# INTRODUCTION A matrix is a two dimensional array of numbers or expressions arranged in a set of rows and columns.

An m × n matrix A has m rows and n columns and is written : A=[ ]

Where the element aij, is located in the ith row and the jth column. This array will be called as a rectangular array of ordered m by n or briefly an m × n. It is not every rectangular array is a matrix. Besides that, it is a scalar quantity which is a numerical constant or a singled valued expressions. The quantity aij are called the entries or components of the matrix. Matrix are conventionally identified by bold uppercase letters such as A, B, etc. The entries of matrix A may be denoted as Aij or aij which is according to the intended use. Occasionally, we shall use the short-hand component notation. A = [ aij ] A matrix having either a single row ( m=1 ) or a single column ( n=1). It is defined to be a vector because it is often used to define the coordinates of a point in a multi-dimensional space. In this note, the convention has been adopted of representing a vector by a bold lower case letter such as x. A general matrix is representing by a bold upper case letter such as A. A vector of having a single vector is defined as row vector. An example of a vector having a single row is written is: x = [ x11 x12 ... x1n ] A vector that having a single column is defined to be a column vector. An example of column vector is written is :

y= [ ]

Besides that they are many special matrices that we have in mathematics. Firstly, it is a squared identity matrix, I. It is defined to have all of its elements equal to zero except the main diagonal which have a value of one.

A square matrices for which aij = aji are called symmetric about the main diagonal or simply matrices. O=[ ] A square matrix is a special matrix in a topic of matrices. the lower and upper triangular matrix is a special matrices. These are the example of each kind : ] U =[ .I= [ ] The others special matrix is a null matrix which has the value of zero for all of its elements. An upper triangular matrix is a square matrix in which all elements underneath the main diagonal vanish.aji are called anti symmetric or skew-symmetric and the diagonal entries of an anti symmetric matrix must be zero. An example of a square matrices of ordered 3 is : C=[ ] An example of symmetric matrix of ordered 3 is : S=[ ] An example of anti symmetric matrix of ordered 4 is : W=[ ] Besides that. While square matrices for which aij = . It has the case which is m = n and it also called a square matrices of ordered n. Matrices for which m × n are called non square matrices. A lower triangular matrix is a square matrix is a square matrix in which all entries above the main diagonal vanish.

that is A+B=B+A The subtraction of two matrices is similarly defined. we write A = B.. then the sum of matrices are: C=A+B It also m × n. The operation of addition of two matrices is only defined when both matrices have the same dimensions. 1. If the inequality test fails the matrices are said to be unequal and we write it as A B.. If A and B have the same dimensions.. Then. that is A+(B+C)=(A+B)+C Besides the. then the difference is C=A–B Implies the element of C are : cij = aij – bij .30 Matrix Addition and Subtraction. If A and B are both m × n.L= [ ] 1. the matrix addition is both commutative. The two matrices of A and B of same ordered m × n are said to be equal if and only if all of their components are equal which is aij = bij for all i = a.. m. and is defined to have each element the sum of corresponding elements of A and B.. j = 1. thus cij = aij + bij The matrix addition is both associative.20 The Equality of Matrices.. n.

Prioknowledge addition subtraction Form 1 Form 2 Form 3 Form 4 Form 5 .

Perform addition and subtraction on two given matrices. . Able to know the dimension of matrices Solve matrix equation involving addition and subtraction. LEARNING OUTCOMES: By the end of this lesson. student should be able to: i. MATRICES 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: i.2. iii. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION (2×2) 4. ii. iii. 5. Understand and able to know the row and column Able to know the dimension of matrices. ii. Understand and know the difference between row and column.

6. ACTIVITY Activity 1 [ ] columns Matrix Dimension   Dimension on matrix=number of rows (m)× number of columns(n) Dimension on matrix = m×n row column .

EXAMPLE: No. * + [ [ ] ] * + * + * + 2×3 3. Matrix row column Dimension(m×n) 1. . we can conclude that that the dimension is the number of rows and columns of matrices. [ * + [ ] ] * + * + 2×2 2. [ ] 3×1 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 4. [ ] [ [ [ ] ] ] [ ] [ ] 3×2 Based on activity 1. It must be written as m × n which is m represent the row and n represent the column.

After that.Then. choose number [1] for ‘Dim’. the screen calculator will appear. Then. Then.The step to do this activity by using scientific calculator is : First press [ mode] and choose [6] which is matrix. press number [2] for MatB .Activity 2 The next example is the operation of addition (2×2) between the matrices. we choose number [1 ] which is MatA.Then. Then. the screen of calculator will appear.Next. Then. press number [5] for 2×2 matrix. the screen of calculator will appear. the screen calculator will appear Then. we will enter MatA: * + Press [AC] and press SHIFT + [4] .

the screen calculator will appear Then press [AC] and press SHIFT + [4]. the screen of calculator will appear. Then.Then.Then. press number [5] for 2×2 matrix.Next. the screen calculator will appear. the screen calculator will appear Then. Next choose number [4] for ‘MatB’. Then. The screen calculator will appear Then press ‘=’ and will give the answer . choose number [3] for ‘MatA’. we will enter MatB: * + Press [AC] and press SHIFT + [4] .Then.

The general formula for addition matrices is ( )+( )=( ) . * + * + * + * + * + * + * + * + 3. the sum of two matrices of different orders is not defined since the matrices have different orders. * + * + * + * + 4. then their sum also is m × n matrix. Matrix A Matrix B Matrix A + Matrix B Matrix (A+B) 1. If A is an m × n matrix. We also can know that the operation of addition is occurred in this form which is : ( )+( )= ( )  But. * + * + [ ] * +  We can conclude that the matrices can be add when the number of rows and the number of columns or dimension are same. and B is also m × n matrix. 2.EXAMPLE: No.

Then. press number [5] for 2×2 matrix. the screen calculator will appear Then. After that.Then. the screen of calculator will appear. The step to do this activity by using scientific calculator is : First press [ mode] and choose [6] which is matrix. we will enter MatA: * + Press [AC] and press SHIFT + [4] .Next. the screen calculator will appear. we choose number [1 ] which is MatA. the screen of calculator will appear. press number [2] for MatB . choose number [1] for ‘Dim’. Then. Then. Then.Activity 3: The next example is the operation of subtraction (2×2) between the matrices.Then.

Then. the screen calculator will appear. The screen calculator will appear Then press ‘=’ and will give the answer . we will enter MatB: * + Press [AC] and press SHIFT + [4] . Next choose number [4] for ‘MatB’. the screen calculator will appear Then press [AC] and press SHIFT + [4]. press number [5] for 2×2 matrix.Then.Then. choose number [3] for ‘MatA’.Next. the screen calculator will appear Then.Then. Then. the screen of calculator will appear.

the subtract of two matrices of different orders is not defined since the matrices have different orders. + * + * + * + 4.EXAMPLE: No. We also can know that the operation of addition is occurred in this form which is : ( )-( )= ( )  But. If A is an m × n matrix. * + * + * + * + * 3. * + * + * + * +  We can conclude that the matrices can be add when the number of rows and the number of columns or dimension are same. then their sum also is m × n matrix. The general formula for subtraction of the matrices is ( )ˉ ( )=( ) . Matrix A Matrix B Matrix A-Matrix B Matrix (A-B) * + * + * + * + 2. 1. and B is also m × n matrix.

For subtraction matrices is ( )-( )=( )  But only matrices that have the same order that can be added or subtracted. it will give undefined answer. For addition 2×2 matrices is ( )+( )= ( )  For subtraction 2×2 matrices is ( )-( )= ( )  Two matrices of the same order can be added or subtracted. . For addition matrices is ( )+( )=( ). Other than that.CONCLUSION    We can know that the dimension is the number of rows and columns of matrices. It must be written as m × n which is m represent the row and n is represent the column.

[ ] [ [ [ ] [ ] 3×2 3. State the dimension.EXERCISES: 1. * + [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] * +* +* + 2×3 4. * + * +* + 2×2 2. row and column of following matrices. ] ] [ ][ ][ ] 3×3 [ ] [ [ [ ] ] ] ] 2. Solve the equation: a) * + + * + . Matrix row column dimension [ 1. No.

Solve : a) b) * * + + - * * + + Answer: a) * + b) * + .b) * + + * + c) * Answer: + + * + a) * + b) * + c) * + 3.