ELE 102 ELECTRICAL SCIENCE-II Laboratory Manual

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LABORATORY MANUAL OF ELE 102
ELECTRICAL SCIENCE-II

Prepared at Lovely Professional University With Participation & Valuable contributions from Er.Princejit Singh Saini Er. Harjinder Singh Bhatti

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DEPARTMENT OF ECE, LPU, PHAGWARA (PUNJAB),

INDIA.

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Inverting and non-inverting amplifiers using IC741. Opamp as summer, integrator and Diffrentiator. Counter Design using Flip Flops. Use of CRO, Function generator and power supply. Realization of MUX and DEMUX. Active Filter Design using OPAMPS. To plot the speed torque characteristics of a dc motor. To start and reverse the direction of an induction motor. To plot the speed torque characteristics of an induction motor. Interfacing of microcontroller with dc motor and LED. Driving an LED/Relay/motor using 8051 microcontroller output ports. To display alpha numeric characters using

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EXPERIMENT NO - 1

1. Experiment: -. Realization & use of a MUX and a DEMUX. 2.Equipment and material Required: -

PROCEDURE: . 2. 3.(IC 74153) 1. Eb is made low.3. Based on the selection lines one of the inputs will be selected at the output and thus verify the truth table PROCEDURE: . Ea is made low and if MUX ‘B’ has to be initialized. 4. Verify the truth table.Learning objectives:. The demux is activated by making Ea low and Eb low. Pin [8] is connected to ground.(IC 74139) 1. . 3. 5. 4. The inputs are applied to either ‘a’ input or ‘b’ input 2. The inputs are applied either to ‘A’ input or ‘B’ input. The Pin [16] is connected to + Vcc.To understand the working of MUX and DEMUX. If MUX ‘A’ has to be initialized.

Donot touch any part of the live electrical conductors. 2.NA Caution:.Parameters and plots:. 3. .connection should be tight.Check the connection twice before working on live wires.1.

Experiment: Use of CRO & study of Lissajous patterns. 1 2 3 4 Apparatus CRO Function generator Power supply Digital multimeter Specification Quantity 01 01 01 01 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:- THEORY: To achieve the purpose. focus etc . power supply & Digital Multimeter. resistance. various controls are provided on front panel of electronic equipment. volt/div. switch for channel selection and control knob for level.EXPERIMENT NO – 2 1. 2. The operating controls provided on the front panel of instruments are ON/OFF switch. Function generator. selector switch for current.Equipment and material Required: S. range selection switch for frequency. time/div.No. voltage.

Model: ………………………………………………………. 6. LEFT /RIGHT: ………………………………………………………. 3. Observe the given equipment.. Fine: ……………………………………….………………… . c) Power supply 3.PROCEDURE:1. 5. Identify the different operating controls and understand their functions.. 2. UP/DOWN: ………………………………………………………. Coarse: ………………………………………. Equipment 1: CRO OBSERVATIONS: 1. AC/DC/GROUND: ………………………………………………………. 2...………………… 2. Draw front panel diagrams of a) Signal generator/ Function generator b) CRO... Frequency/div: ……………………………………………………….. Focus: ………………………………………………………. 10. Equipment 2: Power supply OBSERVATIONS: 1. Volt/div: ………………………………………………………. Square wave testing: ………………………………………………………. Parameter and plot:-Plot the amplitude and frequency of all the waveforms that can be generated from function generator. 4.. 4. Intensity: ……………………………………………………….. Make: ………………………………………………………. 8. 7.. 9. List the different operating controls and write their functions.

………………… 5. Input: ………………………………………. Model: ………………………………………………………. 5. Amplitude: Minimum………………Maximum ………………. Function generator and digital multimeter. 3. Current……………………………………………………………………….connection should be tight.Check the connection twice before working on live wires. 2. Frequency ranges: ……………………………………………………….. Resistance……………………………………………………………………… Continuity check……………………………………………………………….3. Equipment 3: Function generator OBSERVATIONS: 1.Donot touch any part of the live electrical conductors.. 7... Frequency……………………………………………………………………….………………… 4. .Student should know the application of CRO. Diode testing…………………………………………………………………… Scope of result expected:.... Voltage range: ………………………………………. Make: ………………………………………………………. 4. Equipment 4: Digital multimeter:OBSERVATIONS: Voltage(AC and DC) ………………………………………………………. 3. Caution:.………………… 6.1. Power supply.. Resolution: ………………………………………. Model: ………………………………………………………. 2. Function selector: ……………………………………………………….. Make: ……………………………………………………….

Experiment: .Equipment and material Required:- .Inverting and non inverting amplifier using IC 741 2.EXPERIMENT NO – 3 1.

The gain for non-inverting amplifier is given by . 2.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:- 3. The gain of inverting amplifier is given by 3. Select the desired gain of the amplifier. DESIGN PROCEDURE:1.

Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.Parameters and plots:Plot the graph of Gain Vs Frequency for Inverting and Non-Inverting amplifiers 5. Measure output. 2.Caution:. 3.0V and measure output. Connect common terminal of power supply to ground on the breadboard. if AF = 2. 3. Apply +12V to pin 7 and –12V to pin 4. 2. OBSERVATION TABLE: 4. select R1 = 5 kΩ .Student should understand the difference between Inverting and Non-Inverting amplifiers and frequency response of both 6.Donot touch any part of the live electrical conductors. .Check the connection twice before working on live wires.1.1V to the pin-2 of IC.1V up to 1. Apply a dc voltage of 0. RF = 10kΩ and RL = 10kΩ EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: 1.Scope of result expected:.4. For example. 4. Increase voltage in steps of 0.Connection should be tight.

2.No.Y 0 0 0 1 .Equipment and material Required:S.Experiment: .EXPERIMENT NO .Verification of Truth table of Basic gates.4 1. 1 2 3 4 5 Apparatus AND Gate IC OR Gate IC NOT Gate IC Digital Trainer Kit Connecting Wires Specification 7408 7432 7404 Quantity 01 01 01 01 As per requirement CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:NOT Gate IC X 0 1 Y=X’ 1 0 AND Gate IC X 0 0 1 1 Y 0 1 0 1 F=X.

Note down the output readings combinations of inputs.Student should understand the working of various logic gates and their application. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.Check the connection twice before working on live wires. 5. 2. 2.Scope of results expected:. 5. Verify the gates. 6. . 3.1. 3.Donot touch any part of the live electrical conductors.OR Gate IC 4.Caution:. The output is shown by the glow of LED. Switch on VCC and apply various combinations of input 4. according to truth table.Connection should be tight. PROCEDURE:1.

Value of shunt is so adjusted that most of the current passes through the shunt. a very low resistance known as "shunt" resistance is connected in parallel to Galvanometer.No.Equipment and material Required:- S. free computer courses and high impact notes visit .Experiment no:5 Experiment: How to convert a Galvanometer to a Voltmeter and Ammeter. In this way a Galvanometer is converted into Ammeter and can measure heavy currents without fully deflected. In order to convert a Galvanometer into an Ammeter. VALUE OF SHUNT RESISTANCE . It is the For latest information . 2. 1 2 APPARATUS Galvanometer Resistors Specification Quantity 01 As per galvanometer specification. SYMBOL circuit. which is used to measure electric current through the modified form of galvanometer CONNECTION OF AMMETER IN CIRCUIT An ammeter is always connected in series to a circuit. CONVERSION OF GALVANOMETER INTO AMMETER Since Galvanometer is a very sensitive instrument therefore it can’t measure heavy currents. As per requirement 3 DMM 01 AMMETER Ammeter is an electrical measuring device.

Then.www. In order to convert a Galvanometer into voltmeter. therefore it can not measure high potential difference.com Let resistance of galvanometer = Rg and it gives full-scale deflection when current Ig is passed through Vg = IgRg -------(i) Let a shunt of resistance (Rs) is connected in parallel to galvanometer.citycollegiate. SYMBOL points in a CONVERSION OF GALVANOMETER INTO VOLTMETER Since Galvanometer is a very sensitive instrument. CONNECTION OF VOLTMETER IN CIRCUIT Voltmeter is always connected in parallel to a circuit. Then current through shunt: Is = (I-Ig) potential difference across the shunt: Vs= IsRs or Vs = (I – Ig)Rs -------(ii) But Vs =Vg (I . If total current through the circuit is I. which is used to measure potential difference between two circuit.Ig)Rs = IgRg VOLT METER Voltmeter is an electrical measuring device. it. a very high resistance known as "series resistance" is connected in series with the galvanometer. VALUE OF SERIES RESISTANCE .

Donot touch any part of the live electrical conductors. 3.Connection should be tight.Check the output using DMM 5.Check the connection twice before working on live wires. . combined resistance = If potential between the points to be measured = V and if galvanometer gives full-scale deflection.1. 3. Then (Rg + Rx)..Connect the shunt resistance in parallel with galvanometer. V = Ig (Rg + Rx) V = IgRg + IgRx V – IgRg = IgRx Rx = (V – IgRg)/Ig when current "Ig" Thus Rx can be found. 2.Student should understand difference between ammeter and voltmeter and how to convert galvanometer into ammeter and voltmeter. passes through it.Caution:.Connect the shunt resistance in series with galvanometer. 4.Check the output using DMM As Voltmeter 1.Let resistance of galvanometer = Rg and resistance Rx (high) is connected in series to it. 2.Choose proper value of shunt resistance as per calculation. 3.Choose proper value of shunt resistance as per calculation. Then. 6.Scope of results expected:. PROCEDURE:- As ammeter 1.. 2.

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Experiment:To find the voltage regulation of a given Zener diode 2.Equipment and material Required:- 3.:-6 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 APPARATUS Zener diode Resistors DMM Regulated power supply Bread Board Connecting wires Specification Quantity 01 1K As per requirement 01 0-30v 01 01 As per requirement Experiment No. Circuit diagram:- .Learning objectives: To understand the application of Zener diode as voltage regulator.S.No.

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V applied-3% V applied + 3% V Z No +3% 3% 3% 2% 1 2 . calculate IL(mA) and IZ(mA) for each of the eight combinations of resistors (Ri and RL). Parameters plots:NA and . calculate the line regulation for RL = 470 Ohms and then the line regulation for RL = 1.6. lowest value of Ri and the largest value of RL. 2 to the current flow through it. 5 5 6 k 6 a) With R = 1. Regulation charact eristics S. For each of the values of Ri. The percentage regulation is calculated using the above formula 4. Repeat the following steps: First with VS = 15 VDC. Static charact eristics :- 2. 7 B. Wait until the 3rd digit on the meter does not change for about 5 seconds and then record the voltage reading. For each value of VS . the voltage will change until it reaches an equilibrium state. This heating effect will be 3 3 greatest with4 highest 4 the value of source voltage.8 b) Repeat with RL = 470  7 7 3.8k Sr. OBSERVATIONS: - A. (volts) VZ (volts) IZ ( mA)+ IZ (mA)Ohms.NO V (volts) VOLTAGE(V ) CURRENT(I Z ) Z 1 1Volt First with Ri = 390 2 connect VS to the circuit and measure VL after it has stabilized. Construct the circuit as shown above. No V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NL :VFL (VOLTS) R L (VOLTS) (K ) % REGULATION . 7. then repeat with with VS = 8 VDC. L Error Analysis: Static characteristics 4. As the diode heats up due . Applied voltage ZENER ZENER S. All the readings are tabulated.PROCEDURE: 1.

Check the connection twice before working on live wires.Student should understand the working of zenor diode as voltage regulator. Experiment No:-7 1. 3.1. 6.Donot touch any part of the live electrical conductors.5.Experiment: 2-way and 3-way control of staircase light 2.Equipment and material Required: s . n o 1 Apparatus Specifications Qty Two way switch bulb holder bulb 2 2 3 1 1 .Scope of results expected:. 2.Connection should be tight.Caution:.

and hence. According to the requirement. the connections can be made either to the terminal B1 or A1 and B2 or A2.thus. On the other hand. moving the dolly of the switches. the lamp does not get phase current. in the other alternate positions of the switches. two wires connect A1 & A2 and B1 & B2. this type of wiring is required. Wiring circuit diagram using two switches both of twoway type is shown in figure-2 whose schematic diagram is shown in figure-1.Learning objectives: To understand the application of two-way and three-way switches THEORY In order to control one light point independently from two switches or more placed at different places on the staircases or in room corridors. either in position C1-A1-A2-C2 or C1-B1-B2-C2 of the switches.one two-way switch is installed near the first step of the stair and the other two-way switch is installed at the end of the stairs at first floor.4 5 Screwdriver Three-way switch Pliers connecting wires 1 3 6 7 1 As per requirements 3. Lamp Neutral A1 B1 A2 B2 Phase . remains OFF. and the lamp becomes ON. common terminal of the second two-way switch C2 is connected with the neutral point(N)through a lamp. the lamp get phase current and hence becomes ON. the lamp can be made ON or OFF from ay one of the two switches.the phase wire is required to be connected to the common terminal C1 of the first two-way switch. In other words.similarly. FIG-1: Schematic diagram of staircase lighting The movement of either switch dolly makes the circuit complete.

Scope of results expected:. cautions 1. No. 2. Check all the switches and lamp before connecting it.Student should understand the working of zenor diode as voltage regulator 6.Two way switches FIG-2: circuit diagram of two-way control of staircase lighting Fig-3 circuit diagram of 3-way control of staircase light 4. Apparatus Specifications Qty %age instrument error or component tolerance . EXPERIMENT NO-8 1. 5. Do not switch ON or OFF the lamp during testing the circuit. 4. 2. Do not touch the live conductor. 5.To analyze voltage rectification and filtering circuit. Experiment :. Test the continuity after completing the circuit.Procedure: 1) connect the circuit and complete wiring as per circuit diagram shown in fig-2 & fig-3 2) 3) 4) Check the circuit connection properly. Do the continuity test before switching ON. 3. Connections should be tight and correct.Equipment and material Required: S.

4 ±2 3. 100µF 2 ±2 4. If DC voltage required is +12V then regulator is 7812.Learning objectives: To understand the process of rectification and filtering CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: 4. 0.Parameters and Plots: Plot the graph of input voltage waveform and output waveform after rectification OBSERVATION:- . 2 connect all the components as per the circuit diagram 3 measure AC voltage using multimeter and note it in the observation table 4measure DC voltage using multimeter at the output terminal and note it in the observation table 5. 7821 1 ±6 5.1. 6. 5A transform er pn junction diodes Capacitor s IC voltage regulator C. A 1-phase 230/15V.PROCEDURE: 1 Select voltage regulator as per the the requirement of Dc supply voltage.R.O Multimete r 5A.01µF. 1 ±2 3. 1N4001 1 ±5 2.

Test the continuity after completing the circuit.INPUT V OUTPUT V 5. cautions Connections should be tight and correct. .Student should understand the working of zenor diode as voltage regulator 6. Do not switch ON or OFF the lamp during testing the circuit.Scope of results expected:. Check all the switches and lamp before connecting it. Do not touch the live conductor.

1M. 22µF. 5 5 5 Ti m e r 2.1µF.143k. R .To operate 555 Timer in Monostable. 2.Experiment: . O 6. D C m o t 1 1 ±2 6 ±2 6 ±2 1 ±2 1 ±2 . st a n c e s 5. C .01µF. 100µF. C 0. a 0.1k.EXPERIMENT-9 1. p 220µF. e si 71k. A p p a r a t u s Specifications Qty %age instrument error or component tolerance 1.Equipment and material Required: S . 10µF a ci t o rs 4. P PN2907A n p tr a n si st o r 3. Bistable and Astable mode to generate time delay of 5ms and run a dc motor according to desired time delay. S 3-15V u p pl y 7.90k. R 10k. N o.

Bistable and astable modes PIN DIAGRAM: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:555 Timer in Monostable mode for T=10sec . Learning objectives: To understand the operation of 555-Timer in Monostable.o r 3.

71kΩ Circuit for driving a dc motor using a 555 timer 143kΩ 10µF : Parameters and Plots: For Monostable mode .

7 × R2 × C Tm Duty cycle = Tm + Ts = R1 + R2 R1 + 2R2 Frequency= 1.Caution:. For Astable circuit Duty cycle The time period can be split into two parts: T = Tm + Ts Mark time (output high): Tm = 0.1. 2.7 × (R1 + R2) × C Space time (output low): Ts = 0. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram for driving a dc motor. astable and bistable modes.15V DC power supply and test the circuit. For Bistable mode 4.Scope of results expected: Understanding of 555-timers different working modes.PROCEDURE: 1.44/(R1+2R2)C 5. 6.Check the connection twice before working on live wires.Donot touch any part of the live electrical conductors. 3. 4.For Astable mode 1. 3. Calculate the time delay by given formulas.1. .Connection should be tight. 2. Connect the circuits as shown in diagram for monostabe. connect the motor terminals as shown.RC. Connect up a 3V . CALCULATIONS: For Monostable mode Calculate time period using formula T = 1.

EXPERIMENT-10 1. Experiment:Summing and difference amplifiers using op-amps 2.Equipment and material Required: - .

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. Connect an ac signal source set at 100 Hz (sinusoidal) to the input. 1 and Fig. Learning objectives: To understand the use of operational amplifier as summing and difference circuits Circuit Diagram:- Summing circuit using IC-LM348/741 Difference amplifier using IC-LM348/741 4.PROCEDURE: 1. 2) with a gain of -10 using an input resistor of 1 K 2. Set the oscilloscope for X-Y display 4.[V1( Rf / R1) + V2( Rf / R2) + V3( Rf /R3) + .. 3. Using power supply voltages of ±15 VDC for the op-amp.] Observations:- . Record both the positive and negative power supply voltages.3. construct an summing amplifier and difference circuit (Fig.observe the output Vout = .

V1 input wave(V) V2 input wave(V) Vo output wave(V) 5.Donot touch any part of the live electrical conductors.Scope of results expected: use of op-amp as summer and difference circuit 6. 3.Check the connection twice before working on live wires.Caution:.NO V1 input wave(V) V2 input wave(V) wave(V) Vo output 1.1. For Difference amplifier S.For Summing amplifier S.NO 1.Connection should be tight. 2. .