Last updated January 2012

BEFORE you begin, please note:
 This brief guide is primarily for students doing assignments at Curtin University, not for those publishing using the Chicago Author-Date 16th edition style.  If you are publishing in the Chicago Author-Date 16th edition style, please consult the Chicago Manual of Style: The Chicago Manual of Style. 2010. 16th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.  The Chicago Manual of Style Online (16th ed.) is also available via the Library catalogue.  It is important that you check the assignment guide of your Department or School as details may vary from the guidelines on this sheet. You may be penalised for not using the referencing style that is required by your School/Department.  The Chicago referencing style has two basic systems of documentation: the humanities style (which is also known as the footnote and endnote or the notes and bibliography style), and the author-date style.  This information sheet provides a brief guide to the Chicago Author-Date referencing style.

What is Referencing?
Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Direct quotations, facts and figures, as well as ideas and theories, from both published and unpublished works must be referenced. The Chicago Author-Date 16th edition referencing style requires citations within the text corresponding to a full bibliographic entry in the reference list at the end of the document. The in-text citations include the author’s last name, followed by the date of publication in parentheses. The bibliographic entry in the reference list includes all the other necessary publication information.

Why Reference?
Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations, and to enable readers to follow-up and read more fully the cited author’s arguments.

Steps Involved in Referencing
1. Note down the full bibliographic details including the page number(s) from which the information is taken. In the case of a book, ‘bibliographical details’ refers to: author/editor, year of publication, title, edition, volume number, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. (Not all of these details will necessarily be applicable). In the case of a journal article, the details required include: author of the article, year of publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume and issue number of the journal, and page numbers. For all electronic information, in addition to the above details you should also include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if provided. If a DOI has not been provided, then include the web address (URL) of the database you found the article in. For more details see the DOI Information Sheet. 2. Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document (see examples below). 3. Provide a reference list at the end of the document (see examples below).

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URL of the web page 2 of 14 .html. 2002. When directly quoting from another source. The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author – at the end of your assignment.010. If two or more authors are cited at the same point in the text then they are included in the same in-text citation. Study Trekk 6: Referencing. London: Taylor & Francis. Where an item has no author it is cited and listed by its title. (Anderson. Kathy Deubert. (Brown 1991. What is a Reference List? See a sample reference list. Smith 2003).e.g.1016/j. It is not necessary to include the page number when paraphrasing or referring to an idea from another source which is a book or lengthy text.2007. 2008.curtin. They are presented alphabetically by author.compedu. Here are some examples in the Chicago Author-Date referencing style. http://library. Lesley Smith. What is a Reference/Citation? A reference or citation consists of elements that allow the reader to trace the original book.In-Text Citations Use the name of the author. include the author’s personal name or initials in the in-text citation i. article or website you have consulted and cited. that you cite in the text of your assignment. doi:10. Kevin. Book: Author Year Book title Mack. journal articles etc. Looking at the Renaissance: Essays Toward a Conceptual Appreciation. Where authors of different references have the same family studytrekk/trek6. The Chicago Author-Date referencing style requires the second and subsequent lines of the reference to be indented.if DOI not provided. and John Anderson. 2005. use URL Journal title (Issue number) Web page: Authors Year Title Dawson. “The Emperor's New Clothes A Meta-study of Education Technology Policies in Ireland.09.” Computers & Education 50 (2): 463-474. Place of publication Publisher    Journal article from a database: Authors Year Title of the journal article Marshall. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources for background or for further reading. the relevant page number must be given and quotation marks placed around the quote. John 2008) or John Anderson (2008). Charles R. Article page numbers Volume number DOI of article . and Sue Grey-Smith. chapters. followed by the year of publication when citing references within the text of an assignment.      A reference list includes books. not plagiarism. North and South (1996-2006). separated by a semicolon e.

Bentley. VT: Ashgate. What Is Illustration? Mies. Svetlana. 65) OR Zeegan (2009. Frenchs Forest. 22) discuss this idea… (Lewis.For Reference Types to use with EndNote. 2008. An Australian Introduction to International Relations. Terry Cooke-Davis. 2 authors Benson. Where there is no author and the title is long. Switzerland: RotoVision. 9th ed. Examples of Referencing: Books Single author In-Text Example The method was first suggested in 2009 (Zeegan 2009. Newtown Square. Christopher. Valuing Integrity: Guide for the Workplace. 2010. 2009. Oxford: Chandos Publishing. Cicmil et al. 3 of 14 . 24) suggest…. Lewis. see the EndNote X5 LibGuide. Lawrence. but ensure that the item can be identified with its corresponding entry in the reference list. List the names of all authors in the reference list. 2010) into the theory has indicated that… Hubbard. 34) OR Lewis. List the family name first for the first author ONLY. For successive entries by the same author the dash replaces the name. N. and Charlotte Brack. 2007. shorten the title. Kurt A. ———. 3 authors 4 or more authors Multiple works by same author Research (Hubbard 2008.A. Online Learning and Assessment in Higher Education: A Planning Guide.W. Richardson.S. W. PA: Project Management Institute. Jurmain. 34) state that…. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology.: Curtin University. and Kilgore 2007.: Pearson Education Australia. Cicmil. 2010. and Lynn Kilgore. 24). (2009. Robert Jurmain. List the family name first for the first author ONLY. Reference List Example Zeegen. CA: Thomson Wadsworth. 2009. Robyn. Exploring the Complexity of Projects: Implications of Complexity Theory for Project Management Practice. List the family name first for the first author ONLY. and Kilgore (2007. OR (Cicmil et al. Belmont.’ No author (Valuing Integrity 2010. followed by ‘et al. Lynn Crawford. 65) claimed that… (Benson and Brack 2010. 24) List only the first author’s family name. 22) OR Benson and Brack (2010. 2009. Burlington. Order chronologically in the reference list. and Project Management Institute. Power Plays: Enriched Uranium and Homeland Security. 2010. Barry. Jurmain.

Entries in an encyclopedia or dictionary are not listed in the reference list.d. North Sydney. 1830). and add actual month and date accessed before the URL. Editor (Goggin and Hjorth 2009. Mobile Technologies: From Telecommunications to Media. American Journeys.. An edition number is placed after the title of the work .this is not necessary for a first edition. OR Olsen. New York: doi/10. London: Batsford.S. n.) In the section on Homeopathic Medicine in the Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine (Longe 2006. Encyclopedia/Dictionary (print) Encyclopedia/Dictionary (online) Entries in an encyclopedia or dictionary are not listed in the reference list. 5th ed.Books Multiple works published in the same year by the same author In-Text Example The American rail system (Watson 2009a. 2011. 4 of 14 .: Random House Australia.d. Brian. 2009a. N.curtin . http:// onlinelibrary. eds. An Introduction to Political Communication. N.. depending on how this appears on the title page of the work. The article on Evidence Interpretation in the Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science (Champod and Evett 2009.wiley. The Growth of Victorian London..W.’ before or after the editor’s name. Add ‘ed. No date (Olsen [1950?]) OR (Olsen Bendable Learnings: The Wisdom of Modern Management. 91-2) Goggin. Donald J. Olsen.fsa122/ full) In the absence of a posted publication date. ———. The Growth of Victorian London. Gerard. and Larissa Hjorth. 42)… Use a/b etc. 2009b. to differentiate between works in same year.dbgw.: Vintage Books. or add ‘edited by’ before the name of the editor if this is how it appears. [1950?].com. London: Batsford. Donald J. For successive entries by the same author the dash replaces the name. North Sydney.1002/9780470061589.lis. Different editions McNair (2011. use the year accessed. London: Routledge. Order alphabetically by title in the reference list.S. 2009.W. accessed December 20. Don. 3rd ed. Reference List Example Watson. 17) suggests that… McNair.

Brochure (Curtin University 2010) Curtin University. Bowd. Non-Western Educational Traditions: Indigenous Approaches to Educational Thought and Practice. Bentley. 2008. Add ‘ed. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Social Media W. New York: Routledge.dbgw. Los Angeles: SAGE. Kindle edition. 3rd ed... Timothy G. 23-35. Thesis (Master’s) Lee (2008. Jennifer A..” In Encyclopedia of Play in Today’s Society. Lee. depending on how this appears on the title page of the D. 27) makes the point that. 2010. Shereen. 23) Use the title of chapter/article. “A New Taste of Tradition: Chinese Snacks and Hawker-Entrepreneurs in Singapore. San The Dragonfly Effect: Quick. 2009.” Master’s thesis. “Limiting Loss: A Grounded Theory of Mothers Who Use Illicit Drugs. depending on how this appears on the title page of the work. E-book (books consulted online) (Aaker and Smith 2010) E-book (downloaded from a library or bookseller) According to Reagan (2010. 234) Sharp. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. http:// lib.lis. “Singing Games. Effective. 2010.Books Encyclopedia/Dictionary (authored article) In-Text Example “Music. ed.curtin. and imagination intermingle” (Eliassen 2009. Curtin University of Technology. 635) Reference List Example Eliassen. Carlisle. and Powerful Ways to Use Social Media to Drive Social 3) Thesis (Doctorate) (Sharp 2010. http://espace. 2010. Jennifer. Article or chapter in a book – no author (“Solving the Y2K Problem” 1997. 635-636. 5 of 14 . CA: Jossey-Bass.’ before or after the editor’s name. Curtin University of Technology.” PhD diss. Aaker.: Curtin University. 2010. Reagan.A. and Andy Smith. or add ‘edited by’ before the name of the editor if this is how it appears. Meredith. Add ‘ed. Include URL if electronic version is available.aspx? id=277342&loc=&srch=undefined& -advanced-go&request1=144026.curtin. ed. chap.library. rhythm. In Technology Today and Tomorrow. “Solving the Y2K Problem.’ before or after the editor’s name. Use chapter or section numbers if there is no stable page number. or add ‘edited by’ before the name of the editor if this is how it appears. Rodney P.myilibrary.” 1997.

ed. C. 2008. sec. 2010. Image in a book The photograph “Regatta. Alders. I. 132-134. 2009.aspecthuntley. U. 2010.pdf? fileid=01001315&datedir=20091022&edt=MjAxMC0xMS0yMisxOTowNjoyNCsxMjArNTA3OD QxK0N1cnRpblVuaXZlcnNpdHlBUk8rcmVkaXJlY3QrL2ltYWdlc2lnbmFsL2Vycm9ycGFnZXM vUERGVGltZW91dC5odG1sKy9pbWFnZXNpZ25hbC9lcnJvcnBhZ2VzL3BkZmRlbGF5ZWQu anNw. “Simulation System for Marine Engine Control Room. Pearling Luggers Tallinn. Prayag. Annual report of an organisation (print or electronic) (Director of National Parks 2010) OR (Black Range Minerals Ltd 2010) Director of National Parks. Use initials for names if only initials are provided in the publication. Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture.” In Village Chickens.: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. and R. Canberra.C. 12) Reference List Example Brebbia. Contact Zones: Sport and Race in the Northern Territory 1869-1953. Tallinn.: WIT Press. Peter Spradbrow and M. 4: Structure of the Simulator) Use section or paragraph numbers where no page number is available. 2009. R. illustration 17) Stephen. “The Impact of Newcastle Disease Control on Smallholder Poultry Production in Annual Report 20 June 2010. doi:10. A. 5-7 October 2005. 2009. Ramjee. Smierzchalski..lis.: Charles Darwin University.. Young.C. Population and Communities. Darwin.Books Conference proceeding In-Text Example (Brebbia 2009. P.2008.dbgw. A.K. http:// www. Paper in a conference (print) (Prayag and Ramjee 2009) OR As discussed by Prayag and Ramjee (2009) Paper in a conference (online) (Smierzchalski 2008. Canberra.T. edited by Robyn G. Southampton.4657535. Do not include issuing organisation if report is electronic.: Department of Sustainability. Water.T. October 6-8. Estonia. A. Matthew. 84. Structural Annual Report 2009-2010. 1898” (Stephen 2005. Poverty Alleviation and the Sustainable Control of Newcastle Disease: Proceedings of an International Conference Held in Dar es BEC. Estonia. Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture XI:11th International Conference on Structural Studies. L. Tanzania. Environment. 2010.T. 6 of 14 .” Paper presented at International Biennial Baltic Electronic Conference. OR Black Range Minerals Ltd. N.

2010. Malcolm. OR “. 2010... “Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun’s Family.121. ensuring the first word remains the same. December 20. 15) Use the title of the journal article.Suspending Ethical Medical Practice. Reference List Example Shaner. all 33 miners were rescued” (“Australians Play Part” 2010. The Australian (December 20. Dina Fathalla. For more than 10 authors. announces that “Jansen is a world class ore body. 2010) reported…. Amal Ahmed.1001/jama.” (Graham Kerr. Gad. Rabab Khairat. No need for an entry in the reference list. doi:10. Shorten title. the statement BHP Billiton Submits Environmental Impact Statement for Jansen Project. November 23. Treated like an unpublished document. Provide all the details in the in-text citation – no need for an entry in the reference list. 2010.” 2010. 2010) Press release On 18 December 2010.Print Journals Article single author In-Text Example As mentioned by Shaner (2010. Engineers Australia 82 (11): 14-15. list the first 7 authors. 2010.the polls exposed a failure… to mount a credible challenge” (The Australian. Yehia Z. Newspaper. press release) Several mummies have been identified as related (Hawass et al.” Sydney Morning Herald. “Australians Play Part in Mine Rescue. Somaia Ismail.” JAMA 303 (7): 638-647. 1988) For multiple authors also see the in-text examples used for books and electronic journals. Hisham Elleithy et al. Zahi. 7 of 14 . “Up in the Air .’. “Indigenous Artists Want to Take on Management. 640 table 1). Article – no author “Some 68 days later. Yuko. 2010. ‘press release’ – after the author of the press release. feature or magazine article Newspaper. Provide description of document – in this case. then use ‘et al. feature or magazine article – no author (Narushima 2010) Narushima.” New England Journal of Medicine 363 (21): 1988-1989. Image in a journal article Hawass.

curtin. For more than 10 authors.1192891. Roelke.’.. Ulbe. did=859478591&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=22212&RQT=309&Vname=PQD. Djauhuri. 2009.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 97 (1): 34-40.dbgw. List the family name first for the first author ONLY. List the family name first for the first author ONLY. “The Mobile Reference Service: A Case Study of an Onsite Reference Service Program at the School of Public Health. McCaughey and Smyth (2009. 8 of 14 . “Computable General Equilibrium Estimates of the Impact of the Bali Bombing on the Indonesian Economy. Roy McBride et al. Short titles must include the first word of the long title. “Medium Raw: A Bloody Valentine to the World of Food and the People Who Can Cook. then add ‘et aging bad boy is still dishing dirt about the industry” (“Medium Raw” 2010. Belden. 873) Full text article from an electronic database 3 authors Full text article from an electronic database 4 to 10 authors (Pambudi. “Japan. Cross. Tao. Robert C. Darrell Land. 2005. 12).lis.umi.dbgw. doi:10. Tao et al. E. Shorten long titles for in-text citations. “European Colonial Soldiers in the Nineteenth Century: Their Role in White Global Migration and Patterns of Colonial Settlement. Onorato. 2010. 43) Pambudi. 2009. OR (Tao et al.” Tourism Management 30 (2): 232-239. David P. Mary M.” 2010. List the family name first for the first author ONLY. 1642 point out that. Gary and Gregory Smits. and Russell Smyth. Nathalie McCaughey. Johnson. (2009. doi: 10.007.2008. did=2137096321&sid=12&Fmt=3&clientId=22212&RQT=309&VName=PQD.” Science 329 (5999): 1641-1645. Patrick G..3163/15365050. and the Globalization of Children’s Consumer Culture.” Journal of Social History 38 (4): 873-890. Webb. Full text article from an electronic database no author “. doi:10.97. list the first 7 authors.umi. Melody E. 2009.Electronic Journals Full text from an electronic database single author Full text article from an electronic database 2 authors In-Text Example (Bosma 2009.curtin. 873) state … OR (Cross and Smits 2005. Mark Cunningham. “Genetic Restoration of the Florida and Annie Cross and Smits (2005. the U. http:// proquest..tourman. 236) OR” Journal of Global History 4 (2): 317336. 2010.1016/j. Warren E. 320) Reference List Example Bosma. Krieger. McCaughey and Smyth 2009. List the family name first for the first author ONLY.006. 26) state….1017/S1740022809003179. http://proquest.1. Food Management 45 (9): 12. 43) have found….. 2009. 2010. 1642) OR Johnson et al.S. McCarthy. Use stable/durable URL where provided.lis.1126/science. Full text article from an electronic database More than 10 authors (Johnson et al.

2009. It was proposed by Keogh et al. The Mercury. For more than 10 authors. list the first 7 authors then add ‘et al. 2010. quoted in Jones Finer 2006.html.curtin. Patton. You can shorten the title of the article if it is longer than 4 words.http://edocs. Page numbers are included in the in-text citation but not the reference list. did=2186214831&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=22212&RQT=309&VName=PQD. add ‘quoted in’ to indicate the secondary source. November 12.’. 256) that… Reference List Example “Runners Leading by Example: Marathon Effort by Indigenous Athletes”.” Science 316 (5824): 27) Use the original author’s name and date first. Article from Curtin EReserve Secondary Sources Book (Newman 2006. James St John. van Vliet. 2006. Gaff et al." Environment and Urbanization 18 (2): 2006. Clara Show secondary author only in the reference list. Show secondary author only in the reference list. (2009.lis. http://proquest.cgi?url=DC60266188. newswire or magazine from an electronic database no author In-Text Example (“Runners Leading by Example” 2010) Use the title of the article. Christine M. Malden.umi. MA: Blackwell. Journal article (Ebell 2006.curtin.Electronic Journals Full text newspaper.mja. http://www. 598) Use the original author’s name and date first. Full text from the Internet Keogh. add ‘quoted in’ to indicate the secondary Immigration and Social Policy. Studdert. Kevin T. 2007. Findlay A. Louise A. In-Text Example (Jenkins David M. "The Environmental Impact of Cities. 9 of 14 . Maskiell.library. Judith A. Migration. 277) Newman. Catherine. Page numbers are included in the in-text citation and the reference list. Peter. Reference List Example Jones Finer. quoted in Patton 2007. “Neuralgia and Headaches. “Is the Uptake of Genetic Testing for Colorectal Cancer Influenced by Knowledge of Insurance Implications?” Medical Journal of Australia 191 (5): 255-258. Macrae.dbgw.

Access date not necessary since a date is given for the website. AboriginalArtinCentralAustralia/tabid/56/Default. Association of Central Aboriginal Art and Craft add the year after the author but do not add an access date. Image on the web The image of the MV Derbyshire (Merseyside Maritime Museum 2010) Merseyside Maritime Museum. If a date is provided for the website.desart. but before the URL.htm. National Museums Liverpool. http://www. http://www. Do not provide an access date when a date is provided for the website.html. 2010. with no quote marks. The Sinking of MV Short titles must include the first word of the long title.” (Martin 2010) Reference List Example Martin. DesArt: Aboriginal Art in Central Australia.aspx. National Portrait Gallery.cdc. 2008. Use actual date of access after the sponsor of the site.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.World Wide Web Document on WWW In-Text Example “Our art has got to be protected because it belongs to individual people and their families. Accessed December add the year the page is accessed after the author’s name and also include the month and date the page is accessed after the name of the owner or sponsor of the website as in the example above.npg. 10 of 14 . Accessed November 25. 2010. Document on WWW – No date (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. One Life: The Mask of Lincoln. Titles for websites are set in Roman. Document on WWW – No author (One Life 2008) Shorten long titles for in-text citations. Valerie Napaljari. Include the owner or sponsor of the site after the name of the site. 2010. when a website has no date listed. http://www. In the absence of a date on the index. Titled sections or pages on a website should be placed in quote marks. Use access year rather than n. “Traveling With Children: Resources.

wa. Department of Fisheries. Canberra.0Jun% 202010?OpenDocument. 3101.see alternative example below. No. Australian Demographic Statistics. ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics). Set the list apart from the main body of the reference under the subheading 'Legislation'.abs.A. 2010. If legislation is obtained from an electronic database.Government Publications Act of Parliament In-Text Example The Commonwealth’s Copyright Act 1968… [future references do not include date] Reference List Example Legislation is included in a list of references only if it is important to an understanding of the work. http:// 2011. Essential elements: Short title and Date (Jurisdiction) e. W. Census of Population and Housing: B01 Selected Characteristics (First Release Processing) Postal Area 6050. http:// Cases British American Tobacco Australia Ltd v Secretary. 11 of 14 . Fact sheet Australian Bureau of Statistics from ABS website (ABS 2010) Use initials if the organisation is better known by its initials. List name in initials in reference &action=404&documentproductno=POA6050&documenttype=Details&tabname=Details&areac ode=POA6050&issue=2006&producttype=Community%20Profiles&&producttype=Community% 20Profiles&javascript=true&textversion=false&navmapdisplayed=true&breadcrumb=LPD&&coll ection=Census&period=2006&producttype=Community%20Profiles&#Basic%20Community% 20Profile.abs. Census information ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics).T. Cat.: ABS. Set the list apart from the main body of the reference under the subheading ‘Legal Authorities’. Sharks.nsf/DetailsPage/3101. Department of Health and Ageing (2011) 281 ALR 75 (Department of Fisheries 2011) Use initials if the organisation is better known by its initials . A. Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) or Fair Trading Act 2010 (WA).T. Canberra.censusdata. A.: Department of Fisheries.g. but put full name in brackets. 2006.: ABS. (ABS 2006) Use initials if the organisation is better known by its Perth.0. add a URL as for electronic journal articles.C. Legal authorities are included in a list of references only if they are important to an understanding of the work.

William. 2005.C. Other Sources Personal communication. interview by John Ferrell.T. 2009.jhsph. Unpublished interviews Lecture notes (Cowdell 2006) Cowdell. Donaldson. Curtin University. Mega yacht mast tracking system with articulating sail feeder. transcript. 2010. Do not use ‘et al. Bentley. http://ocw. filed May 7. 2007). ContinuingEducation/lectureNotes. Patent (Cook and Donaldson 2010) Standard (online) (Standards Australia 2009) Standards Australia. John Alexander.: Australian Greenhouse Office. Cook. February 21. Reference List Example Not included in the reference list as they cannot be traced by the reader. W. 2005. US Patent US20100282152A1. SAIGlobal (AS 1666. A.TrainingMethods. personal communication May 21.Government Publications Government report In-Text Example (Australian Greenhouse Office 2005) Reference List Example Australian Greenhouse Office. and William H.A. If the standard is in book form. Do not use capital letters for the beginning of each significant word in the title. Fred C.’ for multiple authors. Interview of John Alexander Cowdell. Use exact date if known. Do not put title in quote marks or italics. 2009. Do not include URL for documents found online. Australia’s Fourth National Communication on Climate Change: A Report under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Savieri. and issued November 11. Use initials instead of full first name.1-2009). Canberra. 2006. 2010. e-mail and discussion lists with no web archive In-Text Example “It was confirmed that an outbreak occurred in London in 1999” (S. reference it as you would reference a course. “Lecture 3: Recruitment and Involvement of Trainees. Brieger.” PowerPoint lecture notes. Wire-rope Slings: Product Specification.cfm (Brieger 2005) 12 of 14 .

Other Sources DVDs and videos In-Text Example (Cameron and Landau 2010) Reference List Example Cameron. http://www.” Captain Cook: Obsession and Discovery. podcast audio. James (producer/director).htm. Streaming video. 13 of 14 .. Television and radio programmes (single episode in a series) Television and radio programmes (series or single programme) Podcasts (interviews) (Thomason. interviewed by Geraldine Melbourne: Film Australia. “Episode 4: North West Passage. N. Parmenter. 74:28. 2006. “Painted Cows. and Wain Fimeri 2007. Paul Rudd. Video blog posts (Krempl 2008) Krempl.” Francesco.htm.curtin. Podcasts (single programmes) (“The Private Life” 2010) Shorten long titles for in-text citations. Directed by Andrea Carnevali and Nicola Searle. Francesco’s Mediterranean Voyage. YouTube video. ABC Radio National. v=2zSb-m25SJ4. (Parmenter and Shepherdson 2009) da Mosto. Matthew. and Jon Landau (producer).abc.: Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment South Pacific. podcast travels of medieval Venetian traders down the Aegean coast (da Mosto 2008). and Fimeri 2007) . Short titles must include the first word of the long title. DVD. June 15. The Beauty of Story.lis. 2008. July 10.. “The Private Life of a Brain 2009.alexanderstreet. London: BBC. In Pursuit of the Siberian Shaman.S.dbgw. Ethnographic Video Online.” 720 ABC Local Radio. Rudd. Include indication length (by time). Web streaming video (Bernstein 2006) Bernstein. Moore Park. http://anth. Include full URL. audio/2009/06/15/2598730. 2008. Sandra A. 2010. Thomason. http:// www. and Anne Shepherdson.

San Diego.. Stuart. (McLoughlin 2009) E-mail discussion list – web archive According to Jim Petts’ post on the BRITARCH discussion list on August library/2010/09.C. and Mucosal Wave.. edited by Diane Montgomery.curtin.. accessed November 11. “Comment on Noise in the Library. “The Quality of Life of Rural High School Special Education Graduates: A Follow Up Study. 2010. http:// blogs..1108). Jack J. Washington D. Vocal Fold Dynamics: Phonation Mechanism. http://www.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Mathematical Society. Impact Stress. 2009. “Noise in the Library. “Inquiry-based Learning: An Educational Reform Based Upon Content-centred Teaching. (the smart one 2010) the smart one. Provide all the details in the in-text citation – no need for an entry in the reference ERIC microfiche (ED394746).gov/ERICWebPortal/ contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED506295. 2010. CD-ROM. webadmin? A2=BRITARCH. Include full URL. McLoughlin. Facebook content As was stated on his Facebook page. Jiang. http://www. (Jiang 2008) Barack Obama’s Facebook page. Use (blog) if the title of the blog does not contain the word ‘Blog’. 2011 (https:// www.curtin.: Plural Pub and Thomas P.ed. Obama (2011) was. Padraig M. barackobama. Davis. climate change…… 14 of 14 .” Library Blog.facebook. January 2009..” Library Blog. Robin K. 1996.5eebbd19. 2011. Aerodynamics. September 27.” In Rural Goals 2000: Building Programs that Work. CD-ROMS ERIC document (microfiche) ERIC document (online) Davis and Lombardi (1996) put forward the proposal that…. October 3. Reference List Example McDonald..jiscmail. CA. M.Other Sources Blog post and reply In-Text Example McDonald (2009) suggests that.