying assertiveness through role playing by each member involvement. Additionally. The new version of this questionnaire contains 57 items about which an investigation has been provided and published in 1996 25. . 24 In the research Cronbach’s alpha method and halving were used to determine the reliability of this scale which was acquired for the total scale respectively as 0.84 (average= 0. Eighth session: A list of useful thoughts as adequate substitutes for negative thoughts is made with cooperation of the members. Furthermore. Alpha coefficients have been reported as higher more than 0. The ways for confronting negative thoughts is practiced through scene creating and role playing. especially assertiveness in anger management will be explained. which has a wide usage as a tool for pre and post intervention evaluations in anger management training programs. The questions are arranged in the multiple-choice form and the highest score is 120. Ninth Session: the concept of “self–order” will be defined by proper exemplification to provide appropriate reminders for using in different situations. regarding the fact that the studied individuals were mothers with elementary school boys and considering the situational and gender considerations. The role/ function of personal understanding about the situations in anger stimulation and intensification is explained along with pointing at proper examples.81 indicating the ideal coefficients reliability.73 (average= 0.88) for scales and subscales observing anger state and anger trait and as 0. anger management training program was managed as a cognitive – behavioral intervention and with more emphasis on the influence of negative thoughts . the function of effective communicative skills. Sixth Session: the concepts of “perspective taking” and “phenomenological perception of stimuli” are described in simple words. introducing the program and explaining the general purpose. rules of the group and the general expectations of the program. in addition to identifying excitation sources and offering proper response. Fifth Session: in this session the two states of being relaxed. Third Session: explaining the concept of anger stimulating factors with providing proper examples and the upcoming situations. 2 State-trait anger expression inventory-2 (STAXI-2): In order to screen angry mothers and select the target group. motor impulsivity and non-planning. The concept of thoughts.82 and 0.79 and 0.87 indicating the ideal coefficients reliability. Tenth Session: the concept of assertiveness is defined and the significance of showing assertive behavior will be explained in simple words. in the form of fourteen 90-minute sessions for the test group. Seventh Session: the role of negative thinking and useless thoughts in anger experience and the resulting behaviors are stated. Topical headlines of sessions are as the following: First Session: introduction of the group members. This questionnaire. is the reviewed version of the Spielberger’s 44. Assertiveness will be compared to passiveness and aggression and the features of each of these types of behaviors will be described. defining the concept of anger and its synonymous concepts. In the research. Experimental intervention In the present research. stating potential advantages of anger in simple words and examination and recognition of physical signs and thoughts and behaviors which are usually experienced at the time of anger stimulation Fourth Session: reporting anger events by the group members in order to examine the degree of learning by members and their more understanding about their personal anger models. examination and identification of the harmful consequences of uncontrolled anger. beliefs and expectations that produce anger with proper exemplifying are described.This questionnaire contains 30 questions evaluating three factors of cognitive impulsivity. STAXI-2 questionnaire was used 25.82) for anger expression scales.item questionnaire (1998). Cronbach’s alpha method and halving were used to determine the reliability of this scale which was acquired for the total scale respectively as 0. Second Session: expressing and explaining the concept of anger and its related concepts and their distinctions.

000 Partial Eta Squared 0. anger trait (18. . T A B L E 2 Multivariate analysis of variance for self-regulation skills Value Pillai’s Trace Wilks’ Lambda Hotelling’s Trace Roy’s Largest Root 0.regulation skills increase in elementary school boys’ mothers.14 Std.28 0.005). Mancova analysis was performed with Bonferroni Correction and its results are shown in table 2.sig<0.63 1.89). anger expression) has had a significant effect in combined variable.9 F 29. Therefore.91 DF 3 3 3 3 Sig.74 3.63 1.80 0.80 As it is observed in the above table.79 0.67) and anger expression (63. Fourteenth Session: application of the method of “training immunization against stress for anger control” is stated in simple words.000 .solving”strategy will be explained by pointing at its components and their significance and necessity of using “problem solving” strategy in anger management field will be stated through proper exemplification. however such changes do not occur in the control group. T A B L E 1 Average amount and standard deviation of self-regulation three skills of the subjects in two groups in two stages of the test Stage Pretest Statistics Dependent Variable Anger State Anger Trait Anger Expression Anger State Anger Trait Anger Expression 23.80 0. after modification of the scores. Thirteenth Session: the “problem solving”strategy will be practiced by reading or listening to the description of a real unreal occasion in order to deepen the learning. The descriptive findings related to the hypothesis examination are presented in table 1. the average and their pretest-posttest were calculated and then the statistical method of multivariate analysis of variance was used.67 78.77 0.44 3.91 29.77 0.9 3.91 29. (F=29/91. Findings In order to examine the hypotheses of the research.89 18.4 25.53 65 20. It means that anger management training has been influential in anger reduction and the partial eta square shows the influence intensity as 80% which signifies a great influence. The way of using the method of “imaginary exposure and response prevention” is explained by pointing at the stages and a hierarchy of the potential situations will be provided with the members’ cooperation.85 6.52 2. the test group benefited the anger state (20.80 0. a considerable change is observed in posttest stage.Twelfth Session: the “problem.93 20. Deviation Test Group Control Group 2.2) in the posttest and the lower average has been observed in posttest stage. The first hypothesis: Anger management training program is effective in anger self. anger trait.000 .29 3.14 Posttest As it is observable in the above table. .16 0. the influence of training in anger levels (anger state. As the contents of table 1 indicates.95 75.000 .53 23. the first hypothesis of this research which states that anger management training program is effective in anger self-regulation skills increase in elementary school boys’ mothers.67 63.91 29. In order to examine the point that this reduction is due to the influence of dependent variable (anger management training). in the test group.21 3.2 Average Test Group Control Group 28.67 24. firstly.

firstly.49 F 7.87 17.19) and non-planning variable score (26.34 3.93 20. Examination of the second hypothesis also indicated that anger management training is effective in mothers’ impulsivity reduction. On the other hand. This issue indicates that in spite of the positive influence of anger management training on impulsivity variable. Deviation Test Group Control Group 2.45 0. T A B L E 3 Average and standard deviation of impulsivity reduction subscale scores of the subjects in the two stages of the test Stage Posttest Statistics Dependent Variable Cognitive Motor Non-planning Cognitive Motor Non-planning 14. stating Anger management training program is effective in impulsivity reduction in elementary school boys’ mothers. is confirmed.8 27. As the contents of the table 2 indicate in the test group in posttest stage in all variables a considerable change is observed. Discussion According to the results of the present research anger management training has been effective in self-regulation skills training of the participant mothers in the test group.Second Hypothesis: Anger management training program is effective in impulsivity reduction in elementary school boys’ mothers.87 18.5 Average Test Group Control Group 17.01 2.64 18.03 1. It is also suggested that anger management training based on cognitivebehavioral approach can lead to success and improvement of self-regulation scales and small scales. the average and their pretest-posttest were calculated and then the statistical method of multivariate analysis of variance was used. Mancova analysis has been conducted with Bonferroni Correction and the results are displayed in table 4.47 0.48 0.69 Std. Therefore the second hypothesis.77 0.26 14. Although its influence intensity in them (51%) is lower than the influence intensity of training in anger self-regulation skills improvement.98 DF 3 Sig. motor variable score (18. .84 3.69 Pretest As it is observed in the above table after modification of the scores the test group in posttest benefited from cognitive variable score (14. The descriptive findings of this hypothesis have been presented in table 2.48 0. in order to reduce this variable it is better to use special training for impulsivity management such as Perkinson’s impulse control or self-control training independently or as complement trainings.5) and lower average has been observed in posttest stage.51 As it is observable in the above table the influence of training in impulsivity reduction has been significant.4 2.19 26.16 20. 0. To examine the point that this reduction is due to the independent influence (anger management training). The great influence of this training signifies the success of the training program in this field. T A B L E 4 Multivariate analysis of variance for impulsivity reduction Wilks’ Lambda Value 0. assertiveness and problem solving trainings can also be very effective since one of the most important factors of anger in women is weakness and inabilities coming from their historical and conventional roles and the mentioned trainings and other related ones can help them persuade the addressee to hear them.47 0. In order to examine the hypotheses of the research.34 28.64). In clarification of this result it could be mentioned that sessions related to training the identification of irrational thoughts and also the effect of these thoughts on emotion and also substitution of rational thoughts instead of them especially among women can be very influential.73 67. however such changes do not occur in the control group.001 Partial Eta Squared 0.

Culturally. They can acquire required skills along with cognitive reconstruction by participating in anger management training programs. features of the subjects and the knowledge and experience level of the managers. treatment and education . Although the used tools in the research had a good validity and reliability but validity of the research tool depends on the subjects’ precision and attention in answering the question s of the test. Macvaugh.. (2004) and Breslin . The current study has had some limitations. have reported the intervention of anger control for decreasing behaviors dependent to anger as effective in examining evaluation of efficacy of a 10-session intervention program on 33 students of fourth and fifth score of elementary school 16. Freiden. indicates that anger control group-training has reduced students’ aggressive behavior 44. Nowadays. (2005) have reported anger management training program in domestic violence prevention or domestic violence reduction as effective 42. (2006) have reported of the efficacy anger management training for aggressive behaviors reduction in the test group. Aggressive people usually lack adaptive skills of problem-solving and while they are physiologically aroused. symbolic system and behavior of the society’s member in the direction of social welfare and peaceful coexistence. Therefore the efficacy of anger management intervention can be predictable and the fact that some intervention programs 48.behavioral approach have been effective in many situations and for various clinical and non-clinical groups in different age groups. show less interest in taking advantage of treatment methods. nature of the target groups and the content and quality of the program management. Sadeqi (2001). Therefore. Suchodolski et al. such as maladaptive behaviors has decreased among them. However developing treatment interventions and covering people with lower anger intensity is helpful and beneficial. react adaptively in different situation and improve their social relationships. studying the efficacy of anger control group-training on aggression reduction in high school boys. These researches indicate that participant adolescents and adults in the mentioned courses. Pilet. It should be mentioned that those who suffer from chronic anger.J . appropriateness and success of the intervention programs doesn’t follow the “all-or-nothing “ principle and the efficacy of each program will be different on the basis of cultural and social context. Taylor and Novaco (2005). G. it’s suggested to use clinical interviews with the customers and their relatives for measuring anger in different stages of screening and pretest16. In other words. emotional and behavioral method on aggression reduction in 60 high school students in Oramieh City 45. The present research suggests that the defined programs of anger management training can develop adaptive skills of the subjects and reduce the intensity of its maladaptivity. reviewing some metaanalysis which have evaluated the efficacy of treatment interventions in anger consequences. found that interventions based on cognitive. S.49 are not effective can be attributed to the present social-cultural context.26-46 . most experts emphasize the importance of teaching the emotion management skills to children and adolescents 50.29.A. obtaining an insight about unrealistic beliefs. changes the individual’s understanding and interpretation about them and open up the possibility for improving maladaptive behaviors 47. Cognitive therapists believe that irrational beliefs lead to maladaptive behaviors. by studding the efficacy of anger control group-training using an intellectual. especially assertiveness training plays an effective role in anger impulsivities and aggressive behaviors control. Stangor (2004) suggested that social skills training. G. H. He indicates that this type of intervention can improve school attendance and reduce behavioral problems. Consequently. in order to converge and consolidate the data. intimacy and social skills for violence reduction in adolescent boys who had committed violence at school. have acquired anger management skills and frequency and intensity of the events resulting from anger expression. Conducting the anger management training program as the main part of public education and benefiting from people with professional qualifications are suggested. selfevaluation tool was used in the research. anger management can change the stereotyped assumptions. (2005) applied an intervention program including anger management training.The findings in this research agree with many findings in other studies on health care. they act impulsively. Yavarian et al. J. (2002) reported the effect of anger management training program on domestic violence reduction using test and evidence groups for reducing the amount of effective anger in an eight-session anger management training program 27.17. For measuring variables.

A. FITZGERALD. 13 GOLDSTEIN. 15 LOCHMAN. Psychology Doctoral Thesis.L. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 17 KELLNER. 16 FEINDLER. DC: Taylor and Francis. E. Effectiveness of treatment for specific anger problems: A meta. 6 MOELLER. Kazdin . E.. & FOLKMAN. Analysis of risk in adults with a history of high risk behavior. Allameh Tabatabai University.A. However. A. R. E. New York: Springer.. A. Anger disorders: Definition. London: Oxford Press. Anger control training for aggressive youth. J. BEHZADI.E. Urban Stress: Psychological experiments on noise and social stress. Aggression replacement training intervention for aggressive youth: A comprehensive intervention for adolescent. Faculty of Psychology and Education. American Journal of psychiatry... it seems that increase in the number of the training sessions can be beneficial for better learning of skills and stabilizing positive changes in the participants. (2003).. In A.146. & GLICK. & PARDINI. J. & HOLLANDER. (2000). adaptivity and public health of high school boys in Tehran City. (2002).. 179-187. (2004).posttest evaluations in addition to self-evaluation questionnaires. Stress inoculation therapy for anger control: A manual for therapists.A. 10 FEINDLER.D.C.G.M. Weisz (Eds. N.R. Schaefer (Ed. BARRATT. 34. Kassinove (Ed. In H.DOUGHERTY.L. 60. Adolescence.ltd.). Washington. E.E. New York Pergamon Press. 24. A. & CHEREK. 19 GLASS . (2001). H. (1999).H. B. Evidence-based pschotherapies for children and adolescents. 7 EVENDEN.P.SCHMITZ. J. S.analytic review. 18 LAZARUS.. Psyehiatrie aspects impulsivity. S. (2006). Irvine: University of California.BARRY. S. D.W. (2001).P. Stress. JANATI.).D.D. 1783-1793. REFERENCES O’NEILL. A monograph for continuing medical education credit. The gathered data in the two groups (test and control) indicates the efficacy of anger management training program but they give no evidence about the constancy of the influences of educational intervention during the passage of time. R. Pathological gambling and impulsiveness.B. Ltd. Adolescent anger control: Cognitive – behavioral techniques. Psychopharmacology. A. Appraisal and coping. 11. (1972). & ECTON. & WHIDBY. Varieties of impulsivity. Anger management with aggressive children. & WEISNER. 52 4 EKHTIARI. Impulsivity and Aggression: Diagnostic challenges for the clinician..S. In the next researches. 15-24. & SWANN.A. H. 12 NAVIDI.M. J. W. evidence and manual based approach. IL: Research Press. F. D. 63. & BRY. & SINGER. (2002). & O’LEARY.term psychotherapy groups for children Northvale. (1993).). 52-64 5 LANE. The Effect of anger management groups in a day school for emotionally disturbed Adolescents. John Wiley & Sons. In C. J..T. (1986). John Wiley & Sons. Issue 136. (2005). J.M..L. K. (2004). J. J. 20 NOVACO. D. This research indicated that anger management program can be taught to high school students during fourteen weeks (one ninety-minute session per week). 11 FEINDLER E. Short. 348-361 8 PETRY. New York Academic Press. Evaluation of the effect of anger management training on anger self-regulation skills. New Findings in Cognitive Sciences. diagnosis and treatment. (1987). S. (1999).. Champaign.M. D.r. Anger treatment for people with developmental disabilities: A theory. R. & NOVACO.E. (1999). A. NJ: Jason Aronson. Managing anger (2nd ed). 3 TAYLOR. insertion of constancy examination in the research plan can provide the possibility of positive changes constancy evaluation in participants. 14 LOCHMAN.H. New York: The Guilford Press. 9 SWANN . 2 1 . Substance abuse. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.C. M. The process of delayed devaluation and impulsive behaviors: Introduction of an introductory study. Clinical Psychology Review. Youth anger management treatments for school violence prevention Unpublished manuscript.L (1995). (1984).. R. 2. & MOQIMI. DEL VECCHIO. (2005).D. Ideal treatment pekage for children and adolescents with anger disorder. 29-38. T.B.

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R. 45 ♦ Letter No. and through the aid of globalization. 49 CAMPBELL M.H. who are becoming a larger part of the workforce. Positive psychology in practice.2010 THE EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION ON WOMEN IN INDIA DR. B. RASHMI RANJAN* *Assistant Registrar. Markets in different areas can now be reached by Indian women who have a part in businesses. has brought in a range of programs to help women help themselves. These organizations have given women the skills they need to advance. they have even reached the women in the rural areas of India.52.000 members. there are opportunities for higher ay. & E’JAZ. her income was increased because she could reach more people. Examination of anger control group-training efficacy with the intellectual-behavioral-emotional method in aggression reduction among entry: http://wwwlib. With new jobs for women. which raises self-confidence and brings about independence. India has taught poor women how to create different crafts to generate income. The efficacy of an anger management program for middle school students with emotional handicaps. Varanasi (U. A. 47 COMER.YAVARIAN. SEWA has established a Women’s Cooperative Bank with 125. U. New Jersey. P. women are able to earn their own personal money and enable the children to attend school instead of having to work to make more money.P) India.). This. 46 EBBIGHAUSEN. but also women. &.A. Globalization has the power to uproot the traditional views towards women so they can take an equal stance in society. J.com/dissetations/fullcit/3119854. Abnormal high school girls in Oroumieh City. in turn.S. Hoboken.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. GOLSHAN. (2004). Internet Psychology. Globalization has opened up broader communication lines and brought more companies as well as different worldwide organizations into India.ltd. The women also gain business skills that inform them about career opportunities. T. (4th. something that Indian women have been struggling with their entire lives. John Wiley & Sons.. S. Internet entry: http://wwwlib. The collection of artiles presented at the second congress of IPA (Iranian Psychological Association). P. The Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) in India is a union of women laborers willing to work hard and seize any work opportunities they might get. After one of the SEWA women took out a loan of four dollars to buy a telephone. R. (2005). Indiacorps. Even the telephone is an advancement to many women in their business ventures.V-34564. A. JOSEPH. Globalization has aided their opportunities in various ways. Students advocating against violence initiative: An evaluation of a social cognitive – behavioral-based anger management program (Digital Dissertations). can promote equality between the sexes. . (2004).Reg. (2001).U.79-80 Advance Access publication 8 Jul. One program in Ahmedabad. I. 48 NICOLET. Inc . With this program. or by craft-making women who have licenses to export their goods.com/ dissertations/fullcit/3206520. The second step violence prevention program: Effectiveness of a brief social skills curriculum with elementary – age children. such as literacy and vocational skills. these women are raising their standard of living by generating more income.ed. With more freedoms and opportunities. Tehran. With the aid of satellites and computers.umi. This provides opportunities for not only workingmen. (2004). SEWA has been able to reach more women to share self-help knowledge.com/dissertations/fullcit/3138507. L. (2006). Different non-profit organizations have been brought to India from around the globe. A. Technology that may seem out-dated to the United States is viewed as modern technology to India. H.umi. One organization.umi.. 50 LINLEY. Internet entry: http://wwwlib.

(1993) ‘global gender issues’. it has received much feedback from Indians all over the world. A magazine called Femina is the top women’s magazine for Indian women. what most people are not aware of is that women in these developing countries are suffering enormously due to this expansion of corporate empires. where they are paid next to nothing. they are easier to control and less likely to retaliate against less than ideal working conditions. London : Unwin. pelvic inflammatory disease. SANDERSON . Overtime is compulsory but women are paid lower rates than men. Negative Effects of Globalization Globalization has had negative implications for Indian women. developing areas such as India where there was previously no employment.” In the zone. PETERSON. These wages are not necessarily the result of “unjust” societies. June 8. globalization along with the support of organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.” REFERENCES GORDON LAXER. these jobs seem to be wolves in sheep’s clothing. the second is in the home where they are paid nothing . parkland Institute. One example of women’s labor being exploited would be the Noida Export Processing Zone. and Indian ecofeminist and scholar. J. which are exactly what thousands of women encounter 12 hours a day. A.N. “respiratory problems. globalization and women in India.(1996). According to estimates from World Development Indicators. demeaning. Unnecessary body searches are routine. rape. higher prices for commodities. These “zones” prefer to hire women because they are “more docile and more productive in men. their domestic responsibilities are not alleviated. globalisation and working women. 9.S. Femina shows the accomplishments of different Indian women from all over and provides inspiration to the women who read it.(1989). divorce. but earn only ten percent of the world’s income. which is 24 km from New Delhi. poorer job opportunities. As women in developing countries move into the work force. The mixture of corporate capitalism and Western culture models is dissolving family and community social controls as witnessed by higher rates of family violence. delelopment in practice. According to Vandana Shivea. V. USA . ♦ . Media has the opportunity to reach people. Globalization has made many international corporations richer by the billions. Development for poor women has meant the migration of men to cities. Women who become pregnant or marry are immediately fired. & CROMPTON . and own less than one percent of the world’s property “. & RUNYAN. Westview press Inc. One in a factory. but of the fact that global trade devalues the worth of people’s lives and work . Their plights are similar to those of women in other developing regions such as Africa and Asia. While globalization has brought jobs to rural. The zone is dangerous. women turn to unsafe abortions performed by unqualified “doctors. M.Media can be viewed as a positive aspect of globalization. produce half of the world’s food. and sever cases of dehydration and anemia are common. There are no maternity benefits and minimum wage is never enforced. In order to avoid being fired. Economic and Ploitical weekly. hot. and convey a message to people all over the world. vol. Globalisation and clture:Three paradigms. gendered Jobs and social change. and unsanitary.” In short. It was created in 1959 and since it showcased its website in 1996. (1990). KRISHNARAJ . or insecure. Women work two full time jobs. Women are suffering two fold. PIETERSE. have created slave wages. parkland post archinve. mentally and physically unhealthy. and family breakdown. K. The work available to women is almost always poorly paid. R. “Women work two-thirds of the world’s working hours. However.

not by individuals. the movement would nevertheless have continued and another person would unquestionably have appeared instead. Lord Mahavira is a perfectly clear-cut example of such individuals.H.2011 INDIVIDUALS IN HISTORY: THEIR ROLE AND SIGNIFICANCE DR. . Individual may be a particular person of a distinct character. But usually a person who has accomplished something of permanent benefit to the human race is considered great.V. The Determinists hold that an individual plays only a negligible role in the shaping of the history as compared to the effect exercised by the environments. 1869 A. For example. The 3 Ps are period. 1869 A. Alexander. Porebunder is the place and birth is the event. PRAVESH BHARADWAJ* *Associate Professor and Head. These determinists do not believe in the talents and super human qualities of individuals. and enunciates that these forces and circumstances determine the course of history.) Varanasi (U.U. Great men. He turned the course of history into new channels and left his mark behind him even to this day. the Great Man Theory attaches importance to the internal qualities of individuals whereas the Theory of Determinism sticks to the external forces and circumstances. So when individuals find place in History. are merely ‘labels giving names to events’.3 The advocates of this theory hold that leadership (of great man) is more apparent than real.6 The proponents of the Determinant Theory hold that the industrial revolution exercised greater influence on the course of history than Napoleon. In this way.5 Hence they argue that no individual could affect any change in the course of history. If a certain historical figure had not emerged to take command at a given moment. we shall examine only the persons or individuals in history because to examine an individual is a hard nut to crack. Here the 2 October. nature would have brought forth other individuals to take command of the situation and affected the necessary changes.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5.Letter No. Napoleon or Hitler had died before achieving their historic work.(1) Great Man Theory and (2) Theory of Determinism2. psychological and economic factors. Both these theories are at extremes. There may be unforeseen delays and interruptions but the ultimate result is fore-ordained. is the period. Sometimes historians are allowed to incorporate and attach importance to such an individual person in their works. D. For example.D. Gustavson has propounded two theories . The proponents of the former theory believe that major developments of human history are accounted for by the great men. But Sir Charles Oman denies to include meteoric phenomena which have no trace behind.81-84 Advance Access publication 8 Apr. on the 2 October. An organic definition of history may be given under an aphorism .) India Individual is one person or thing considered separately. person and place. they are termed as Individuals in History. biological. Theories of Carlyle may be out-of-date but his conviction that “Heroes” leave their impress on their times and long after for centuries is very much appealing1. Mahmud Ghazanavi. if individuals like Gautama Buddha. Nevertheless individuals have left age-long results of their activities behind them.D.Reg. Post-Graduate College (B. Judged by this definition great conquerors like Changez Khan.that history is an amalgam of 3 Ps and 1 E. and 1E is event. There is no fixed criteria to determine the greatness of a person. But the Theory of Determinism does not believe it. During the mid nineteenth century.P. people started believing that the course of history was determined. They hold that history is a record of the constant process of evolution towards a pre-determined goal. In this respect about the role of the individuals in the shaping of the history. but by the geographic. therefore. Mahatma Gandhi was born in Porebunder. Mahatma Gandhi is the person (individual).V-34564.A. It is desirable to know as to who is a great man. They do believe in the external forces and circumstances which they deem to be more powerful than those possessed by individuals. Out of these four tools of history.

. both theories regarding the role of the individual in history. there would have been decline of the Achaemenian empire as well as unification of Greece. Similarly. it may be pointed out that the respective role of the two is difficult to determine in precise terms..”. But Cromwell or Lenin helped to mould . Secondly. Napoleon or Bismarck rode to greatness on the back of already existing forces. the existing social order must not bar the road to the person possessing the talent.. C. Had Napoleon possessed the musical gifts of Beethoven. The great man is always a representative either of existing forces or of forces which he helps to create and mould. Firstly.C. In the last century. So the feeling of frustration and defeatism led to the growth of fascism and Hitler was the outcome of this movement.”9 Let us examine the other side of the coin. C. was partly due to the surging feeling of expansion among the Greeks and partly due to political stagnation and cultural decline of the Iranians. The people felt that Bonaparte alone could ensure them peace. following the revolution because people had strong anti-royal feeling and were clamouring for peace. The rise of Alexander in the fourth century B. individuals can influence the fate of society. He undertook numerous steps for the moral and material benefits of the people throughout his empire. men like Homer.Nadir Shah and Hitler etc. While the Great Man Theory is right in pointing out that the individual can play a decisive role in certain crisis... he fulfilled the philosophy preached by Buddha in the sixth century B. The Russian Historian continued. Cohen has given befitting examples. Newton. Shakespeare.”12 Similarly Napoleon came to power because there was a growing feeling among the people against Royalty. the rise of Hitler was the direct outcome of the humiliating treatment meted out to Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. “Aristotle would not have composed his works.. They did good and cast it into the river. 2. or even England before Kepler.. a man who possesses a particular kind of talent may greatly influence the course of events. social machinery and ideas. While studying the individual life of an outstanding man we have to study social forces. Napoleon came to power in France. R. Even if Alexander had not been there. there is no dichotomy between great men and social force theory because great men embody the aspirations of a large number of their fellow men because pure gold does not fear the flame. it does not contradict it.. Prof. had certain accomplishments to their credit which could not have been achieved by others. he would not have become an emperor. contain some element of truth. the Theory of Determinism rightly emphasizes the dependence of the individual on factors like social forces. Ashoka. By abandoning war and embracing Buddhism. Plekhanov in one of his articles8 asserted that the present-day German historians were incapable of solving the problem of the role of the individual in history. Two conditions are needed : 1.. But if their role is determined by society. Galileo and others had prepared the ground for him. Thus history should be written as the biography of men as well as a tracing of social forces. Besides all these.10 instead of his military genius.. All great men are the products of social environments. With a view to have a proper understanding of the role of ‘individuals’ and ‘social environments’.. he actualizes his age. and accomplish it. On the contrary. Can then their social influence contradict the social development? The social influence of individuals is determined by the role they play in society. turned against violence following the war of Kalinga. in Central Africa. it will serve as a glaring example of exercising considerable influence upon the fate of society. his talent must make him more comfortable to the social needs of the period than anyone else. by virtue of particular traits of their character.. individuals too have played important role in the shaping of history. Newton could not have discovered the law of gravitation if he had been born in Arabia. In this way. order and safety. If the role of individuals is determined by the form of organization of society. the personal qualities of leading people determine the individual features of historical events.”7 So the role of individuals in history is very significant. etc. M. the extent of personal influence may also be determined by the talents of the individual. However. As a matter of fact. a question arises. On the other hand. Aristotle. tell his age what its will is. if he had been born elsewhere than in Greece of the fourth century B.. cannot be adjudged ‘great’. Greece. In India. King Ashoka. What he does is the heart and essence of his age. That’s why Hegel was inspired to say : “The great man of the age is the one who can put into words the will of his age.. They could not have attained greatness under different environments.

pianist and violinist. BHARADWAJ. What seems to me essential is to recognize in the great man an outstanding individual who is at once a product and an agent of the historical process. p. 1996. HEGEL. Alexander. What is History?. F. 1955. saints.” Akber used to pronounce: “I have no religion. Frederick the Great of Prussia. Pages of the history of world are testimonies that the imperialists had met sad end and their empires scattered like house of cards. p. 241. MAJUMDAR & A. 6. 9. Gai Ghat. N. cit. He defeated the kings of the Southern India and when they accepted his suzerainty.the forces which carried them to greatness. in which the article by Plekhanov appeared. 1939. N. London. Terminology of Historiography. Nevertheless the emperor Samudragupta happens to be an exception. 2007. Historiography (Method of History). War and Peace.. p. University of Berlin. “Behave with me as a King behaves with another King. 1. A Preface To History. V. 54-55. op. Britannica Ready Reference Encyclopedia. 1869. Mughal Emperor Akber. G.K. p.” The last will of Indira Gandhi was: “Protect the nation by trickling drops”. Their memorable role and significance are ever lasting. Varanasi. p. p. p. Smt. 13. Philosophy of Right. ♦ . 3. at once the representative and the creator of social forces which change the shape of the world and the thoughts of men. Ashoka used to say: “the distress and pleasure of the subjects are mine. Mussolini. W. 220-21 and Dr. hitherto considered inferior to vocal. N. 295. History sheds tears for the odd days and sad ends of the imperialists like Julius Caesar. Peter the Great of Russia. p. GUSTAVSON. Hitler. cit. Augustus Caesar in Rome. 85. 221 .” Alexander was stunned at this reply and he returned the kingdom of Porus to him. New York. to the highest plane of art.). R.” Frederick was apt to say: “The Emperor lives for the subjects. MAJUMDAR & A. COUNT LEO TOLSTOY.123. Ashoka in India. CARR. p. Indira Gandhi of India were not the rulers of the common stamp. 5. Bharadwaj.”13 The empire-builders. 8081. So we must learn something from history. Kings and Emperors have also opened their accounts in history. eternal and immortal. Theories of History. IBID. 34. 2005. N. I. R.H. 1969.156. 147-56. Napoleon. V. PATRICK GARDINER (ed. 7. IBID. Delhi. etc. : 10. After defeating King Porus. op. p. MORRIS R. K. London. But the enlightened rulers. Although history does not regard these individuals as divine incarnations yet it does recognize them as great individuals. 1821. 2. So higher degree of creativity may be assigned to Cromwell or Lenin. COHEN. SRIVASTAVA. O God! No emperor has behaved and followed such an ideal either before the times of Alexander or after him. Prateek Pustak Pratishthan. IBID p. On the Writing of History. SRIVASTAVA. The Meaning of Human History. 8. Elizabeth I in England.” Elizabeth I used to say: “If I am or my rule is not elegant people may oust me only with a petticoat from England. he returned to them their kingdoms. Beethoven (1770-1827) was a German composer. P. All religions are equal. E. 1962. Alexander captivated him and put a question to him. REFERENCES SIR CHARLES OMAN. “How should I behave with you?” Porus fearlessly replied. Surjeet Book Depot. Pericles in Greece. 4. 11. 105. 12. social reformers and religious reformists are celebrated characters of history. DR. Vol. His greatest achievement was to raise instrumental music.

In one of the research projects.Reg. Varanasi (U. The allotment of funds by First World countries to implement CEDAW is a meagre sum of approximately $0.2009 THE GIRL CHILD IN INDIAN SOCIETY DR. of tradition and modernity. being able to educate children. the total import of the socialisation practices adds up to a double message. RASHMI RANJAN* *Assistant Registrar. value-laden way of thinking has been a fundamental principle in economics.85-88 Advance Access publication 20 Dec. The total outlay under this program between 1992 and 1996 has been $ 4. particularly in India. gender discrimination. which works in favour of the male.V-34564.7 million. They are also the overwhelming majority of civilians who are killed and maimed in conflicts. hierarchical. songs. and having a ‘good’ husband and harmonious family relationships. a people striving to overcome the problems of overpopulation. and interestingly. blessings. poverty. ‘girls need less food than boys because boys work harder’. This clearly reflects the primacy of the family and relationships with significant others as an important source of self-worth and identity.U. This is the main thrust of socialisation.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. . especially in the family context. Formal ceremonies at the natal home poignantly emphasise the severance of ties and those at the affinal home emphasise the incorporation of the woman. Moreover. Simultaneously. The doublespeak of gendered socialisation therefore continues. B. Girls are consistently shortchanged in their share of resources. The entire process elicits ambiguous or negative feelings regarding one’s self-worth. modes of chastisement and in several other ways) is geared to emphasising and dramatising the woman’s inherently temporary membership in her natal group and her non-functionality from the point of view of perpetuation of the group and the continuity of the family (Dube 1988).H.P) India. Feminist economists suggest that this dualistic. In the same breath the report emphasises that these conditions are neither inevitable nor immutable. The process of socialization of Hindu girls in the natal home in patrilineal India through rituals.Letter No. and practices of gender inequality are translated into the daily lives of females.15 million. is derived from the cultural ideology. ‘looking after girls is like ploughing other people’s fields’). thereby creating a ‘culture of female sacrifice’ (Papanek 1990: 173). And the reality of modern India is its struggle for development. The UNICEF report The state of the world’s children (2000) +states that at the turn of the twenty-first century the overwhelming majority of the people in the world who live in poverty are children and women. Gender is a cognitive aid like grammar but it should be free from the valuation attached to it. ceremonies and the use of language (proverbs. they listed taking care of significant others. The socialisation process. The International Program on Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) however has the largest international initiative on child labour in India. and implicit or explicit justification is given for this (for example. Excessive value is attached to traditional roles and responsibilities. The differential entitlement to resource shares also shifts the responsibility for care and nurturance of women. There are parallels between feminist economics and institutional economics and these relations must be strengthened to the benefit of both. With this background it is now time to go through a little academic exercise concerning cultural constructs and how they impact on the socialisation process and eventually manifest in the form of socioeconomic statistics. the care relationship is linked to notions of self-sacrifice. ecological degradation and urban decay. India is a land of myth and fable. The rights set forth in the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) are violated every day. when respondents were asked to relate some of the achievements or accomplishments in life that they feel proud about.

education. the 2001 census clearly shows a decline in the number of females per thousand males in the most literate and prosperous states. almost the size of the population of Singapore. dowry demanders and abusive parents. the sex ratio is 800 females to 1000 males.10 million are female. The number of children under 14 in India is more than the whole population of the USA.In the light of epistemology. even today. The magnitude of the problem gives rise to complexity. The sex ratio. prefer male children to female. the population of female children has been less than that of male children at all ages below 14. Only 54. experience ‘apartheid’ of gender from the time they are born. equality in access to opportunities and. live and die on the streets. It is the rich who can afford the technology to carry out sex determination tests. Speaking of crime against girls. the newspapers abound with reports of pedophiles. The sex ratio has been dwindling since 1991 and the all-India average stands at 927 to 1000. approximately the size of the total population of Canada. Everyday. I shall now discuss the interface. one of the prosperous states. Their fundamental rights to nutrition. In the capital city of Delhi.5 million Indian girls aged 0 to14 years is considerably disturbing. It is well established that girls. especially in the 0–5 age group. Since 1991. In fact. India also has the highest number of women illiterates. As much as 47 per cent of Indian girls are malnourished. In order to get a proper perspective about the inequities it would not be out of place perhaps to present some vignettes of the basic magnitude of the population problem in India. in the year 2000 alone. India has crossed the one billion mark.28 million child workers. Thus the ever- . Out of 11. All this despite the fact that life expectancy at birth is higher for girls.85 per cent among males in the same age group. Most households. 5. health care. The situation of the 171. the risk being 45 per cent higher where girls are concerned. only 50 per cent of girls participate in the education process and the stagnation and dropout rate is also alarmingly high compared to that of boys. knowledge is the construction of the human mind and is rooted in the social and historical context. worked out in my book.3 per cent. a survey indicates that in the most affluent localities the same trend is observed and the reason is an unholy alliance between technology and sex determination. One third of the world’s child labour is in India alone. attitudes of the family and of the society at large towards women’s economic activities and the economic and social circumstances that encourage or resist change in these attitudes. In the above paragraph his reference to attitudes of the family and of the society at large is of crucial importance to our discussion. India has the highest number of child labourers in the world. Six million children dwell in the streets of India. the sale of girls for prostitution went up by 13. in many countries and continents. And. Australia has only two per cent of India’s population with 19. Ninety-three per cent of working women are engaged in the unorganised sector. Around 30 per cent of the sex workers in India are below 18. Practices of gender inequality greatly influence the socialisation process of women in India. Broadly speaking. which has always been unfavourable to girls. and 40 per cent of them were inducted into the trade before they turned fourteen. survival is restricted or even denied. The cause assigned for this is female foeticide. and they are considered easy prey to physical and emotional exploitation. There are two million children in each of the four metropolises who are born. traffickers. which means that these women have no protection or security concerning their jobs. children alone account for 19 per cent of the total number of rape victims. In this context the Nobel Laureate Professor Amartya Sen (1990) remarks ‘Where are the missing women?’ In Haryana. and nearly 50 per cent of them work as domestic help in urban areas and in hazardous industries. Three hundred million go hungry and are considered to be BPL (below the poverty line). has been deteriorating since Independence.16 per cent of the female population above 7 is literate as opposed to 75. Girls are exposed to a greater risk of death between the first and fifth year of their lives. Going beyond some rather classical variables the factors involved in empowerment also include the nature of employment arrangements. There are 12 million working children under the age of fourteen. most startling of all. often. with the help of stories to tell you the tale. In the light of this. I am tempted here to bring in the Nobel Laureate Professor Amartya Sen’s views on the issues: The empowerment of women is one of the central issues in the process of development for many countries in the world today. because ‘they will carry on the family name’.7 million.

MIT Press. The state of the world’s children. M. political will and civil society networks must be strengthened and mobilised to combat abuse against the girl child. YOUNG (1960). Mumbai. New York.. The girl child should not be made the victim of the myopic meandering of policy makers. MONICA (2003). Penguin Books. because a lower value is placed on their survival and wellbeing. REFERENCES BELOTTI. (2002). New Delhi : Sage Publication. All this is justified with facile excuses such as ‘girls need less food than boys because boys work harder’ and ‘girls need not be educated because they will get married soon and leave their homes. striking the issue : the girl child. JOHN STUART 1970 [1869] The subjection of women. UNICEF (2000). paper presented at the ‘symposium on sex ratio in India. Commission on the Status of Women. pp 61–66.A. UNICEF report 2003. a lot more needs to be done in developing and implementing gender sensitisation. ‘scientific social surveys and Research’ (4th Ed. The journal of family welfare 44(3): 1-8 SEN. DATA COURTESY: CENSUS OF INDIA (2001). phillip. seen but not heard. Ministry of Human Resource Development. Department of Women and Child Development. international institute for population sciences . ELENA G IANINI (1976). PANT. The IMR (infant mortality rate) at the national level is higher for females than males. What Are Little Girls Made Of ? The Roots of Feminine Stereotypes. New Delhi: Apn publishing corporation. 1995. In fact. C. Government of India. ‘More than 100 million women are missing’. Jan. MILL. A girl infant is often breastfed for a shorter period and is taken less often to a health care centre than a male infant. Girls also have a lower rate of immunisation and receive less physical nurturing than their brothers. Ministry of Human Resource Development. VHAI. 10-11. London. DONALD/DEIRDRE (1986). “ Discrimination and changes in the status of women with economic development : general views and theories. ‘India: a profile’. PREMI. SET. Annual Report of the Department of Women and Child Development (1998. MIRA (2001) “ women and development “ . education and health care. 2002–2003). (1998) “ The girl child in India”.) New york: prentice hall.increasing numbers of female infanticide and female foeticide every year. 20 December 1990. Schocken Books. 1–12 March 2004.K. N. PURI .. New Delhi. Oxford University Press. Her story so far: tales of the girl child in India. MA. The rhetoric of economics. (1996). Girls are consistently short-changed when it comes to their share of the basic resources of food.’The girl child : some issues for consideration. AMARTYA (1990). 48th session. PAULINE V. SHIVA MIRA (2002). Cambridge. ♦ . Harvester Press. DAS. Government of India. Oxford. NIRANJAN (1995) ‘status of the girl child and women in India.’ However. one out of three girl children in India does not live to see her fifteenth birthday. MCCLOSKEY. It is incumbent on society both national as well as global to see that she turns into a symbol of strength. New Delhi. New York Review of Books. National Family Health Survey (1998–99). TISDELL.

He or she would be able to rise above all distinction and differences and would possess the spirit of Tyaga (sacrifice) and Seva (service). undigested all your life. Importance of Values (i) Good values are the spontaneous manifestations of a sound character and values form the central pole around which our actions. (iii)Values assist us to take right decisions and make choices. Education is not the amount of information that is put into your brain and runs riot there. Vivekananda had stressed the need for man-making. power.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. is the source of all perfection. (iv)Values are socially defined and accepted desires and goods that are internalized through the process of learning. dear and worthwhile. The idea is to set in motion a machinery.2011 VALUE EDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT DR. the desired results would be achieved. Not only in India. reading good books and cherishing high ideals a person can mould his thoughts and thereby his character and destiny. we may say : (i) Values are general standards and higher order norms. MADHU PARASHAR* *Principal. character-making. Tehra (Gwalior Road) Agra (U. Teachers. (ii) Value is a belief that something is good and worthwhile. the Self. which will bring noble ideas to the door of everybody.P. desires and ambitions are organized. It is hoped that by motivating the youth for introspection and self-analysis and through meditation and prayer. If you have assimilated five ideas and made them your life and character. Introduction of Values Value literally means something that has a price. It is defined as a belief upon which man acts by preference. (iii)Value is a measure of goodness or desirability. but also worldwide. . Executives based on times-tested Indian wisdom. The goal (of human life) is to manifest this divinity within”. The purpose of our Value Education programmes will therefore be to help people become aware of their innate divinity and how to make its perfection and happiness manifest in every movement of life. According to Swami Vivekananda : Education is the manifestation of the perfection already in man. we offer Value Education Programmes – Human Resource Development. affective and psychomotor domains. Courses will generally be of two and a half hours on Sunday mornings for 8-10 Sundays but programmes can be held on weekdays also to suit the requirements of different groups. (v) Values set goals for achievements and they motivate. Self Development. you have more education than any man who has got by heart a whole library. To help to produce enlightened citizens. character-building education. Shanti Niketan College of Business Management and Computer Science.V-34564. Leadership and Personality Development – for Students. This divinity within.) India. there is a cry for “back to basic values”. Keeping good company. something precious. define and colour all our activities in cognitive.Reg. By a close examination of different sources of the meaning of values.Letter No. (iv)Values give direction and firmness to life and help us to be morally sound. Abstract Modern education and training has failed to produce men and leaders of character and integrity who can make India attain its past glory. Swami Vivekananda said “Each Soul is potentially divine. bliss and glory.89-96 Advance Access publication 3 Mar. assimilation of ideas. (ii) Values guide our behavior and give meaning to our existence. socialization and conditioning. whereby the beneficiary would be made a good citizen. We must have life-building. man-making.

Socialist. social and national traditions and structure are pillars of certain values. (iii)Choosing freely. “We. the people of India. Radhakrishan Commission report. Faith in change and peaceful methods. d. Good citizenship. S. Respect for the dignity of the individual. Democratic Republic” and to provide security to all its citizens. (iv)Prizing and cherishing. According to Dr. education. (vi)Acting upon and (vi)Acting upon with some consistent pattern and repetition. democracy. These three basic values are stressed in the preamble of the Constitution of India as. The human conscience is also a source of value awareness. have solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign. (ii) Choosing after thoughtful consideration of consequences. The following are the fundamental assumptions of democracy: a. The Indian society upholds a set of values namely. f. “Democracy is the Government of the people. etal 1972) is to help people use these seven processes of valuing in their own lives by applying these valuing sub processes to already formed belief and behaviour patterns and to those still emerging. (v) Publicly affirming and appropriate sharing. 1947 and a democratic constitution was established on January 26. Scientific temper of mind. Secularism . Religion. Meaning of Democracy In the famous words of Abraham Lincoln. Freedom of action. religion. which guide the life of the individuals and group functioning. When true values are inculcated among our students they help them to take a voyage in the stormy sea of life. occupation or economic status”. “Democracy is the way of life and a more political arrangement. 1950. National character and sense of tolerance. sex. Secular. speech and movement on existing of the society. c. e. socialism and secularism. It is based on equal freedom and equal rights for all its members regardless of race. The goal of the value clarification approach (Simon. b. Categorization of Values (i) Constitutional and National Values (ii) Social Values (iii)Professional Values (iv)Religious and Moral Values (v) Aesthetic Values A. Constitutional Values Introduction India become an independent country on August 15. by the people and for the people”.The value process is usefully seen as being composed of the following sub-processes: (i) Choosing from alternatives. Equalitarianism. g.

multi-lingual. But it should not harm and ignore the national. It includes social justice. (v) Believing in co-existence and discouraging dogmatic ideas. lays emphasis on the above four pillars of democracy. Each individual is free to follow his own faith and respect other religions. National values (i) Justice: The justice is built upon affirmative and collective relations and dependent on collective interests of individual groups and society. The feeling of compassion. Social and national services are to be made as integral components of education. and multi-traditional groups. social and even the personal interest of others. economic justice and political justice. political and economic justice. The Concept of Socialism Socialism is concerned with establishing a new social and economic order on the basis of equality of opportunity and on the social. faith and worship.of rights and opportunities and to promote among them all. Innovative socialized and group instructional strategies to be adopted. (iii) Equality: It is necessary to achieve the ends in liberty.The Indian concept of secularism is concerned with giving equal regard for al faiths and creeds and developing a spirit of reverence and tolerance for all faiths.social. Our constitution emphasizes the concept of unity in diversity and expects every citizen of India to honour the feeling of national and emotional integration. National Integration In India we have multi-cultural. The Constitution of India. (ii) Liberty: Each citizen has the right of freedom of speech. (iv) Fraternity: For the glory of the individual and society. .assuming the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. (iii)Encouraging rational thinking and scientific temper of mind. It is one of the important social objectives of democracy. Liberty is essential for individual progress and progress of society. . The democratic social order is our national objective. Secular Values of a Secular-minded Individual (i) Treating all religions on an equal footing. both the nation and the dignity of the individual is of vital importance. Education has to be geared for achieving pattern of society. belief. To achieve socialism: a) b) c) d) General education has to be geared to productivity. expression. Practical and utilitarian aspects to be emphasized in education. The feeling of hatred towards religion may hamper the unity of democratic India. Respect for all religions India is a country of plural religions. It should not jeopardize the national unity and social amity. . economic and political . The Indian Constitution has approved the following national values: (i) Justice (ii) Liberty (iii)Equality (iv)Fraternity . love among human beings and the feeling of friendship are necessary for fraternity with a national feeling. (iv)Inculcating moral and spiritual values. (ii) Implying freedom of worship and tolerance.of thoughts.

B. forgiveness . duties and responsibilities towards one another. They necessitate the interaction of two or more persons. team spirit . Sharing .Responsibility . nation and the world.Magnanimity – patience. tolerance . sportsmanship . Social values are always practiced in relation to our neighbours. society. our society has been undergoing rapid changes in every walk of life. the following are the common values of all the professions: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Knowledge thrust Commitment Sincerity and honesty Resourcefulness Competence Responsibility Self-discipline Regularity and Punctuality Integrity Spirit of enquiry Confidentiality Self-study Sense of social responsibility Accountability .Friendship.Dutifulness. Social Values Some of the social values may be listed as follows: (i) Love towards humanity (ii) Sincerity and honesty (iii) Faith in co-operative living (iv) Good citizenship (v) Integrity of character (vi) Faith in change and peaceful methods (vii) Scientific temper of mind (viii) Concern for environment . community. N.. Social values refer to those values which are oriented towards social amicability and coherence.C.S. Irrespective of the specific nature of profession.Conservation of natural resource In calculation of Social Values a) Laboratories: Students develop scientific attitude towards social life. sinking differences and behaving harmoniously. C.Sympathy. b) Libraries: Practice patience while sitting together for study by self. d) Academic activities:Develop intellectual activities e) Extra-curricular activities like N. Individuals constitute society which has certain ideals. The basic objective of socialism is to establish a new social and economic order on the basis of equality of opportunity and on the social.Brotherhood. c) Hostels: Lead corporate life imbibing the spirit of living together.C. political and economic justice. scientific and technological advancements.S etc: Inculcate patriotic virtues and strengthen common bonds of spirit. models and norms in respect of social behaviour. Social Values Introduction On account of radical changes brought about by technical. Professional Value Many professions are in existence and each profession has got its own independent values.

obeying rules and regulations. Honesty demands upright thinking and brings respectability. Accountability is concerned with discharging an assigned duty carefully. Dutifulness is concerned with the fulfillment of obligations and tasks. Rabindranath Tagore observes. Due to difference in land. Honesty means truthfulness it is concerned with accepting one’s potentialities and limitations and admitting the truth on all occasions. We become dishonest and unreliable when we fail to practice regularity and punctuality in our life. Moral Values Introduction Moral Values are the standards of good or evil or principles of right or wrong or desirable or undesirable which govern and individual’s behaviour or choices. • • • • • • • • • • Tolerance Broad mindedness Simplicity Welfare of mankind Pursuit of truth Holy life Simple living Purity Honesty Prayer Respecting the place of worship and tolerance for other religions are to be treated as supreme values of human beings. sisterhood and love. Hence to be competent in any profession one has to develop knowledge thirst to keep in pace with the emerging trends. All religions emphasize a sense of brotherhood. It is an indicator for measuring the depth of one’s responsibility. climate. specifically in his field of specialization. sincerely and diligently. Religious Values Introduction Religion is based on certain moral principles. It is a commitment to complete one’s work for the society. Participating enthusiastically in the celebrations of other religious festivals. . unless he is still learning himself. and respecting literature of other religions have to be developed. D. The core of all religions is the welfare of human beings. E. A lamp can never right another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame”. Religious Values The following common values of life are recommended by all religions of the world. Regularity and punctuality win the respect of others. culture and language. It is a way of life and binds human beings. “A teacher can never truly teach. Accountability is related to responsibility. many ways of worship came into existence.• Dutifulness • Service Professional Value A few of the professional values may be explained as follows.

Aesthetic value is concerned with questions of beauty and artistic taste. Aesthetic Values Introduction Aesthetic values are values concerned with beauty or the appreciation of beauty. The atmosphere is becoming warmer because of the increase in its carbon dioxide content. loyalty. Enjoying or appreciation of music. Particularly. Environmental Ethical Values Introduction The earth is unique among all the planets in our solar system. Individual’s morals are derived from society and government. drama. painting. misuse and mismanagement of natural resources. environmental degradation is escalating. Each religion has an in-built list of do’s and don’ts. (ii) Exposing students to the work of artistic beauty. etc belong to the this category of values. energy crisis. F. They provide pleasure and happiness to the individual and are composed of feelings of heart and mind. paper work. natural scenes. Hence there arises an urgent need to inculcate among our people sensitivity towards environmental degradation by . sculpture. obedience. Hence we are all confronted with multifarious environmental issues like air pollution. literature. modeling. music. etc from their infancy. But today everywhere in the world. noise pollution.Moral Values Moral values are acquired as a part of cultural evolution. They prescribe a set of codes and principles which have a great impact on the behaviour of followers. Faith. sculpture and painting. Marine life is losing its ecological balance because of toxic waters beings dumped into the sea. Inculcation of Esthetic Values (i) By providing opportunities for extra-curricular activities and histrionic talents like music. The air. It is with plentiful resources and providing sustenance for the survival of human beings. Unless we diffuse it soon. purity. water and land pollution. drawing. recitation and other cultural activities. modeling. truthfulness are examples of moral values. Inculcation of Moral Values • • • • • • Parenting Peer guidance Conscience Disapproval Shunning Enforcing laws Another source of moral values is the religion. our life on the planet earth will be destroyed. The world is virtually sitting on an environmental time bomb that is ticking away without the consciousness of many of us. non-violence. dance. One can enjoy beauty in science as well as in poetry. When society moves into the modern era the earlier system of laws may vanish. land and water are increasingly becoming polluted. (iii)Role of mass media G. children possess aesthetic impulses and express their impulses through paintings. deforestation. In due course the moral values may change as laws.

Planting trees in and around the campus. exercise and yoga. As pointed out by Mahatma Gandhiji. Environmental Ethical Values The following are a set of environmental ethical values to inculcated. biodiversity and sustainable development. Organizing tree-plantation campaigns. “Try not to be a man of success but rather try to be a man of value”. • • • • • • • • • Environmental consciousness Humility and reverence. Self-reliance Adoption of eco-friendly culture. Using public transport systems. Ethics attempts to define what is right and what is wrong regardless of cultural difference. Encouraging healthy life styles through balanced nutrition. We have a fundamental responsibility to respect nature and to care for the earth.fostering environmental ethical values. Diverting waste from the kitchen to the garden. Switching off unnecessary lights. “There is enough for our needs but not for our greeds”. Avoiding using fresh water for gardening. Using bicycles or walking. protecting the life-support systems. Observing Environment Day on 5th June and Earth Day on 22nd April. ♦ . Staging short plays on environment crisis to create environmental awareness. Sharing common environment. Responsibility and commitment Respect for all life and landscape. Preservation of diversity on the planet. Global environmental citizenship. Collecting and displaying pictures and news papers cuttings depicting the environmental crisis. Reducing volume of Radio/TV to reasonable levels. Placing trashcans and dustbins around the college premises. -Albert Einstein. Collecting rain water. Helping to enforce protection laws. Spectrum of Environmental Activities for inculcating Environmental Ethical Values • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Using recycled paper for notes and circulars. Listening to radio programs on environment and its allied problems. Organizing eco-clubs.

Education should find it and develop it to the fullest extent. Introduction Sri Aurobindo’s ideas about education were a happy synthesis of idealism.” 1. psychic faculties. yoga education. “Education to be true must not be a machine made fabric. principle of education.Reg. The data was collected from 140 M. Abstract The present paper explores the outlook of M. reasoning. POONAM SAWHNEY* *Assistant Professor in Teaching of Mathematics. Spiritual development: Sri Aurobindo emphasized that the main aim of education is to promote spiritual development. methods of teaching. it is the body which performs all religious obligations.Ed students of Ambala District regarding relevance of Aurobindo’s educational philosophy in modern era.K.Jain (PG) College of Education. The concept of spirituality and science.V-34564. vital. b). Aims of Education The following are the aims of education : a).Letter No. but a true building or living evocation of the powers of the mind and spirit of human being. role of teacher. d). it has four levels namely. He tried to modernize education in India by integrating old values with new values. and the concept of integral education was also supported as relevant in the modern era by the students.R. place of child. individualism and socialism. The results revealed that students are in favour of curriculum. relationship between spirituality and science. value education. smelling and tasting. (2) Manas. speaking. c). freedom and discipline as given by Aurobindo in his educational philosophy. This mental development means the development of memory.97-102 Advance Access publication 21 Mar. (3) Intelligence and (4) Knowledge. listening. principles of education. The educational ideas of Sri Aurobindo were the outcomes of the emerging period of Renaissances in India. naturalism. curriculum. value education and methods of teaching as advocated by Sri Aurobindo. mental.ED STUDENTS OF AMBALA DISTRICT REGARDING RELEVANCE OF AUROBINDO’S EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY IN MODERN ERA MRS.2011 OUTLOOK OF M. e). Physical Development and Purity: The first aim of education is to achieve complete physical and pure development of a child. Mental Development: The third aim of education is to achieve mental development of the child. P.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. the concept of integral education aimed at all around development of physical. touching. thinking. Development of Conscience: Another important aim of education is to develop the conscience. . integral education. The educational ideas of Sri Aurobindo were the outcomes of the emerging period of Renaissance in India. According to him. Ambala City (Haryana) India.(1) Chitta. discrimination etc. According to him every human being has some element of divinity in him. epistemology. The paper takes up the aims of education. Educational Philosophy of Sri Aurobindo According to Sri Aurobindo. Development of Senses: The second aim of education is to train all the senses namely hearing.Ed students studying in colleges of education of Ambala district using a self-constructed and validated questionnaire. realism. According to him. yoga education. According to him. imagination.

c). learned. Botany. Health education. to watch the students. acquired. Physics. curiosity. must not impose himself. French. c). Secondary Stage : Mother-tongue. preserver and destroyer of all things. Role of Teacher The role of teacher can be summarized as follows : a). according to Sri Aurobindo. Emphasis on Learning by doing: According to Sri Aurobindo the best method of learning is learning by doing. to aid the student in uncovering the inner will to grow and to progress. 4. pouring itself in limitless space and eternal time. History of Civilization. It is not a new or still non-existent thing that has to be created. The integral knowledge is already there is the integral Reality. The teacher must be a friend and guide. Social Studies and Arithmetic. the eternal. 6. infinite activity. It is a truth that is self-revealed to a spiritual endeavour. Botany. Curriculum Aurobindo has prescribed the following subjects in the curriculum for the different stages of education: a). understanding and patience. Education through Mother-tongue: Education should be imparted to the child through his mother-tongue. invented or build up by the mind. is the same as ‘Brahma’. ideas. ready to intervene and guide as and when necessary. English. it is the energy in motion. Chemistry. and the material object. projects and programmes. Social Studies. ideals. b). the one.2. Literature. General Science. A teacher should provide education keeping in view a child’s nature. but may intervene when necessary. Freedom of Child: Children should be provided with a free environment so that they are able to gain more and more knowledge their own efforts. Relationship between Spirituality and Science The universe. Place of child Sri Aurobindo has accepted a child as the focal centre of education. Epistemology Knowledge. infinite movement. Sociology. English. Consciousness is a fundamental thing in existence. National History. is boundless energy of infinite existence. the education which is provided according to the predetermined traits. aptitude. International relations and integration. questions. . It must rather be discovered or uncovered. French. Chemistry. emotions and characteristics is useless for a child. Physiology. c). French literature. He thinks that each child has his individual capabilities and differences. then he will be able to grasp and understand even the most difficult subjects easily. according to Sri Aurobindo. disposition etc. An infinite scientific consciousness is the creator. Arithmetic. Painting. the infinite and harmonious. Psychology. b). stories. 7. Art. 5. to stimulate the student with striking words. Methods of Teaching Sri Aurobindo has laid stress upon the following principles of methods of teaching : a). b). developing which is true education. the movement of consciousness that creates the universe and all that is in it. 3. with deep sympathy. History of Science. when it forgets itself in the form it becomes the electron. Art. the atom. Primary Stage : Mother-tongue. Physics.this should be the main work of the teacher. University Stage : Indian and Western Philosophy. English literature.

He says that discipline can be established by practicing yoga and by useful moral education. the soul. There should be religious tinge in education otherwise it will spread corruption. he also includes self-control and celibacy under it. c). 9. 11. The aims of education are formulated according to the prevalent philosophy of life. Education should develop the soul substance of an individual. (c) Mental and (d) Psychic. artificial and in human. mental and spiritual values form the character of an individual. The discipline imposed by force or punishment is weak. If we would think positive the action will be positive. An ideal system of education must open up avenues for the best possible development of each of these faculties of the students. “No big creation is possible without discipline. In present time we cannot concentrate only on one philosophical idea. And Sri Aurobindo’s idea about education was a fine . Sri Aurobindo favours impressionistic discipline. Swabhav form the foundation of education. In a right environment. Sanskars. Old values have been challenged while new values have not firmly taken their place. the psychic. but he is inclined towards emancipationistic discipline also. Character formation very much depends on value. 10. As there came changes in the philosophy of life. education and discipline are mutually related. 12. Education should be imparted through the medium of mother-tongue.8. So. The main function of education is to explain about the realities of life. Value Education The present crisis in man is due to the chaos of values. b). there is a need of value education. (b) Vital. The different philosophies have contributed a lot in determining the aims of education. It will improve our inner purity of mind and we would leave all the luxuries of life. Physical. Yoga Education Sri Aurobindo has said that all organs of the body are purified by yoga which is possible by practice. the aspects of Indian education also under went a change. We can control our body organs through yoga education. the inner being of the student. Education should develop to the full the latent powers of the child. Freedom and Discipline According to Aurobindo. because he is not the favour of imposing discipline by external order. Justification of the Study Education is a purposeful activity. He favours discipline but he does not favour establishing discipline by punishment or force. but a personality having four distinct aspects: (a) Physical.” He believes that life. That will ensure harmonious growth of the person. d). Principles of Education The basic principles of Sri Aurobindo’s educational philosophy are : a). Integral Education An integral education will recognize the individual not as a vague combination of matter (body) and spirit. Brahmcharya should be the basic foundation of education. must dominated the other aspects of his being. e). education helps us to think pure.

7. Therefore. Methods of teaching: 57% students strongly agreed. It shows that the relationship of science and spirituality is eternal and relevant in today’s world. The educational philosophy of Sri Aurobindo has been given due importance in the curriculum of various educational courses especially the curriculum of M. 2. Objectives of the Study The objectives of the present study were: 1. there is hardly any study on Sri Aurobindo that gives a clean account of his educational ideas. To study the educational philosophy of Sri Aurobindo. 30% agreed and 4% students were undecided regarding the place of child in educational process. Research tool: A self-constructed and validated questionnaire for assessing the outlook of students about the relevance of Aurobindo’s educational philosophy was used for data collection. naturalism. Place of Child: 40% students strongly agreed. 3. 37% only agreed. . 46% agreed. It reveals that 100% students believe that teacher is an assistant. Relationship between Spirituality and Science: Majority of the students approximately 97% think that the relationship of science and spirituality emphasized by Aurobindo is an integral part of human experiences. the educational philosophy of Sri Aurobindo must be studied to bring revolutionary evolution in Indian society. To study the outlook of M.synthesis of idealism. Kurukshetra. Moreover. Curriculum: 52% students strongly agreed. and 2% students gave no clear decision over the curriculum prescribed by Aurobindo. 15% undecided and 20% students disagreed with the concept of epistemology given in Aurobindo philosophy.Ed class in the Kurukshetra University. Sri Aurobindo was a great scholar and his philosophy advocates the great ideas of Indian culture. descriptive methods of research was used. 33% agreed and 3% students were undecided about their view-point on methods of teaching emphasized by Aurobindo. Results and discussion 1. It concludes that only few students are aware of the concept of knowledge according to Sri Aurobindo.Ed students studying in various colleges of education in Ambala district. helper and guide of the students. In this context the present study is a humble endeavour to study the various aspects of Sri Aurobindo’s educational philosophy and its relevance in modern era. 6. He tried to modernize education in India by integrating old values with new ones and traditional methods of acquiring knowledge with new innovative methods and higher thinking.Ed students of Ambala District about the relevance of educational philosophy of Sri Aurobindo in modern era. This itself explains the need of understanding Sri Aurobindo’s educational Philosophy for the students of today. Aims of education: 51% students strongly agreed. Methodology: Keeping in view the objectives of the study. A majority of the students think that Aurobindo’s curriculum is relevant in today’s era. 5. 90% of the students admitted that there methods of teaching are effective in the teaching learning process of the education of the child. Sample: The sample of the study consisted of 140 M. 25% agreed. realism. individualism and socialism. He wanted to make India a land of Divinity. 4% undecided and 8% disagreed with the aims of education advocated by Aurobindo. It shows that 70% students agree with the view of Aurobindo about the place of child in education system. Role of Teacher: In response to the role of teacher advocated by Aurobindo 60% students strongly agree and 40% agree with this dimension. Epistemology: Only 40% of students strongly agreed. 4. 2. It reveals that 88% students think that these aims have relevance in today’s educational system.

10. The teacher should help the child in devising his own methods of learning and organizing his experiences that he learns by himself. It brings discipline and concentration to make one successful. 11. The educational philosophy of Aurobindo has relevance not only for teachers but also for administrators. The aims of education. which calls itself national. Integrated Education: 38% students strongly agreed. 12. planners and implementors of educational system. 27% agreed and 15% were undecided about freedom and discipline of child as dictated by Aurobindo. 65% students strongly agreed. Educational Implications Sri Aurobindo defined education as a tool which helps the individual to live for the divine. spiritual salvation. Thus it is clear that 90% students feel that the principle of education given by Aurobindo have relevance in today’s fast growing world. It shows that the principle of yoga given by Aurobindo is helpful in the total well-being of an individual and helps to make the existence of human beings perfect. 20% agreed and only 1% were undecided that yoga has the ability to develop the mental powers of an individual. 21% agreed and 8% students were not decided about the role of integral education given by Aurobindo. Freedom and Discipline: 38% students strongly agreed. The teachers must elevate consciousness of children to develop their spiritual domain. both individual and society should be accepted as part of this integral process and contributes in the evolution of human race in culminating to spiritual end. He advocated the principle of yoga and principle of education according to interest of child which is based on overall development of the personality of child. Education of the child means showing him the way to learn the subjects by himself. The concept of self discipline is fruitful in attaining the ultimate end of education. Thus. Thus the educational philosophy of Aurobindo has great significance and relevance in today’s India and needs to be implemented with much care and considerations. Education is an integral process based on the philosophy of Aurobindo. instructor and guide of students in imparting knowledge. The development of the latent capabilities of child is not only the perfection of individual but of the whole mankind. They need to keep in mind the various principles of educational propagated by Aurobindo to make teaching-learning effective and to attain ultimate end of education i. and this must be the ideal in every school.8. Yoga Education: In response to the yoga education propagate by Aurobindo. Discipline holds the basis of education and helps in developing innate qualities of child. It is clear that 59% students believed that the concept of integral education has imparted role in developing the various aspects of the personality of an individual. for the country. divinity and harmony is important in the scheme of education of today’s world. methods of teaching and curriculum given by Aurobindo have relevance even in the modern society. which is spiritual satisfaction. The teacher should not act as a dictator or narrator rather an assistant. Value Education: The value education advocated by Sri Aurobindo is relevant today also as 70% students strongly agreed and 25% agreed with the values given by Aurobindo. 30% agreed and 2% were undecided regarding the principles of education advocated by Sri Aurobindo. . And according to him. Thus it can be concluded that values education in the formation of spirituality.e. for oneself and for others. Principles of Education: 60% students strongly agreed. we can conclude that 65% students admitted that the self discipline of Aurobindo has relevance in the educational system. The place of child and role of teacher are essential features of Aurobindo’s educational philosophy which are important in today’s educational process. 9.

They watch films and serials very keenly.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. It has become the agency by which the standard of behaviour is transmitted to the new generation. It has also contributed immensely in the field of education. Not only this. During the last few decades. Through on the contrary. Television has become the most popular medium of mass communication in the world. SABCL vol. 8 pp. In a nut shell. pp. The Positive and negative effect of social evils like drugs. the process by which members of our species become human. 1959. Its various programs help a lot in modifying one’s life. They also watch matches and games for their entertainment. 17.103-106 Advance Access publication 21 Mar. as it is being used as an instructional media by various universities. if used in a proper way. Dr.K. It affects their studies also. A System of National Education. television can solve many useful purposes of these targeted students. Teenagers are temped to watch more and more films on the television. George Gaxbner.Jain (PG) College of Education (Affiliated to Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra & NCTE) Ambala City (Haryana) India. P. the Union Minister for Information and Broadcasting observed that it is a land mark in the process of communication. malpractices and other activities can directly be seen on them. Pondicherry.V-34564. in SABCL vol.B.V. dowry system. The researcher observed that television plays an important role in the development of personality of the students. it is also true that Television has played havoc with secondary school students. an American Scholar said. SRI AUROBINDO. Introduction Television is one of the wonders. Television has great influence on the thinking of the secondary school students. B. Almost all the secondary school students like to spend their leisure hours by viewing television programs. It has been proved that more than 80% of our population watches television. blessings and achievements of science. It will also get attention of parents to know about the affects of viewing television by their children. P. 353-54. SRI AUROBINDO. It has also contributed immensely in the field of education.(1990): Sri Aurobindo and The Mother on Education.” Television on a regular basis came to India on 15th September. p.2011 A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF SHAHBAD TOWN TOWARDS ON VIEWING TELEVISION DEEPAK SHARMA* *Assistant Professor.R. 27-28.REFERENCES SAINT. They also watch matches and games for their entertainment. It has become the agency by which the standard of behaviour is transmitted to the new generation. Sri Aurobindo Ashram Press. Its various programs help a lot in modifying one’s life. they also come to know about their surrounding environment with its help. 15. 204 THE MOTHER. ♦ Letter No. It can change their life style and behaviour through good programme positively. “Television has profoundly affected what we call the process of socialization. This paper takes attention of television viewers for its positive and negative aspects of it. Almost all the secondary school students like to spend their leisure hours by viewing television programs. Keskar. Television has both audio as well as visual appeal. as it is being used as an instructional media by various universities. MCW vol.Reg. Television has great influence on the thinking of the secondary school students. They have become . It has been proved that more than 80% of our population watches television. Abstract Television has become the most popular medium of mass communication in the world. They watch films and serials very keenly.

3. To find out differences in television viewing behaviour of boys and girls students of Secondary class of Public Schools. Hypothesis The following hypothesis has been formulated in the context of present study’s objectives: 1. Objective of the Study The objectives formulated for this study are: 1. There is no difference in television viewing behaviour of boys and girls students of Secondary class of Public Schools. It is in our own hands how we use or misuse a thing. Aided School . Design Govt. It can change their life style and behaviour through good programme positively. To find out differences in television viewing behaviour of boys and girls students of Secondary class of Government Schools. Sample The total sample of 300 students of Secondary class students of different types of schools of Shahbad town were selected by following a stratified random sampling procedure on the basis of sex which consists of 50 students from each category. It has positive and negative aspects but it depends upon our usage how to use it in our daily life in this field. Government Schools 2. It affects their studies also. Late night movies keep students awake disturbing the peaceful rhythm of life. The researcher observed that television plays an important role in the development of personality of the students. 2. It is that time of modern age when science and technology has changed the outlook of Indian society. It has made the blockheads out of the students.addicted to television to the extent that they neglect their studies and spend most of their time viewing the television. It is said that excess of everything is bad. It is a mode which is commonly seen in every home. Teenagers are temped to watch more and more films on the television. Need of the Study Modern age has changed the outlook of human beings. Design of the Study The present study will be based on survey method which is conducted on the area of Shahbad district Kurukshetra. There is no difference in television viewing behaviour of boys and girls of Secondary class of. so the researcher has conducted a study of television viewing behaviour of secondary school students and its impact on their educational development. We can persuade our children to make a judicious use of the television so that they can take its positive aspects so as to increase their knowledge. To find out differences in television viewing behaviour of boys and girls students of Secondary class of Government Aided Schools. School Govt. But we can’t blame the television only. Parents are stumped as to what to make out in this scenario. Overdosing of drugs and violence corrupt the minds and morals of students. There is no difference in television viewing behaviour of boys and girls of Secondary class of Government Aided Schools 3.

the researcher found that there is significant difference among their attitude levels towards television viewing behaviour.81 Significance level Significant Significant Significant From the values of the above table the following findings can be attained at: • While comparison was made on viewing television among boys and girls of Secondary class of different schools of Government Schools of Shahbad town District. The investigator has tried his best to cover all the aspects of society and educational implications so that the coming generation can take its positive affects in the field of education and social life. Aided Schools Public Schools Description Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls N 50 50 50 50 50 50 Mean 83.47 4. Studies on the same aspect can also be taken up to study of attitude level of students of colleges towards viewing television. Suggestions for further Research The important suggestions for further research are: 1.86 S.34 1. the researcher found that there is significant difference among their attitude levels towards television viewing behaviour. 1 2 3 Group Govt. Methodology The data was collected by following the normative survey method of investigation for study by knowing the attitude of Secondary class students of Shahbad town towards viewing on television Findings of the Study: S. Studies on the same aspect can also be taken up to study of attitude level of students of other schools of metro cities towards viewing television.8 79 77. 7.E. 4.13 6.7 80.D. • While comparison was made on viewing television among boys and girls of Secondary class of different schools of Public Schools of Shahbad town District. the researcher found that there is significant difference among their attitude levels towards television viewing behaviour.61 4.24 5. 3.No. 2. Studies on the same aspect can also be taken up to study of attitude level of students of other schools of other districts towards viewing television. Schools Govt.Male 50 Female 50 Public School Male 50 Male 50 Female 50 Female 50 Tools Used For the collection of data the investigator has prepared self made questionnaire of 20 questions which covered various questions regarding positive and negative aspects of television viewing. Studies on the same aspect can also be taken up to study of attitude level of teachers of schools of towns/cities towards viewing television. 1.64 4. BIBLIOGRAPHY .26 t-value 3. • While comparison was made on viewing television among boys and girls of Secondary class of different schools of Government Aided Schools of Shahbad town District.8 73 62.18 2.1 S.16 6.58 2.

K.S. It was found that significant difference exist between normal and learning disabled students in terms of concept formation. read. Abstract Secondary school students were identified as normal and learning disabled on the basis of the checklist of the learning disability characteristics.. New Delhi CHAKRABARTI. Introduction Education for the exceptional children is an interesting area in the field of education. Classical Publicating Company. UMER FAROOQUE** *Reader. spoken or written.107-109 Advance Access publication 9 Mar.V-34564. religion and sex. SOUZA. think. P. Y. Workman Pub. MATHUR. spell or do mathematical calculations. The study was conducted on a sample of five hundred and ninety students from twelve secondary schools of Kozhikode District in Kerala. Co. creed. The present study is an attempt to find out whether there exists significant difference between the mean scores of concept formation of normal and learning disabled students. FIREMAN. administrators. (1972). Concept formation is one of the essential aspects of learning.. New Delhi. Research Scholar. K UMAR T. speak. “Video In Rural Development”. But it is very difficult to fulfill the social goals of education due to unequal talent of the learner. Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language. . The educationists. (1998)”Electronic Media”. College of Teacher Education. The learning disabled children are one of the categories of exceptional children face number of critical problems in the learning situation. The present study has been selected from the area of exceptional children. J. Those children who have perceptual problems due to emotional disturbances are called learning disabled children. B.N.2011 A STUDY OF CONCEPT FORMATION OF LEARNING DISABLED STUDENTS DR. Surjit. especially on the learning disabled children.Reg. Department of Education. T.. JAI CHANDI RAM “Educational T. According to the Directive Principle of the constitution equal opportunity should be provided to all individuals in the society irrespective of caste. P ARDEEP: “The Impact of Mass Media on the Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students”. Appeared on 30 Jan 2010 In News. Indian Publisher Distributors ♦ Letter No. (1977).D. BIJAY KUMAR MOHANTY* AND MR. The term concept means a general idea derived or inferred from specific instances or occurrences. SUDARSHAN. write.N.. which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. Some learners do not profit much from the regular class room situation taught by the regular teacher which affects their all round development.AGGARWAL. Balasore (Orissa) India. New Delhi. “Educational Research-An Introduction”.C. counselors and other experts are thinking how to provide equality of educational opportunity to the exceptional children. But there is no significant difference between learning disabled boys and girls in their concept formation. Judy. “Audio Visual Education in India”. “TV Book: The Ultimate Television Book”. K.K.V. **Ph. (1992).D. in India. K. North Orissa University (Orissa) India. The talent of all individuals should be properly utilized for the national development and social reconstruction. HANSRA. NARENDER KUMAR.

To study the concept formation of learning disabled boys and girls. quartile deviation. 2. Concept formation test Collection of Data The investigators personally visited all the twelve secondary schools and with the permission of the head of the institution the tools were administered on 590 students. Tools The following tools were used for the collection of data. and the concept formation test in the second day in each school.: 1. median. The inferential statistical technique such as ‘t’ test (critical ratio) was employed to test different hypotheses. The data were carefully analysed employing the appropriate statistical techniques. To study the concept formation of normal and learning disabled students. 2. 1. Descriptive statistics such as mean. Hypotheses To realize the above objectives the following hypotheses were formulated. The result is given in table 1. Checklist for the identification of the learning disabled students 2. There is no significant difference between the mean concept formation test scores of learning disabled boys and girls. T A B L E 1 Data and result of the Test of Significance of Difference between the means of concept formation of normal and learning disabled students . The checklist for the identification of the learning disabled students was administered in the first day. Methodology Samples The sample for the study includes 590 pupils of standard IX drawn from 12 secondary schools of Kozhikode District in Kerala by using the technique of purposive sampling. mode. Out of the total sample 70 students were identified as learning disabled students by the checklist. There is no significant difference between the mean concept formation test scores of normal and learning disabled students. Comparison of mean scores of concept formation of normal and learning disabled students The investigator tested the significance of difference in the mean scores of the variable concept formation of normal and learning disabled students using the test of significance of difference between means. Of these learning disabled students 42 students were boys and 28 students were girls.Objectives 1. Analysis The total scores obtained from all the subjects on the variable concept formation were computed. The students were given the instruction orally and were also asked to read the instructions given on the tools and motivated to respond genuinely to all the items in the data gathering tools. standard deviation were used to describe the distribution of scores.

2nd ed.63 9. (C. Hence the first hypothesis is rejected.01 level Comparison of the mean scores of concept formation shows that there is significant difference between normal and learning disabled students in their concept development at 0.90 50. This means that concept formation of students is not a factor that differentiates learning disabled boys and girls.23 8.R = 6.Groups Normal students LD Students Mean 61. 4th ed. Statistics in Psychology and Educaton. at 0. Educating Exceptional Children. Comparison of the mean scores of concept formation of learning disabled boys and girls The investigator tested the significance of difference between the mean scores of the concept formation of learning disabled boys and girls by using the test of significance of difference between means.84 Result Significant at 0. The present study reveals that the variable concept formation differ significantly between the normal and learning disabled students and do not differ significantly between the learning disabled boys and girls.05 level.84) § There is no significant difference between the mean scores of concept formation of learning disabled boys and girls even at 0. Findings The findings related to the comparison of the mean scores of the variable concept formation of normal and learning disabled students. 4th ed. Hence the second hypothesis is accepted. MANGAL.89 N 520 70 ‘t’ 6. Fetter and Simons. REFERENCES BEST. New Delhi : PHI Learning.84 N 42 28 ‘t’ 1. (2009).68 SD 11. further shows that the mean scores of the concept formation is higher in normal students than in learning disabled students. GARRET. (1983).50 52.01 level (C. H.09 Result Not significant Comparison of the mean scores of the concept formation shows that there is no significant difference between learning disabled boys and girls in their concept development at 0.K. Bombay : Vakils. An examination of the mean scores of the variable concept formation of normal and learning disabled students.E. Research in Education. (1967). It points that concept development is better in normal students than in learning disabled students. T A B L E 2 Data and Result of the Test of Significance of Difference between the means of concept formation of learning disabled boys and girls Groups LD Boys LD Girls Mean 52. ♦ . S.R = 1.01 level.05 level. The result is given in Table 2.. and learning disabled boys and girls are : § There exists significant difference between the mean scores of concept formation of normal and learning disabled students. New Delhi : Prentice Hall.50 SD 9.09) Conclusion Findings suggest that the variable concept formation that make a difference between normal and learning disabled students. JOHN W.

Department of Education. This include his self concept and his interaction with his family. 1986 . Emotionally disturbed students are one of the categories of exceptional children.Letter No.Love : Emotionally disturbed child is a child who has emotional problems that are serious enough to adversely affect his relationship to some aspect of his environment. school situation and community life. The study was conducted on a sample of five hundred students from ten secondary schools. self concept is not innate. peers. **Research Scholar. But it is very difficult to achieve these principles and objectives of the Indian constitution due to the unequal talents of individuals. The totality of complex. D. political justice and equality. North Orissa University (Orissa) India. emotional.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. This dynamic aspect of self concept is important because it indicates that it can be modified or changed. but is constructed and developed through interaction with the environment and reflecting on that interaction. Abstract The study aimed to analyse the difference in the self concept of emotionally disturbed students and normal students. According to Harlod. attitudes and opinion that each person holds to be true about his or her personal existence.V-34564. The preamble of constitution declares that all the people of the nation must secure social. The principle of liberty. Objectives The following objectives were formulated for the present study. It also shows that there is no gender wise difference in the self concept of emotionally disturbed students. In the school environment different type of students are observed who are different from each other in respect of physical.Reg. mental. dynamics system of learn beliefs.The study reveals that significant difference exist between normal and emotionally disturbed students in their self concept. equality and fraternity have been reflected in the Indian constitution. James 1890) .Of these sixty 38 students were boys and 22 were girls. Introduction Education for all is one of the directive principles of our constitution. Balasore (Orissa) India. The present study focus on the self concept of emotionally disturbed students. According to Purkey (1988). This reflection is based on actual and possible actions in comparisons to one’s own expectations and the expectation of others and to the characteristics and accomplishments of others (Brigham. College of Teacher Education.2011 A STUDY OF SELF CONCEPT OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED STUDENTS DR. M. The children whoes behaviour for their age is deviant from that expected by their culture or social group are called emotionally disturbed children. organized. BIJAY KUMAR MOHANTY* AND K.: 1.116-118 Advance Access publication 11 Mar. People develop and maintain their self-concept through the process of taking action and then reflecting on what they have done and what others tells them about what they have done. Self concept plays a major role among the people to reach at the top of the ladder of success in teaching learning process and other professions. That is. . Out of this total sample sixty students were found emotionally disturbed. emotional and social characteristics. ABDUL SHUKKOOR** *Reader. They are called the children with special needs or Emotionally Disturbed Students. To study the self concept of normal and emotionally disturbed students. They are depressed and behave inappropriately and fail to produce appropriate responses.

Hypothesis – 2 There is no significant difference in the mean self concept test scores of emotionally disturbed boys and girls. To study the self concept of emotionally disturbed boys and girls. 2.65 Table – 1 : Shows that ‘t’ value of 13. There is no significant difference in the mean self concept test scores of normal and emotionally disturbed students. It leads to the inference that self concept of normal students differ significantly from the self concept of emotionally disturbed students.: 1. 60 students were identified as emotionally disturbed students after administering checklist. the date and time were fixed and check list was administered in the first day and self concept questionnaire in the second consecutive days in each school. The ‘t’ test was used to determine the significant difference between in the mean self concept test scores of emotionally disturbed boys and girls.01 level.65 was found to be significant at 0. .56 N 440 60 ‘t’ Value 13.2. Out of the total of 60 emotionally disturbed students. T A B L E 2 Difference between mean self concept test scores of emotionally disturbed boys and girls. Analysis Hypothesis – 1 There is no significant difference in the mean self concept test scores of normal and emotionally disturbed students The ‘t’ test was used to determine the significant difference between the mean self concept test scores of normal and emotionally disturbed students. 2.95 SD 11. 38 students were boys and 22 students were girls.02 39. There is no significant difference in the mean self concept test scores of emotionally disturbed boys and girls. T A B L E 1 Difference between mean self concept test scores of normal and emotionally disturbed students. Tools used The following tools were used for the collection of data. The study conducted on 500 students of class IXth standard of 10 Secondary schools of Malappuram District of Kerala. Hence the first hypothesis was rejected. Sample Random sampling method has been used for this study. Checklist for Identifying Emotionally Disturbed Students. Self-concept Questionnaire. Groups Normal EDS Mean 60. Out the total 500 sample. Collection of Data After consultation with the Headmasters of the school.9 10. Hypotheses The following research hypotheses were tested in the present study : 1.

533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5.P.. Self concept is one of the important possible dimensions of the personality which gives direction to one’s whole life. PURKEY W. 4th ed. Brown & Co. Research in Education. S..Reg.Nagar (U..Groups EDS Boys EDS Girls Mean 39. GARRET H. REFERENCES BEST J. (1999). R. Comaprison between self concept and self efficiency in academic Motivation research.2011 EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA NEEDS A TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION BRAJESH KUMAR* *Lecturer in Education. Pvt.. Feffer and Simsons Pvt. Abstract Since we have got independence we are facing challenges to establish a great and strong education system.Ltd.C.25 N 38 22 ‘t’ Value 0. PHI Learning Pvt.30 SD 10.Ltd.. New Delhi. Social psychology.36 10. New Delhi BONG.2 : shows that t value of 0. MANGAL. (2008). (1988). An Overview of Self Concept Theory for Counselors. Bostan. Findings The findings of the present study summarised as follows : Ø There is a significant difference in the mean self concept test scores of normal and emotionally disturbed students. 7th ed. M & CLARK.23 Table.. Hence the second hypothesis is accepted.95 39. ♦ Letter No. The study also revealed that there is no significant difference in the self concept among the emotionally disturbed boys and girls. Conclusion On the basis of the obtained results.. Bombay.V-34564. Pvt. Little. So the parents and teachers must be take necessary steps to inculcate self concept among the emotionally disturbed students.(2009).K.Ltd.) India. Vikas Publishing House. It is evident that the self concept of normal secondary students is higher than the self concept of emotionally disturbed students. Ø There is no significant difference in the mean self concept test scores of emotionally disturbed boys and girls. Education of Exceptional Children. Indian national congress tried to moderate the pace of education in India and given emphasis on technical and vocational training programs which are still running. Though we all are trying to build a knowledge society the present paper tries an attempt to highlight on the consequences and importance of e-learning in the system of education in India to compete .W. G. BRIGHAM J (1986).. (1982). 2nd ed. PANDA. Dhoom Manikpur. (1967) Statistics in Psychology and Education.B. Prentice Hall of India.119-123 Advance Access publication 26 Mar. New Delhi.E. K.E. Educating Exceptional Children. NCPE. Vakils.23 was found to be not significant.. It leads to the inference that self concept of emotionally disturbed boys and girls have no significant difference. 4th ed.Ltd.

all people should have access to the best education the world can provide. Severe gender. do not necessarily have access to schools. street children and victims of riots and natural disasters. especially after Class 10. low levels of learning and achievement. and caste disparities also exist. We must strongly believe that access to educational opportunities is a basic human right for all. CISCE (Council for the Indian Schools Certificates Examination) and IB (International Baccalaureate) examination boards. to obtain a bank loan. the large number of teacher vacancies. Other groups of children at risk such as orphans. At the top end are Englishlanguage schools affiliated to the upscale CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education). governmentaided and government schools on the basis of ability to pay and social class. India would need to build new schools. male literacy varies . Therefore. poorly functioning schools. And on the bottom it is poorly managed government or municipal schools. not just a privilege for the few. it is estimated that at least 35 million. Unsurprisingly. An illiterate person is significantly less equipped to defend herself in court. And we believe that the technology already exists to accomplish this goal—so together we can change the world. Those who cannot afford private schooling attend Englishlanguage government-aided schools. The 1991 census indicated that about half of the adult population was unable to read or write. Despite efforts to incorporate all sections of the population into the Indian education system. have lower literacy rates. We can .globally. large numbers of young people are still without schooling. Regardless of whether one is from a urban or rural sector. The traditional education solution isn’t going to be adequate to overcome the educational challenges it is facing. instead children are channeled into private. Literacy is an essential tool for self-defense in a society where social interactions include the written media.and how? Yes. to participate successfully in the modern economy and society. children aged 6–14 years are not in school. which cater for the children of the poor majority.. India must find a cost effective solution for educating its people. Therefore. poor quality of education and inadequate funds. one’s status or location. Although enrolment in primary education has increased. to take advantage of new technology. to enforce inheritance rights. regional. keep these materials current and put in place more bureaucracy that leads to ever escalating costs at the sacrifice to education. a stress on employment guarantees and the establishment of a National Rural Health Mission are thus welcome developments in this respect. to take part in political activity – in short. train and retain teachers. while education for all is safeguarded by the Constitution.. to compete for secure employment. affiliated to state-level examination boards. literacy rates vary widely between states.. The northern Hindi-belt states. whose economic performance has been worse than that of western and southern states. high teacher absenteeism. through mechanisms such as positive discrimination and non-formal education. inadequate school infrastructure. Furthermore. appears to be committed to confronting these challenges. one is born in a city or a village. the United Progressive Alliance.. Under that model. and between genders. and possibly as many as 60 million. a technological solution for its entire people needs to be identified. to get onto the right bus. The main problems are the high drop-out rate. Female literacy varies from around 34 per cent in Bihar to 88 per cent in Kerala. buy books and collateral supplies. Technology is the answer…… Introduction India’s education system is facing challenges that may be one of the biggest facing any nation in the 21st Century. offering globally recognized syllabuses and curricula. there is no common school system.definitely build it…. And most importantly how can we do it for less than it is currently costing India. and a majority of people can now access educational resources. • The present Indian government. child-laborers. actualized and implemented. • The introduction of a 2 per cent education access (surcharge) on tax. Faced with the fastest population growth and poor technical infrastructure in rural regions. as reflected in their Common Minimum Program. the quality of the education that young people in Indian receive varies widely according to their means and background.

. It is important then to realize that today’s students demand information to be delivered on demand from the best minds more quickly and in more emotionally stimulating and contextually relevant formats. technology industry and education into a collective mission dedicated to realizing the vision of Educated India and learning for ALL. In essence this is a continuation of Gandhi’s struggle for equality and fairness for the people of India. The Significance of Education Through E-Learning and Technology Current instructional pedagogy is tied to task allocation—a cornerstone of industrialization. India will enjoy as a result of elevating education to be equal and accessible for all across cities. technology allows us to have relationships with information in our own. Technology can also simulate a range of conditions. Perhaps even more important. Therefore. this historical disconnect between the standard and the needs of differentiated learners is now being felt more profoundly than ever. Therefore. towns and villages. retention. in Indians. In today‘s times there is important views that organizations form on the investments in human capital and enterprise IT systems with enterprise success metrics such as revenue. make a learning moment more memorable. Rajasthan suffers the widest gender difference: female literacy stands at 44 per cent. nationality. focus attention.between 60 per cent in Bihar and 94 per cent in Kerala. and culture all combine to create a student body that is incredibly difficult to homogenize. The outcome we seek will benefit millions. and synchronouslearning regardless of physical location. wherever they are located. The intention of virtual classrooms is to extend the structure and services that accompany formal education programs from the campus or learning center to learners. technology engages learners by structuring and organizing information. or choice of digital reception/distribution device. Therefore. and kinesthetic experience? The more engaging the experience and the more intentional the results. class. The virtual classroom is for learners who may be pursuing a distance education degree made up entirely of online lessons. unique ways. tens of millions. It can help make a learning experience more memorable and can help relate new information to that which is already known. E-learning programs are implemented in the following ways: • The virtual classroom : This model of e-learning continues to be the most familiar analogue for building elearning programs. This phenomenon effectively shifts the question from ¯Will technology improves learning? ¯How much further will technology let us push the envelope of human cognitive. immerse people in virtual environments. Yet. environment. knowledge measurement.and off-campus locations—in a real-time class session via the Internet. Such an effort to revolutionize education in India will not be possible without bringing together leaders in government. Since the mid-19th Century. there is no doubt that e-learning provides a foundation for performance monitoring that makes those correlations between people and learning technologies possible. hybrid. gender. the greater is the likelihood that learning will occur. by displaying and demonstrating procedures and operations. where students join in from a variety of on. time of day. and it may include campus-based courses. or demonstrate the relevancy of learning toperformance. the greater is the likelihood that technology will have a direct positive effect on learning. affective. factors such as ethnicity. language. What is the methodology through which technology and e-learning can develop tools to bridge these divides? The answer lies in nature’s oldest and most successful learning tool. and provide safe practice opportunities as mastery is developed—all of which are necessary conditions for maximizing the probability that learning will occur. Types of E-Learning E-learning is emerging as a solution for delivering online. profitability. technology can help strengthen learner motivation. and talent attraction. male at 77 per cent. training has followed the prescription of task allocation and delivered education to students believed to be socially and mentally standardized groups. Therefore.

distant. functional specifications. • Provides the power to be able to determine the kinds of outcomes that a learning engagement should enable guides the developments of instructional designs. With the growing demand of online media as a necessary source of information. Flash Media Server. MP3 players. Online learning programs in India offer: • No need to actually live on campus or near the university • Great flexibility in the type of course you choose to study • A wide range of online programs to choose from High quality online learning programs are being developed in India not only used by students but also many companies for their employees. It is important to understand that all solutions for e-learning are all based upon creating and extending rich.• Online learning : This model of e-learning revolves around its dependence on courseware. Mobile learning provides the opportunity to connect informal learning experiences that occur naturally throughout the day with formal learning experiences. students give more preference to computers. Why do Students go for online learning programs in India? In fact. online learning programs is known as online education or e-learning that has a number of benefits including: • • • • • Flexible. you can understand online learning program is a way of “learning while working”. • Rapid E-Learning : This is a direct response to e-learning products that made it hard for nontechnical subject matter experts and learners to contribute and make use of multimedia learning content to the knowledge base. in India students gather knowledge through traditional education system. but also they can procure authentic information and knowledge about their topics. the significance of online learning programs in India cannot be ignored. Putting your name down for online learning programs will allow you to participate in online classes from the major institutions as well as universities throughout the India and also around the world. engaging learning experiences that connect learners with instructors. In short. • Opportunities to use Interactions that promote and enable a strong sense of social presence help keep learners engaged and motivated. • E-learning also provides for the metrics for evaluation. retentive.you can set your own study time table in tune with your needs. other learners. and it takes advantage of placeindependent flexibility that comes from working away from the desktop. It is a fact that with the rising group of well qualified individuals. game consoles. and Flash Lite. But in the age information technology. Students across India are not only saving their time and money. concept specifications. which in turn allow them avail multimedia technologies to procure materials for their studies. Common tools for producing mobile learning content include Flash Professional. and technical specifications. students now seek online assistance to get customised relevant data. and e-learning experiences. and rich learning content assets regardless of physical location. Learn from the comfort of your own home Accessibility of updated study materials Online tests Experts available round-the-clock There are also added benefits of online learning programs Added Benefits of Online Learning Program In India Online learning programs are different from traditional education systems and there is no need of a classroom and face-to-face interaction with teachers. delivered over the Internet to learners at a variety of locations where the primary interaction between the learner and the experiences of their learning occur via Networked Computer Technology. PDAs. including laptop computers. With the help of . In other words. The keyword is ENGAGEMENT and this is what binds together all types of distributed. • Mobile learning : This type of learning builds on the availability of ubiquitous networks and portable digital devices. and mobile phones.

or completing assignments and connecting with others in virtual classrooms. based on their ability to interact within an intelligent e-learning environment. functional specifications. • It will then become easy to create and deliver a complete open course-ware online education media solution to any web enabled device. young or old. accommodation. • There will be shift in learning. effective e-learning programs enables new levels of engagement and participation among all learning stakeholders. town. anytime. and local and regional control of educational content will become a thing of the past. play a significant role and we need to stand up and realize the value that rich. • Teachers will no longer need to be experts in subject areas. urban or rural. • It will be about students being able to earn and spend reward points for achieving goals and milestones. rich or poor. so will there be a change in the way schools and colleges operate. Instead experts will be delivering their thought and ideas directly to the students. and management tools contribute to the experience of rich. • It will provide tremendous efficiencies by allowing a global community of enthusiasts. and retain them. • There will be more avenues available to more people on job training and professional training programs that traditionally were limited to specialized institutions. • Teachers will become more like mentors and guidance counselors to their students and as a result India will be able to train more teachers faster. and anywhere from multiple authorities from the comfort of your home. knowledge application and mentoring. distribution. • It will be about playing exciting e-games that emphasize the topics key points you just watched or listened too. e-learning and technology mediation. schools. concept specifications. food. village. Therefore. high tutors’ fee and many others. They will also provide metrics for evaluation.online learning programs students are gaining higher education without any expenses including on travel. • Technology and Learning can enable education that is not anymore limited to a particular region or age group. critical thinking skills and social and interpersonal skills. city from any web-enabled device. engaging content creation. • Just as communities of writers sort out topics on Wikipedia a community of global educators will sort out the order in which learning should progress for every subject. and technical specifications in the field of education. • It will lend a helping hand in the process of identification of brilliant global students living in villages of India. . • It will be learning anything. helping to increase the teacher to student ratio in classes. Educational institutions. • It will eliminate the need to repeatedly create lesson plans. • There will be new roles for schools – it can mean the end of thoughtless evaluation tests. colleges will become the heaven for networking. Interactions that promote and enable a strong sense of social presence help and keep learners engaged and motivated. Advantages Of E-Learning Technology and Learning when together will majorly help improve many of the problems facing India by creating a complete education system -for every student. grades and abusive certificates. • Our teachers will become more focused on teaching problem solving techniques. Conclusion E-learning engagement should enables and guides the developments of instructional designs. teachers and practitioners to develop open course ware.

Advance organizer model was developed by David Ausbel in 1960. The traditional system of education inherited from the colonial rulers was criticized by many educators and they realized the need for a change adaptable to Indian context. Department of Education. **Ph. As a result models of teaching strategies evolved as a hybrid of educational technology and educational psychology. Models of teaching are results of such attempts to make classroom teaching and learning more fruitful. Sample : Two divisions of 8th standard students of Government High School. Abstract Background : Innovative teaching strategies enhances the learning and retention of students. and management tools contribute to the experience of rich. A model is a systematic instructional plan that aims at accomplishing the stated objectives and it makes the teaching learning process more effective and efficient.Reg. ♦ Letter No. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Thoughts on renovation of classroom teaching learning process always lead to experiments in teaching which ultimately lead to the invention and practice of new teaching strategies. North Orissa University (Orissa) India. The drastic changes brought by science and technology on all walks of human life knocked the gates of educational system also. Areacode. Introduction A model of teaching is a plan or pattern that can be used to shape curriculum. to design instructional material and to guide instruction in the classroom and other settings (Joyce and Weil. Ausbel is one of the few psychologists to address learning. descriptive analysis and differential analysis were used as statistical techniques. BIJAY KUMAR MOHANTY* AND AFEEF THARAVATTATH** *Reader. One division was considered as experimental group and other as control group. Every man is but the product of his beliefs.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. distribution. in which. and the value that rich. engaging content creation. Conclusion : Advance organizer model of teaching enhances the achievement of both boys and girls. The recent developments in the field of psychology and sociology paved the way to adopt new teaching learning strategies.D. The design was two groups – pre-test – post-test parallel group design. Research Scholar. 1972).2011 EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVANCE ORGANISER MODEL ON ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES DR. Effective e-learning programs enables new levels of engagement and participation among all learning communities particularly in the system of education. and what he thinks.124-126 Advance Access publication 15 Mar. It isbelieved that India is uniquely positioned to achieve a significant competitive advantage in the world economy by being among the first to implement a flat education system for its entire people before the end of the next decade. Balasore (Orissa) India. As descriptive analysis the investigator calculated mean and standard deviation and as differential analysis ‘t’ test was used. there is a demand for the learners active participation is given particular emphasis. teaching . Aim : The present study aims the analysis and interpretation of the effectiveness of advance organizer model on achievement in biological sciences among secondary school students. Kerala were selected as the sample. College of Teacher Education.V-34564. Teaching model. In this study. Method : The investigator conducted an experimental type study. he becomes.The significant role played by technology mediation. This goal can be accomplished by partnering with technology to develop a complete free open source education solution for its people and peoples of the world. Result : Analysis of the mean scores of experimental and control groups reveal that there is a significant difference in the achievement of both groups and there is no significant difference in the achievement of boys and girls of experimental group. His theory of learning is also known as the “theory of meaningful verbal learning”.

to assess the achievement of experimental and control group. . Advance organizer model is based on the theory of meaningful verbal learning of David Ausbel. Jalota to assess the general mental ability of the experimental and control groups. The other tool used was the achievement test in science. The experimental group comprised 45 students of which 24 were male and 21 were female. This assumption lead to the selection of the topic for study. Ausbel’s primary concern is to help teachers to organize and convey large amounts of information as meaningfully and effectively as possible. As soon as the pre-tests were completed. Methodology Sample Purposive sampling technique was utilized for this study. Two divisions of 8th standard students of Government High School. Objectives 1. 2) How the mind works to process new information and 3) How teachers can apply these ideas about curriculum and learning when they present new materials to students (instruction). Areacode. the experimental group was taught by the investigators using the prepared advance organizer model lesson plans. The investigators believes that innovative and interesting teaching strategies will definitely enhance and increase the learning and retention of students. So the investigators were able to measure and compare the performance due to treatment. Hypotheses 1. There is no significant difference in the mean achievement test scores of boys and girls taught through advance organizer model. The test was constructed by the investigators following the steps of achievement test construction. His theory of meaningful verbal learning deals with three concerns 1) How knowledge is organized. To study the effectiveness of advance organizer model on the achievement in biological sciences among secondary school students. There is no significant difference in the mean achievement test scores of experimental and control group taught through advance organizer model in biological sciences.pre-test – post-test parallel group experimental design.and curriculum development simultaneously. Hence. 2. The control group comprised 53 students of which 27 were male and 26 were female. the investigators used a translated version of Group Test of Mental Ability (1972) developed by Dr. Data Collection The investigator used two groups. Kerala were selected as the sample. The control group was taught by the traditional method. One division was considered as experimental group and the other as control group. 2. 30 lesson plans were prepared based on advance organizer model teaching strategy from unit I to unit IV of class VIII biological science syllabus. Enhanced learning and retention will lead to better achievements. S. To study the difference in the achievement of boys and girls taught through advance organizer model. After consultation with the head of the institution the investigator administered intelligence test and achievement test on both experimental and control groups as pre-test.S. Tools In this study.

ANALYS I S H1 Test of significance of mean achievement test scores of experimental and control groups Groups Experimental Control Groups Boys Girls N 45 53 N 24 21 Mean 43. PANNEERSELVAM. (1983). Mean (M) and Standard Deviation (SD) of the scores were calculated.H.After administration of the treatment achievement test was again administered as post-test on both experimental and control groups. ♦ . D.1 44. JOYCE. AUSBEL. New York : Grune and Stratton Inc. Cognitive psychology and its implications. The answer scripts of pre-tests and post-tests were valued and gain scores were calculated. The models of teaching. Boys and girls show no significant difference in achievement due to the treatment with advance organizer model. S (1998). New Delhi : Prentice Hall. A & SANTHANAM.2 30. Innovative and interesting teaching strategies bring positive results and better learning and retention among students. § The treatment of advance organizer model teaching strategy has no gender wise effect on achievement. (1985). After scoring the tests. M (1972). JOHN W. Significance of difference between mean scores of experimental and control groups as well as between the boys and girls of experimental group was determined. Introduction to educational technology.7 SD 5.1 4. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.42 Result Not significant Findings § The treatment of advance organiser model teaching strategy is comparatively effective for the enhancement of achievement in biological sciences among secondary school students.P. Conclusion The study reveals that advance organizer model is more effective than traditional teaching method in enhancing the achievement in biological sciences among secondary school students. SAMPATH. B & WEIL. JOHN R. BEST. The psychology of meaningful verbal learning. K. New Delhi : Prentice Hall. Research in Education. Teachers must try to adopt novelty and variety to improve the classroom teaching learning process. Freeman and Company.3 9. (1963). New York : W. REFERENCES ANDERSON .64 Result Significant at 0.5 Mean 42.8 ‘t’ value 8.2 SD 4. Boys and girls are equally benefited by advance organizer model in attaining high scores in achievement test in biological sciences.01 level H2 Test of significance of mean achievement test scores of boys and girls ‘t’ value 1.

Letter No. . Newton embodied the interrelationship between the physical concepts of forces.2011 OUTLOOK OF GRADUATE CLASS STUDENTS OF KARNAL DISTRICT REGARDING THE TOPIC MECHANICS IN MATHEMATICS NIDHI CHAUDHARY* *Lecturer in Mathematics. Imp. mass and acceleration into his three laws of motion. Need of the Study Recognizing that the teacher is the most important factor in student achievement. which is not as yet possible to arrange under a few laws. between force. These principles are equally applicable to the movement of large celestial objects or the motion of simple tennis ball. or postulates. 2000 years. The latter take cognizance of a great number of isolated facts. The ability of Newtonian Mechanics to accurately describe natural phenomenon under observation is derived from application of these distinct laws of motion. To in-corporate the following best practices effectively.V-34564. By using vectors to depict the magnitude and direction of a body in motion. Mechanics is further divided into many categories but the starting level the base of mechanics is Newtonian Mechanics. mass and motion. Natural philosopher and 17th century scientist Isaac Newton developed a set of universal principles. teachers need to routinely reflect and collaborate on instructional practices student progress and know and understand the mathematics. Introduction Mechanics is a natural Science and like any natural science requires for its comprehension the observation and knowledge of a vast fund of individual cases. What is Newtonian Mechanics Newtonian Mechanics is the study of causal relationship in the natural world. and the degree to which these objects change their relative motion by interacting with external forces. hence.127-130 Advance Access publication 10 Apr. teachers need to know and understand that the mathematics they will be teaching as well as participate in on – going professional development to enhance knowledge of content and pedagogy. Karnal Institution of Technology and Management Karnal (Haryana) India. Newtonian Mechanics provides analytical tools that an observer can use to accurately predict changes in a body’s motion resulting from external force acting upon it. as well as manner in which external forces impact that body. But Mechanics is not an empirical subject in the sense in which physics and chemistry when dealing with border region of the human knowledge of the day are empirical. They will be teaching at a deep enough level to be able to explain and apply his/her understanding in several of formats. Arid so the solution of problems is of prime importance throughout all the study of this subject.Reg. to help explain and predict the motion of objects in the natural world. elegant in their simplicity. as in the recent past of Science when first they emerged into the light of day. like the laws of Geometry. and will be as new arid. The laws of mechanics.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. so far as first approximation 90 the laws that explain the motion of the golf ball or the gyro scope or which make possible the calculation of lunar tables and the predication of eclipses these laws are known. an observer can accurately predict the net resultant velocity and direction of a body – which is the sum of all external forces acting on that body at any given point in time.

Sc / B. Statement of the Topic: “Outlook of Graduate Class Students of Karnal District regarding the topic Mechanics in Mathematics” Objectives of the Study There are various objectives of this study: 1.A/ B. Hypothesis The following hypotheses were formulated for the present investigation: 1. To compare the outlook of male and female students of graduate Class of urban area of Karnal District regarding the topic Mechanics in Mathematics 2. UK engineering science and industry prize highly the skill of Mathematical modeling and problem solving grounded in Newton’s Mechanics urgent access to and uptake of Newton’s Mechanics at ages 16-19. Regular Test and Practice. Com of Karnal District has been taken for knowing outlook of graduate class students regarding the topic mechanics in mathematics. Asses to inform instruction and summarize learning. Provide differentiated classroom instruction using a variety of instructional methods and interventions. engineering and applied mathematics at university. 3. To compare the outlook of male and female students of graduate Class of rural area of Karnal District regarding the topic Mechanics in Mathematics 3. There exists no significant difference between mean scores of male and female students of graduate Class B. There has been a significant decline in the take up of Mechanics following curriculum changes in 2004 and students in 30-40% of school and colleges now have minimal access to Mechanics modules (at most one). Com of Karnal District regarding the topic Mechanics in Mathematics 2. simple random method of sampling was used. But each year more students arrive with little or no experience of it. 4. 3.A / B. A sample of 200 students of Males and Females students of B.Suggestions 1. There exists no significant difference between mean score of male and female students of graduate Class B. Snapshot from a recent fraction unit. To compare the outlook of male and female students of graduate Class of urban area and rural area of Karnal District regarding the topic Mechanics in Mathematics Sample For the purpose of research.Sc/ B.Com of Karnal District regarding the topic Mechanics in Mathematics boy and girl students of secondary class of CBSE.A/ B. Need to Teach Mechanics “Newtonian Mechanics plays a vital role in preparing students at 16-19 for physics. 2. There exists no significant difference between mean scores of male and female students of graduate Class of B.Sc of Karnal District regarding the topic Mechanics in Mathematics Methodology .

and a number of simple problems in Mechanics are cited where example-based teaching commonly leads to misunderstanding.87 9.41 t-value 0.36 5. A recommendation is made for direct teaching of the basic principles of mechanics # It is possible to explain concepts like space-time to kids.76 & girls = 105.31 11.The data were collected by following the normative survey method of investigation for study by utilizing the attitude scale to measure Outlook of Graduate Class Students of Karnal District regarding the topic Mechanics in Mathematics.D. The novelties of this research are : 1. The calculated t-value 0. but by the development of the fundamental examples and demonstration of the paradigm.52 107. The calculated of t-value 5.92) and Females(101.80 and 12. such as Newtonian mechanics.01) with S.2 2. but is difficult for many students to learn.83 respectively.D.3 respectively.Sc (boys = 101. 9. At least in senior years.24 Significance level Not significant Significant Significant From the values of the above table the following findings can be attained at: 1.80 respectively.E.A/ B.3 12.88 2.Com Males(107. but for disciplines which have become classical.31 and 11. education can also only be example-based rather than axiomatic. Findings of the Study S. The ability of the tutoring system to select test items with difficulties that are appropriate for the students.24 reveals that there is significant difference between the two means B.88) with the S.36 reveals that there is no significant difference between the two means (Science =106. gravity is really wraps and curves in space-time.88 S. 1 2 3 Variable BSc BA/BCom BA/ BCom BSc Description BSc BA/BCom Males Females Males Females N 100 100 50 50 50 50 Mean 106. don’t teach kids Newtonian Mechanics exclusively. # At least start telling people that by the way. The result from formative evaluation on iTutor indicate that it is adaptive working in a well structured knowledge space and able to use the information gathered from the student’s responses to dynamically modify the presentation in clearly defined ways.80 12.D.01 107. . For disciplines still at the research frontier.) that can be taught. 9. 3. # Because it works here on earth and its easy to understand? Sure it works-but its wrong and that’s no excuse not to teach (even just the concepts) of relativity.52 & Arts =107. 2. 3. (PDF) A Bayesian Tutoring System for Newtonian Mechanics baywood. 2.77 9.87 & 9.04) with S.77 reveals that there is significant difference between the two mean values of the students of B. 9.80 S.76 105. Computerized tutoring can assist the teacher provide individualized instruction. teaching should be performed using more appear to be the case.D. This article presents the application of decision theory to develop a tutoring system iTutor.83 9. # Because relativity is too hard to understand? There is some amount of relativity (concepts etc. The automation of student diagnosis that is made possible when tutoring alternatives and the utilizes for different outcomes are incorporated.com Newtonian Mechanics is a core module in technology courses.04 101.92 101. The calculated t-value 9. # Relativity started with observations and motion is a theory based on motion. to select optimal tutoring action under uncertainty of student’s mastery states. Suggestions for Method of Teaching Mechanics Normal scientific work is developed not mainly from basic axioms. 12. Metapress. Don’t even try to say its not.No.

Systematic interaction between a teacher and a learner are necessary for cognitive and attitude development. It is an experimental study with pre-test post-test equivalent group design. Ebook 3000. Attitude means the individual’s prevailing tendency to respond favourabily or unfavourabily to an object (person or group of people. Allport defines attitude as a mental and neural state of readiness. Wisegeek.com www. concept learning and discovery learning. b) affective component: feeling towards the object and c) conative behavioural component. The information processing teaching models provides knowledge and understanding to the students about new information and facts. Balasore (Orissa) India. whether accurate or not.V-34564.S (1966) has advocated certain type of learning and determining what one is attempting to teach the learner.W. BIJAY KUMAR MOHANTY** *Research Scholar in North Orissa University (Orissa) India. Social psychologists distinguish and study three components of the responses: a) cognitive components.131-133 Advance Access publication 15 Mar. The teaching models are very useful for teachers for planning and organizing teaching activities. which is the action taken toward the object. Investigator used Geography Attitude scale.2011 EFFECTIVENESS OF CONCEPT ATTAINMENT MODEL IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF GEOGRAPHY LEARNING ATTITUDE K. CTE. The data collected from 9th standard students. *Reader in Education. Abstract Effect of concept attainment model on the development of Attitude towards Geography learning of secondary school students was analyzed in this study.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5.Reg. The teacher can make its use in planning curriculum. G. Scholastic. MAHAMOOD SHIHAB* AND DR.REFERENCES www. institutions or events). Introduction Teaching models are just instructional designs. Attitudes can be positive(values) o or negative ( prejudice). He has stressed active and conceptual aspect learning classifying. organized through experience. ♦ Letter No. Bruner J. M. exerting a directive and dynamic influence upon an individual’s response to the objects and situation with which it is related. They describe the process of specifying the producing particular environmental situations which cause the student to interact in such a way that specific changes occur in behavior. . to improve teacher pupil interaction and to develop specific behaviors attitudes in the students. The result revealed that concept attainment model was more effective to develop attitude towards Geography than traditional methods. Data was analyzed the help of ‘t’ test. which is the knowledge about an attitude object. Com www2.

Geography Learning Attitude Scale scores Group Experimental Mean 20. Methodology Sample Purposive sampling method is used for this study. Group mental ability test by Jalota. To study the differences in the attitude towards geography of boys and girls taught through CAM. Objectives 1.84 SD 6. Out of the total sample.0539 Result Significantat 0. 2.66 N 48 ‘t’ 3. Geography learning attitude scale was administrated before and end of the treatment. T A B L E 1 Control Vs Experimental Post.1 level . Geography learning attitude scale. Tools 1. 2. For measuring dependent variable attitude towards geography learning. Standard Deviation and ‘t’ test. The investigator administered Group Mental Ability Test by Jalota to equalize experimental and control groups. These academic contents were taught through traditional method to the control group and through CAM to the experimental group. The gathered data treated with Mean. Result and discussion The following tables furnish the data on post test regarding the performance of control and experimental groups on Geography Learning Attitude Scale scores. 2. The investigator developed and standardized a scale on geography learning attitude. The sample (experimental -48. Analysis and Interpretation of Data In the this study pre/post test experimental method has been used. There is no significant difference in the mean attitude scale score of experimental and control groups. Hypothesis 1. The significance of the present study is to find out how far concept attainment model effect the development of attitude of students towards geography learning. in experimental group 20 were boys and 28 were girls students. There will be no significant difference in the mean attitude scale score of boys and girls of experimental group. Hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference in the mean attitude scale score of experimental and control groups. To study the effectiveness of CAM in the development of attitude of the students towards Geography.In this study the word attitude is defined in finding out tendency of the secondary school students towards teaching geography. control-42) were drawn from 9th standard students from secondary school. Treatment The investigator prepared 30 lesson plans for concept attainment model of 30 units of Geography.

Control

16.65

4.34

42

From the table.1 it was indicated that the ‘t’ value is significant. It means that there is significant difference between the post geography attitude scale scores of experimental and control groups. Hypothesis. 2 : There will be no significant difference in the mean attitude scale score of boys and girls of experimental group. T A B L E 2 Experimental -Boys and Girls- Post Geography Learning Attitude Scale Test
Group Experimental Sex Boys Girls Mean 22.38 21.06 SD 7.47 6.98 N 20 28 ‘t’ 0.2913 Result Not significant at 0.1 level

From the table -2 it was observed that the ‘t’ value of experimental group boys and girls is not significant. It state that the mean of post geography attitude scale score of experimental boys and girls do not differ significantly from each other.

Findings
1. Concept attainment model is more effective than conventional method with respect to the development of geography learning attitude for secondary school students. 2. There is no gender difference between boys and girls of experimental groups in the development of geography learning attitude through Concept attainment model

Conclusion
The findings of this study suggest that practice of concept attainment model is very effective to develop a positive attitude towards learning geography in the secondary schools. Concept attainment model can make even the most boring and difficult subject interesting.

REFERENCESS
ARENDS, I, RICHARD (1996), ‘Learning to teach. Mc Graw Hills, Inc New York. BRUNER, J.S. (1960), The process of education, Haward university press, Cambridge, Mass. BRUNER, T.S. (1966), Toward a theory of instruction, Haward university press, Cambridge, mass. GARRETT, H.E.(1961), Statistics in psychology and education ,Allied pacific P.Ltd Bombay. JOYCE . B, WEIL . M, CALHOUM . E (2009), Models of teaching (8th ed) Boston person education, Inc. Mc Donald, D. WEITEN, WAYNE (1995), Psychology; Themes and Variations, Mc Graw Hill, New York.

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5,134-137 Advance Access publication 13 Mar.2011

HUMAN PREDICAMENT IN THE PLAYS OF HAROLD PINTER
DHANANJOY GARAI*
*Department of English, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi (U.P.) India.

Harold Pinter’s characters have to confront with the basic problems of being & existence. They have to face loneliness, the impenetrable mystery of the universe and death. But death comes not always from the outside but some time from the inside of the room. Each play of Pinter is about ‘The weasel under the cocktail cabinet’. Hence there is always a kind of tension inside the mind of each character of Pinter. This kind of threat, fear creates a gloomy atmosphere in his play. The human beings in the world of Pinter are always in panic. So his plays are truly termed as comedy of menace. The characters of Pinter belong to a society but their social identity is not certain. The fear of dispossession and insecurity are two general characteristic of human predicament in the world of Pinter. Pinter’s characters know that they are in a hostile world & the proverb, “survival for the fittest”. Hence they struggle to one another for territorial space & linguistic space. For have them, they use physical & verbal power. Michel Foucault has analyzed everything in terms of power. He uses the term discourse, truth, knowledge & power. The characters of Pinter follow Foucault’s concept of power. Sometime ideological state apparatus and direct state apparatus of Althuser are used in Pinter’s play. Gramsci’s concept of hegemony is also related to Pinter’s plays. Hence human predicament in Pinter’s play is not well-enough but very hostile to exist. In this situation Pinter’s characters are living accepting the social surroundings. For this they have to maintain social rituals and norms. Though Pinter is an Absurd play writer but with a difference. Whereas Becket’s plays have no certain space, Pinter’s plays have a space, social space to live. But Pinter is not thoroughly an absurd writer. Only there are some features of absurd writing in his plays. We can recognize his characters, and their identity partially. Even the plays of Pinter & his characters seem to us as absurd. In this regard, Gurucharan Behera comments, “Absurdity is manifest in the lack of purpose and direction certainty and continuity consistency and stability in human life. Pinter’s characters live at the dangerous edge of life and reality. What they confront is not specifically any social & psychological or religious problem as it is in Arthur Miller, O’Nail and Eliot respectively. It is the total absurdity of existence, the very ontological insecurity and dread against which the individual is pitted. It is difficult to point out how much of what a Pinter character says is real and how much is pigment of his mind. In Pinter’s works man is trapped in a struggle between reality and illusion – a situation where neither of the combatants wins or loses. On the other hand reality grows more appalling and illusion more elusive.” [Reality & illusion in the plays of Harold Pinter, Page – 11] Existential crisis is there in Pinter’s plays. To exist in this world, essentialism loses its significance. Pinter’s play depicts the existential crisis of the character. Hence there is always a subtext. This subtext is more important to understand the play of Pinter. This subtext is hidden implicit within the text. Hence Alan Bond cites: ‘Every Pinter’s play is a dramatic text that defines its own context for the action invariably unfolds in an antonymous state of uncertainty. What the characters do in a Pinter play is seemingly self-contained and only acknowledges the outside world obliquely.’ ]Barnard F. Dokore Macmillan Modern Dramatist Series, see introduction P-7]. Even Pinter’s characters use linguistic strategy to protect themselves. This is why, Pinter says : ‘it may be unverifiable as well, and one cannot always satisfy a desire to bridge the gap between unknown and known or between false and true.’ In the early plays of Pinter, menace lurks outside but it also has psychological roots. While menace may take the form of particular character or events, it is usually unspecified or unexpected therefore, more ominous. Oftentimes, Pinter’s drama opens with comic scene but ends with violence, physical, psychological or potential, sometime in varying sequence, to all the three.

Human predicament is seen through the thematic aspect of his plays. Pinter’s theme centres round the basic quest of man, his homeless instability, his inability to communicate, his confusion over intellectual reasoning, logic and morality, his precarious existence on earth and a pointless absurd waiting for he knows-not what. This is the human condition or predicament in this universe of us. Pinter has shown a penchant and a felicity for reducing common behavior to absurdity, but he has done it objectively without rousing any immediate sense of a metaphysical doubt or anguish at the subjective level. Pinter never tells us a story. But he explores a given static situation in life’s perspective. Some mysterious terror lurks in the background. The speeches made by the characters are haunted by questions to which there can be no answer. Such is the human situation in the plays of Pinter. The dramatic tension is heightened through the dialogue His dialogue is able to make the absurd situation of life look funny only to such an extent that laughter slowly stops and a sense of purposelessness of life pervades the whole dramatic scene. According to Bernard F. Dukore, ‘ despite their surface naturalism his plays had links to the ……..theatre of the absurd’. Hence absurdity of life and the social life are seen in the plays of Pinter side by side. The subtext is able to depict the inner life of the Pinter’s characters. Pinter’s characters have some typical characteristics. Deafness and silence are their main weapon to resist authority. In Pinter, people do not hear one another or they mix-hear, and sometimes this is deliberate and sometimes not. Paradoxically, he compels us to hear carefully. As for silence, no one has ever used it better. There are long pause; the answer is not there, the absence of expected speech. His characters are frequently at a loss of words and this loss stands for loss in general. ‘Pinteresque’, this term is used to refer the atmosphere in Pinter’s play. The human beings of Pinter’s land lead a life of silence & pause; they are unable to communicate willingly and unwillingly. They have to struggle with sexual politics. They have to face with the strong authority. They have to lose their artistic vision; they grow from childhood to the adulthood; they have to resist the micro-politic of Michel Foucault . Sometimes the characters of Pinter lose their memory; relationship with other; linguistic competence. They become alone in the world. Absurdity comes in their life. Situation of human beings in Pinter land resembles our own life. The sense of coming danger, the nightmare of panic, the sense of loneliness, meaninglessness of life, irrational human condition, senseless surreal distortions are some associated with Pinter’s character. At first human beings were at home but gradually they disperse and only injustice became their wealth. Pinter’s figures live in such a world where there is no clear cut distinction between truth and false. The commonplace situation, the landscape of Pinter is invested with menace, dread, mystery. Psychological violence is a part and parcel of Pinter’s hero or heroine. The characters know that they are living a world of falsification and at the same time a world of truth where ‘there are at least twenty four possible aspects of any single statement…..A categorical statement….will never story where it is and be finite. It will immediately be subject to modification by the other twenty three possibilities of it. No statement I make, therefore, should be interpreted as final and definitive’. [on Pinter by John Russel Taylor, P-73]. Hence Pinter’s world is very enigmatic world, the world of unconscious where his characters seek for a shelter. ‘The Birthday Party’ has Meg, Lulu, Petty, Stanly, Goldberg and Maccan. They assemble in a dingy seaside boarding house kept by a slovenly but motherly old women Meg. Goldberg & Maccan are two intruders. There is no definite information about Stanly’s past life, his occupation. Maccan himself does not know the motive of his organization he serves. Meg does no know why Goldberg Maccan have come to her house. The whole atmosphere of the room becomes more gloomy while Stanly was seen to rape Lulu & Meg. The birthday party is celebrated in the memory of Stanly. A kind of power struggle among the characters is to be noticed in their relationship. One tries to dominate other by verbally, physically. Stanly has no fixed home. Stanly is taken away by the two intruders forcefully to an unknown place. We do not know what will happen then to Stanly. This is the uncertainty of the life itself. This is the human predicament in the plays of Harold Pinter. ‘The Room’ has few characters. Rose allows the Negro to come in her room. She lives with her husband Bert. Somehow they try to adjust one another. This adjustment becomes a crucial problem to them. The blind Negro with the message for Rose’s father calling his daughter home is suddenly murdered by Bert. Rose becomes panic stricken of it. Hence this world is very hostile to live. One is willing other to survive.

In this way. the centre and marginal is minutely seen. MILNE DREW – Pinter’s sexual politics ed. The first one is rich homosexual textile designer and the later a young man. ‘Dumb Waiter’ brings us to a world where only order is maintained by Ben & Gus. They are living such a world where injustice. BARNARD F. The subtext of plays of Harold Pinter reveals the human predicament very well in this world. [Pinter’s Female Portrait: A study of female characters in the plays of Harold Pinter. According to Elizabeth Sakellaridon. But Rebecca’s final narration is also a kind of making torture over Delvin. Ruth faces the reality which is horrible to imagine. This world is also mysterious. by Peter Ruby. social-convention are seen. James. silence. Hence it is about Power game between them. Ruth coming back from America with her husband Teddy desires to stay at home & she does not go America. Peter Ruby. ♦ .K. The same adjustment problem is seen in this play. see The Cambridge Companion to Harold Pinter. In this way. the fear of basement people and her dread of dispossession her preoccupation with the room but Bert is silent. Sexual exploitation is the significant theme of Pinter. loneliness. Here the highly sexual non marriage triumphs over the sexual marriage. Cambridge University press 2001 U. But at last he becomes homeless person. dispossession of room. we see Pinter’s characters are struggling always to live in this hostile world. MARTIN ESSLIN – The Theatre of Absurd.Uncertainty of life is the key-note of Pinter. see Cambridge companion to Harold Pinter. ed. They are supplied food when they desire. This is the human predicament of Pinter scenario. Jane. She begins to live with her family members. London Macmillan 1988 P-69]. COPPA FRANCESCA – The secret jokes. He tries to control these two brothers. Rose says about her terror. Non-communication is also in it. Davies as an outsider comes to the home of Mick and Aston. These figures are contemptuous of their present living condition. And he becomes the caretaker of their house. existence. ‘The Lover’ complicates the homely world. ‘The collection’ has Marry who lives with Bill. They have the experience of the dark side of life. Hence sex and power are interlinked. Here the former wants to control the later who is physically oppressed by the first. DOKE – Macmillan modern series. loneliness. authority. Pinter’s dramatic world is highly enigmatic. Bill & Stella went to Leeds to buy the dress at that night. Being a whore. Ruth violates our sense of rationality. Ben orders Gus ‘Light the kettle’ though it is wrong sentence as he is senior. “Homecoming” brings us such a world where the wife of son is transformed into a whore. Jane is interested to decorate her room while Scot wants to remove the photo from the room. ‘Ashes to Ashes’ deals with Delvin & his beloved Rebecca. Pinter’s characters have the experience of absurdity of life. Law are some dramatic person in this play. comedy and politics in Pinter’s play. The problems of communication. This is the human predicament in the Pinter world. They are ready to kill their enemy described by their organization. another textile designer accuses Bill for his (B) spending the previous night with his (J) wife. self are the key terms in the context of Pinter.K. BIBLIOGRAPHY BEHERA GURUCHARAN – Reality & illusion in the plays of Harold Pinter. The conflict between the male & female. Scot. Even sexual power is also a kind of weapon for women to control men. Lenny has a business with the prostitutes. They do not know about the organization. ‘The Caretaker’ brings us a world of betrayal. ‘Ruth speaks with authority and self confidence the extent that she blinds the two polarities of mother and whore into one harmonious whole’. But there is no certainty of James’ speech. But he himself is homosexual like Harry. The patriarchal family structure of this play always is the basis of female oppression. Stella. Here Max hits Joey & strikes Sam on his head. P-44 Cambridge University Press 2001 U.

The crisis of his identity is concerned neither with geography nor with his roots. Babu .P. The novels of Arun Joshi are a kind of psychoanalysis of the heroes of his novels.S. To relieve himself he goes to London but he soon become tired of the classroom lectures and classmates and continued his search for meaning of his life. Christmas on this planet.obsession and complexes.138-141 Advance Access publication 17 Jan. “ the novel is cast in a series of Browning. Kanpur (U.what difference would it have if I had lived in Kenya or India or any other place for that matter.” It may exist in the subconscious because the individual cannot separate the past. This was the sum of life-time of striving.A. It delineates repressions . present and future . Department of English. (Page-80) Just as Sindi.Letter No. It is in this effort that he even washes the dishes. This is not only a sociological but also a psychological problem of contemporary man and literature. Self-alienation is loss of contact of the individual selves with any inclination or desires not in agreement with the prevailing social pattern.the economic pressure due to rising market economy have given many tensions to modern man. “a forest full of strange beasts moves within the mind of every individual. Sindi is twenty-five years old-an age when life is full of enthusiasm but Sindi realizes the vanity of human achievement and purposelessness of his life. But the story revolves round Sindi Oberoi. Jwala Devi Vidya Mandir P . I seemed to me that I would still be a Foreigner. twenty-five years largely wasted in search of peace and what did I have to show for achievement . This seems to be a root cause of crisis of identity which is one of the factors of the crisis of the present. In this cut-throat competition man has become a stranger not only from the outside world but also from his oneself . Ratan Rathor in the novel ‘Apprentice’ is in search of his identity. twenty eight times a week. According to World Litrature Today.urbanization. My foreignness lay within me and I couldn’t leave myself behind wherever I went. The psychoanalysis has been developed in the modern Indian Fiction in English and the idea of sub-conscious mind finds expression through the novels.He feels “ Twenty-fifth . Industrialization . Ratan wades through corruption to arrive at an understanding of life and its affirmation. June. In the subconscious.an American girl. Alienation from the self in the basic form of rootless ness.He says “Somebody had begotten me without a purpose and so far I had lived without a purpose.a student. Arun Joshi’s ‘The Foreigner’ is a study of the alienation in the soul of Sindi Oberoi.like . unless you could call the search for peace a purpose . He finds himself in a trap. It is paradoxical that despite the scientific developments the contemporary man is not happy.father of Babu. In a village in Scotland he discusses his problems with the priest and but he is not able to solve his problems.” (Page no -55) Because of such alienation he changes place to place to get peace.G College.) India. a ten stone body that had to be fed four times a day.Sindi Oberoi was born of an English mother and Indian father in Kenya . ‘The Apprentice’ attacks materialistic values with a different strategy.There are many characters – Sindi Oberoi.V-34564. In ‘The Foreigner’ the story is told in a series of flashbacks with a clever ordering of past events to maximize suspense .Perhaps I felt like that because I was a foreigner in America. This may have its roots in both in self-alienation and social alienation. inter generational tensions.Reg. Mr Khemka. His novels won him critical acclaim and a recognition as an author of rare sensitivity and exceptional talent He was awarded Sahitya Academy Award for his novel ‘The Last Labyrinth’ The trauma of modern man is crisis of identity. He was educated in India and U.2011 ‘ALIENATION’ IN THE NOVELS OF ARUN JOSHI GEETA BISHT WALIA* *Assistant Professor. Joshi in the novel depicts the psychological conflict in the character of Sindi Oberoi who is in search of his identity.He is depressed after the death of his parents. But then .533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5.

monologues . In actual life he is a fun lover boy and has relations with Anna.” (Page-75) His detachment is painful to June.After his government job we see the influence of his mother’s materialistic views on his personality . He is alienated from his true self and ideals. Though Sindi thinks he is is detached actually he is not.But his mother’s views were different.But he hiself wants to possess June. His father abandoned his law profession for the new ideal preached by Mahatama Gandhi.to a boy to whom the protagonist. And quite honestly.loyalty and betrayal. Sindi and Ratan are though imaginary characters but represents the man of our society. dilemmas and frustrations of his past. driving ten miles everyday and going back to June and the children I had given her. Inwardly he feelshis guilt and remorse of his bad deeds but he is helpless . Kathy .love and hate . a hypocrite and a liar . and. But let me tell you something that a colleage of mine use to say life is zero.Judy .She replies “ Man without money was a man without worth. you can take nothing away from zero. “what was right. She didn’t want her son to inherit her husband’s idealism. He says “ Twenty years and nothing gained.Did I know the meaning of honour . The mankind today has progressed in each field but despite of progress he feels depressed and powerless. When June proposes him for marriage he feels “like a bankrupt manufacturer who suddenly discovers that he has something to sell I tried to imagine myself living in one of those inexpensive suburbs outside Boston. in ‘The Foreigner’ moves from place to place in search of peace. Sindi doesn’t want believe in the institution of marriage because for him marriage means possessing someone. lays bare the motives aspirations .But his alienation teaches him humanism while Sindi’s alienation become the cause of June and June’s death. Sindi .” (Page-137) This attitude of Sindi towards June is not of a detached person.(Page-27) Till he was an idealist like his father . This also depicts the escapist attitude of Sindi. To achieve the top position he becomes a corrupt man and the cause of his friend’s death. Many things were great in life. The cause of his tragedy is crisis of identity.The stain grew so great that I almost lost all ability to think logically for any length of time often I suspected I was going mad.It brings a change in his life. This is the reason she agrees to marry Babu. burdened with sorrow of ‘ a wasted life’. “ I had become . what had I learned? Pushing files ? Manoeuvering? At forty-five all that I knew was t manoeurve . he would say. friendship? Would I ever know it again (Page-133) Ratan in the pursuit of material gain forgets the difference between right and wrong. She tells .what was wrong? What was the measure for doing things or not doing them? Where were the dividing lines : between success and failure. Ratan maintained the integrity of his character till he clerical job in a government office . His sense of frustrations can be seen in the following lines: How do I know life has purpose? Actually I don’t. Ratan in “The Apprentice” feels himself a misfit. Due to this confusion he alienates from himself. in short . at the age of twenty-one. When June tells that she is spending time with Babu. Infact Sindi loves her very much and the thought that June has left him for him. When Ratan says that there were other things in life beside money worth.(Page-69) This confusion in Ratan’s personality is due to his father’s idealism which is in his blood.Gradually he becomes a corrupt official but he was son of an ideal father so inside he feels guilty. Her closeness with Babu disturbs him “ My love for June was streaked with hatred and anger………. He says.A trickster . but the greatest of them of all was money. he becomes restless.According to him to love is to invite others to break your hear. a sham. This is the reason he is not ready to marry June.”(Page no -19) These opposite views are the cause of Ratan’s confusion. An empty lifetime. Marriage means responsibilities and he wants to escape from responsibilities that is why he doesn’t want to marry.” Ratan’s parents represent opposite values which had made Ratan perplexed. June is deeply in love with Sindibut he wants to remain detach.Christine and June.(Page no-142) Arun Joshi through his heroes . The thought left me with no other feeling except that it seemed quite impossible.that was what I had left life make of me . he would add. He involves with June emotionally though he doesn’t want to fall in love with her . depicts the real position of man of modern world. mine is not the mind that can grasp such questions.

You are so self-sufficient there is hardly any place as a mistress. but not from myself.142-145 Advance Access publication 13 Mar. At last we see that Ratan’s father’s philosophy wins over his mother’s philosophy. “I stand at the doorstep and I say things . Be decent . The Foreigner. society and humanity at large. all inter sexuality in the space of a given text. That is when the fatal error was made that ultimately led to Babu’s death and then to June’s death.” Sindi is a round character and Arun Joshi shows the evolution of Sindi from a negative philosophy of detachment to its positive aspect . ALFRED PRUFROCK – A CLOSE ANALYSIS THROUGH THE LIGHT OF INTERTEXTUALITY DHANANJOY GARAI* *Department of English. We feel one with the characters. Though he shows that he is detached yet he is not .New Delhi : Orient Paperbacks JOSHI ARUN. Arun Joshi .Reg. Poetcrit-The Journal-2009 SHARMA SIDDHARATHA. He says .”(Page-144) Thus . He goes to temple but never enter it. Banaras Hindu University Varanasi (U.V-34564. New Delhi : Orient Paperbacks PAUL SHISHU. Arun Joshi’s Novels A Critical study ♦ Letter No. who feels uprooted from his culture and is in search of his identity. The term ‘intertextuality’ is related to Julia Kristeva.(Page-136)Sindi’s detachment is not real . Inspite of their weakness they are however genuine. The Foreigner.Be good.be of use Then I beg forgiveness.him “I had wanted to belong to you. According to her. “ If you can learn to wipe shoes well. respectively. Be good. The Apprentice . taken from other texts. They try to find out the purpose of their life. Arun Joshi’s novels focuss on the individual quest for identity and his sense of alienation in in the modern world.brigadier scrutinizes himself. Just as Sindi after the death of Babu and June understands the real meaning of detachment in the same way Ratan Rathor after the death of his friend .He comes to know that real detachment means to perform one’s duty sincerely without any desires for results as told in Bhagwat Gita. He wipes out the shoes of the people outside the temple every morning.” (Page-143) Out of sorrow and shame he undergoes the strongest apprentice in the world. the French Feminist critic. . His heroes are self-centered person and escapist.2011 THE WASTELAND AND THE LOVE SONG OF J.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. but you didn’t want it.) India. Arun Joshi attempts to deal with three aspects of alienation in relation to self. Arun Joshi uses the Vedanta philosophy and Lord Krishana’s concepts of ‘detachment’ and ‘involvement’ to bring outthe inner recess of the protagonist Sindi Oberoi. several utterances. who knows you can perhaps learn other things. REFERENCES JOSHI ARUN . His novels teach us about the reality of life. ‘Tracing the odyssey from Detachment to Involvement in Arun Joshi’s The Apprentice.When he meets Muthu in India his search comes to an end. “A text is a permutation of texts. I tell myself. The novel depicts the search for purpose of life of the protagonist Ratan Rathor.After Babu’s death Sindi comes to realize that it is detachment from oneself that can do good for others “I had learnt to be detached from the world .P.is great in the sense that he took the theme of the contemporary individual who is self-centred and alienated.When Muthu asks him to take over the business of Mr Khemka he agrees and involves himself positively in the society.we see that Ratan Rathor is a journey from innocence to experience and also fro self-love to selfremorse.

pro chromium etc. Intertextuality refers the relationship of any text with other past or contemporary text. According to Dr. Hence intertextuality refers to the cross references. it must be remembered. Intertextuality is also related to our unconscious mind. P-317]. references to other works. He has said that intertextuality refers to the allusions. “Kristeva’s focus was driven by semiotics…… intertextuality as a term however. and existing only through its relations to other text”. Contemporary literary and critical theory. Rama Kundu. intertextuality has become a kind of critical approach to reach another text. This term is coined by Kristeva in 1966 to denote the in . cannot. comes to refer a far more textual as opposed to utterance driven notion of how texts encompass and respond to other texts both during the process of their creation and composition and in terms of the individual reader’s or spectator’s response”. Pub by Dorling kinder by (India0. ‘There is nothing outside the text’. According to Derrida. 36]. rhythmic models. [Abrams. is used to signify the multiple ways in which any one literary text is made up of other text. for there is always language before and around the text. even as she saw texts not as a closed systems but as dynamic process open to the world. 2010. prequel. Pressing pore. According to Kristeva. Abrams has said: The term intertextuality. metatextuality and hypertextuality. Bressler: Intertextuality is a term denoting that any given text’s meaning or interpretation is related or interrelated to the meaning of all other text. there are various voices inside a text and for the later any text must have various speaking character. sarup & son: New Delhi]. given without annotation marks. according. For the first. “Inter text involves not only disruption of discourses but also a disjuncture of the time space continuum of the parent text in various forms of sequel. by means of its open or covert citations and allusion. In this regard. “Such an analysis means searching for the signifying phenomenon for the crisis or the unsettling process of meaning and the subject rather than for the coherence or identity of either one or a multiplicity of structures”. [Kristeva Julia. Julia Kristeva has popularized this term. quotes and citations and even plagiarized sections of a work. popularized especially by Julia Kristeva. Precisely. Harold Bloom has suggested how the works of the present young writers become a kind of replica of the past. The term intertextuality echoes the sound of Michel Foucault’s concept of discourse. P-30]. – A Glossary of Literary terms (seventh edi). M. He has given his full view on this in his ‘The Anxiety of Influence’.H. According to Chales E. of course be reduced to a problem of sources or influences. we can utter the terms of polyphony and dialogism of Mikhail Bakhtin. ideology and the unconscious. echoes. the inter text is a general field of anonymous formulae whose origin can scarcely ever be located. It becomes a kind of meta text. Kisteva has interlinked all the text.Desire in language. any text is infact an “intertext” – the site of an inter section of numberless other texts. [ Kundu Rama – Inter text : A study of the dialogue between text. Hence all is to be included within a text. 2003. the echo of other text. New criticism which emphasizes close reading any text is able to bring the intertextual elements in any text. Edward said has suggested how text played a crucial role to continue the ruling system and he has said: ‘The writer thinks less of writing originally and more of rewriting’. According to Sander. Intertextuality the condition of any text whatsoever. pass into the text and one redistributed within it. Pvt.H. Bits of code formulas. Ltd.interest and neutralize one another”. or simply its unavoidable participation in the common stock of linguistic and literary convention and procedures that are “always already” in place and constitute the discourses into which we are born. is a system of relationships that link texts to other texts or parts of the same text”. According to Peter Verdonk and Jern Jaques Weber (in twentieth century fiction: from text to context): ‘No literary text can be studied in isolation’. intertextuality. architextuality. According to Genette: Intertextuality. In Kristeva’s formulation. Hence. According to Roland Bathes: Any text is new tissue of past citations. He has proposed the term transtextuality as a more wide ranging one and isolated five main types of intertextuality: Para text. older generation and this creates a kind of anxiety in the mind of the first one. edited 1980. Her notion of structuralism emphasized the connections of texts. [Nayer Premod Kr. its repetitions and transformations of the formal and substantive features of earlier text. Thomson Hernle. The text must be seen as located within social relations. M. of unconscious or automatic quotation. fragments of social language etc. no text can be interpreted in isolation and all text are intertextual.

The second part’s title ‘A Game of Chess’ is taken from Thomas Middleton’s play “Women Beware Women”. ‘Winter kept us warm’ this line is of James Thomson’s poem ‘To our ladies of Death’.S. T. ‘You gave me hyacinths first a year ago’ is about guilty sex love which taken from ‘Tristam & Isoldo’ an opera of Wagner. the heroine of ‘The rape of the lock’ by A. The third part entitled ‘The fire sermon’ brings the doctrines of Lord Buddha. we exist”. The name Philomel reminds the story of the nightingale which is to be found in Ovid’s Metamorphosis. the Canterbury Tales. we remember Stephen Dedalus of ‘A portrait of the Artist As a Young Man’ of the same novelist. The man with three stakes refers king fisher & his impotent condition. The mention of ‘Shakespearian rag’ brings out the references of Hamlet and Othello. In context of ‘The Hollow Men’. ‘That corpse you planted last year in your garden’ is from Baudelaire’s ‘The flower of evil’. Pope. ‘Sweet Thames run softly. Eliot’s ‘The Wasteland’ has many inter textual elements. good night. The line ‘unreal city’ has a close connection with Paris described by Baudelaire. “So far as me do evil or good. The later deals with the quest for Holy Grail. the line sighs. were exhaled’. in a paradoxical way. The fragmentation of self is the main feature of this poem.e. shantih. ‘knock upon the door’ focuses Bianca’s mother –in-law and the game played by Ferdinand & Miranda. from the fourth canto”. ‘To Carthage I came’ has the echo of self-control of Buddha & the confessions of St. The words ‘profit and loss’ remind us “The Tempest” & Ophelia. good night. till I end my song’ is sung by Tiresias. ‘This music crept by me upon the water’s is told by Ferdinand in The Tempest of Shakespeare and the music was produced by Ariel. shantih.S. ‘I had not thought death had undone so many. Likewise. Good. ‘What is the city over the mountain/cracks and reforms and burst . The whole structure of this poem has a close connection with James Frazer’s The Golden Bough and the content has a close relation with Jessie Weston from Ritual to Romance. the prophet of king Oedipus. Eliot told. These novels are inter-related novel. The first line ‘The chair she sat in like a burnished throne’ has an echo of Cleopatra of Shakespeare. The modern land i. ‘Good night. the inter dependence of any other literary text with all those that have go he before it. The fourth section brings the Egyptian myth & the myth of Osiris. It also gives us the description of an aristocratic lady which resembles to Belinda.dependence of literary texts. The lines ‘The wind under the door. The words “sylvan scene” has a similar concept of Milton’s Garden of Eden. The last section ‘What the Thunder Said’ brings the allusion of king fisher and his knights who were searching for Holy Grail. is taken from the third canto of the inferno. Thus the relation between this poem and the poet’s own mind is linked closely. The lines ‘when lovely women stoops to folly and paces about her rooms again alone’ – are spoken by Olivia taken from Oliver Goldsmith’s Vicar of Wakefield. night’ is the allusion of Hamlet ‘Those are pearls that were his eyes’ – reminds us The Tempest. likewise T. ‘Burial of the Dead’begins with ‘April is the crulest month’ which reminds us Chaucer’s journey to Canterbury i. England in general and London in particular becomes the land of king fisher and limbo of Dante. we are human and it is better. the servant spirit of Prospero. The epigraph is taken from Roman writer Petronius Arbiter. The lines ‘Sweet Thames. ‘But at my back from time to time I hear’ is the echo of Marvel’s ‘To His Coy Mistress.e. The poet laments for it. ‘Good night Bill. ladies. In Baudelaire’s city. short and in frequent. run softly till I end my song’ also refers Pro thalami on of Spenser. Eliot’s epic searches for lost peace-shantih. According to Cleanth Brooks: The references of Dante are important the line. dream & reality seem to mix and it is interesting that Eliot in ‘The Hollow Men’ refers to the same realm of death in life condition. to do evil than to do nothing at least. good night’ refers Ophelia’ last greeting to the audiences’. When we read Ulysses by James Joyce. and Dante’s Limbo a place without hope. ‘My cousin’s took me out on a sled’ reminds us ‘My past’ of Marie Larisch. sweet ladies. Intertextuality has a key feature of modernism. ‘The river sweats/oil and tar/ The barges drift/ with the turning tide’ refers Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness. ‘Nothing again nothing’ is the speech of Ophelia./what is that noise now?’ reminds us Webster’s ‘The White Devil’ and ‘King Lear’. The Wasteland is a product of high modernism. Augustine. This fragmentation of the poet’s own self is similar to the fragmentation of the continent Europe itself.

depicted by Homer. ‘sympathies’. Alfred Prufrock’ deals with the life of Prufrock who goes forward & then comes back. Prufrock is unable to take decision: ‘To be or not to be that is the question’.B & ARNOLD P (1970). The epigraph is taken from Dante’s Inferno. ‘Bicolage’ technique is used by T. T.S. In few words.S. ‘self-control’ respectively which are used T. It is just like a journey by train. He compares himself to that old Polonius. When Vivekananda was in Europe he met an electrician named Tesla. He desires but also fears. Tesla was fascinated by the account and he invited Vivekananda to his home for a demonstration of his theory that matter and Prana is everywhere one. Knowledge is an ever active phenomenon. the psychological boredom of mind. In this poem. Ganga. Prufrock imagines that his bald head is cut and brought in a plate which reminds us the beheading scene of John the Baptist and bringing the head of John by a dancing girl in a plate to Harod.V-34564. Eliot. Swami Vivekananda made in a lecture delivered in London with title. Prof. Eliot in his poems and hence ‘intertextuality’ plays an important role in his poems BIBLIOGRAPHY BUSH.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. WILLIAM (1953) . Prufrock also wants to tell us his experience and in this context he refers the story of Lazarus of the Bible Lazarus was sent to Hell and he wanted to come back to the earth to tell his experiences in the Hell.A Study in Character and Style. Hichcliffe eds T. ‘The love song of J. RONALD. The song of the mermaid echoes the story of mermaid who sang to Ulysses and his companions voyenging on the high seas. He said “Science and Religion will meet one day and shake hands. G. ♦ Letter No. according to which Prana or energy acting on Akasa.S. ELIOT (1966). Journey of knowledge is actually a dialectical process. Eliot also uses intertextual elements. College. Eliot consciously. .e. English Department. Eliot and the Carthaginian Peace’ ELH46 COX. After attaining this stage it becomes synthesis. ELEANOR (1979).) India. Alfred Prufrock’ have many references of many texts. many quotations. Research in a classified mode is essential from micro to macro.Reg. COOK. “The Absolute and Manifestation”. He is like Prince Hamlet.New York:Oxford University Press. C. In this way ‘The Wasteland’ & ‘The Love Song of J. ‘T. Himavant i.S. George A Reader’s guide to T. This train of knowledge and thought brings to mind a momentous prophecy. Eliot.2011 UNIVERSAL HARMONY IN THE SUBJECTS DR. T. ELIOT (1983). New York: Petta. the Himalaya are also Eastern names of river & mountain along with ‘Shantih’. REENA CHATTERJEE* *Asstt. or the aboriginal emptiness created the universe. T. Varanasi (U. ALLEN ED. ‘Damyata’ are taken from Eastern Upanishad meaning ‘give’. the three terms ‘Datta’. the result of thesis and antithesis. He is a representative of modern man who is a victim of ennui. these poems are full of intertextual elements. TATE.S. The Wasteland Nashville: Aurore. Arya Mahila P. We have started our journey of knowledge with different subjects in this world.P. many stories.S.S. many mythologies. Vivekananda presented the Vedanta Theory of creation of electricity and power out of Akasa and Prana. This intermingling of science and religion has an interdisciplinary relation. ‘Dayadhvam’.146-148 Advance Access publication 1 Jan. The Man his work. New York: Noonday Press. Science is the Contemplation of energies”1.S.in the violet air’ refers the world war I & Hardy’s ‘In time of Breaking of Nations’ & Russian Revolution of 1917.

Modem physics has dissolved atom or subatomic events into oceanic field of dynamic energy. The same thing we can say that every classified and distinguished sect or subject would ultimately immerge and submerge into bigger truth or go together which is Universal Harmony or Universal Chemistry.e. integrated relation from the day of creation. Bible too stated that in the beginning there was the single Phenomenon ‘Word’ and the word was with ‘God’ and the ‘word was God’. It may be said in a different way that to research on a subject or within a subject is the ethical process and research on an. There was neither the earth. that they were related to the human mind and that they had no meaning for different kind of mind or subject.” “Death was not then. it may become an outline through the subjects within a journey. The Big Bang theory is very much related to our Yoga Philosophy or ‘Anahat Naad’ (the super sonic vibration) in the Indian classical music. Research on a subject is just like remaining in a single compartment of the train of immense subjects. nor immortality. At first darkness in darkness lay hidden. There fore classified research is essential to reach the minute possible wisdom of the subject and after that a phase comes when a researcher finds the value of Interdisciplinary knowledge.”3 It was the conversation between physicist and metaphysicist.”2 According to it the whole cosmos is born by just speech. Interdisciplinary research is actually the breaking up of the barriers of subjects. In the conversation of Tagore and Einstein in 1931 – Einstein said that there was an objective structure of world and added as an illustration that the Pythagorean Theorem would be true even if there were no human observers. nor interspaces. Matter floats as quanta of energy of the surface of an ocean of cosmic energy. entering the domain of metaphysics. A student of physics can enter the metaphysical world and a student of literature can enter the world of chemistry. The Pythagorean theory that the world is made up of numbers is most likely derived from the “Samkhya Philosophy”. Tagore pointed out that “All scientific truths were in human imagination. A state of singularity or unity of space and time and everything else before creation through Big Bang which echoes the second verse of Nasadiya Sukta of the Rig Veda that “One without vibration began to vibrate by its own power and other then that there was nothing beyond. nor the heaven above. interdisciplinary subject is an aesthetical process and revaluation. the unity of existence beyond endless pluralist ties of manifestation science usually concerns real nature of the physical universe within space – time causality. Bells theorem has shown that the universe is so fundamentally interconnected that twin photo pains always instantaneously communicate with each other irrespective of astronomical distance. Research on a subject is just like remaining in a single compartment of the train having immense subjects.In this way we can find out the theories of interrelation between science and philosophy. This Universe was like a mass of water Undistinguished. Thus Vedic Philosophy. In its parallel quest for ultimate reality. Spirituality is quest for the ultimate reality. Nobody can differentiate among light matter and empty space. Both are equally essential. “Neither being nor non-being was then. physical sciences are crossing of the barriers of physics. -It is the hymns of creation The renowned literary giant Ravindra Nath Tagore called it the “Srijon diner Jog’ i. We can quote here one of the most beautiful and profound philosophical hymns that is found in an early section of the Vedic Literature. In Indian philosophy it is called – “Vishwa Rasayan” . In Sankhya philosophy it is called ‘Kaivalya’ (the state of freedom). Einstein evoked “Science without Religion is blind and Religion without Science is Lame”. the Bible and the science are aligned to our point of origin.

In studies over the past few decades. 1931. IBID P. 1895. its objective and importance. Listening effectively is one of the most fundamental and powerful communication tools of all. 101 3. Environmental Chemistry. Consequently the knowledge is just like a glacier and foundation. However. and good listening skills can improve productivity and increase both employee and client satisfaction. SACHINDRA KUMAR MAJUMDAR . Chicago Address by Swami Vivekananda published by Swami Mumukshananda President. H. 2nd ed.) India. It is well said in ancient Roman society “All the way leads to Rome”. Meerut 7. London.2011 LISTENING: A POWERFUL COMMUNICATION TOOL FOR PROFESSIONAL SUCCESS DR RASHMI GUPTA* *Associate Professor. It further lists out the poor listening habits leading to inefficiency in listening and ways to improve the listening process. ♦ Letter No. 4.Reg. Organizations have discovered that one bad listener can undo the work of many good listeners. I. & KAUR. H. . 64 2. A Advanced History of India. SHARMA B. 1991. October 7. 2009. is identified as subjects. Krishna Prakashan Mandir.T. the role of listening is as important as that of speaking. To an extent of its journey it is identified specifically. This paper discusses listening as an important communication tool. Himalaya. Abstract In oral communication. 1. if listening is to be effective. P. C. active listening benefits the people in several ways. Because listening seems to occur naturally.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. sects and discipline but in the process after depth to the knowledge it becomes interdisciplinary and when the journey process ends once again it submerges into the ocean of Universal Chemistry. all of their interactions become easier and communication problems will be eliminated. RAYCHAUDHERI & XULLER.In this way when we study different subjects separately. In the same way knowledge in its preliminary stages. C.S Engineering College Greater Noida (U. If someone is willing to listen to others genuinely. Business and industry leaders agree that listening skills contributes to the success of an organization. MAJUNDAR. In corporate world. REFERENCES R.l44. This water content phenomenon is identified as a foundation or a dancing stream. we feel it isn’t necessary to put effort into it.“A Scripture for the Future Translation and commentary. California. it is studying the different elements of the nature but when we go to the highest peak of the hill of knowledge. It describes the various stages of the listening process and its types. Applied Science & Humanities Department. But after an extent when the rolling streams join together. Twenty Seven Impression Nov – 2000. hard work and efforts are required. Listening is challenging because people don’t work as hard at it as they should. K.V-34564. Times of India. The layout of the surrounding of the nature would appear like a single frame.149-151 Advance Access publication 5 Apr. 6. 5. Barkeleu. They grow in a form of river and after a long journey they convert into an ocean.P. P. Advaita Ashram Mayavati. copy write. employers have consistently rated listening as one of the top five skills they expect the employees to have. the differences of the subjects as elements seem to be one. Champawat. The conversation is given in Tagore’s Book Religion of Man George Allen an unwind life.

So. approve or disapprove-only that you understand. Let us now understand the modus operandi of listening. to speakers because you like their style.minute conversation and forget half of that within 48 hours. Content Listening: Its goal is to understand and retain the speaker’s message. The listening process consists of five related activities. beliefs. enhances product delivery. “We listen at or below a 25 percent efficiency rate. .” (Yandle: 13) Communication is not complete without effective listening. It’s a passive activity that requires no conscious efforts. organizing them into recognizable patterns. interpreting the patterns and understanding the message by inferring the meaning. It is a physiological process. when questioned about material we have just heard. Listening means decoding and interpreting correctly. Effective listening requires a conscious effort and a willing mind. subtleties of accent and pronunciation. but basically information flows from the speaker to you. needs and wants so that you can appreciate his or her point of view. typicality of a language can also be identified with this. Remembering: Storing a message for future reference. That is because although “we tend to listen to the words. Passive and non-listening. Effective listening is the process of analyzing sounds. 5. It doesn’t matter whether you agree or disagree. remember only about half of what’s said during a 10. It should not be confused with hearing. which usually occur in sequence: 1. Listening is extremely important in the communication process. Critical Listening: Its aim is to understand and evaluate the meaning of speaker’s message on several levels: the logic of argument. Responding: A form of feedback that lets the sender know the message was received and understood. Our ability to listen is directly related to our success in team relationships.” 3. The Listening Process Listening can be divided into three levels-Active. Filtering: It is the elimination of unwanted stimuli. But most of us face so many distractions that we often give speakers less than our full attention.” (Sproule:69) 2. Discriminative Listening: Most basic type of listening. A good listener also learns to detect prejudices. By listening in an empathetic way. the implications of the message and speaker’s intentions and motives. It strengthens organizational relationships. Empathetic Listening: It’s to understand the speaker’s feelings. you help the individual vent the emotions that prevent a dispassionate approach to the subject. It allows a listener to focus on stimuli that are of specific interest. 2. assumptions and attitudes. the strength of the evidence. Types of Listening Different situations call for different listening skills. It’s a subjective process where the sense of judgment of individual comes into play. however. It involves identifying the difference between various sounds. So. to your choices in theatre. ideas and expectations.” (Morgan & Baker: 35-36) Furthermore. a prerequisite for listening. Receiving: Hearing is the first essential step in the listening process. good listening skills are the foundation of effective human relationship and in turn an important tool to excel and achieve success. and the omission of any important or relevant point. television etc. the validity of the conclusions.Many of the problems we experience at work place are primarily attributable to ineffective listening. here we are going to discuss the process of the most desirable form of listening i. we are likely to get the facts mixed up. 3. alerts the organization to innovation from both internal and external sources and allows the organization to manage growing diversity both in the workforce and in the customers it serves. regardless of whether you share that perspective. Hearing denotes perceiving sounds. It is an important skill to be inculcated by managers and workers. It is important as sometimes the message received is not for immediate use but for future reference.e. Active one. 4. we don’t necessarily listen to the message. A good listener learns more than an indifferent listener and can restructure vague speaking into clearer meaning. Interpreting: Here the listener interprets the message and assigns meaning to sounds according to his own values. 4. : 1. 5. Appreciative Listening: It includes listening to music for enjoyment. It’s about absorbing and assimilating. “You may ask questions.

e. depending on the subject and the individual. start rehearsing what they want to say and wait for the opportunity to jump in and talk. Inattentiveness: Sometimes a person listens only to facts or details and misses the real meaning. As Clarke has stated. Those that don’t lose dollars each year.e. up to date. Thinking faster than speaking: Sometimes people’s mind tend to wander as they think faster than they speak. It becomes a habit and sometimes even they assume in advance that the topic is unimportant or difficult. Difficult and uninteresting material: Listener stops listening when the subject is boring or difficult. and out of trouble. I would once again like to stress upon the fact that if you want to move up the career ladder. Good listening gives you an edge and increases your impact when you speak. listener as well as others concerned with the process to remove the barriers that come in the way. This leads to higher productivity and also motivates employees to come up with innovative solutions to problems and new production methods. 3. instead. Interrupting: Some listeners do not wait for the speaker to complete and interrupts breaking the communication process. studies indicate that. Empathize with the speaker i. but some listeners let their minds wander and just tune out. you remember what you think the speaker probably said. Defensive Attitude: The listeners assume that they know the speaker’s intention and they expect to be attacked and react defensively. people deliberately try to look as though they are listening. Hearing the expected things: People like to hear what they want to hear and they tend to accept only those communications that are consistent with their existing beliefs. Furthermore. Listening mollifies complaining employees and helps to spot sensitive areas before they become explosive. Improving your Listening Skills Effective listening calls for efforts on the part of the speaker. it enhances your performance. Listen for the whole message i. 7. people can process information at 500-800 words per minute. promotions.” (Collins: 40) This disparity between rate of speech and rate of thought can be used to pull your arguments together. However. which thereby lead to a miscommunication as it may leave an impression on the speakers that the listener has received all the important information given by him. 6. which leads to raises. looking for congruence in verbal as well as non-verbal message. Rehearsing: Some people while listening in a pseudo manner. understanding the message from speaker’s point of view. status and power. 2. “Most people speak at about 120 to 150 words per minute. It also discourages and irritates the speaker.: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Paying attention to the speaker Making preparations before listening like collecting informations or removing distractions. Pseudo Listening: Here.Poor Listening Habits 1. 8. 5. “Companies that listen effectively stay informed. It helps to know the organization in a better way at the same time if a manager listens to his subordinates carefully. Listen without drawing premature conclusions Taking notes and paraphrasing Benefits of Listening at the workplace Effective listening has a number of benefits at the workplace for executives. Show that you want to listen by being and looking attentive. work on improving your listening skills. he will be aware of the suitable policies for the organization’s benefit. managers and team members. The result is that you don’t remember what the speaker actually said. WORKS CITED .” (129) In the end. 4.

Swaraj doesn’t only mean to political independence. Do You Hear What I Hear?” Black Enterprise.V-34564. which recognizes the fact that the glory of the public is dialectically entwined with the exploitation and repression of the private. Vasanta College for Women (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi (U. Gandhi took the issue with special reference and said that “…it is essential for women to refuse to be intimated by traditional practices and to decline to accept an inferior position in the social order that they have been taught is natural. But it does not mean that Gandhi wrapped up women’s cause within Swaraj. Department of Political Science.: Prentice Hall. conscious. It is an inherent quality of a non-violent society to get representation from each and every section. Say It With Power and Confidence. SPROULE MICHAEL J (1981). caste. As only an alert. It is an egalitarian society in real sense of the term. other principals of feminism like ‘principle of differences’ and ‘ethic of care’ are easily accessible in Gandhi’s studies. MORGAN PHILLIP & BAKER KENT H (November 1985). ♦ Letter No. PATRICK (1997). Unless the separation of the two worlds is destroyed. YANDLE DOT (August 1998).) India. Similarly. As we all know that under the various waves of feminism. Communication Today. class or colour.Reg. ROBYN (May 1998).2It reflects Gandhi’s Swaraj is a society where each and every individual irrespective of their sex are consciously struggling for acquiring autonomy. Like feminists even Gandhi used to say that there is not any significant difference between public and private. N. and in place of it they demand for construction of a ‘reflective political theory’. 8. He emphasized that whatever is private must always be public and he himself never lead a private life at all.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. Gandhi wants to say that both . no. Upper Saddle River. The discussion follows shall try to place different facets of feminism and Gandhi’s idea on women face to face to defend that Gandhi’s ideas are more feminine than any other feminist thinker. Supervisory Management. Swaraj is to be obtained by educating the masses to a sense of their capacity to regulate and control authority. For Gandhi. Building a Professional Image: Improving Listening Behavior”. UPASANA PANDEY* *Assistant Professor. Apparently. Listening to Understand”. Pryor Report Management Newsletter Supplement 15. Real Swaraj will come not by the acquisition of authority by a few but by the acquisition of the capacity by all to resist authority when it is abused. Gandhi’s stands on public and private realm are very much nearer to these feminists’ argument.2011 GANDHI AND DIFFERENT FACETS OF FEMINISM DR. but his ultimate objective is completely different from feminist scholars. In other words. COLLINS J. I11: Scott. but the real Swaraj will come only when the poorest individual will able to get its required space in the society which is badly enrooted in conservative practices and customs. Foresman. the public life would always be conceptualized as the sphere of men. Glenview.152-160 Advance Access publication 9 Mar. feminist scholars have offered new interpretations and demand for deconstruction of all traditional theories which were based on public-private dichotomy. Gandhi talked about a truthful\non-violent society as well as politics where public-private distinction will automatically be dissolved. Gandhi’s idea on women seems to be identical with different facets of feminism.P.CLARKE D. Whereas feminist concerns are with the messy content of the body1. autonomous and capable individual can contribute for the construction of Gandhi’s truthful and non-violent society.”3 Where feminists are claiming for representation as well as recognition of private sphere. There is not any distinction either on the basis of sex.J.

“Draupadi had five husbands at one time and yet has been called “Chaste”. Both are interdependent. And if the half the population of the country will have no role and will remain silent spectators. are typical feminine in nature. What men can do for women’s development ? How they can support this movement? What are those mechanisms. only rational aspects of tradition and Shastras must be followed. It is the custom and their conservative practices through which a line of demarcation has created. Gandhi was very much clear that “anything that will impair the status of either of them will involve the equal ruin of them both. Actually Gandhi thought that women’s entry into the field of politics could bring miraculous results. That is reason. On the one hand women would become aware of their own inner strength and on the other hand the process brought human and moral elements into the politics.of these spheres are equally important. In Gandhi’s words “Man and women are of equal rank but they are not identical. He used to say women are the symbols of compassion and creative love which ultimately mean non-violence in the real sense of the term. and therefore it follows as necessary corollary from these facts that anything that will impair the status of either of them will involve the equal ruin of them both. Initially when Gandhi started freedom movement. So many women participated under the able leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. the blind faith on irrational traditions must be abolished. They cannot be separated from each other. He knew it pretty well that without involving women in the agitation. There are various centers for women’s studies & development and the kind of programme they are organizing. And fact is that these programmes are terribly required for men’s development also. The code of marriage changes with time and place.” . Because. He declared. another can never be completed. In Gandhi’s words. changing context also demands for a new interpretation. away from feminism. Gandhi used to say “It is good to swim in the waters of tradition but to sink in them is suicide. Though again and again all feminists are insisting that without men’s cooperation women’s movement can never meet its objective. Gandhi is moving quite a long journey. I do not mind. One is complementary to another. a woman (in certain regions) could marry several husbands. just as a man could marry several wives. Both are necessary as well as essential for each other. So he appealed them in every manner possible to take part in the freedom struggle. he was very much confident about women’s participation in truthful and non-violent movement.” It reflects that patriarchy is bad not only for women but also for men. I mean they are conducting various courses and capacity building programmes only for women. each helps the other.”5 Interestingly. But exactly what they are looking for from men’s camp are not clear in their agenda. But Gandhi did that in a very influent manner. Gandhi’s studies are full of those ideas through which even men can make their remarkable submission for women’s cause. he was sad to observe that the womenfolk remained aloof and indifferent towards the problem of national liberation. Feminists are not carrying with a programme which highlights how to incorporate men into women’s movement. This is because in that age. But at the same time he wanted the active and full participation of women in the freedom struggle.” Accordingly. They are a peerless pair being supplementary to one another. He himself said. in such a dual operations it was really difficult to think about their active participation in politics. “it may be possible that the assumptions which we are accepting today in the context of husband wife relationship would not be accepted tomorrow.”4 For Gandhi there is not any natural discrimination between private and public instead they are highly integrated. “I have hugged the hope that women will be the unquestioned leader and having them found her place in human evolution will shed her inferiority complex. Under such a vibrant leadership women got a different kind of identity and recognition. Therefore. our work is so easy that even our women can carry it without any difficulty”. then the national movement will have no weight and importance and totally fail. They are actually not separated from each other. why Gandhi gave sufficient space to women in Indian National Movement. In the absence of one. “let the government capture everyone of our soldier. An enslaved country where women were already bounded by the shackles of irrational social and traditional norms. so that without one existence of the other cannot be conceived. He continued. Moreover. he cannot achieve any success as women constitute half the population. must be spelt out clearly by these feminists but these questions are totally ignored or unacknowledged.

Rajeshvaridevi from Mirzapur. Some of the important names are Subhadrakumari Chuhan. Sita. Ramadevi collected all the contributions and gave the message that women can also make their significant contributions. As they can easily develop communication with them and their way of communication have its own influence in a very different manner. Gandhiji recognized her very early and gave her so many responsibilities which she fulfilled very actively. Similarly in the world famous “Salt-Satyagraha” which was launched in the year of 1922 bulk of the rural\urban women participated. Hemavatidevi made all arrangements pertaining the meeting. It was his unique nature that whenever he admitted the necessity and desirability of reform. jewellary. Instead of looking towards West we should try to propound our own school of feminism i. foreign suppliers and layman. our own legacy. If we can do so it would be the greatest tribute to the Bapu.e. In this first woman’s gathering so far women contributed their jewellary and foreign cloths. Padmadevi. he never bother to seek permission or to convince others. Ramadevi etc. Under this impression women took an oath that they will keep wearing Khadi and try to be non-violent as much as possible. wife of Deshbandhu Chitranjan Das along with his two sisters Urmilladevi and Sumeetidevi organized a very especial Training-Camp with Gandhiji’s inspiration to train women how to handle the atrocities and inhuman treatment by police officers through non-violent means. Similarly Kumudanidevi from Katak. And on his call many women in their individual lives began to shed their age-old prejudices. Maltidevi. He used to say that a true reformer must always take a lead and venture forth alone even in the teeth of universal opposition. In this Swadehi movement Kuntaladevi made her significant contribution. deserving of substantial explorations and analysis. started picketing shops of liquor and foreign goods. But unfortunately these days we are looking towards others towards West. They came forward and gave all they had. “Nation is my religion and Charkha is my life”. Orissa became the first venue where Gandhiji organized the first women’s conference with the help of 40 women. But the time has come. including inhuman treatment by police officers and imprisonment. Gandhi expected from them to talk to the businessman.Gandhi’s experience of participation by women in politics from his days in South Africa till the end of his life becomes testimony to the fact that they never failed his expectations. She got an active assistance from Sarojani Naidu who had amazing capability of organizations. He was a reformer who could not wait till others were converted. no to give due respect to our own people. skills. It shows the real charisma of Gandhi’s leadership and women’s participation in freedom struggle under the leadership of Mahatma feminized-national struggle. Heramanidevi all took part in the annual session of Congress which took place in Gaya and indicated their reflective image in the politics. our own tradition. Devkali from Benaras and so many others contributed from their own capacity. now we must accept the importance of local or contextual discourses. Women organized public meetings. Saraladevi is another name in this context as she delivered so many lectures to make this movement influential one. We Indians have developed an undesirable habit i. As per Gandhi women of India where there is no dearth of role models i. Indian Feminism. will not hesitate to give their valuable contributions.their wealth. Savitari. who sacrificed all his life for the sake of Mother India. So many names may also be included herewith. Saraladevi. sold Khadi and prescribed literature. It gives the impression that Gandhi was more radical then any other feminist scholar. Vasantidevi.e. On the spot. where feminists are assuming that the distinction between the public and private is a political conspiracy. energy. labour everything. Gandhi used political means for empowering .e. prepared contraband salt and came forward to face all sort of atrocities. It is only within our own historical and traditional culture where we can identify our self in a much better and just manner. of discarding the old. They had no hesitation in leaving the boundaries of their protected homes and raised it to the moral level. our own culture. Ramadevi and Shakuntaladevi took the initiative to go for Dharna and Bahiskar against British goods. She took a vow. She along with others decided that with the help of this charkha only they will destroy their enemies. The most valuable contributions were made by them during “Swadeshi and Bahiskar Andoolan”. And Gandhi’s views on women can contribute a lot in this direction. Drupadi etc. Durgadevi from Rohtak. It shows. Ramadevi. belongings. Smt.

as nobody other than women could feel their problem in a better way. But as every right in a non-violent society proceeds from the previous performance of duty. leading to the stability of our faith. it follows that rules of social conducts must be framed by mutual co-operation and consultation. But he assumed that this reconstruction will take place only through women’s hands. abundance and austerity. In Gandhi’s terms. They have considered themselves to lord and masters of women instead of considering them as their friend and co-women. support. Catherine Mackinnon argues that ‘sex equality law has been utterly ineffective in getting women what we need and are socially prevented from having on the basis of condition of a birth a chance at productive lives of reasonable physical security. But again it does not mean to say that he denied patriarchy as a political construction. Then only society will listen. A personality full of these qualities will always pursue the path of humanity and a human society is one where both men and women can give their equal participation. individuation and minimal respect and dignity. and will soon forget them. If we do produce them. such modern sisters will have the same authority as the Shastras. An individual who wants a radical change must essentially preserve all these qualities. Sita reflects a personality full of compassion. The largest part of our effort. Much . They can never be imposed from outside. He said. even the most ignorant and worthless man have been enjoying a superiority over women which they do not deserve and ought not to have. Men have not realised this truth in its fullness in their behaviour towards women. truthfulness and confidence. woman is the companion of man. accept.and recognising women’s identity as well as her dignity. We will feel ashamed of the stray reflections on them in our Smritis. Such revolutions have occurred in Hinduism in the past. This ought to be the natural condition of things and not as a result only of learning to read and write. Similar to Catherine Mackinnon even Gandhi used to say that. He is sharing his views with feminists while promoting ideas for regeneration of women. which we represented in our Shastras as the necessary and ingrained characteristics of women. Many of our movements stop half way because of the condition of our women. and men have not always have been fair and discriminating in performing that selfappointed task. “In my humble opinion. the concept of liberty and equality excludes the significance of ‘difference’. The existing concepts are not gender neutral but biased. pure. To illustrate.”7Gandhi imagined a plan of life based on non-violence where women has as much right to shape her own destiny as men has to shape his. self-expression. Sita is a symbol for rationality. He suggested that Indian women must follow the path shown by Sita and Draupadi. feminist scholars have successfully revealed that the realm of traditional political theory is sexiest. Damayanti and Draupadi. and will still take place in future. And Gandhi put forward some local models before us. limited and narrow. They achieved dignified place for them only through their individual feminine qualities. She has the right to participate in every minute detail in the activities of man and she has an equal right of freedom and liberty with him. aiming at a sex-blind society. He used to say “I am uncompromising in the matter of women’s rights. She is entitled to supreme place in her own sphere of activity as man is in his.8 And Gandhi aspires to see these changes in men. gifted with equal material capacities. in promoting the regeneration of women. Further.”10 It brings to light that even Gandhi is accepting the problem of biased legal construction.”6 It clearly reflects that Gandhi was against those social and political constructions where half of the populations are not having their representation. ‘human interdependence’ and ‘value of evolution and care’. endurance. He gave prominent status to women throughout the freedom struggle. For Gandhi those were very confident Ladies of ancient society. Sita is a metaphor for selfesteem and sacrifice. in order to make the attempt we will have to produce women. In my opinion she should labour under no legal disability not suffered by men.9 This has led feminists to claim that all sex equality laws are sex-blind laws. firm and self-controlled as Sita. By sheer force of vicious custom. should be directed towards removing those blemishes. Who will attempt this and how? Gandhiji said. and finally follow. “women have been suppressed under custom and law for which man was responsible and in the shaping of which she had no hand. “legislation of the society has been mostly the handiwork of men.

But for that a radical change is required. Until women will start taking care for themselves. change in mind set. Society runs through reason as well as emotions and experiences. And in this context Gandhi is seeing farther than any feminist scholars. There may be no legal bar against a women hunting or wielding a lance. a complete combination of both is expected. He mentioned that “equality of sexes does not mean equality of occupations. Gandhian perspective gives way even to men.”13 It is completely true that old version of Purdah system has become yesterday’s talks but still a woman cannot move freely after setting off the sun. but something more is required from women’s side. Gandhi challenged the whole setup by asking some strong questions like. but it is a concern of society’s re-structurization. It is a matter of evolution from within and therefore of individual self-effort. Since the ages women have been relegated inside the domestic walls. Carole Gilligan argues that justice and rights have always structured male moral norms. Women themselves must boost up their confidence level and second men must develop their faith in to women as women are keeping in them.”15 Gandhi accepted hugeness of the work and thus suggested to handle two parallel work altogether. Why is it only women who are beaten? Why is it only girl child who is feticide? That is why feminists are claiming for a new idea of justice which will be called as ‘Ethics of care’. Why just to preserve their chastity and purity. It is not a matter of production or reproduction. Advocates of an ‘ethics of care’ sometimes see the morality of rights and justice as inherently masculine and not only neglectful of women’s experience but actually hostile to the handling of moral problems as women interpret them. but it’s a matter of humanity. It is not a matter of discussion of masculinity or feminity. Both Gandhian as well as Feminist approach arguing for differences. It must grow from within. Gandhian perspective says. and to be worth anything it must be capable of withstanding every unsought temptation. Parallel development of both of these spheres will really give us a meaningful change in our society within few days. attending to rights are important for ‘ethic of justice’. She is bound to take help from man. Their functions are defined as their forms. he called the people to “tear down Purdah with one mighty effort. Nature and culture are complementary to each other. “Chastity is not a hothouse growth. change in the perception of womanhood as well as motherhood. justice talks for universalistic. It cannot be protected by the surrounding wall of the Purdah. It reflects how much is to be done to empower women. values and virtues. it is not merely a matter of women’s resurgence. but a matter of reconstruction. Although feminists are supporting these ideas of humanity and dignity but they are arguing that on the name of humanity feminine problems are usually generalized. change in attitude. Feminists thus asserts that in order to have a just social order we need to emphasize the . Gilligon indicates towards responsibilities and building relationships. Why should men arrogate to themselves the right to regulate female purity? It cannot be superimposed from without. Gandhi asked straightly a question to this modern advanced society. our lot is like that of the penny-wise and pound-foolish trader who does not employ enough capital in his business. Again. ‘ethic of care’ asserts for ‘developing moral disposition’.of our work done does not yield appropriate results. They are entwined in such a way that it is difficult to separate them from each other. they are highly interlinked. ‘ethic of care’ demands for particularistic. to empower society. Human rights are not woman’s rights. But she instinctively recoils from a function that belongs to man. She says where ‘ethic of justice’ claims for learning moral principles. merely policies and philosophies are not enough to get the way out.11 Hence it is clear that its not difference principle through which women cause are going to get resolved.12 Actually even feminism does not mean to achieve all those which men are carrying.”14 He called upon the men to trust their womenfolk in the same way the latter are compelled to trust the former. For this reason they are saying that human problems are not woman’s problem. They are not contrary or opposite. Woman’s problems are not identical with man’s problem or the problem of humanity. where both can participate. The discussion shows that where feminist movement is concerned for recognition of women. Nature has created sexes as complements of each other. Here Feminist movements can take help from men. Therefore. Gandhi indicates us. “And why is there all this morbid anxiety about female purity? Have women any say in the matter of male purity? We hear nothing of women’s anxiety about men’s chastity. And I think humanity can neither be purely rational nor emotional. Further.

difference between men and women and then incorporate the feminine values within this theory or else the theory shall remain androcentric. Gandhi’s idea on justice shares the similar conception. He says that every individual should have means to secure his\her freedom and to develop his\her personality. Gandhi believes that means of livelihood should not be monopolized by any individual or institution. Unlike positive liberalists or democratic socialists Gandhi neither looked at the state nor the society for the production as well as distribution of the livelihoods among individuals. Individuals in his Swaraj were capable enough to accumulate the accessories for their lives. In such a society there is not any clash for right. Individuals are performing their duties and they are getting enough in return. There is not any chance for discrimination whether between man and woman; or between man and man. Because in Gandhi’s conception justice is not external rather it is highly eternal in nature. This eternity will be achieved not by training or any other external mode rather it will acquire by individuals through their power of character. Just have a look into Gandhi’s idea of equality and right. He said, “Every man has an equal right to the necessaries of life even as birds and beasts have. And since every right carries with it a corresponding duty and the corresponding remedy for resisting any attack upon it, it is merely a matter of finding out the corresponding duties and remedies to vindicate the elementary fundamental equality. The corresponding duty is to labour with my limbs and the corresponding remedy is to non-cooperative with him who deprives me of the fruits of my labour”.16 Two concepts must be discussed thread barely. One is right and another is duty then only we would be in a position to understand Gandhi’s account of justice. Gandhi declared that the true source of right is duty. If we all discharge our duties, rights will not be far to seek. If leaving duties unperformed we run after rights, they escape us like a will-o’-the-wisp. The more we pursue them the farther they fly.17 It is obvious that where feminist are asserting for particularistic approach to rebuilt the idea of justice, Gandhi took a universalistic claimed for duties. It does not mean to say that women are responsible for their miserable and depressed positions. They would have not performed their duties and consequently they have not achieved adequate rights. No, not at all this would be totally wrong interpretation. As in the previous statement we have seen how Gandhi had developed non-cooperative approach. What all these mean to say is that feminists are more particularistic for their feminine identity. Gandhi used to say that “My own opinion is that, just as fundamentally man and woman are one, their problem must be one in essence. The two live the same life, have the same feelings. Each is a complement of the other. The one cannot live without the other’s active help. Nevertheless there is no doubt that at some point there is bifurcation. Whilst both are fundamentally one, it is also equally true that in the form there is a vital difference between the two. Hence the vocation of the two also must be different. The duty of motherhood, which the vast majority of women will always undertake, requires qualities which man need not possess. She is passive, he is active. She is essentially mistress of the house. He is the breadwinner; she is the keeper and distributor of the bread. She is the caretaker in every sense of the term. The art of bringing up the infants of the race is her special and sole prerogative. Without her care the race would become extinct”.18 When Gandhi said that women’s body is more suited for household work or took them as house-makers he never meant that women must be submissive before man. He often made clarion call to women, “Refuse to be the slaves of your own whims and fancies, and the slaves of men. Refuse to decorate yourselves, don’t go in for scents and lavender waters; if you want to give out the proper scent, it must come out of your heart and then you will captivate not man, but humanity. It is your birthright. Man is born of a woman; he is flesh of her flesh and bone of her bone. Come to your own and deliver your message again.”19 Actually, Gandhi became familiar with the greatness of womanhood and he visualized the role of women as well as men in the social biological context as an agent responsible for the community of the human race. For him, they were fundamentally equal yet had specialized roles set by nature and as agents they are responsible for the continuity of the human race and its continued spiritual and cultural evolutions.

Though, critics are against these assumptions that women are suitable for domestic work. They argue why not men are supposed to contribute in domestic affairs. They demand, job must not be predefined and ones mind must not be preconditioned for any particular activity. We all must be trained for every kind of work. There must not be any line of demarcations on the basis of gender. Whosoever is interested and free will do these domestic activities without any preconceived mindset. Thus, feminists first of all demand for more liberal maternity leave and then they have asked for paternity leave also and now it is mandatory. Although these are very bold developments of these days consumerist society, but one may ask this question how these provisions of leaves will sensitize people for women empowerment. Gandhi used to say that moral aims must necessarily be achieved through moral ends. Two points must be discussed seriously here. First domestic work is not an inferior work. And second, nurturing is an inherent quality of womanhood. Some feminists have accepted that reproduction is as important as production and for that they are claiming for special recognition. But they don’t have any well defined mechanism through which this could be recognized. Just to ask for some provisions of liberal maternity leave rules are not enough to fulfill the purpose. It is true that the nature of problem is too complex, but the methodologies which are evolving are lacking the vision. Theory of differences, public-private debate, ethic of care all are partial approach. They may give an illusion of empowerment of women, but for ultimate solution they are still struggling. For a modern and advanced society Gandhi gives answer to women cause in a different manner. Just look into these sentences by Gandhi: “In a well–ordered society the additional burden of maintaining the family ought not to fall on her. The man should look to the maintenance of the family, the women to household management, the two thus supplementing and complementing each other’s labour”. Gandhi does not continue, “Nor do I see in this any invasion of women’s rights or suppression of his freedom. The saying attributed to Manu that “for women there can be no freedom” is not to me sacrosanct. It only shows that probably, at the time when it was promulgated, women were kept is a state of subjection. The epithests used in our literature to describe a wife are Ardhangani, ‘the better half’, and Sahdharmini, ‘the helpmate’. The husband addressing the wife as devi or goddess does not show any disparagement. But, unfortunately, a time has come when the women was divested of many of her rights and privileges and was reduced to a status of inferiority. But there could be no question of depreciations of her varna. For, varna, does not connote a set of rights or privileges; it prescribes duties or obligations only. And no one can divert us of our duty, unless we ourselves choose to shrink it. The woman who knows and fulfills her duty realizes her dignified status.20 Like feminists, Gandhi too is looking for reconstruction or regeneration of this modern society, but through non-violent means. And history of India’s National Movement has proved it that….Indian women played a more effective part in our last non-violent war than men. The reason is simple. Non-violent war calls into play suffering to the largest extent; and who can suffer more purely and nobly than women?21 Gandhi does believe that women have given birth on this earth to fulfill some special mission. It is women’s mission to exhibit ahimsa at its highest and best. But why should it be a man to move the women heart? If the appeal is addressed exclusively to me not as men but as the (supposed to be) best exponent of ahimsa to be practiced on a mass scale, I have no urge in me to go about preaching the doctrine to the women of India. I can assure my correspondent that there is no want of will in me that deter me from responding to her appeal. My feeling is that if man of the congress can retain their faith in ahimsa and prosecute the non-violent programme faithfully and fully, the women would be automatically converted. And it may be that there shall arise one among them who will be able to go much further than I can ever hope to do. For women is more fitted than man to make explorations and bolder action in ahimsa. For the courage of self-sacrifice women in any day superior to man, as I believe man is to women for the courage of the brute”.22 Hence, above discussion proves it very well that Gandhi understands women’s cause in a batter manner then the feminist scholars. He talked about women’s advancement in his own way and the way was highly appreciated. It was Gandhi’s leadership where Indian women organized first women’s conference in an enslaved

society. As we all know that at that time India was captivated politically as well as traditionally. Gandhi had power and insights to face those challenges. Whereas in an independent India policy makers are still suffering with rational sickness and consequently they don’t have any balanced strategy how to get the issue resolved.

REFERENCES AND NOTES
People and theorists have always forgotten the fact that public realm of politics can be so rational, noble and universal only because the messy content of the body, meeting its needs, providing for protection and care taking and attending to birth and death are taken care of elsewhere. 2 GANDHI, M. K. India of My Dreams , A8. 3 HARIJAN , 20-4-1934. 4 RAGHAVAN IYER (ed.) The Moral and Political Writings of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol. 3, p.394. 5 M. K. GANDHI, India of My Dreams , P. 231. 6 M. K. GANDHI, India of My Dreams , P. 224. 7 YOUNG INDIA , 17-10-1929. 8 M. K. GANDHI, India of My Dreams , P224. 9 CATHERINE MACKINNON, Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law ; Cambridge Harvard University Press, 1987, p.23. 10 M.K. GANDHI; India of My Dreams. Navajivan Publishing House, Ahmedabad-14, 2001, P. 225. 11 Speeches and Writings of Mahatma Gandhi, p. 425. 12 HARIJAN, 2-12-1939. 13 YOUNG INDIA , 3-2-1927. 14 YOUNG INDIA , 25-11-1926. 15 YOUNG INDIA , 3-2-1927. 16 YOUNG INDIA ,26-03-1931. 17 YOUNG INDIA , 8-1-1925 . 18 The Collected works of Mahatma Gandhi, 71, pp-208-9. 19 The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, 71, pp.208-9. 20 HARIJAN , 12-10-1934. 21 YOUNG INDIA , 14-01-1932. 22 HARIJAN , 5-11-1938.
1


Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5,170-172 Advance Access publication 28 Mar.2011

“A STUDY OF DIGITAL LIBRARY AND DIFFERENT TYPES WORK OF LIBRARY THROUGH LIBSYS SOFTWARE.” [A CASE STUDY]
MRS. MANISHA SRIVASTAVA*
*Head Dept. of Library Information Science, SHIATS Agricultural University Allahabad (U.P.) India.

Introduction The term “Digital Library” has a variety of potential meanings, ranging from a digitized collection of material that one might find in a traditional library through to the collection of all digital information along with the services that make that information useful to all possible users. As the Working Group discussed possible scenarios and challenge problems to drive our discussion of metrics, we found the need to come to at least a loose agreement on the scope of the digital library. This document is intended to serve that purpose. Much of

The software has the support of Unicode. The new generation user because only happy when they will be able to read from the computer screen. the software is also compatible with Java-enabled thin client. papers. would facilitate installing self-check workstation. available on the Internet or on compact-disk read-only memory disks. including services to support management of collections. Thus we start our definition with the notion of the collection of services that the digital library represents.the question about the scope of the term is how broad a view should be taken of the digital library. (v) article indexing. re-shelving of items etc. a brief definition of the term “digital library” is given. SIP-2 interface in the Libsys. Libsys has six modules: (i) acquisition. Libsys has the largest installations base in India with more than one thousand libraries using the software. Importantly. It supports UNIX. Libsys is still on the top with more than one thousand installations Justification The visual of practical information system of libraries is more popular as compared to text based information system. Sun Solaris. In a variety of ways. many world renowned institutes in India are also the users of Libsys software. ORACLE as backend or SQL server is the available options of Libsys. and Novell Netware in client-server architecture. services to aid in query formulation and execution. sound files. etc. The remainder of the document elaborates each of those characteristics. as a set of characteristics. Depending on the specific library. There are a large and varied set of such services. . books. and (vi) OPAC. services to provide replicated and reliable storage. a user may be able to access magazine articles. By using hypertext it is possible to structure and organized the same information. (ii) cataloguing. many library automation software packages are available in Indian market. which serve multiple function information explosion: a modern library is expected to be also to handle the problem of information explosion somehow. Objectives → To study the Digital Library through LIBSYS Software. SCO Unix. A digital library is a collection of documents in organized electronic form. images. Does it encompass all of information management or is a more tightly constrained view appropriate? In this document. It can run on many servers such as Windows NT. Libsys does not need any relational database management system as it uses proprietary database. Unixware. so if a library chooses radio frequency identification technology. A digital library is much more than just the collection of material in its repositories. On the client side. Linux. etc. Windows NT. It provides a variety of services to all of its users. However. This is driven by the recognition that to do otherwise would require setting boundaries that are fairly artificial. and for the purposes of the deliberations of the WG. and videos. Significantly. Alpha OSF/1. Among the indigenously developed library software. Besides. The structure of this document is as follows. we choose to take a very broad view. Libsys Libsys is fully integrated library management software designed to run on a number of platforms. → To find out the different types of application through LIBSYS Software. a number of foreign software packages are also available. book drop counters. Besides the availability of indigenously designed and developed software. (iii) circulation. a library may have any version of windows. Novell. Scope Today. services to assist in name resolution and location. (iv) Serials control. In the first section.

This relates the worlds of ideas and practice to a dynamic conception of the digital library with a strong temporal aspect and informed by ideas rooted in Yates’ notion of documents. Its proximity connectors. Shabahat and Mehtab (2008) though studied OPAC module of Libsys software is also having powerful features. journals. Sample: To get an adequate and representative sample random sampling is adopted. multiplicity of digital object formats and above all the publishers’ stringent policies and monopolies Shabahat and Mehtab (2007) though studied similar library automation software packages in Indian context. The present work is an attempt to fill the gap prevalent on comparative review of library software. Gobind Ballabh Pant Social Science Institute. c. This chapter deals with the procedures adopted for the study under the following here : a. concern head and staff. and closer co-operation between academic.e. Conclusion Finally. we synthesize some of the main points presented so far in the form of our conceptual framework. technologies and work. but their study was also restricted to the cataloguing module only. Area: Allahabad City has been chosen for the sample. same as provided by DIALOG. infrastructure threats. reflects the strong technological base of the software. a more trans disciplinary approach. periodicals and interview with different department libraries. not least the need for greater reflection and evaluation. It should provide a valuable tool for understanding the nature of digital libraries and for comparing and analyzing the results of research and the experience of practice. Area is carried out at the library. Materials and Method To achieve the objectives formed earlier in the proceeding chapter the survey method has been used. Review of Literature Sunitha (2005) reported that motivational and emotional bonding among the stakeholders melting down eventually as the digital library development process gets fired up. b. practitioner. It has also been observed that MLiSc students take special interest in learning all modules of Libsys software including OPAC keeping in view its huge installations base. We believe this framework summarizes many important issues in digital library research. current books. There are at least such approaches which enable use to record or analyses the behavioral patterns participant observation personal documents & unstructured interviewing. Method Area Sample Tools Method : When the researchers utilize the data has to look in to various sources from where he can obtain them to achieve the objectives the objectives of the work the survey method is used. user and policy-making communities. There are a host of problem the enthusiastic library fraternity face in their digital library development endeavours starting from copyright issues. technology comlexities. peoples own written or spoken words and observable behaviors. . Tools: To achieve the objective of the study questionnaire tool has been used different types of books. Its KWIC/KWOC indexes are popularly used search strategy. The study is mainly based on primary sources. d. diverse publication types. Descriptive design used.Limitation: The study is based on only Library Software named LIBSYS. Allahabad. The describe or present picture of phenomenon or phenomena under investigation the methodology involved in nature providing descriptive data i.

SHABAHAT & ANSARI. It has not been possible to adapt traditional evaluation criteria because the very newness itself of electronic sources demands new standards. and Virtua.2005.pp. The main concern is to achieve the highest quality of access and information throughout the www virtual library unfortunately. GLA University. which contains a document a collection of data or just an index to some sources gathered by some good-hearted persons. Inf. There is a distinct difference between a “sites” a “database”. Definition of E-Resources A database is a collection of data organized in such a way that its content can be easily accessed. Ann of Lib. Most of the institutes are giving preference to e-resources. generally a database has its own server hosting HTML. volume 20. The process of monitoring and evaluating databases is a question of content expertise and access and requires certain skills. in various formats and displaying different copyright issues all of which contributes to the complexity of the task. number 10. documents have begun to appear on the Internet. maintaining links or implementing mirror sites and dealing with different languages and various formats. With the initiatives like consortia systems. . MEHTAB ALAM (2008) Online Public Access Catalogue: A Journey to Alice for Windows. ultimate standards have yet to be agreed. The importance of electronic resources in day-to-day lives continues to grow. 54:146-51 HUSAIN. Also he should provide the right information. Some consider that “source evaluation is an art. The question arises: Why eresources only? And to support the answer to this question some factors are: • Increasing cost of print media is also diverting the attention of publishers as well as users towards the e-resources. applying standards both different and the same as those used for print data. SHABAHAT & ANSARI. Introduction During the last few years.” which can only be achieved by first acquiring an extraordinary level of understanding.495-502 ♦ Letter No. Mathura (U. This article deals with the selection and evaluation of electronic resources. at the right time and in the form most suitable to the users. As a librarian one has to work with databases located in far away servers. even though some criteria do already exist.REFERENCES HUSAIN.173-179 Advance Access publication 14 Apr.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. in many languages. As a result. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology. the electronic library. An Internet site can be any URL in the Internet.) India. T (2005) Essential strategies for building practical digital libraries and electronic information systems. LibSys. The Internet carries both non professional and professional information. They range from weighing and authenticating documents found. PDF and CGI files. identifying valite added features and engaging in establishing database policies understanding copyright issues. from different jurisdictions. managed and updated.2011 E-RESOURCES: SELECTION AND EVALUATION AJAY KUMAR SHARMA* *Assistant Librarian. information specialists from all over the world have started to evaluate electronic sources (E-resources) of data. the important of eresources in distance learning and higher education programmes are extending.Reg.V-34564. from the right source. MEHTAB ALAM (2007) Library automation software packages in India: A study of the cataloguing modules of Alice for Windows. Libsys and Virtua.P. Studies. 28(6): 34-38 SUNITHA.

To determine the purpose and utilization of the electronic resources by research scholars. 2. Remote access to expensive and rare material. Selection of E-resources The common types of E-resources that will be considered are: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Database Continuing education site Electronic books/monographs Electronic full-text journals Internet site Reference Tools Teaching/Education material The following primary and secondary criteria should be used to evaluate all types of e-resources. Objectives of E-resources 1.e. E-journals have some important features which are not offered by print versions. They open up the possibility of searching multiple files at one time. an article can be downloaded to one’s PC. E-journals allow the inclusion of audio visual material as well as the other formats that are available on the internet. printed out on his/her printer whenever he/she wants. To study the use of different types of electronic resources by research scholars. Media integration. 4. E-journals are cheaper to produce and distributed especially in consortia system. E-journals are more helpful to distance learners and higher education. 6. 3.• • • Information explosion is also a factor for user and publisher’s diversion to e-resources for easy management (handling). To suggest suitable recommendations to improve the electronic resources and services for the benefit of researchers. Accessibility from anywhere. one can read on electronic journal directly from his or her own desk with the help of internet. 3. Generate opportunity for publishing. Support both formal and informal learning. . 5. is that they can access these e-resources from anywhere with the help of internet connection. by any number of people as long as the reader has the internet connection. Consulting e-resources are often faster than scanning print indexes. These are: • • • • • • An electronic version can be accessed earlier than the printed copy. Advantages of E-resources 1. In most of the cases. To ascertain the research’s preference of search engine. at any time. E-journals can be read anywhere in the world. i. To observe the impact of electronic resources over he traditional one. One main advantages especially to distance learners or those who have limited time to access the library. Electronic Journals Any journal which is available in electronic or computerized form on the internet or CDROM is called electronic journal. The most important advantage of e-journals is the links (hyperlinks) that are provided to reference and citations. 5. To know the familiarity of database use by researchers. especially when searching retrospectively and they are straighter forward when wishing to use combinations of keywords. 4. 2.

completeness of resource. authority content currency and the special attributes of the work. Special Attributes – Performance and reliability – speed of downloading and response time. The selection process will also consider specialized materials that address an urgent problem or a current hot topic that would be of internet.Expertise of authors or editors the sponsor/producer and the possible impact on content reputation of he publisher lack of bias advertising amount type distraction from content and usefulness. surveys. cross searching and linking capabilities between resources are to be considered. In the case of databases. An advanced feature that may increase the value of the product and use of a common or similar interface for several tools is an important consideration from a user’s perspective. The Selection Committee will identify resources generally available through the internet or commercial resources and will ray to minimize duplication of resources. focus groups. staff. The professional librarians will also use their expertise to identify subject areas that need to be strengthened or added.Primary Criteria Relevance. advisory boards and user recommendations. clear directions. The selection of materials will be based on the user’s real and perceived needs through a variety of methods including committees. Customization of the interface can be an important feature. help screens and intuitive navigational tools. Content Clinical and educational relevance accuracy and appropriate level of content. acceptable formats for full text and unique attributes and functions that set it apart from other resources such as images. A common interface may also support the advanced search features. subject and name searching. students and others who rely on the information services provided LIS network. Quality of Resource The quality of an e-resource title can best be determined by collectively weighing several factors. Other features to facilitate use and navigation should include menus. Currency and Timeliness – Up-to-date information and frequency of updates. tracking capabilities and protection of privacy statistical reporting to support evaluation of the resource and its use. Authority. Content and Scope E-resources will be selected to support the information needs of the primary users. such as the expansion or concepts. but will link to sees with existing materials or web portals on specific subject areas. etc. search capabilities. usually of faculty. the availability of Boolean operators and specialized commands. The Library will not redevelop collections of materials that already exist. Requirements for plug ins or specialized materials must be reviewed. superior indexing special search interface. preceptors. Organization of Material Preference is given to products searchable through a variety of ways such as keyword. since this can impact the user’s ability to fully utilize the e-source. . if it allows the creation of individual profiles that meet specific information needs or preferences. Special consideration will be given to resources commonly held from other libraries that provide high quality information but are not accessible by all users.

maintenance and staff time must be considered.Secondary Criteria Cost The costs of equipment and support requirements. The use of the resource should be platform independent and utilize the program. as well as licensing fees must be considered in addition to the purchase price of the product. institutions etc. . must also be considered. The hours that technical assistance is available availability of online help Knowledge and responsiveness of account representatives Management of passwords/Ids and registration of clients Availability of direct technical assistance for clients The number of people who can act as contact points for the vendor Regular announcements and communications from vendor The amount of local technical support and staff time required must also be assessed. Password or account maintenance Additional charges for technical assistance or support disks Staff time spent assisting users with technical issues Training costs Indirect costs Access Capabilities Access should be through a vendor supplied server whenever possible. Access to resources through vendor or local sites must be evaluated in terms of performance of the system at peak loads. expertise. Systems and Technical Support Vendor support in terms of technical assistance to library and users must be carefully evaluated. End or pricing formulas based on the number of users. The formula should also be able to accommodate individual and institutional user whenever possible. A final consideration is whether the resource will be accessible through institutional firewalls and if the vendor can provide technical assistance or advice for working with this security measure. set up the resource and then maintains it. The authentication protocol for connecting to the resource must be reviewed. Other costs must also be considered when acquiring an e-resource ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Staff time required to negotiate the contract. performance of the Internet in retrieving files printing documents and speed at peak times and the need o deploy client software on the local desktop computers. If the resource must be mounted on a local serve. the costs of equipment. and follow-up. referrals. Access from narrow bandwidth services must be evaluated to determine performance issues. Criteria to be considered are: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Vendor helpfulness. The standard browsers should be able to interface with he product. The vendor’s license should be their responsibility for ensuing reliable service and their response time if problems do occur.

Simultaneous Users The number of simultaneous users supported by the system must be sufficient to meet the needs or the primary users. Both initial and long term use must be considered. The actual number of users must be balanced between he cost per user and the adverse effects of having users blocked from the system. The cost per user must be evaluate in relation to the value or importance of the content.

Licensing Licenses must be carefully reviewed to ensure that the library maintains fair use rights for its users and that the resource is easily accessible to all users with minimal monitoring or tracking requirements. The contract should include clearly written clauses on the following:
⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ Authorized users Remote access User authentication – through password, P, or other methods Fair use rights for library services, including document delivery etc. Fair use rights for clients accessing the content Protection of privacy if tracking or monitoring systems are used Vendor and organizational liabilities Termination of the contract – when, why and how

Software Requirements Most resources should be self-contained and require no special client or application software. If additional software is needed, it should be standard application software, such as a Web browser, that is readily available to users. Special software required on each user’s desktop must be evaluated in terms of ease of use, installation and maintenance. Required plug in applications should be reviewed. A final consideration is whether the software behind the resource can be modified to brand the site.

Training and Educational Support Handouts manuals and other instructional information should be reviewed. The availability of online tutorials or help screens should be determined. An estimate of the amount of time to learn and teach the system should be made. The need to publicize the resources should also be discussed.

Evolution of E-journals Although E-journals have only been available commercially on a large scale since the mid-1990s, the possibility of publishing journals electronically had been discussed in the literature for several decades. However, the lack of standards and of cost effective delivery and storage mechanisms initially kept them in the realm of a futuristic wish list. Adonis one of the first E-journal experiences, appeared in pilot form at the end of the 1980s and was finally launched as a commercial, product in 1991. This service provided page images of journals from major scientific publishers which wee distributed to subscribers on CD-ROM. With the extension of Internet Originally among the US scientific community and then beginning in the early 1990s to cultural and educational institutions the possibility of both timely mass distribution and direct feedback between authors and their reader communities

opened the door to numerous Ascii based e-journals. The number of new titles increased modestly during the early 1990s, with most journals being the result of voluntary efforts and made available free of charge. The cosmic shift occurred in the mid 199s when the tremendous potential of the WWW became apparent2 Up until that time, publishers were stymied by a series of obstacles such as:
⇒ Ascii text could not convey the visual image associated with a publication (logotype, design, layout, graphics, etc.) ⇒ The user without appropriate software could not read proprietary formats used for creating a document. ⇒ Authors were not interested in preparing original material for a title that had no following, no recognition and no known impact factor. ⇒ Advertisers who play a very important role in financing the production of journals in fields such as medicine were not prepared to finance a publication without knowing the impact of their publicity on readers.

With the Web publishers could post their material for users to access using standard Web browsers, rather than their having to load specialized software. With these improvements, the main user communities – consisting of both libraries and scholars were willing to give Web based e-journals a chance as prestigious publishers began producing electronic versions of their traditional print journals, libraries gingerly began subscribing to them. Thus the resistance of both authors and advertisers began to break down, although in the later case the motive was based on the advertiser’s realization that as readership increased they too had to jump on the WWW bandwagon, even though the impact of web-based publicity still remains largely unknown.

Steps Involved in E-resources Creation Some of the following steps are very important in building the E-Resources;
→ Resource Centers should create the bibliographic database of print and non print materials and such database to be made available via LAN and WAN; → Acquisition of need based fashion related digital resources in the form of CD-RM, optical disk and multimedia version; → High bandwidth internet connectivity; → Subscription to fashion related E-journals; → Facility to access commercial databases via online in the related areas; and → Creation of local digital content available within the Resource Centers.

Conclusion
Electronic resources have become the vital part of human life in 21st Century. It has rapidly changed the way of seeking and disseminating information. It is clear from the study that how electronic resources are useful to research scholars and also problems in accessing and utilizing of electronic resources. This paper will help the librarians in planning and developing electronic resources in providing modern services to their library users.

REFERENCE
GUPTA, P.M. (2009),”Role of Knowledge Management in Libraries & Information Centers “in the National Conference on Knowledge Management-Challenges beyond Boundaries. Held at GLA Group of Institutions, Mathura on 14-15 Feb. KAUL(H.K.) & BABY(M.D.), Ed. Library & Information Networking (Naclin 2002). Delnet, New Delhi. KUMAR, MALLINATH (2005), Use of Electronic Resources by Research Scholars in CFTRI, Mysore: A Study Vol.41, No.3, P16-17. NATARAJAN M.,Selection & Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources, Vol.380, No.2003, P15-17. RAJASHEKAR, T.B; SREENIVASA RAVI; NEELAMEGHAN, A.(1998). Designing a multimedia information service for the internet and CD-ROM information studies, v. 4(3); p. 125-142. www.infolibrarian.com www.inflibnet.ac.in www.delnet.nic,in


Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5,180-183 Advance Access publication 28 Mar.2011

“A STUDY OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES AND ITS SERVICES.”
MRS. MANISHA SRIVASTAVA*
*Head Dept. of Library Information Science, SHIATS Agricultural University Allahabad (U.P.) India.

Introduction A Public library serves the public; a public library is expected to perform the functions of providing for recreation, information, inspiration and education. It serves the local community and is open to public without any distinction. It may include public, students, teachers, research scholars, businessmen, professionals, housewives, retired person, neo-literates etc. In the context of a country like India a public library would have to give special attention to neo-literates. Thus a public literary means a library runs in the interest “of public for the people, by the people of the people.”

Definitions of Public Library According to L.R. Macolvin, “Public libraries are those which provider free services to the people of a particular region, from the adequate collection of usable books of their interests. These services are given without any discrimination of religion, political and other.” According to C.G. Vishwanathan, “The libraries which are administered by the local administration in full of the partly and run by own sources of finance, with a view to provide services to its own regional people without any discrimination.” According to B.S. Russel, “Public libraries in the real sense run by public for and of their own.” Therefore, it may be said that a public library:
Is an institution established and run by government. Provides text materials to every member of the society without differentiating or a discriminating on the basis of caste, creed, religion, gender etc. Provides reading services from the collection free of charge.

Purposes The aim of a public library is to collect, preserve and dissemination of reading material for upliftment of the society. Its main objective is to serve people of the society. Thus, it can be said that a real university of public is public library. In short the purpose of the public library may be summed up as below:
Its purpose is not limited up to satisfy the need of public in present but to motivate them for much use of library and create a future demand too. To make aware always to the people for democratic ideas based on the public cooperation. To make available the spirit of intellectual citizenship and prosperous life of society. To preserve the sources and devices of culture and civilization.

Functions and the Importance Collection and Preservation of Knowledge : The valuation of the standard of culture and civilization of a country can be measured by the libraries of the nation. Our ancient values are preserved in the form of live

Ranganathan in the contest of public library has stated “Functions of public library in educative. Assistant in Research: Public library is a centre of research too. adult. Today libraries are not merely doing issuance or books. Every researcher is free to make use of collection without any obstacle. Useful ion Basic Education Basic education provides assistance in literacy to the children as well as to adults. “Public libraries are the main source of progress of a country which is essential for the growth of culture and civilization. Libraries keep to general people awakened by providing latest information. with a view to help to future generation and in research at present. To provide self education life long: Public library provides assistance and motivates the public for self education for ever.” Really libraries are collection are knowledge like powerhouse. These libraries are helpful to those in the struggle. with out any difference and discrimination. male and female get reading material as per their tastes. Library collects and preserves the published material and provides it to researcher in a speedy time. libraries are “Living power for public education. Looking to the above mentioned important and useful objectives of a public library it can be said undoubtedly that public libraries are the main source of life of public for education. This public can do its duties in a well planned way and always awakened for their right. We can train and educate to every citizen of the nation through library and an awareness of political and social. information. radios. Today. Utilization of Leisure Period : All the age group of child. who are unable to get formal education in a school or university. Drama. This group cannot get primary education even and deprived of their human rights.pictures. Any person can become a member of public Library and become efficient and thus helpful ion national building.” Kenyon Committee. It also preserves the past collection of books as an asset. Contribution in the Success of Democracy: A same person has stated that he will tell the future of nation if the could know the kinds and number of libraries of a country. cultural and social. but motivate the desire in public for acquiring knowledge. Dr. The success of democracy depends upon the ideas expressed in the society. S. library makes them eligible to get basic education in time. In the form of public university: According to UNESCO. General public use these literatures to enrich their knowledge and thus nation make progress in moral and intellectual way. Cooperation at National and International level Public library plays a vital role in maintaining mutual cooperation and utmost good faith. were knowledge is collected and preserved for its dissemination. Thus. Libraries are the sole base of spreading knowledge as light. TV and audio-video aids. Thus. To make literate to illiterate public: Generally a concept in mind arise that library is meant for literate group while it is equally helpful to assist the illiterates by cinemas. 1927.R. social reformer are preserved in the library in written form.” . Political thinker. undoubtedly it is assumed that libraries are main and functional media of public awareness. in its report explained about the importance of library. Besides library provides different function like cinema. and to do this library is main media. can become a member of a library and enrich his knowledge. economical. national unity international peace. political. Helpful in Nation Building: Library is a nation building institution. Kavi Sammelan etc. The persons. The though and ideas of learned people. Help in perfect personality Development: Public library makes to available the chance to every person for personality development by studying. old. library helps to researches in their research project.

as a library student. youth. a questionnaire sent to all public libraries yielded a 92% response. argues that the education of reference librarians. Plumb (2004) reported that the public library is an experimental educational initiative of the university Michigan school of information. there are studies exploring public libraries overall or social impact. regular and guaranteed recurring source of income from the proceeds or library cuss. Kanpur. foreign language speaker. a Michigan alumna. The author. or community project.Objectives A study of public libraries and its services. low achievers. Charlene (2003) reported that the study provides policy-makers and information professionals with previously unavailable baseline data concerning the use of computers and access to telecommunications networks in public libraries in Kuwait. The staff however qualified and devoted. Banaras. on social excluded. in the absence of a permanent. persons with disabilities. Other studies investigate the impact of public library services on special groups. Materias and Methods . recreation and culture. Scope Some studies explore the impact of various aspects of Public library activities such as the impact of reading. The data collection depends upon the public library of Allahabad. elderly. would remain passive and regular income for library expenditure. public library gives many types of services and is using many techniques. information. Review of Literature Gardner (2000) reported that all result in providing any satisfactory standard of library services to the people of the state. Hypotesis Users will know about all services of public libraries. In addition. To find out the new techniques and technologies which is applicable in Library Science. Limitation The study is limited. of information technology access and users services. Justification A public library plays a crucial role in the society as a center for education. its. and groups such as children. Staff members will know about new techniques for upgradation. pose ling that the value of the public library lies in the way it renders individual aspects of the reference process explicit and forces its users to examine them piece by piece. with particular attention to the traditional reference skills it foster is digital reference tool. Jaunpur and Lucknow city.

semi-structured interviews with librarians. 68-73. the study is mainly based on a primary data collection from the public library of Allahabad. The reference librarian.Reg.533/2007-2008 ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777 INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2011)5. “Books. 39(3) pp. b. Sample: To get an adequate and representative simple random technique has been adopted. 271. teacher and information provider of common people as a whole. The study is mainly based on primary sources. guide. d. REFERENCES CHARLENE.V-34564.184-188 Advance Access publication 15 Apr. M. GARDNER (2000) Public library legislation: A comparative study. BALASUBRAMANI** *Research Scholar & Librarian. Information and Knowledge are for use” is meaningless for the 85% rural population until and unless these people are deprived of getting public library service. 1971. (2003) Digitization of libraries modern era. Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the Use of e-resources and Services in Bharathidasan University Libraries tamilnadu. Area: Area of public library is based on mainly services and techniques. P. This chapter deals with the procedures adopted for the study under the following here : a. 33-41(9). R. ABIGAIL (2004) The internet public library as a teaching tool for shocking traditional reference skills. Public libraries can play as the closest friend. philosopher. JAYAPRAKASH* AND DR. the survey method has been used. ♦ Letter No. Banaras. current books. and observational visits in the libraries. concern head and staff.2011 USE OF E .RESOURCES AND SERVICES IN BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY LIBRARY: A STUDY M.. Kanpur. Introduction . Jaunpur and Lucknow city. Namakkal (Tamilnadu) India. A good number of the users were satisfied with the usage of e-resources in their libraries and indicated ‘adequate IT infrastructure’ as their reason for satisfaction.To achieve the objectives formed earlier in the proceeding chapter the survey method has been used. Bharathidasan University. Mahendra Engineering College. journals. Trichy (Tamilnadu) India. UNESCO. Paris. 41(85). c. PLUMB. pp. India. **Assistant Librarian. F. A. The following methods were used to collect data for the study: questionnaire survey of librarians and library users. ILA Bulletin. Tools: To achieve the objective of the study questionnaire tool has used different types of books. Conclusion Public Libraries established by the respective state government and some by the central government. preodicals and interview with different department libraries. Method Area Sample Tools Method: To achieve the objectives framed in proceeding chapters.

3.67) Level of satisfaction Partiallysatisfied 51(34. increased reliance on computer networks. 2. rapid growth of Internet and explosion in the quality. and quantity of information compelled libraries to adopt new means and methods for the storage.33) 41(27. Libraries and Information Centres have been employing ICT and electronic information resources and services to satisfy the diverse information needs of their users. Widespread use of computers. Twenty-five questionnaires were not taken into consideration for they did not include complete answers. Respondents differ in the opinion about the usefulness of Internet 3. Staff differs in their level 01. Electronic Information Service Fullysatisfied E-Mail Internet OPAC System Online journal 91(60. 5. the following specific objectives were identified. 3. web-based resources. 175 were.Today libraries are shifting their role from the custodian of traditional information resources to the provider of service-oriented digital information resources. e-books. Objectives of The Study The aim of the study is to investigate the current e-resources in Bharathidasan university libraries in Tamilnadu.2 Hypotheses From the objectives the following hypotheses are drawn: 1. The following were selected as the specific objectives of the study: 1. To find out the extent of time spend by the faculty members for searching for information through electronic media. 4. Ejournals. and a variety of other electronic media are fast replacing the traditional resources of libraries. In this study in a1l 250 questionnaires were distributed among the faculty members in the disciplines of Arts and Science in Bharathidasan University. Staffs differ in their level of usage of computer and online service in the library. 3. cost effectiveness.67) 87(58. To assess the number of library users who have equipped themselves in handling computers. rapid responses. online databases.67) 28(18.No 1.received back. To examine the Extent of use of the library facilities and electronic media services made by faculty members.67) 85(56. Staffs differ in their usage of E-journals web page. development of digital libraries and application of innovative information and communication technologies (ICT) have tremendously increased because it provides enhanced user satisfaction. In all 150 questionnaires were analysed for the present study. 3. 2. 4.3 Methodology The survey was chosen as the method most likely to describe accurately the E-Resources and Services .33) 37(24.00) 150 22(14.satisfaction about the electronic information service. 4. 1.00) 56(37. making the response rate 70%. CD-ROM databases.67) Notsatisfied 8(5. Library automation. retrieval and dissemination of information.66) Total 150 150 . To find out the problems of users trying to use electronic resources. Out of 250 questionnaires distributed.00) 85(56. 2. and easier operational procedures. Analysis and Discussion Level of satisfaction about the Electronic Information service S. To identify level of users satisfaction with electronic resources and services. In order to fulfill this aim.33) 150 9(6.a user survey of individuals involved (staff members) in Bharthidasan University.

67) 39 (26.00) 276 (36.33) 150 150 150 Total 4. Among them email and Internet. Online electronic journals Research project sites Scholarly paper and abstracts on the internet Library site Academic department/ on the internet Total 53 (35.67) 130 (17. Regarding the various sites available in the Internet. 3.00) Chi -Square value= 99.33) Useless 2 (1. This difference is confirmed. Regarding OPAC system.93) Chi -Square value= 45.67) 30(20.33) 11 (7.00) 84(56. 5.67% of them satisfied and 24. 35.33) 27 (18. The above table shows the users opinion about the usefulness of Internet for study/research/teaching or professional purpose.Respondents opinion about the internet usefulness for study/research/teaching or professional purpose.33) 11 (7.67) 43 (28.00) 150(100.33) 58 (38. 60.67) Total 150(100. Problem Problem with accessing suitable computers Problems with accessing suitable software Problems with accessing external networks for e-mail or internet Lack of information about how to use digital resources Lack of time acquire skills needed to use digital resources Lack of High quality information available Yes 55(36. Main Problems when-typing to use electronic resource by the respondents S.00) 150(100.00) 77 (51. among the electronic information service.00) 19 (2. S.CD-ROM 53(35.33% of them say occasionally useful 2.00) 100 (13. 150 750(100.30% of them say very useful.67) 32 (21. In case of Online journal.00) 91(60.33) 28 (18.00) Total 401(53. majority of them are satisfied. 36.47) 252(33. which is significant at 1% level. 17.00) It is seem from the table that. 6.67% of them partially satisfied. II.00) .33% of them partially satisfied.33) 77(51.No Internet usefulness Very useful 1.60) 97(12.00) 24 (16. Hypothesis: Staff differs in their level of satisfaction about the electronic information service. 5.33% of them satisfied about CD-ROM and 44.33) 43 (28. 2. so the started hypothesis is accepted.67% of them are fully satisfied about e-mail and 34% of them are partially satisfied.00) 28 (18.58% of them satisfied.00) 150(100. 27.No 1.80% of them say quite useful.67) 42 (28. 150 150 750 (100.67) 30 (20.44 Degrees of Freedom=16 Level of significant=1% Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentage.33) 6 (4.00) Level of internet Usefulness Quite useful 63 (42.67) 65(43.67% of them partially satisfied.00) 150(100. 5.33) 67(44. 2.67) 73(48.33) 225 (30.33) 5 (3.80) Occasionally useful 8 (5. Hence the stated hypothesis is accepted. Hypothesis: Respondents differ in the opinion about the usefulness of Internet.33) 85(56.00) 40 (26.00) 54 (36. 4. III.33) Not Resplendent 95(63.00) 150(100.00) 59(39.47 Degrees of Freedom=8 Level of significant=1% Note: Figures in Parentheses indicate percentage. This difference of opinion is statistically proved by the obtained chi square Value.33) 81(54.56.53% of them say useless.67) 69(46. 3.00) 66(44.53) No opinion 26 (17.

4% of the professors.7. Users use these varied kinds of information resources for their information needs. electronic database etc. 2.00) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentage.67% of the senior lecturers and 23. 18. 5. Among the staffs. journal.00) Designation Reader 11(7. internet/world wide web.67% of readers. The above table shows the main problems faced by the users while using Electronic resource. 65%of them facing problems with accessing suitable software. For a Faculty of Engineering Library all these types of documents and electronic media are important. Therefore it is concluded that most of the respondents face problems because most of the respondents face problems do not get a proper training to use the electronic resources in the library.No 1.992 Degrees of Freedom=9 Level of significant=NS (Non Significant) Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentage.67) 150(100.33) 5(3.67) Total 150 150(100.33) 4(2. Library Activities Library activity changed past two years Total Improved 107 107(71.00) Lecturer 35(23.00) 9(6. 9.33) 7(4. irrespective of their designation majority of them used formal (53. 4. 3. web site for their research study. 2% of lecturers and 1.00) .33) 53(35.67) 14(9.00) No opinion 19 19(12.67) 2(1. Internet.24 Use of Library Document The knowledgement /information is being published in a variety of forms such as books. 7.67% of senior lecturers and 2% of readers used book.33) 109(72. 4. Type of sources used by the respondents for research activities S. because it is non-significant.33% of senior lecturers and 19. 2. 2% of the professors.33% of lecturers used Internet / World Wide Web.Respondents opinion about the library activities and changes for the past two years.33) 12(8. This is confirmed by the obtained chi.00) 72 (48.33%) for their research study.Lecturer 28(18.67) 3(2.33% of the readers. IV. from digital resources Feeling that electronic resources are not relevant to your needs 41(27. 81% of the users face problems due to lack of information about how do use digital resources 66%of the respondents face problems due to lack of high quality of information available from digital resources and 41% of them feel that electronic resources are not relevant to their needs.00) 80(53.33%) and Internet / would wide web (35.33) 3(2. Total Sources of information Professor Journal Internet/World Wide Web Books Electronic Database 6(4. Asper the obtained data obtained data 55% of them face problem with accessing suitable personal commuters. S. The above table shows the various information used by the staffs for their research study.33% of senior lecturers used electronic database for their research/ study.33) 48(32. None of the professors used book and electronic date base for research/ study. 3.square value.00) 5(3.00) 3(2.33) Not Improved 24 24(16. The following (24)table indicates the preference of users towards various kinds of documents in faculty of engineering library.00) S.33% of lecturers. Hypothesis: Users differ in their uses of information on the basis of designation.33) 29(19.00) 21(14.. The above result also confirmed that all the users used journals. Therefore it is concluded that.00) Total Chi -Square value= 4.33) 150(100.No 1.33% of the lecturers used journals. 77% of the respondents face problems with assessing external networks for e-mail or internet.

3.33% of the user agreed the library activity changed past two years and 16% says not improved. This study will help the information professionals in developing r-resources services to their users. Shree Publisher’s New Delhi. KAUR BALJINDER & VERMA RAMA (2006) Use of Electronic Resources at TIET Library Patiala: A Case Study. Therefore majority of them gives opinion the library activity changed past two years. p58-64. Lack of training among users and proper infrastructure in library is major de-motivating factors in the use of electronic resources. Vol. The result also found that the entire respondent used computers / online service (100%).G (2005).67%).Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentage. 7th MALIBNET Convention. 5.33%) feel that the library activity has been changed for the past two years 2. Library Hi Tech. It is clear from the study that younger generation of faculties has accepted the digital reading culture and use of electronic resources is going to require a considerable training exercise. Major Findings 1. MADHUSUDAN M.67%) of the engineering faculty members used E-journal web page. 3. ILA Bulletin. p 18-20. OPAC system (58%) and on line journals (56. The result also identified that nearly (78. “Current Trends and Techniques in Library and Information Science”.67%) of the respondent use their own computers in Resident and nearly (61.M. Libri.67%) are very useful. 43. RENWICK SHAMIN (2004). E-mail (60. (53.67% says no-opinion.47%) of the staff members are fully satisfied. pp. 7.P (2007). No.33%) and Internet / World Wide Web (35.55-60 . Vol. 369-386. Tamilnadu reveals that e-resources have become the vital part of information dissemination process. Further the result found that (38. “Library Capacity Building through e-journal consortia. 3. Regarding the electronic Information service. Knoweledge and Use of Electronic Resources by Medical Science Faculty at the University of the West Indies. REFERENCE BAJPAI R. Vol.67%). pp.)) and research project sites (38. Further the researcher found that On-line electronic journals (35. Only 12. The result found that irrespective of their categories majority of them used Journals (53. The study also brings out some major suggestions for improving the use e-resources. Conclusion The study carried out at Bharathidasan University Library. Due to computerisation of library the faculty members (71. No. New Delhi. The result found that more number of lecturers and senior lecturers used computer and on-line service in the Engineering library / University computer centre.33%) for their research / study purpose. 8.3311. SREEKUMAR. Internet (56. 42. The table shows user opinion about the library activity changes for the past two years.33%) of them used non-university computers like Browsing centre. the Indian Scenario”. 3. Delhi”. “Use of UGC infonet e-journals by research scholars and students of University of Delhi. 26 No. 4. As per the research survey 71. 6.6~2)f.