4.7 4.



Natural convection heat transfer occurs when a solid surface is in contact with a gas or liquid which is at a different temperature from the surface. Density differences in the fluid arising from the heating process provide the buoyancy force required to move the fluid. Free or natural convection is observed as a result of the motion of the liquid. An example of heat transfer by natural convection is a hot radiator used for heating a room. Cold air encountering the radiator is heated and rises in natural convection because of buoyancy forces. The theoretical derivation of equations for natural convection heat-transfer coefficients requires the solution of motion and energy equations. An important heat-transfer system occurring in process engineering is that in which heat is being transferred from a hot vertical plate to a gas or liquid adjacent to it by natural convection. The fluid is not moving by forced convection but only by natural or free convection. In fig. 4.7-1 the vertical flat plate is heated and the free convection boundary layer is formed. The velocity profile differs from that in a forced convection system in that the velocity at the wall is zero and also is zero at the other edge of the boundary layer, since the free stream velocity is zero for natural convection. The boundary layer initially is laminar as shown, but at some distance from the leading edge it starts to become turbulent. The wall temperature is TwK and the bulk temperature Tb. The differential momemtum-balance equation is written for the x and y directions for the control volume (dx dy 1). The driving force is the buoyancy force in the gravitational field and is due to the density difference of the fluid. The momentum balace becomes

Where is the density at the bulk temperature Tb and the density at T. the density difference can be expressed in terms of the volumetric coefficient of expansion and substituted back into Eq. (4.7-1):

For gases,

. The energy-balance equation can be expressed as follows:

The solutions of these equations have been obtained by using integral methods of analysis discussed in Section 3.10. Results have been obtained for a vertical plate, which is the simplest case and serves to introduce the dimensionless Grashof number discussed below. However, in

In conduction. in a furnace with boiler tubes. waves. In radiant heat transfer. and the intervening material is heated. 4. . the average natural convection heat transfer coefficient can be expressed by the following general equation: Where a and m are constant from Table 4.7B Natural Convection from Various Geometries 1. density in kg/m3 . as. the positive temperature difference between the wall and bulk fluid or vice versa in K. k the thermal conductivity in W/mK. for a vertical cylinder with length L m.10 INTRODUCTION TO RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER 4. Radiation heat transfer is the transfer of heat by electromagnetic radiation. In the preceding sections of this chapter we have studied conduction and convection heat transfer. with a more advanced and comprehensive discussion being given in Section 4. In English units is 2 1/(Tfᵒ + 460) in 1/ ᵒ and g is 32. can be transmitted through space and vacuum.7-1. viscosity in kg/ms. gamma rays. heat is transferred by the actual mixing of materials and by conduction.80665 m/s2. All the physical properties are evaluated at the film temperature Tf = (Tw + Tb)/2. the volumetric coefficient of expansion of the fluid in 1/K [for gases is 1/(TfK]. Natural convection from vertical planes and cylinders.other physical geometries the relations are too complex and empirical correlations have been obtained. heat is transferres from one part of a body to another. NGr the Grashof number. and so on. It is an important mode of heat transfer and is especially important where large temperature differences occur. Thermal radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation similar to X rays. These are discussed in the following sections. differing only in wavelength. example. It travels in straight lines.10A Introduction and Basic Equation for Radiation 1. the heat capacity in J/kgK. the medium through which the heat is transferred usually is not heated. in radiant dryers. and so on. In convection. light. For an isothermal vertical surface or plate with height L less than 1 m (P3).11. It obeys the same laws as light. Radiation often occurs in combination with conduction and convection. In general. the same equation can be used as for a vertical plate. and g is 9. Nature of radiant heat transfer.174 x (3600) 2 F R ft/h 4. An elementary discussion of radiant heat transfer will be given here. or in an oven making food.

2. part is absorbed there and part is reflected in all direction. as shown in Fig. = 0 and =1. The reflected rays impinge again. where they are reflected at a definite angle. and does not reflect any. 2. 4.0 is . The electromagnetic waves that strike the body are absorbed by the body and converted back to the thermal energy or heat. The ratio of the emissive power of a surface to that of a black body is called emissivity ε and is 1. but a close approximation is a small hole in a hollow body. As stated previously. Radiation from a body and emissivity. a black body absorbs all radiant energy falling on it and reflects none. The basic equation for heat transfer by radiation from a perfect black body with an emissivity ε=1. part is absorbed by the body in the form of heat . Hence. When thermal radiation (such as light waves) falls upon a body. Hence. is converted into energy in the form of electromagnetic-radiation waves. in practice there are no perfect black bodies. 3. depending on its temperature.0 for a black body. such as the wall of a furnace at T1. Where is absorptivity or fraction absorbed and is reflectivity or fraction reflected. part is reflected back into space. for most cases in process engineering. Hence. and part may actually be transmitted through the body . The thermal energy of a hot source. The radiation enters the hole and impinges on the rear wall. The inside surface of the hollow body is blackened by charcoal. 3. essentially all of the energy entering is absorbed and the area of the hole acts as a perfect black body. bodies are opaque to transmission. part is absorbed and the process continues. for opaque bodies.In an elementary sense the mechanism of radiant heat transfer is composed of three distict steps or phases: 1. Absorptivity and black bodies. or This equation holds for any black or nonblack solid surface.0 for a black body. A black body is defined as one that absorbs all radiant energy and reflects none. Actually. Kirchhoff’s law states that at the same temperature T1. unlike a mirror. so this will be neglected. The surface of the inside walls is “rough” and rays are scattered in all directions. These waves travel through the intervening space in straight lines and strike a cold object at T2.10-1. Such a black body also emits radiation. such as a furnace tube containing water to be heated. α1 and ε1 of a given surface are the same.

1714 x 10-8 btu/h. (4.10B Radiation to a Small Object from Surroundings In the case of small gray object of area A1 m2 at temperature T1 in a large enclosure at a higher temperature T2. Typical values are given in Table 4. and T is temperature of the balck body in K (ᵒR). The net heat of absorption is then.676 x 10-8 W/m2K4 (0.ᵒR4). like absorptivity. Since thye emissivity ε and absorptivity α of a body are equal at the same temperature. by the Stefan-Boltzmann equation. Additional data are tabulated in Appendix A.0. The value of α12 is approximately the same as the emissivity of this body at T2. (4.0 are called gray bodies when the emissivity is independent of the wavelength.10-6). The small body emits an amount of radiation to the enclosure given by Eq. or Substance that have emissivities of less than 1.ft2.10-1 but do vary some with temperature. at the temperature T2. The radiation heat transfer is calculated by the StefanBlotzmann equation (4. The α12 is the absorptivity of body 1 for radiation from the enclosure at T2. the emissive power is reduced by ε. When the radiating surface is at a uniform temperature. we can calculate the heat transfer for natural or forced convenction using the methods described in the previous sections of this chapter. A further simplification of Eq. σ is a constant 5. All real materials have an emissivity ε<1. Then the total rate of heat transfer in the sum of convection plus radiation. it is usually accompanied by convective heat transfer.10-5) is usually made for engineering purpose by using only one emissivity for the small body. there is a net radiation to the small object. . the emissivity.10-4) as A1ε1σT14. is low for polished metal surfaces and high for oxidized metal surfaces. A is m2 surface area of body. The small body also absorbs an amount of energy from the surrounding at T2 given by A1α12σT24. Most nonmetallic substance have high values. unless the surface is in a vacuum. The emissivity ε1 of this body is taken at T1.Where is heat flow in W. 4.3.10C Combined Radiation and Convection Heat Transfer When radiation heat transfer occurs from a surface.0. Thus. For a body that is not a black body and has an emissivity ε<1. 4.

To use values from this figure. we equate Eq. 4.10-6) to (4. (4. the vakue obtained from the figure should be multiplied by ε to give the value of to use in Eq.0 is given in Fig. Eqs.10-9). (4.10-10) with ε=1. the heat-transfer rate by convection and the convective coefficient are given by Where is the heat-transfer rate by convection in W. (4. T1 the temperature of the surface. To obtain an expression for . The total heat transfer is the sum of Eqs. hc the natural or forced convection coefficient in W/m2K.10-9) . If the air temperature is not the same as T2 of the enclosure. (4.10-7) and (4.As discussed before.10-7) and (4. (4.10-8) and solve for A convenient chart giving values of in Englisg units calculated from Eq.10-8) must be used separately and not combined together as in (4.10-2.10-8). and T2 the temperature of the air and the enclosure. A radiation heat-transfer coefficient hr in W/m2K can be defined as Where is the heat-transfer rate by radiation in W.