50 WELDING TECHNOLOGY 4.14.7.

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING — During arc welding it is not uncommon to experience spatter and sparks flying quite a distance. — Protecting clothing as listed below protect the limbs of the welder against burning by molten-metal, molten flux, spatter and sparks. (/) Apron (ii) Gloves (iii) Sleeves (iv) Cape (v) Shoes etc. — Apron provides protection to the clothes of the welder. Apron may be made up of chrome leather. It offers best protection against hot spattering particles. — Gloves protect the hands of the welder from ultraviolet rays and spattering hot metal. Gloves may be made up of leather or of a combination of cloth and asbestos. — For overhead welding, a jacket or cape is used to protect the shoulders and arms and a cap is employed to protect head and hair. — A welder should wear high topped shoes that go over the ankle. Ordinary shoes will not prevent small globules of molten metal from dropping into shoes. — All clothes, other than the protective ones, also should be of heavy material because thin clothes permit infrared and ultra-violet rays to penetrate to the skin through them. — Open pockets and cuffs of the trousers should be eliminated because they may catch molten particle and burn. 4.15. WELDING ELECTRODES An Electrode is a piece of wire or a rod (of a metal or alloy), with or without flux covering, which carries current for welding. At one end it is gripped in a holder and an arc is set up at the other. 4.15.1 TYPES OF WELDING ELECTRODES (See page 151-152.) 4.152. ELECTRODE DETAILS. Depending upon the material of the electrode, it may melt and supply filler metal; if it is non-consumable, a separate filler addition generally becomes necessary. The composition of the core wire depends upon the metal to be welded. For example, to weld mild steel, core wire of similar composition will be prepared, in order to get a homogeneous welded joint. The size or diameter of the core wire will depend upon the amount of weld metal to be ARC WELDING PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENTS 1 deposited and on the type of joint or the gap to be bridged between the two plates to be welded. Higher currents will be required to weld with bigger diameter electrodes. The length of the core wire is designed after considering

Arc control is comparatively difficult. Carry less current. filler metal addition may or may not be needed. Strictly speaking. Comparatively costlier. • 4.rigidity. Diameter remaining same. 3. Simpler arc control. A comparison of carbon and graphite electrodes is given below. Long life. these electrodes cannot be called nonconsumable. which may spoil the electrode covering. Higher electrical resistance. Generally thin and larger diameter electrodes are of shorter lengths and medium sized electrodes have bigger lengths. depending upon the plate thickness and the type of joint. 3. They maintain the arc which melts the base metal (as in TIG and carbon arc welding). Carbon Electrodes Graphite Electrodes 1. the ease in welding and the diameter of the electrode. First amongst the non-consumable electrodes are copper coated carbon or graphite electrodes (Fig. electrical resistance and thus the heat generated in the electrode body increases. 4. In longer electrodes. Less expensive. electrical resistance. 4.1). 2. Soft material. Carry larger currents as compared to carbon electrodes. 5. 1. The reason is if thin electrodes are made longer they may bend and welding may not be carried out properly. NON-CONSUMABLE OR REFRACTORY ELECTRODES They are made up of high melting point materials like carbon (MP 6700°F).153. 2. 6. Carbon or graphite electrodes ranging from 2 mm to 15 mm are employed for welding purposes. Short life. 6. an electrode of higher resistance material is normally made smaller in length. pure tungsten (MP 6150°F) or alloy tungsten. 4. In welding processes uj>ing refractory electrodes. 5. The electrode length goes on decreasing with the passage of time. 154 . and if bigger diameter electrodes are made long. These electrodes do not melt away during welding. Copper coating increases the electrical conductivity or current conducting capacity of the electrodes. their weight may increase too much to make welding operation inconvenient for the operator. because of vaporization and oxidation ol the electrode material during welding. Lesser electrical resistance. Material is hard and brittle.

5 mm to 6 mm diameter are commonly available for welding purposes.F. and electrode life. electrode tip should not touch the molten weld pool. and consumption of costly tungsten electrode. Least penetration. 66. As compared to carbon electrodes. electrode tip remains cooler (as compared to pure tungsten electrode). Average arc voltage in argon atmosphere is 19 V. . Effects Currents higher than those in DCRP can be employed. Tungsten and alloy tungsten electrodes should preferably be used on DCSP. electrode consumption is less and there is a gain in current carrying capacity. In addition. (400 to 500 amps. Equal heat distribution at electrode and job.WELDING TECHNOLOGY Next amongst non-consumable electrodes are. with AC welding. Arc should preferably be struck by using a H. arc stability. Correct electrode shape and polarity will decidedly produce better welds.33% at the job. 3. Currents employed are generally less than 125 amps (up to 6 mm diameter electrodes) to avoid over heating. Average arc voltage in argon atmosphere is 16 V. (1 or 2%) thoriated or (0. zirconiated electrodes give better results. Electrode shapes.66% heat is generated at the electrode and 33. using optimum arc current and arc length with an electrode of suitable diameter. Electrode tip is colder as compared to that in DCRP. Contamination of weld metal by tungsten. both are undesirable. those of pure tungsten. Alloying pure tungsten increases emissivity. arc initiation is easier. polarity and its effects. and where it becomes essential to use the electrode on DCRP (as in the welding of aluminium) electrode overheating is minimized by keeping currents low. tungsten electrodes are much more expensive and alloy tungsten electrodes are still more costlier. In certain cases. resistance to contamination.3-05%) zirconiated tungsten electrodes. Tungsten/alloy tungsten electrodes ranging from 0. 2. and electrode should remain in the blanket of inert shielding gas till it cools down. Tungsten and alloy tungsten electrodes being expensive need proper care and maintenance for better functioning. The electrode loss and consumption can be minimized by working on straight polarity. unit. Normal penetration. 4. for 6 mm diameter electrodes). 3 DCRP 1. Arc cleaning of the base metal.

The electrode itself adds filler metal. When the arc between the electrode and job is struck. . the end of the electrode starts melting and transfers to the job in the form of droplets. No arc cleaning of base metal. (A. Example. 4.66% at the job. Deep penetration. they produce deeper penetrations and weld metal of high quality.).O. Electrode runs colder as compared to AC or DCRP.2 for heavily coated electrodes. CONSUMABLE ELECTRODES They are low melting point electrodes made up of different metals and their alloys. Consumable elec-Irodcs may be of the following types.6 and 2. Chances of electrode overheating. Because of this reason a consumable electrode welding system possesses higher thermal efficiency (about 85%) as compared to that of a noncon-Mimable electrode welding arrangement (about 55%). heavily coated ones find applications in severe conditions. Example: Choline (A.25 are termed as lightly coated electrodes.15. In heavily coated electrodes. Heavily coated electrodes.). 4.4.45. As compared to lightly coated electrodes.5. Electrodes with a coating factor* approximately 1. Average arc voltage in argon atmosphere is 12 V. Citobest electrode of Advani Oerlikon (A.) Medium coated electrodes. Droplets transferring (from electrode end and through arc) to the workpiece deposit there most of the heat generated as resistance heating in the electrode and of the arc. Better arc cleaning action. 6. the core wire melts before the flux coating. melting and losses. 33. DCSP 3. The coating factor is between 1. They are the electrodes with a coating factor about 1.O.33% heat is generated at the electrode and 66. Bare electrodes. 4 WELDING TECHNOLOGY ARC WELDING PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENTS 157 Lightly coated electrodes. They consist of a metal or alloy wire without any flux coating on them. Example: Overcord — C. Welding currents up to 1000 Amps can be employed for 6 mm diameter electrodes.O.

6010. AWS E 6027. E 614. 7011. ~ AWS E 6013. Because of unstable arc. Welding may be carried out in all positions. BS E 110. negligible spatter. irregular metal transfer and atmospheric contamination.g. 7010. The electrode will work on both AC and DC. IS M 601389 JH are used on AC or DCRP.giving rise to a cavity. IS M 922 XXXP are better employed for welding in flat and horizontal positions only. Bare Electrodes do not produce sound and satisfactory welds but still they find application where weld strength is not a primary consideration and it is difficult to carry post cleaning of the joint. and easily removable slag. Examples of such electrodes : AWS E 6012. Addition of other ingredients can make the slag fluid or viscous with the result that the electrode can be used for welding in different positions. M 216251 weldj well in all positions whereas others give best results only when welding i carried out in certain positions e. BS E 316. j (b) Autile (titania) electrodes give a smooth and quiet arc. hence producing arc constriction and arc heat concentration on the workpiece. (c) AWS E 7018. BS E 601 JH. E 31432 C etc. weld metal properties and defect free joints. . Some of the welding electrodes e. Covered Electrodes produce very good weld appearances. 6011. IS M 100264 are operated on DCRP only.8013 B2. BS E 317.. IS (814-1970) E 10022 A. BS E 206.g. BS E 922 P. M 100264. for example (a) AWS E 6012. Diameter of the electrode Covered electrodes may also be categorized as follows : (a) Electrodes which have cellulose content impart deep penetration and increased electrode burn off rate. IS M 206253 electrodes work well on both AC and DCSP. BS E 100. Certain electrodes give good results on DCRP and others work equally well on AC or DC. Examples of electrodes having cellulose content: \AWS E 6010. (b) AWS E 6010. 7013. IS M 616478 HJ.6013. IS M 317275.

(d) Electrodes with iron power content have stable arc and large metal deposition rates. 4. It limits spatter. thus forming a sleeve (Fig. produces a quiet arc and easily removable slag. . 4. Core wire melts faster than the covering. arc and weld pool.71) of the coating which constricts and produces an arc with high concentrated heat.:. 6024.7016. potassium silicate. These electrodes (because of slag fluidity) are generally employed for flat welding. wood. 3. The covering improves penetration and surface finish. Slag forming ingredients. Iron powder in the coating improves arc behaviour. etc. 6. IS M 722 XXXP. 4. good weld appearance and mechanical properties. ELECTRODE COATING INGREDIENTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS The covering/coating on the core wire consists of many materials which perform a number of functions as listed below: 1. like silicates of sodium*. (e) Low hydrogen electrodes contain low moisture content. they work in all positions and can be operated on AC and DCRP. 8.(c) Electrodes containing iron oxide produce fluid slag. calcium carbonate etc.7030.'mica. IS M 422275 etc. like cellulose. helps increase metal deposition rate and arc travel speed. Alloying elements like ferro alloys of manganese. form a protective gas shield around the electrode end. IS M 616489 H. titanates. add to arc stability and ease of striking the same. 9. Gas shielding ingredients. flourspar. china clay. Electrode can be operated on AC and DC both. refine the molten metal. BS E 432. potassium. etc. m. aluminium. starch. Examples of electrodes : E 6030. Examples of electrodes: AWS E 6016.i^nesium. which vaporize while welding. Deoxidizing elements like ferro-manganese. bead appearance. limestone etc. BS E 616 H. In addition* the electrode covering may perform the following functions: 7. may be added to impart suitable properties and strength to the weld metal and to make good the loss of some of the elements. 5. produce a slag winch because of its light weight forms a layer on the in'olten metal and jtmiects the same from atmospheric contamination! 2.5. molybdenum etc. wood flour.15. Examples of electrodes : E 6027. They produce weld metal highly resistant to cracking and lor maximum notch ductility. Such electrodes need some heating before use. Slag is easily detachable. magnesium silicates.. Are stabilizing constituents like calcium carbonate. and ferrosilicon. BS E 922 P. iron oxide. etc.

This paste is shaped in the form of a cylinder which is fed into the extrusion press. In electrode making plant. .10. cut to different lengths (300.7.) and straightened. Core wire and thick paste of flux simultaneously under pressure pass through a die. the slag may have quick freezing property and thus make overhead and vertical welding easy. MANUFACTURE OF ELECTRODES Wires of different chemical compositions and sizes are obtained from different steel manufacturers. they are chemically cleaned. Number of core wires cut to definite length are clamped vertically in a fixture and are dipped in a bath of molten flux. 11. etc. put into packets. after which the electrodes are fed to ovens where they are dried and baked to remove excess moisture. The electrodes are thereafter sorted. batch number. With proper constituents. produces strong uniform and concentric coatings and has largely replaced the dipping process. As a next step the flux from the gripping end of the electrode is removed by an electrically rotated wire brush. stiff paste. (a) by dipping. 13. name of manufacturer. nature of current and polarity. thus attaching the flux coating on the core wire. There are two methods of applying flux coating on the core wire. The coating thickness depends upon the die opening and can be varied. 4.15. binder (oftenly sodium silicate) is added and the resultant mass is brought in the form of a thick. electrode size. The choice of an electrode depends on the following factors : (a) Chemical composition of the base metal. In order to keep weld metal homogeneity I he electrode should have chemical composition more or less similar to that of the plate to be welded. Packets and boxes generally have mentioned on them electrode coding. 12. Suitable coating will improve metal deposition rates. SELECTION OF ELECTRODES Selection of a right kind of electrode for a particular application is very important to achieve desired properties in the welded joints. wrapped in polythene paper. When a suitable thickness of the flux gets adhered to the core wire. Proper coating ingredients produce weld metals resistant to hot and cold cracking. and bulk is boxed into wooden cases.15. the fixture is raised and the flux is allowed to dry. date of manufacture. 350. viscous. (b) by extrusion. 4.6. etc. 450 mm etc. Extrusion method is very fast and economical. (a) Dipping method. (b) Extrusion process. Coating saves the welder from the radiations otherwise emitted from a bare electrode while the current flows through it during welding. Coating ingredients as discussed earlier are mixed up in desired quantities.

Electrodes with damaged coating will produce joints of poor mechanical properties. rutile.(b) Thickness of work piece.g. j 4. etc. Cellulose electrodes are not so critical but they should be protected against condensation and stored in a humi-dityofO-90%. 4. Before use the electrodes may be dried as per manufacturer's recommendations e. overhead). 2. (a) electrodes during storage should neither bend nor deflect. horizontal. vertical. arc behaviour and metal tm*es due to volatilisation and spatter. (/) Surface finish and quality of weld metal. All electrodes. if) Type of power source (AC or DC) available. Electrode coating should neither get damped nor be damaged or broken. (c) Nature of electrode {Hutting (cellulose. Storage temperature should be about 12°C above that of external air temperature with 0-60% humidity. fillet.15. BS : E 616 H or IS : M 616478H electrodes may hi dried at 150°C for 1 hour before use. (b) electrode packets should not be thrown or piled over each other. 4.).72 suggests the values of electrode diameters for welding steel plates of different thicknesses. (k) Mechanical and other properties required in the welded joint. butt.) and number of runs. porosity and cracks in the joint. Electrodes with damp coating will produce a violent arc. electronic diameter should be less than (he plate thickness. low hydrogen etc.). and especially costlier ones. 3. (i) Amount of weld metal to be deposited and deposition efficiency of the electrode. convex etc. Preferably. 1. (h) Weld bead geometry and the shape of the weld bead surface (flat.8. \ 5. (e) Type of joint (lap. & . (/) Cost of the electrode. in which welding is to be carried out. (d) Positions (flat. Fig. (g) Type of polarity (DCSP. To avoid damage to coating. should be used till they are left hardly 40-50 mm. Electrodes should be stored in dry and well-ventilated store rooms. CARE AND STORAGE OF ELECTRODES Utmost care is required in handling and storage of electrodes. DCRP).

With this logic in view. nature of slag. Loss of identity of electrodes can wastej a lot of time in recognising them correctly. Electrodes should preferably be retained in original (manufacturer's) packing for identification. different societies developed and framed coding schemes in their countries.6. Instead.15.73). appearance of weld deposit. If. British and Indian have been briefly discussed below: (I) American (AWS-ASTM) System . arc behaviour. 4. Electrode coding.9. V. it is much better if one classification and coding scheme is adhered to by all electrode manufacturers (at least in one country).73. O. Electrode packets are marked with a code number which identifies an electrode and its main features (Fig. and thus helps selecting most suitable electrode. Electrode classification provides information on constituents of flux coating. CLASSIFICATION AND CODING OF MILD STEEL AND \ LOW ALLOY STEELS ELECTRODES j It seems essential that electrodes should have along with them some information about their properties and main features. A 70 i c o D 1-* i N G i AWS-ASTM E 6012 Current Range 95-125 Amps IS E2164II BS E216 Conforms :o IS SI4-Part I and II Fig. Three systems of electrode classification and coding. Polarity and Volta D ±. evet| electrode manufacturer may give separate identification marks for his electrodes. 4. quality of weld (if radiographic) etc. Welding Positions F. welding position. j 4. namely American. current and polarity.

3 means appreciable titania content resulting in a fluid slag. inch. R or D. 1 2nd Digit — It indicates the position in which electrode can weld satisfactorily. (d) Electrode covering has a high titania (rutile) content. (b) It possesses a minimum tensile strength of 60.6 or 9.6 or 9. inch.8).000 and 100. Example: E 60 J 2 means (a) Electrode is meant for metal (electric) arc welding. etc. type of covering. i. 4. (Table 4. produces medium penetration. Other values of XX and XXX are 45. 2. 2 and 3 which indicate that welding can be carried out in any position. 5 means high iron oxides and/or silicates content resulting in a heavy solid slag. First two or three digits indicate minimum tensile strength of weld metal in thousands of pounds per sq.000 pounds per square inch. 3. 2 means high titania content resulting in fairly viscous slag.80. an electrode manufactured by dipping process. e. 60. type of arc. It can be represented by numbers like 1. X ] Last digit which may be 0.2. a convex weld bead appearance and a medium quality weld deposition. 1 6 means high calcium carbonate and fluoride content. 1 means high cellulose content.g. Last but one digit indicates the welding position. 1. penetration charac-(5) teristics.e. Second digit can be represented by 1. 2.E XX XX or E 60 1 2 EXXX XX or E 100 1 5 Letter E signifies that electrode is suitable for metal (electric) arc welding. 5 or 6 tells about power (2) : supply.4.70.3. It can be 1. is bounded with sodium silicate. E indicates that it is a solid extruded electrode. R means reinforced electrode and D indicates 'Dipped electrode'. 1st Digit . (c) It can weld satisfactorily in all positions. can be operated on DCSP or AC. flat and horizontal positions.90 and 120.5.It indicates the class of covering. 4 means high iron and/or Mn oxides and/or silicates content! resulting in inflated slag. 3. 5.000 lbs/sq. . and flat position respectively. (2) British (BS) System : L X X X L First 1st 2nd 3rd Last Letter Digit Digit Digit Letter Examples: E 317 M E145P Various letters and digits indicate the following: 1st Letter— It can be E. i 9 any other type of covering not mentioned above. heavy slag.

6.DCSP. 6 of and has the meaning same as that of the first digit of Britiflj system. DCRP. horizontal. flat.e. i. i. DCSP or AC with OCV over 70 V. A45. i. Any number like 0. A95.e.e. A70. 4. horizontal. AC with OCV over 70 V. i. electrode is suitable for welding in all positions). 2. AC with OCV over 45 V 9 Not classified above. 3. 4 D +. It can be 1. i.e. E indicates that electrode is solid extruded | and R means an electrode extruded with reinforcement. 2. flat. polarity and open circuit voltage of the welding power source. DCRP or AC with OCV over 70 V. 3 D-. DCRP.1. horizontal. A95. i. indicates welding positions like flat. DCSP or AC with OCV over 45 V. (3) Indian (IS) System: X X X X X L 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th Last DIGITS Letter E307411 Various digits and letters indicate the following: 1st Letter-It can be E or R. overhead. 3rd Digit — It gives an idea of current. 2. DCRP or AC with OC voltage over 95 volts. horizontal and inclined positions.It indicates the class of covering. not classified above. inclined! vertical. 5 D±.e. 5.e. overhead (i. 7 D±. A70. vertical. flat only. 5. DCRP. and (e) It is a deep penetration electrode.3. DCSP. DCRP 1 D +.4. overhead. j (c) It can weld in flat. Example: E 145 P means (a) It is a solid extruded electrode. 0 indicates D +. horizontal. 4.7 or 9 can be the third digit. 6 D±.3.1. discussed earlier. DCSP or AC with a power source having OCV above 95 volts. A45. flat. 5. 9. 6. ' (b) It has a high cellulose content. . and M means a molybdenum bearing electrode. 2 D-.e. inclined. j (d) It can be operated on DCRP. i.e.e. AC with OCV over 95 V. 1st Digit . i. A70. vertical. DCSP. Last letter P indicates deep penetration electrode.

building construction. (d) It can be operated on DCRP.02 kgf/mm2). IS : M 100264 AWS : E 6013 Pipe lines. Second digit may be 0. H hydrogen control-Letter led electrode. a fluid slag. {c) It is aii position eiecLrode. and in flat.65 v^ and impact value of weld metal at 27°C is 4. K. . 3 and 9 have the same meaning as in British standard. 130-150% and above 150%. horizontal. 2. 41 (fourth and fifth digits) and 51 mean that tensile strength ranges from 410-510 and 510-610 N/mm2 and minimum yield stress is 330 and 360 N/mm2 respectively. trailers. 4 indicates flat and horizontal fillet positions. railway wagon. overhead and vertical positions respectively. L indicate electrodes with iron powder coating and metal recovery 110-130%. truck bodies. Last — P indicates a deep penetration electrode. open circuit voltage 50 volts. Example: E 307411 means (a) It is a solid extruded electrode. 1. 3. 3rd Digit — It has the same meaning as that of the third digit of British standard. 4.2nd Digit — It indicates the positions in which electrode can weld satisfactorily. 0 and 1 signify that the electrode can be used for welding in all positions. steel window frame. DCSP or AC with a power source having. ships. and 50 instead of 45. or 9.317 machinery. respectively.10.15. (10 N/mm2 = 1.8 kgf m (or 47 J). e. (e) Weld metal tensile strength ranges between 410 and 510 N/mm2 and minimum yield stress is 330 N/mm2. (b) Its covering contains appreciable amount of titania. except that the open circuit voltage is 90 in place of 95 volts. tanks and coaches. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS Some of the applications of mild steel and alloy (medium to high I ensile) steel electrodes are given below: Klectrode coding Applications AWS : E6010 Pipe lines. (/) Minimum percentage elongation of weld metal (in tension) is 20% of 5. storage tanks and field US : E 100 work. bridges. 2.g.316. 4. IS : M 307264 boilers. Where S0 is the cross-section area of the specimen being tested. 6th Digit — It tells percentage elongation and impact value. 4th and — They indicate range of tensile strength and value of minimum 5th Digit yield stress. farm BS : E 307.. pressure vessels. and J.

IS BS : E lCrMoR gteel. cast steel. IS: M 611469JH AWS : E 9016 Chemical plants. pressure vessels. butt welding of rail ends. 0. steel rich in sulphur. cold worked alloy BS : E 611JH steel. cranes. earth IS : M 601389 JH moving machinery. BS: E 614 IS : E 614512H BS:E611H High temperature high pressure boiler plates and IS : E 611512H tubes operating upto 575°C. plate girders for bridge work. IS : M 317375 AWS : E 7016 Concrete reinforcement rods. used for welding heavy BS : E 922P deck plates. fine grained steel containing Cu-Ni or Ni. truck chassis BS : E 422. pipelines for oil BS : E 100. piping. E 317 and gas transmission. IS:E31432C 13 Cr MoV 42 etc. bridges and BS : E 614HJ penstocks. high IS : E 6102XX sulphur bearing steels and armour plate. rotary kilns and driers. superheated steam boilers. AWS : E 6020 Bridges. pressure vessels. \ Mo.-E611512H . steel of unIS : M 601279H known composition. IS: E 100411 E 307512 AWS : E 7013 Bridges. buffer IS: M 616479H layer prior to hard facing. AWS : E 8013B2 For welding steels. High pressure boiler plates or tubes containing 1% 7014 Cr.5% Mo. AWS : E 8016 Loco butt welding. carbon moly. tanks and wagons. boilers. \ Mo. Produce IS : M 614479 radiographic quality welds. buffer layer prior to hardfacing.M 316263 M 317274 AWS : E 6015 For welding high carbon or low alloy steels. AWS : E 8018G High tensile steel machinery parts. blast furnace steel work. atomic reactor BS : E 601JH shell and pipe work. locofire IS : M 92241 IP box. boilers and pressure vessels. AWS : E 7018 Bridges. fabricated plate IS : M 422275 girders. l\ Cr. railBS : E 317 way bogies. rails. AWS : E 7018 Pressure vessels. air receivers. dams. cranes. columns etc. wagons. crankBS : E 616H shaft rebuilding. high carbon steel BS : E 601H parts. AWS : E 7010. AWS : E 7016 High carbon steel to mild steel. penstocks. locomotive fire boxes.426 frame. AWS : E 6027 A deep penetration electrode. 07 Cr 90 Mo 55} german steels: 13 Cr Mo 44. earth moving machinery. Produce radiographic quality M 426274 welds. buffer layer before hard facing. ships. ASTM: \ Cr. and refi-BS : E 611 nery parts operating up to 600°C IS.

such as porosity. earth moving equip-BS : E 601JH ment. nitrogen and hydrogen. which. when not effectively kept away from the liquid metal as it solidifies. produce in ferrous metals the majority of weld defects. heavy steel fabrications. oil refineries. Therefore. earth moving machinery. AWS : E 11018 Bridge and penstock construction. IS : 601XXXJH 4.16. chemical plants. penstocks. surfacing and BS : E 601JH repair of road building machinery and ore dressing IS : M 601XXXJH plants. INTRODUCTION — Shielding gas serves to keep harmful atmospheric gases. and moisture away from the weld as the molten metal solidifies.16.AWS : E 9018-B3 For welding steels containing Cr and Mo and being BS : E2Cr MoBH used in boilers. and IS : E 61131D in power plants as structures and pipes operating upto 610°C. nitrogen and hydrogen. SHIELDING GASES AND ASSOCIATED MIXTURES 4. These elements. such as oxygen. . — Shielding gases are used to surround the arc area in order to prohibit air from coming in contact with the molten metal. concrete reinforcement rods. AWS : E 13018G High tensile steel. the type of shielding gas used can have a profound effect upon many of the weld and base metal properties as well as the finished weld bead appearance. — Air contains oxygen. pinholes and weld brittleness. of all the elements found in the atmosphere.1. cause the most difficulty in the welding of ferrous materials.