CHAPTER 13

AIR POWER DEFINITIONS AND TERMS
All terms and definitions are drawn from British Defence Doctrine, the NATO Glossary of Terms and Definitions (AAP 6), JWP 0-01.1 or other sources as indicated. Those marked NTP are under consideration in the NATO Terminology Programme. Agencies. A distinct non-military body which has objectives that are broadly consistent with those of the campaign. Aim (Military). A single unambiguous military purpose that must be established before a plan can be developed at any level of command for a military operation. (JWP 0-01.1) Airborne Early Warning (AEW). Air Surveillance and control provided by airborne early warning aircraft equipped with search and height finding radar and communications equipment for controlling weapon systems. (AAP 6) Airhead. A designated area in a hostile or threatened territory which, when seized and held, ensures the continuous air landing of troops and materiel and provides the manoeuvre space necessary for projected operations. Normally it is the area seized in the assault phase of an airborne operation. Air Interdiction. An air operation conducted to destroy, neutralize or delay the enemy’s military potential before it can be brought to bear effectively against friendly forces at such a distance from friendly forces that detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of friendly forces is not required. (AAP 6) Airlift. Strategic or inter-theatre airlift is the carriage of passengers and cargo between theatres of operation. Tactical or intra-theatre airlift is the carriage of passengers and cargo within a theatre of operation. Air Operations for Strategic Effect. Air Operations for Strategic Effect are aimed to destroy or disrupt the defined strategic centre of gravity of an opponent. The effect sought by air power could be destructive, non-destructive or a combination of both, against target sets which undermine the opponent’s ability, will and means to continue his aggression. Air operations for strategic effect are not limited to bombing or solely the domain of attack aircraft. All combat aircraft and associated weapon systems are capable of action for strategic effect.

AP 3000

3.13.1

Air Power Definitions and Terms

or locality(ies) from which a nation. physical strength or will to fight. The geographical area assigned by the military-strategic authority within which the operational level commander has authority to plan and conduct the campaign and control all joint actions supporting his mission. sub-surface. (NTP) Close Air Support. land. (JWP 0-01. (AAP 6) AP 3000 3. (AAP 6) Area of Responsibility. Air action against hostile targets which are in close proximity to friendly forces and which require detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of those forces. Battlespace. (JWP 0-01.1) Campaign. (NTP) Attrition. either lethal or non-lethal. (AAP 6) Attrition Warfare. (JWP 0-01. surface. Characteristic(s). The degree of control over the dimensions of the battlespace that enhances friendly freedom of action and denies the enemy freedom of action.Air Superiority. (AAP 6) Air Supremacy.1) Battlespace Dominance. space and the electromagnetic spectrum that encompass the area of operations. sea and air forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force.13. A set of related joint military operations in a given area(s) designed to achieve particular objectives. Essentially it aims at the physical destruction of the enemy. against a predetermined objective assessment. The timely and accurate estimate of damage resulting from the application of military force. All aspects of air. (NTP) Centre of Gravity.2 Air Power Definitions and Terms . A style of warfare characterized by the application of substantial combat power that reduces an enemy’s ability to fight through loss of personnel and equipment. an alliance. The reduction of the effectiveness of a force caused by loss of personnel and materiel. capability(ies).1) Battle Damage Assessment. That degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land. That degree of air superiority wherein the opposing air force is incapable of effective interference. It permits power projection and force sustainment to accomplish the full range of potential missions. a military force or other grouping derive its freedom of action.

(JWP 0-01. (AAP 6) Combined Joint Task Force. An aircraft patrol provided over an objective area. organisations or nations use common doctrines. The capability of 2 or more items or components of equipment or materiel to exist or function in the same system or environment without mutual interference. (AAP 6) Combat Power. the Commander’s Intent should be focused on the effect that he wishes to achieve on the enemy. A formal analysis of the situation. mission. The CJTF Headquarters Concept provides for deployable multinational multi-service headquarters of variable size formed to command and control CJTFs of NATO and possibly non-NATO nations. A concise expression of the purpose of a campaign or operation. (AAP 6) Compatibility. (JWP 0-01. procedures or equipment. Military operations in which elements of two or more Allied nations participate. Command is the authority vested in an individual for the direction. A state achieved when groups of individuals.13. over the force protected.1) Commonality. coordination and control of military forces. Combined Operations. over the critical area of a combat zone. an authorised target. At the tactical level. the desired results and how operations will progress towards achieving the desired end-state.1) Combat Air Patrol. A CJTF HQ could also be deployed for WEU led operations.Collateral Damage. but not forming part of. A multinational multi-service task force. Damage to personnel and property adjacent to. for the purpose of intercepting and destroying hostile aircraft before they reach their target. enemy and own courses of action conducted in preparation for forming a commander’s intentions and concept of operations. (AAP 6) AP 3000 3. (AAP 6) Commander’s Estimate of the Situation.3 Air Power Definitions and Terms . The total means of destruction and/or disruptive force which a military unit/force can apply against the opponent at a given time. Commander’s Intent. or over an air defence area. Command.

He has the authority to require consultation between the agencies involved or their representatives. in these circumstances. (AAP 6) Decisive Point. An operation reaches its culminating point when the current operation can just be maintained but not developed to any greater advantage. Counter-Air Operations. The authority granted to a commander or individual assigned responsibility for coordinating specific functions or activities involving forces of 2 or more Services or 2 or more forces of the same Service. sustainment and recovery of assigned UK forces. Deception. CJO will. Operations consisting of all measures which might be used to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action. and is accordingly granted Coordinating Authority between all UK Commands. but does not have authority to compel agreement. In case of disagreement between the agencies involved. Land. An event.4 Air Power Definitions and Terms . distortion or falsification.e. AP 3000 3. organized under one or more component commanders subordinate to the operational level commander. When appointed by CDS as UK Coordinator Of Supporting Command Functions (CSCF) for a particular operation. or affect the responsibility of the Supporting Commands to the UK COS. In the event he is unable to obtain essential agreement. exceptionally by Service or geographical area. (AAP 6) Coordinator of Supporting Command Functions. Air. Components are forces of one or more Service grouped into functional force elements (i. Coordinating authority does not in itself carry any command authority. the successful outcome of which is a precondition to unlocking the enemy's centre of gravity. Defensive Counter-Air (DCA) Operations. Those measures designed to mislead an adversary by manipulation.13. he should refer the matter to the appropriate authority. Maritime. (AAP 6) Coordinating Authority. be the primary national point of contact at the operational HQ level for dealings with NATO Military Authorities (NMAS) or their equivalents.Components. A clear and concise statement of the line of action chosen by a commander in order to accomplish his mission. CJO is to assume responsibility for coordinating the deployment. he should attempt to obtain essential agreement by discussion. Culminating Point. Logistics and Special Forces) or. Operations to achieve and maintain the required degree of control of the air. Concept of Operations.

It is authoritative but requires judgement in application. It covers every aspect of military operations and administration and remains a national responsibility which cannot be delegated. Process which aims to conserve the fighting potential of the deployed force by countering the wider threat to all its elements from an adversary. Fundamental principles by which the military forces guide their actions in support of objectives. The military authority and responsibility of a superior officer to issue orders to subordinates.1) Force Protection. be they land. Direct air missions may include denial. An air situation in which the extent of air effort applied by the enemy air forces is insufficient to prejudice the success of friendly land. sea or air. natural and human hazards and fratricide. possibly. crisis and war by a host nation to allied forces and NATO organizations which are located on or in transit through the host nation’s territory. sea or air operations. disruption and mobility operations in direct contact with opposing forces. The accidental destruction of own.Direct Air Operations. (AAP 6) Doctrine. Such operations require close coordination and.1) Fratricide. (JWP 0-01. (AAP 6) End-State. Host Nation Support (HNS). A military communication in which policy is established or a specific action is ordered. Direct air operations are intended to bring the flexibility and the precision of air power to bear where and when it is needed.1) Full Command. Civil and military assistance rendered in peace. control from other elements. Directive. (JWP 0-01. No multinational commander will therefore have Full Command over forces assigned to him by other nations. The state of affairs which needs to be achieved at the end of a campaign either to terminate the conflict or to resolve the situation/conflict on favourable satisfactory terms. A result of what is colloquially known as a ‘blue on blue engagement’. (NTP) Favourable Air Situation.13. (JWP 0-01. allied or friendly forces. (AAP 6) AP 3000 3.5 Air Power Definitions and Terms .

The ability of systems. A condition which exists when 2 or more items possess such functional and physical characteristics as to be equivalent in performance and durability. where a commander seeks to bring about a decision.6 Air Power Definitions and Terms . (JWP 0-01.his ability to fight as an effective. AP 3000 3. Main Effort. except for adjustment. (JWP 0-01. Interchangeability. (AAP 6) Joint. or of adjoining items. The operational commander of a nominated joint force.13. Joint Force Air Component Commander (JFACC).Indirect Air Operations. operations. Lines of operation link decisive points in time and space on the path to the centre of gravity. Manoeuvre Warfare is a war-fighting philosophy that seeks to defeat the enemy by shattering his morale and physical cohesion . A term describing an approach that employs the principles of Manoeuvre Warfare. Lines of Operation. and are capable of being exchanged one for the other without alteration of the items themselves. Connotes activities. units or forces and to use the services so exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together. The JFACC is responsible for planning. organizations etc in which elements of more than one Service of the same nation participate.rather than by destroying him physically through incremental attrition. in a particular area. In national terms he would be responsible to the JTFC. coordination and tasking of air missions to meet the Commander Allied Joint Forces’ (COMAJF) objectives. units or forces to provide services to and accept services from other systems. (AAP 6) Interoperability. Joint Task Force Commander.1) Manoeuvre Warfare. Indirect air operations enable a commander to take advantage of both friendly strengths and enemy weaknesses. whilst preserving his own freedom of action. delaying or destroying surface forces. A concentration of forces or means.1) Manoeuvrist. coordinated whole . and without selection for fit and performance. Operations aimed at depriving the enemy of the military power he needs to occupy territory or exploit sea space by neutralising.

A military action or the carrying out of a strategic. or administrative military mission. the process of carrying on combat. (NTP) Operational Art. AP 3000 3. (JWP 0-01. Operations in which elements of 2 or more nations participate and which are normally based on a coalition.1) Offensive Counter-Air (OCA) Operations. training.Mission Command. It does not include authority to assign separate employment of components of the units concerned. tactical. enabling them to carry out missions with the maximum freedom of action and appropriate resources. (AAP 6) Operational Control (OPCON). organization. It does not include responsibility for administration or logistics. The authority delegated to a commander to direct forces assigned so that the commander may accomplish specific missions or tasks which are usually limited by function.13. The skilful employment of military forces to attain strategic goals through the design. The level of war at which campaigns and major operations are planned.7 Air Power Definitions and Terms . Operational Command (OPCOM). (JWP 0-01. disrupt or confine enemy air power as close to its bases as practicable. attack. (AAP 6) Operational Level of War. service. integration and conduct of campaigns and major operations. supply. to deploy units. Operations mounted to destroy. including movement. and to retain or assign tactical control of those units. to deploy units concerned. Neither does it include administrative or logistic control. conducted and sustained to accomplish strategic objectives within areas of responsibility. defence and manoeuvres needed to gain the objectives of any battle or campaign. to re-assign forces and to retain or delegate operational and/or tactical control as may be deemed necessary. time or location.1) Multinational Operations. Operation. No Fly Zone. The authority granted to a commander to assign missions or tasks to subordinate commanders. A style of command that seeks to convey understanding to subordinates about the intentions of the higher commander and their place within his plan. Zone of airspace established by international mandate (or conceivably unilaterally as a military or total exclusion zone) in which the flying of specified types of aircraft is prohibited.

equipment. peacemaking. These include peacekeeping. Multi-functional operations involving military forces and diplomatic and humanitarian agencies. hydrographical or geographic characteristics of a particular area. or to secure data about meteorological. Element of campaign and operational design that seeks to disrupt the decision-making process of the enemy commander by confronting him with a number of problems simultaneously. peace enforcement. by visual observation or other detection methods. but their relevance. A commander having primary responsibility for all aspects of a task assigned by higher authority. (JWP 0-01. which conveys instruction from a superior to a subordinate.1) Supported Commander. They are designed to achieve humanitarian goals or long term political settlement and are conducted impartially in support of an appropriate mandate. or by signal. peacebuilding and humanitarian operations. (JWP 0-01.Operational Pause. The arrangement of activities within a campaign in the order most likely to achieve the elimination of the enemy's centre of gravity. information about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy. (NTP) AP 3000 3. or who develops a supporting plan. A mission undertaken to obtain. Order.1) Principles of War. written or oral. applicability and relative importance change with circumstances. Phase. logistics or other support to a supported commander. The fullest achievable agreed level of identification and tracking of all airborne contacts in the area of interest.1) Recognized Air Picture. A pause in operations while retaining the initiative in other ways. A commander who furnishes forces. Simultaneity. conflict prevention. (AAP 6) Peace Support Operations. (JWP 0-01.8 Air Power Definitions and Terms .13. A communication. A phase is a discrete and identifiable activity along a Military Line of Operation in time and/or space that allows for the reorganisation and redirection of forces as part of the superior commander’s plan. Reconnaissance. (NTP) Supporting Commander. The Principles of War are guides to action and fundamental tenets forming the basis for appreciating a situation and planning. (AAP 6) Sequencing.

radars and early-warning systems. Surveillance.13. (AAP 6) Sustainability. photographic or other means. (AAP 6) Synchronization. A geographical area defined by the military-strategic authority which includes and surrounds the area delegated to the operational commander within which he will conduct operations. The focusing of resources and activities to produce maximum combat power at the decisive time. surface and sub-surface areas.9 Air Power Definitions and Terms . aural. which could include parts of an integrated air defence system. The authority delegated to a commander to assign tasks to forces under his command for the accomplishment of the mission assigned by higher authority. The systematic observation of the aerospace. The detailed and usually local direction and control of movement and manoeuvre necessary to accomplish missions or tasks assigned. destroy or degrade enemy surface-to-air defence systems. electronic. AP 3000 3. The ability of a force to maintain the necessary level of combat power for the duration required to achieve its objectives.Suppression of Enemy Air Defences (SEAD).1) Tactical Command (TACOM). places. The purpose of SEAD missions is to neutralise. persons or things by visual. (AAP 6) Tactical Control (TACON). (AAP 6) Theatre of Operations. (JWP 0-01.