Role of ICT in Rural Education

By Submitted to Prof. Madhumita Majumdar Group 20 B. Tech 2010

Group Members

Name Vaishali Behl Dhishna Chandnani Milan Parghi Akash Desai Shubhendu Saurabh Parth Shah Sahil Sikka Zeel Shah Ayush Kulshreshtha Vishv Brahmbhatt Krish Mahajan

ID 201001223 201001133 201001146 201001188 201001198 201001200 201001213 201001215 201001219 201001237 201001238

[Type text]

Page 2

We would like to thank Professor Madhumita Majumdar for assigning and supervising this project and providing us with an opportunity to witness the execution of educational schemes at the grassroots level. We sincerely thank Mr. Madhubhai Narjibhai Desai and Mrs. Narmadaben Desai for providing invaluable guidance and hospitality to us in Bhadresar. This project has been greatly enriched because of Mr. Hasmukh Joshi’s (Principal of Seth J.J Desai High School, Bhadresar) willingness to grant us his precious time for interviews with him, his faculty and students. Most importantly, we are indebted to all those patient students, parents and teachers who served as excellent interviewees and are the sole reason for the synthesis of this project.

[Type text]

Page 3

..........29 5...............................................30 5.10 3................. 8 3..........29 5...............29 5.............. .........18 5...............3 Lack of experienced and skilled teachers.....................................2 Subject........................................................... Result.......................29 5.................... 16 4...............................................................4 Procedure......30 5.........2 Lack of school buildings and stationery..........1 General Goals.......10 3.........1 Project Design..... Method.............................................................................29 5.......... Introduction........................12 3..................Index 1..................2 Project Coverage...............................................5 English language seen as a barrier to familiarize with ICT .................................................................................4 Communication Drawbacks...7 2............ Problems Encountered in uplifting Rural Education.....................................................14 3..............................................30 [Type text] Page 4 ................................1 Basic Drawbacks..........6 Lack of computer hardware and software..................................................................................... Abstract.......................................7 Lack of technical training.............................3 Material....................................7 2....6 2.............

....................35 [Type text] Page 5 ..............................9 Lack of library facilities................10 Lack of transport facilities.......... Bibliography....11 Large student to teacher ratio.......................30 5...........................................32 6..........................................30 5.............30 5........5........31 6...............................2 EDUCATION FOR ELDERLY UNEDUCATED PEOPLE.....32 6..................34 7..............................................................................................8 Other Drawbacks....................... CONCLUSIONS AND SOLUTIONS........1 LESSONS AT SCHOOL LEVEL...

[Type text] Page 6 . Four out of the six villages had proper facilities in place except lack of technical expertise and also the problem redress-system was found out not to be up to the mark. The interactive learning soft wares. has implemented its schemes aimed at beneficing education in villages.1. We focussed on trying to conclude the aptitude of rural students towards these technological aides. The results unpredictably were quite positive and encouraging. The teachers were however not technically sound enough so as to use these resources effectively. Students had a very superficial knowledge of these ICT aides. ABSTRACT We being the students of ICT have witnessed and experienced its mammoth potentials in providing educational resources that provide various advantages over the other methods being placed in use. teachers and sarpanch. Also they showed keen interest in video tutorials. Our work included focussed group discussions amongst our group. with students in six of the cited villages. educational websites are some examples of the most popular and effective ICT aides. These factors motivated us to find out the ground realities that persist in the rural realm. Also the screening of ‘Bharat ki Chaap’ had proved to us that audio-visual tools can even make dull and boring facts lively. We centred on technological solutions as proposed. The objective of our project has been to critically examine how effectively the Gujarat govt. As India faces a big shortage of teachers and also as the teaching quality seems to be going down with time due to various reasons. But the objectives of the schemes were found out to be falling quite short of what they aimed at. principals. video lecture series. Also after organizing field trips and conducting actual ground work. Surveys were conducted to analyse student’s attitude towards technological aides and to scrutinize problems being faced by them. we as a group tried to find out the solutions that could eradicate the presently persisting challenges that are hampering the process of ideal delivery and utilization of educational resources. interviews of teachers.

had no internet for most of the time.INTRODUCTION India. rural development in the developing world. international prices . Despite large-scale political and bureaucratic attention and the more focused.Teachers were also untrained.2. small-scale efforts of thousands of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) [Type text] Page 7 .technical information and general news).Hardly there was any emphasis in ICT in education.The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are being increasingly used by the Government of Gujarat to deliver its services to the rural population at their door steps. Specific objectives: 1) To scrutinize the level of implementation of educational Government schemes in the state of Gujarat. 5) Local non-formal education for elderly non educated people. But now. Modern information and communication technologies (ICTs) are found to have great potential to contribute in this respect. The dialogues concluded that ICTs would have a major role to play in promoting rural education and thus. One of the major objectives of the study is to show the relationship between technology use and changes in teaching and learning process. The Government of Gujarat has taken up major initiatives in the field of education which utilise ICT technologies in their implementation. The most obvious may be that rural India has remained poor while the rest of the country has moved ahead. 4) To promote the use of internet for information searching.The few Schools that had computers did not have educational softwares. has become a test bed for innovations in information and communication technologies (ICT) serving the rural user. 2. 2) To facilitate the access to ICT for rural teachers and children. keeping the rural community informed(crop plantation. communication with others. as well as educational curricular improvements.1 General goals: The overall goal of the project was to improve learning process in rural areas of Gujarat through the use of ICT.none of the rural schools of Gujarat had access to information and communication technology(ICT).computers were kept turned off and out of hands of school children as a measure of damage prevention. input price.Around Ten years ago. 3) To develop the skills among teachers and students in the use of ICT. over the past decade.

farmers and state-level officials who want to use ICT as a tool for rural education. Technical Education  Self employment programs for the women 2. Government schemes:  Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Mission (SSAM). teachers. students and parents.and other civil society entities. principals. a replicable.  Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL)  Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV)KGBV  The Computer Aided Learning Program (CALP) Primary Education  Computer Training at the Primary Educational level Secondary and Higher Secondary Department  Diploma for the teachers to improve their teaching skills ( Teacher’s Training Program )  Teleconference for the students of Std.2 Project coverage  6 schools from 5 villages  directly over 10 teachers  indirectly over 200 students  Gram Panchayat and village  State ministry of education Over one months. These ranged from the sarpanchs. village residents who are consumers. social services. intermediaries. catalytic approach to rural development remains to be found. and producers of ICT services. telecommunications services. our team visited six villages and met their stakeholders. [Type text] Page 8 . The hope that ICT can surmount at least some of the educational challenges and become a viable technology for the provision of education. and other social services is thus ICT’s strongest calling card. 10th and 12th.

Warana Wired Village Project. M. Pondicherry 8. Maharastra We describe the lessons learned below but as a generalization. eSeva APOnline Centers. Karnataka 2. Swaminathan Research Foundation InfoVillage Knowledge Centers. n-Logue Chiraag Kiosks.S. Bellandur Gram Panchayat. Gyandoot Government-to-Citizen Network. Karnataka 3. Madhya Pradesh 7. Tamil Nadu 9.Major ICT initiatives implemented and their respective states of location are as follows: 1. HP iCommunity in Kuppam. Boodikote Jagruthi Resource Center. [Type text] Page 9 . we have concluded that all the projects are still experimenting with best ways to serve rural users through ICT applications. Andhra Pradesh 6. ITC eChoupals. Madhya Pradesh 5. Andhra Pradesh 4.

2) Odha. So these villages can give us information about differences of rural populations. And if we can suggest some improvement. This was the major reason for choosing this village. It is in common knowledge that the government schemes are not implemented well in Banaskantha. 1) Bhadresar.1 Project Design: As stated in motivation we know how much ICT can help in our education. So we wanted to find the result of these implementations. Gandhinagar Both of these villages are in the capital of the states. in Banaskantha is a remote district of Gujarat. Sabarkantha We chose this village because government has implemented many schemes in this village. First of all field visit is necessary. Distance between both villages is 3. Dist. Dist.6kms. this village was our next choice. For that we have to know what are the schemes implemented by the government and what is response from rural public. So this village can be the best place to learn the problems of rural population. So. Gandhinagar This village is near the capital of Gujarat. Dist. First of all we have to make our objectives clear for field visits. So we want to provide these facilities to the students of rural areas. 4) Raysan and Bhajipura. So it is believed that when there is something new happening for rural population it starts from the capital. Dist. So.3. [Type text] Page 10 . 3) Randesan.METHOD 3. Still there are many differences between both villages. In field visit we planned to visit following villages. And we can also make more suggestions. Banaskantha Reason behind choosing this village is.

Some problems are due to lack of information. b. We also planned to have a group discussion of students. So we can get ideas from students as a community. Question is HOW? a. We also meet the Sarpanch of village to get their views for development in education. Data collection is one thing. For this we planned talk with students in absence of teachers. And we can know what kind of help they want. e. so we took interviews of farmers to know their knowledge about recent farming techniques. We also planned to have discussion with parents about their expectations from government. We wanted the data from areas of rural students. but when we are dealing with rural population we have to take care of their culture and their mentality towards technology. After discussion among group members we found several problems with education in rural areas. a. After deciding central point of problems we have got some solutions for these [Type text] Page 11 . Education is not only about students. Because usual that there are going to be differences in ideology of our group members. This is a tough task. We designed a questionnaire for the students of primary schools. After collecting data and meeting people of different villages we planned to have group discussion among group members. We also thought about discussion in detail with teachers and principal so we can have clear about what is happening. 2. c. Which has most of the question related to their studies and about the technology schools are using for their development.1. Some problems we encountered are due to negligence from government. d. b.

2 SUBJECTS [Type text] Page 12 .3.

principal s were also interviewed so as to get a broader insight into the matter. Farmers were interviewed as a part of our goal to examine the reach of education beyond the four walls of the classroom Further to guarantee the authenticity of the sample we ensured that the students were not impaired by any means (visual. strong influence.For this randomly six different villages were selected form the areas within 200km of Gandhinagar. Apart from students many parents. and Odha.Raisan. Bhajipura. teachers. At these villages students of strong as well as weak economic backgrounds and different classes were interviewed so as to maintain randomness of the sample and to observe the impact of one’s social status the education of a person.For our field survey we used a random sample of students. Randesan . teachers and other villagers . These villages were selected due to various factors such as proximity. various developmental statuses of the villages. hearing or any other to make sure that they are able to get full use of the services being provided to them) [Type text] Page 13 . Upon the decision of the group following locations were selected:Bhadresar.

Questions that we asked in the form and given response are given below with charts: Question 1): How many students are there in your class? Question 2): How many teachers taught you? Question 3): Do you know what the computer is? Question 4): What are the benefits of the Computer? Question 5): How many computers are there in your lab? Question 6): How many of them were working? Question 7): In what duration the faulty computers are repaired? Question 8): How many teachers are there for computer subject? Question 9): What is the Internet? Question 10): What are the benefits of Internet? Question 11): Have you ever studied by Video lectures? Question 12): Were Video lectures beneficial to you or not? Question 13):Graphical analysis Question 14) Do you use computer outside school? Question 15) How many hours per week is internet of your school accessible to you? [Type text] Page 14 .3 Materials We made questionnaire. We also took photocopy of that questionnaire and filled it from their response. In that questionnaire we asked relevant questions asking information about his school.3. We recorded all the interview-conversations that we did with them. no of students in class and what was condition of computers in their school.

Question 16) How often do you use internet in the school? For Teachers: Question 1) How do you use internet in your profession? Question 2) Do you have an email address? Question 3) Did you receive any training in ICT before you join teaching profession? Question 4) Do you receive any training after you join profession? We showed a video lecture in Guajarati for standard 10 about polynomial in mathematics for student reviews. [Type text] Page 15 . We checked all the systems in their lab and saw how effectively teachers taught them.

htm?enc=TEnmkal8rLd9cWRBUEX85lswwfZZ+o8b+w+YfQPy7d U93tk/rntr0H+OnwOK0bubGxn8CTo/zrWp+HvkkBe+9jlVHX/lscs26LErVpv8pL9RZUhsIylDLEz1HE7iVyLfPbyl5bDZyad /OcTg9wXi7g== [Type text] Page 16 . Level of implementation of govt.4 PROCEDURE Our work started off with background research about the various education related schemes implemented by govt. 3. 10th and 12th It was followed by chalking out the on-field work. Attitude of rural folks towards technology usage. The villages where the field studies were conducted are: 1. Questionnaires were prepared for students. Computer Aided Learning Program: The main objective of the CAL programme is to attract the children.Odha(Banaskantha) 15th Oct. and sarpanch were also interviewed. 2. 3. The aforesaid tried to scrutinize the following: 1.2011 3.Bhadresar (Sabarkantha):. Problems being faced by the rural students in optimally utilizing these facilities.Raysan(Gandhinagar):-dated 19th Oct.dated 26th Oct. 4. Teleconference for the students of Std. To check on the ground realities the field trips were organized over a span of 2 weeks to five villages of three different districts in different settings.2011 4. Reasons behind non-implementation/non-functioning of various factors . parents. and to improve the quality of the education through animated multimedia based educational content. schemes.gujaratindia. Group discussions were held and the following schemes1 were taken up as to focus upon: 1.3. Teacher’s Training Program: Diploma for the teachers to improve their teaching skills.Randesan(Gandhinagar):-dated 19th Oct. of Gujarat focusing on the rural areas.2011 2. teachers. 2.2011 1 http://www. Principals.

A list of problems realted to implementation of technology. The data from different places were compared and relative pie charts and graphs were made. The teachers were questioned upon their technical knowledge so as to find out if they are optimally using their acquired skills to impart the knowledge and also to analyse students aptitude towards technology. Also personal interviews of few students. The principals were in details questioned about the existing schemes implementing stages and effectiveness. The Sarpanch were questioned upon govt’s role . Also we tried to check the level of technical know how of the rural students. The parents were questioned upon their expectations and the changes they think these ICT aides have brought in their child’s progress.5. VIII and X were asked to fill the questionnaire and focussed group discussions were held and their views and problems were also discussed. Also their views were sought for in their interviews. After the data collection . principals. In the GDs the students were asked about their views on ICT aides. The students problems and expectations were discussed. Possible solutions were discussed upon. schemes and also to check how effectively these technological aides are meeting their objectives. its delivery of foresighted objectives and student’s problem was made. The questionnaire consisted of questions that tried to scrutinize students’ aptitude towards technology and to find out the level of implementation of the govt.Bhajipura(Gandhinagar):-dated 19th Oct. [Type text] Page 17 . Specially technical solutions were discussed and debated upon.. Video lectures from You-Tube were screened on the projectors to instigate their views and students’ immediate responses were taken. The focussed GDs consisted of students and were held separately that consisted of 10-15 students at different locations.2011 Students of class V. teachers.The questionnaires were given to the students and they were asked to Answer. people’s view and their expectations from govt. discussions were held among group members to analyse the results and extract conclusions. parents and sarpanch were taken. The possible solutions were discussed up with some of the in-contact Principals and teachers and the best ones were filtered off to be included in the report.

4. RESULTS Questions that we asked in the form and given responses are depicted below pictorially by the use of pie-charts and graphs: Question 1): How many students are there in your class? Answer:30-40(average) Question 2): How many teachers taught you? Answer : [Type text] Page 18 .

Question 5): How many computers are there in your lab? [Type text] Page 19 .Question 3): Do you know what the computer is? Answer : Question 4): What are the benefits of the Computer? Answer : The general idea is as follow: 1)To watch Movie. 2)To make presentation 3)To explore in the file/folders.

Question 7): In what duration the faulty computers are repaired? Answer: The general response was that 2-5 computers are not working correctly and they are repaired in two days after the issue is reported to the technician. Question 9): What is the Internet? [Type text] Page 20 . Question 8): How many teachers are there for computer subject? Answer: There were 1-2 teachers for teaching computer subject.Answer: Question 6): How many of them were working? Answer: The general response was that 82% were in working state.

Question 13): SIMPLE USE OF APPLICATIONS FOR PURPOSES OTHER THAN CLASSROOM LEARNING Word processing –prepare papers Spreadsheets [Type text] No Capability Fair Good Very good 55 65 30 25 10 5 5 5 Page 21 . Question 12): Were Video lectures beneficial to you or not? Answer: Yes. Question 11): Have you ever studied by Video lectures? Answer: Students who had little idea about video lectures were not shown video lectures frequently and others had no idea about it.Answer: Question 10): What are the benefits of Internet? Answer:-The general response was to search queries.

Basic Internet browsing 60 30 Use of Internet resources to 80 19 prepare homework.  For Teachers: Question 1) How do you use internet in your profession? Answer: [Type text] Page 22 . or for collaborative school projects Question 14) Do you use computer outside school? Answer: 9 1 1 0 Question 15) How often do you use internet in the school? ANSWER: During the Computer period. research. lessons.

Question 2) Do you have an email address? Answer: Question 3) [Type text] Page 23 .

Did you receive any training in ICT before you join teaching profession? Answer: Question 4) Do you receive any training after you join profession? Answer: [Type text] Page 24 .

We have gathered information on three different schemes: 1) COMPUTER AIDED LEARNING PROGRAM 2) TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMME: [Type text] Page 25 .We showed a video lecture in Gujarati for standard 10 about polynomial in mathematics for student reviews. A survey of three government schemes in three villages where we have done field trip: Number of people who knows various schemes :2 X-axis denote village and Y-axis is no of people who knew about the schemes. We checked all the systems in their lab and saw how effectively teachers taught them.

E. which is a part of 10th class syllabus and weren’t provided textbooks also for the same. Mr. the reason behind this also being the lack of awareness among them about the advantages of internet. Hasmukh G. in which they were taught the basics of MS Office.  Also. 1 Scanner. during the half hour allotted period.3) VIDEO CONFERENCING FOR 10TH AND 12TH  Observation from first field study:  Shri J. [Type text] Page 26 . Because of these reasons. the students who opted for Computer in the Board exams were forced by the school to take P. e. The teachers of the school had taken the basic CCC+ training provided by the govt. Yahoo Mail. students were not benefitted by the SATCOM facilities as the dish was damaged. the students were allowed to use the computers only once in a week. but even then. the Google Search. The students of 10th were shown a video lecture once. The school had been provided with 11 computers.  The students of 10th had not even heard of C programming. they were not familiar with the general usage of internet in education and were not efficient with the syllabus supposed to be taught to the students. for their exams despite their interest in computers. we got to know that the school had been provided with all necessary infrastructures that would facilitate computer education for students. They had not been acquainted even to the basic uses of internet. i.  We showed a video lecture to the students of 10th.  During our discussion with the Principal of the school. to see their response to it & their interests in e-learning. But the dish had not been repaired despite repeated complaints by the school to the government. 1 printer. regular internet connection & the SATCOM facilities.  However. Joshi. Desai High School: The school was well developed and had sufficient amount of teachers. J. They were not allowed to use the computers for their personal interests. YouTube etc. and succeeded in arousing curiosity among them about the various sides of e-learning. under the Computer Aided Learning Program. before the dish was damaged. We registered a spark of enthusiasm among the students to this mode of learning.

Many people initially registered for the school but dropped out later due to lack of interest in education. But we met some of them in their home. So we were not able to meet students in school. they were taken to the lab once and use the computer turn wise for 15-20 minutes. (As per govt. There is only primary school in Odha. e. the discussion with the principal also put forward another perspective. every week. this obviously not being sufficient enough for them to acquire knowledge about even the basics of computers. So we met principal at his home. but both were in damaged conditions.  Lastly. Two computers had been provided by the govt.  The students have not used computer even once in school labs. (One such another school in Idar also holds such evening sessions. students went to nearby village Koba. students of 5th to 7th must also be taught computer) Odha field study:  We went to Odha in Diwali break.  Odha is basically a typical underdeveloped village of Banaskantha district. i.  The level of education in the primary school was also not satisfactory.) Randesan Field Study:  There was no high school in the village. [Type text] Page 27 . The school had started open school in the evening for the illiterate.  Due to Diwali break we were not able to meet students in school. it was apparent that they did not receive any theoretical knowledge about computers. We met principal at his home. in this case. during our group discussion with the students. syllabus. trained faculty. or district Gandhinagar for higher education.  Even those who were interested in computers could not pursue as they had no opportunity due to the lack of resources. That is. Also.

 on the contrary a nearby village of Raisan(Bhajipura) had only primary school up to 5th standard with trivial facility. sadly they were not aware of existing Government schemes beneficial to them. [Type text] Page 28 . there is one computer allotted to school by the government. who held special night classes for elderly people but he charges tuition fee for this effort. So we can see that this school can be developed by the help of ICT. We had a deep discussion about educational facilities at Odha Primary School.  In the village of Raisan.(we found only one computer with no internet access)  Thus. Raisan& Bhajipura field study:  Here we focused more on elderly education.  We found that there is no development made in odha for education. with good no.  We found a teacher.  Almost all farmers we met had no knowledge about internet at all & elderly uneducated people had no anxiety to learn about ICT tools for their works. provide loan to Farmers at 0% interest but they had no idea about it.really wants to study. who wanted to learn ICT for farming but had no access to it. A secondary school (“Sarvodaya Vidhyalaya”) with all the basic facilities such as computers with internet were present. especially farmers. the students of Bhajipura were forced to study in the village of Raisan. Because they were unaware of the importance of education.  Govt. and had to travel whole distance by themselves with no means of transport available. of educated people.  But there is no teacher for computer in school. but no one in this village.  Then we met some students.

5. 5. Schools that do not have communication facilities face being left behind in the dark ages (pre-computers). because of the partial subsidy the state provides for building costs.Most rural schools reside in areas with extreme poverty and therefore there is unlikely to be extra funds for buildings and resources 5. communication and other drawbacks. [Type text] Page 29 . chat rooms. while their rural counterparts consider them insurmountable hurdles. If rural schools want to make use of the Internet. 5. The rest of the costs must be borne by the community.1 Basic Drawbacks These are problems that urban schools consider basic.basic. This is largely due to the availability and accessibility of relevant resources and facilities. There are many rural schools that do not have adequate school buildings and stationery for learners to use.3 Lack of experienced and skilled teachers It is no surprise to find that the most experienced and skilled teachers reside in the urban areas. because without proper school buildings and stationery it becomes virtually impossible for learners to receive adequate teaching.2 Lack of school buildings and stationery This is the most basic need when it comes to schooling. bulletin boards and academic web sites then they have no option but to improve their communication facilities to be able to log on to the Internet. The result is that the majority of scholars are receiving education of inferior quality by teachers without the appropriate facilities and resources needed to sufficiently teach 5. Problems Encountered in Uplifting Rural Education There are three types of drawbacks facing rural schools .4 Communication Drawbacks These are problems that rural schools need to overcome if they want to compete both locally and globally. These are issues that rural schools need to overcome before any communication facilities and resources can be put in place to improve their access to quality education.

5 English language seen as a barrier to familiarize with ICT The rural population will be more willing to learn the usage of new technology(which is largely based in English)if they were more familiar with the English language.7 Lack of technical training Many schools in rural areas lack teachers with appropriate technical skills and experience in key subjects like computer literacy and Internet usage.8 Other Drawbacks These are other issues that will hinder rural schools bridging the education divide between themselvesand urban schools.6 Lack of computer hardware and software Computers and computer resources are indispensable in the educational and business environment today. This makes the gap between rural scholars and their urban counterparts all the much greater when competing for tertiary positions 5.It is very difficult for someone who is not computer literate to successfully complete his or her tertiary studies or find gainful employment.9 Lack of library facilities The library is a common resource in most urban schools and areas most rural communities do not even know what a library is yet alone what its function is. The computer and its resources are central to modern education and it’s here to stay. 5. 5.10 Lack of transport facilities Accordingly. through the use of educational web sites and lectures via satellite. 5. Most jobs in the business world require some knowledge of the use of computers and the Internet.5. it is not uncommon for scholars to walk long distances to school in [Type text] Page 30 . They are secondary problems that rural schools need to master before they can be judged equally with schools in urban areas. This results in most rural schools not being able to offer computer courses. 5. Internet could be used to bridge the gap between rural and urban schools. resulting in rural scholars not being adequately prepared for tertiary studies where computers and the Internet knowledge are indispensable.

Giving rural scholars access to transport resources will motivate them to attend school as a large majority of them walk long distances to school everyday in all kinds of weather.Also asserts that the drop out and repetition rates in rural schools are very high.rural areas.attention that is needed. This is largely due to poverty. limited schools available in rural areas and lack of appropriate transport facilities. [Type text] Page 31 .This results in the weaker scholars in the class not getting the necessary. since the teacher has so many scholars to attend to.11 Large student to teacher ratio It is not uncommon for schools in rural areas to have class sizes of up to 70 scholars to a teacher. 5.

now about a decade old.6. [Type text] Page 32 . 6. rapid obsolescence coupled with poor maintenance. despite high user interest. CONCLUSIONS AND SOLUTIONS The use of ICT to enable rural development must rank as one of the developing world’s greatest undertakings. political support. faith. Some were on expected lines. While a single approach should not be chosen given the diversity in the field. such as poor infrastructure.the provision of computers with poor training and software provision has no impact at all.  The Ministries of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj Institutions should create a framework of rules to enable state management of this process. International and local funding agencies and NGOs. We found that experimentation is still the order of the day for many reasons. and may even worsen the digital divide by creating a new one in rural areas. and quality of ground staff & teachers Our proposal for a new ICT model is based on separating the infrastructure from content provision and recommending that:  a data center be provided at the state level in order to use content more efficiently. caste. the availability and affordability of relevant content and the information network remain major problems. the domestic and international private sector. Primarily. India is the world’s test-bed for this endeavor due to its IT skills. Worse. and gender among rural populations has not been realized. most govt schemes are not viable and have not met user or provider expectations on content or usage.we identified several common problems and linkages. As a result. and the state have participated in the effort. the government’s inability to provide content and challenges with local awareness of education. and poverty.1 LESSONS AT SCHOOL LEVEL  ICT projects in rural schools should not be hardware centered. the hope that ICT in education will overcome differences of income. Of education.

problem and solutions.  A platform to report damages via internet.It s recommended that students should have access to many different sub-projects.  Provide library resources in smaller villages.Not all schools should be pushed to be at the same stage of the project as some schools take longer to adopt what is being offered by the conferencing between students and teachers. Hire private computer repairing companies to check facilities in diff.where no teacher participation is needed.  Government should hire private companies to train rural teachers. [Type text] Page 33 .Teachers and students are anxious to show their progress and have on-site advice.  By showing them videos of English classes then it would be more easier for them to deal with this new and natural sciences and languages.  Students tend to learn easier and faster than their teachers.  Computers . Teacher training should be regular and effective. to help diagnose hardware problems and teach them basic technical procedures like virus disinfection. That is.  Teachers can be encouraged to communicate via email and build a communication network to share there experiences. and implement e-learning. areas. a kind of help centre. increase awareness about ICT with older agegroups.  Technicians should be sent by the govt.  We can allocate retired teachers who still wants to teach to rural school for giving some guidance to those students.  Each school has its learning pace.  Semi-Privatisation of government schools for improved infrastructure. so that they provide sufficient infrastructure to students  Provide more efficient teachers.e. privatisation of ICT infrastructure and development  Increase daily usage of computers in schools. a technical station in each city.internet and software are tools with which to get better learn the traditional subjects like mathematics. data backup & formatting. like moodle.and therefore all teachers should be involved and trained.  Frequent visit to schools are mandatory.  Interactive lessons i.

 The Government schemes should be properly implemented as given in the brochure. Our proposal for a new ICT model is based on matching the capabilities of different villagers with functions. The proposed model has the advantage of being financially viable.2 EDUCATION FOR ELDERLY UNEDUCATED PEOPLE  Special classes for elders to enhance their skills in their respective professions. We propose that a pilot project be conceptualized and implemented. [Type text] Page 34 . It will also provide a long-term basis for expanding rural capacity in ICT. It will require the participation of multiple stakeholders at many levels. 6. While it is robust enough to handle many types of services. being compatible with transactional.The creation of such a partnership and a seed project are the logical next steps from this report. not just at the village level We propose.  Provide information. therefore. informational. We can hire a private company to teach computers to teachers and govt. based on the above proposal. can moderate whole system by evaluating teachers occasionally . or other forms of media about various schemes related to them. that the pilot project be driven by stakeholders representing all the groups . and governance services. via short messages services(SMS).

2003 3. Bibliography 1. Andhra Pradesh <http://www.S. Madhya Pradesh http://www. Government of India 2005 4. 2005 2. Karnataka http://www. Home & Community. Educative Projects & Initiatives <http://portal.pdf> [Type text] Page 35 . UNESCO Bangkok & Ministry of Human Resource Development . Gyandoot Government-to-Citizen Network. Swaminathan Research Foundation. Pilot Testing of Performance Indicator for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education in India .7. Dhawan. Challenges of Rural> 6. Learning in Springer. HP iCommunity in Kuppam.financialexpress. Yaacov. Gyan Books. & Marshall Gail. 5. Assessment of Impact of Information Technology of Rural Areas of India Implemented by M. Katz.htm 8. Bellandur Gram 7. Chennai.