Introduction to Economic Thinking

1.1 The Basics of Economics o 1.1.1 Defining Economics o 1.1.2 What Economists Do o 1.1.3 Macroeconomics and Microeconomics o 1.1.4 An Overview of Economic Systems o 1.1.5 Case Study: The Work of Adam Smith 1.2 Graphs in Economics o 1.2.1 Using Graphs to Understand Direct Relationships o 1.2.2 Plotting a Linear Relationship between Two Variables o 1.2.3 Changing the Intercept of a Linear Function o 1.2.4 Understanding the Slope of a Linear Function 1.3 Advanced Graphical Concepts o 1.3.1 Understanding Tangent Lines o 1.3.2 Working with Three Variables on a Graph 1.4 Production Possibilities o 1.4.1 Understanding the Concept of Production Possibilities Frontiers o 1.4.2 Understanding How a Change in Technology or Resources Affects the PPF o 1.4.3 Deriving an Algebraic Equation for the Production Possibilities Frontier 1.5 Comparative Advantage o 1.5.1 Defining Comparative Advantage with the Production Possibilities Frontier o 1.5.2 Understanding Why Specialization Increases Total Output o 1.5.3 Analyzing International Trade Using Comparative Advantage

2.2.4 Analyzing Changes in Other Supply Variables o 2.2.5 Deriving a Market Supply Curve from Individual Supply Curves 2.3 Equilibrium o 2.3.1 Determining a Competitive Equilibrium o 2.3.2 Defining Comparative Statics o 2.3.3 Classifying Comparative Statics 2.4 Elasticity o 2.4.1 Defining Elasticity o 2.4.2 Calculating Elasticity o 2.4.3 Applying the Concept of Elasticity o 2.4.4 Identifying the Determinants of Elasticity o 2.4.5 Understanding the Relationship between Total Revenue and Elasticity 2.5 Interfering with Markets o 2.5.1 Understanding How Price Controls Damage Markets o 2.5.2 Understanding the Problem of Minimum Wages in Labor Markets o 2.5.3 Understanding How an Excise Tax Affects Equilibrium 2.6 Agriculture Economics o 2.6.1 Examining Problems in Agricultural Economics

3. Consumer Choice and Household Behavior

2. Understanding Markets

2.1 Demand o 2.1.1 Understanding the Determinants of Demand o 2.1.2 Understanding the Basics of Demand o 2.1.3 Analyzing Shifts in the Demand Curve o 2.1.4 Changing Other Demand Variables o 2.1.5 Deriving a Market Demand Curve 2.2 Supply o 2.2.1 Understanding the Determinants of Supply o 2.2.2 Deriving a Supply Curve o 2.2.3 Understanding a Change in Supply versus a Change in Quantity Supplied

3.1 Utility Theory o 3.1.1 Understanding Utility Theory o 3.1.2 Finding Consumer Equilibrium 3.2 Budget Constraints and Indifference Curves o 3.2.1 Constructing a Consumer's Budget Constraint o 3.2.2 Understanding a Change in the Budget Constraint o 3.2.3 Understanding Indifference Curves 3.3 Consumer Optimization o 3.3.1 Locating the Consumer's Optimal Combination of Goods o 3.3.2 Understanding the Effects of a Price Change on Consumer Choice o 3.3.3 Deriving the Demand Curve

4. Production and Costs

4.1 The Basics of Production o 4.1.1 Understanding Output, Inputs, and the Short Run

4 Average Costs o 4.2 Determining a Firm's Return to Scale o 4.2.2 Understanding Pricing and Output under Monopolistic Competition o 6.3.3 Oligopoly o Calculating Profit o 5.1.1 Understanding the Role of Price o 5.4 Shifts in Cost Curves  4.1 Examining the Firm's Long-Run and Short-Run Adjustments to a Price Increase o 6.5 Finding the Firm's Shut-Down Point 5.4.2 Understanding Isoquants o 4.1 Defining Average Variable Costs o Determining the Social Cost of Monopoly o 6.2 Calculating Average Total Cost o 4.2.1 Defining Marginal Costs o 4.4 Competitive Firms' Responses to Price Changes o Monopolies o 6.1.4 Understanding Average Product 4.2.1 Defining the Long Run o 4.2 Understanding Market Structures o Marginal Costs o 4.4 Monopolistic Competition o 6.2 Calculating Deadweight Loss o 6.1.3 Understanding Short-Run and Long-Run Average Cost Curves o 4.2.5 Total Costs o 4.2.2 Calculating Profit and Loss o 5.3 Understanding Monopoly Regulation  6.3 Drawing Marginal Product Curves 4.3.5 Graphing the Relationship between Marginal Revenue and Elasticity  6.6 Long-Run Production and Costs o 4.3.4 Calculating Loss o 5. Perfect Competition  5.4 Deriving the Long-Run Market Supply Curve 5.1 Defining and Graphing Average Fixed Cost and Average Total Cost o 4.1 Defining Variable Costs o 4.2 Variable Costs o 4.7.1 The Basic Assumptions of Competitive Markets o 5.2.3 Understanding the KinkedDemand Curve Model  6.3 Market Supply o 5.2 The Social Cost of Monopoly o Determining the Monopolist's Profit-Maximizing Output and Price o 6.4 Calculating a Monopolist's Profit and Loss o 6.3 Finding Economic and Accounting Profit  5.4.3 Understanding Monopolistic Competition As a Prisoner's Dilemma . Other Market Models  5.2 Graphing Variable Costs o 4.1 Defining Monopoly Power o 6.3 Understanding the Relationship between Marginal Cost and Average Variable Cost  Understanding the Relationship between Average Variable Cost and Average Product of Labor o 4.1 Deriving the Short-Run Market Supply Curve o 5.7 Isocost/Isoquant Analysis o 4.3.2 Explaining the Total Product Curve 4.3.3 Examining Shifts in the ShortRun Market Supply Curve o 5.1 Finding the Firm's ProfitMaximizing Output Level 6.3 Finding the Cost-Minimizing Combination of Capital and Labor o o o o   5.5 Relating Costs to Productivity  Putting the Cost Curves Together  4.1 Introducing Oligopoly and the Prisoner's Dilemma o 6.2 Defining Marginal Revenue for a Firm with Market Power o 6.2 Deriving the Marginal Cost Curve o 4.3 Understanding the Mathematical Relationship between Marginal Cost and Marginal Product  Understanding a Cartel As a Prisoner's Dilemma o Proving the Profit-Maximizing Rule o 5.1.3 Graphing Variable Costs Using a Geometric Trick  4.4.2 Relating the Individual Firm to the Market o Constructing Isocost Lines o 4.1 Defining Monopolistic Competition o 6.

3 Uncertainty o 8.1 Measuring the Benefits of Consumption o 9.2 The Circular Flow Model o 10.5.6 Hot Topic: Feminist Economics and the Measurement of GDP o Understanding Expected Value.2.3 Evaluating the Effects of an Excise Tax o 9.2 Calculating Total Economic Value o 9.1.1 Changes in the Cost of Living and the CPI o 10.1 Defining Public Goods o 8.3.1 Understanding Market Failures  8.1 Understanding Producer and Consumer Surplus o 9.1.7. Macroeconomic Measurements  9.1.4 The New BEA Procedure for Calculating Real GDP o 10.4 Market Interference and Economic Value o 9.3 Explaining How to Internalize External Benefits  8.3 Consumer and Producer Surplus o Deriving the Least-Cost Rule o 7.3 Understanding Moral Hazards in Markets  8.2. Market Failures and Uncertainty o 8. Evaluating Market Outcomes  9.1 Understanding the Effects of Price Controls o 9.7 Hot Topic: Off the Books: The Underground Economy 10.2. Risk.3. Resource Markets     7.2 The Income Approach o Externalities o 8.5 Solutions to Externalities o 8.4 Understanding Economic Value 9.1 The Production Possibilities Frontier: Macroeconomic Applications o 10.2.5 Understanding How a Tax Can Create Deadweight Loss 9.3 Determining Total Social Cost   10.2 Analyzing the Tax System o 8.1 The Expenditures Approach o 10.4.1 Deriving the Factor Demand Curve o Overview of Market Failures o Using the Demand Curve As a Measure of Benefit  9.2 Quantifying Cost o 9.3 Real GDP o 10.1 Aggregate Output and Income o 10.5.2 Case Study: The Index of Leading Economic Indicators .1.1.2 Understanding the Effects of Tariffs on Consumer and Producer Surplus 10.1.3 Applying the Coase Theorem   o 9.3 Hot Topic: The Impact of Ecommerce on the Economy 10.2.3 Understanding Public Choice  8.4.4 Assessing the Effect of an Excise Tax on Economic Value o 9.3.3 Analyzing the Labor Market 7.2 Calculating Total Economic Value 9.5 Limitations of GDP and Alternative Indexes o 10.2 Explaining How to Internalize External Costs o 8.1 Understanding Labor Market Power and Marginal Factor Cost 7.1 Normative Economics o 9.2 Public Goods and Public Choice o 8.2 Understanding How Price Controls Destroy Economic Value o 9.3 Cost of Living o 10.2 Finding a Negotiated Settlement to an External Cost o 8.3 Capital Markets o 7.1 Analyzing Capital Markets  8.1 Finding a Market Solution to External Costs o 8.1.1 Quantifying Benefit o 9.2 Monopsony o Defining Externalities o 8.1.2 Understanding Asymmetric Information as an Economic Problem o 8.2 Approaches to Calculating GDP o 10.1 The Derived Demand for Labor o 7.1 Evaluating the Gains from International Trade o 9.5.5 International Trade and Economic Value o

and Booms o 11.2. Stagflation. Government Bail Out Failing Financial Institutions? o 13.2 Inflation and Purchasing Power o 11.1.1 Say's Law and Keynes: An Overview o 12.2.3 Calculating the Rate of Inflation The Natural Rate of Unemployment o The Federal Reserve System o 13.1 Historical Background 13.2 Case Study: The Cashless Society o 13.1 Changes in Aggregate Expenditures 12.4 The Price of Bonds and the Interest Rate 13.2 Theoretical Explanations for Cycles 11.3 The Fed's Tools of Monetary Policy .5 Unemployment Insurance 11. Saving.o o 10.5.2 An Analysis of Labor Unions and Unemployment o 11.5.2 Financial Markets o 13.4 The Money Market 13.2. and Hyperinflation o 11.3 Changes in Net Exports 12.1.5 Inflation o Recessions.1 The Expenditures Approach and the Saving Approach 12.1 Measuring the Labor Force and Unemployment o 11.5 The Costs of Inflation o 11. and Investing    12.5 Autonomous Investment 12.2.2 Measuring Unemployment o 11.1 Applications of the Multipliers o 12.5.3 The Aggregate Expenditures Model o 12.1 The Money Supply o 13.1.2 Hot Topic: Are Reserve Requirements Necessary? o 13.2 Hot Topic: Should the U.3. Deflation.2 Case Study: John Maynard Keynes 12.4 The Quantity Theory of Money o Changes in Taxes 12.3 Short-Run Causes: DemandPull and Cost-Push Inflation o 11.3 Stocks and Bonds o 13.1 Financial Markets and Intermediaries o 13.5 Comparative Statics: The AE Model o o o o 12.4.1 The Business Cycle o 11.2. Economic Fluctuations: Unemployment and Inflation      11.4.5. Money: Banking.1 Inflation.4 Hot Topic: Too Old to Work: Are We Discarding Valuable Workers? 11.S.2 Average and Marginal Propensities to Consume and Save o 12.2 Components of Aggregate Expenditures o 12.4 Comparing the CPI and the GDP Deflator  11.4. Depressions.6 Case Study: Behavior during Hyperinflation    12.4.1 Money in the Economy o 13.3 The Fed o 13.1 Minimum Wage Laws o 11.1 Understanding the Natural Rate of Unemployment The Multipliers o 12.1 The Aggregate Expenditures Identity o 12.1.2 Types of Unemployment o 11.4 Causes of Unemployment o Equilibrium GDP o 12.5.3. Spending. The Aggregate Expenditures Model  12.1.4 Hot Topic: Does Social Security Need to Be "Saved"? Hot Topic: The Unemployment Rate and the Crime Rate o 11.3.3 Case Study: "La Causa": The United Farm Workers o 11.3 Determinants of Money Demand o 13.2.4 The Theory of Efficiency Wages o 11.4 Case Study: The Paradox of Thrift o 12.

3 Fiscal Policy: Alternative Approaches o 15.1 Investment .2.4.4 How the Fed Changes the Money Supply 13.5 Case Study: The U.4 The Definition of Productivity and Factors Affecting It Movement along the Aggregate Demand Curve o 14. Monetary and Fiscal Policy  15.3 The Long-Run Aggregate Supply Curve 14.2 Expectations and the Phillips Curve o 14.2.2. Compounding. Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply Model     14.5 Hot Topic: The Political Business Cycle Deriving the Aggregate Demand Curve o 14.3 Timing Problems and the AD/AS Model o 15.5 Saving and Investment o 13.1 The Quantity Theory of Money (review) o 15.1 Investment Demand o 13.3.3 Differences in the Long Run and the Short Run o 14. and Long-Run Growth o 16.1 The Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve o 14.2 Aggregate Supply o Equilibrium in the Money Market   14.1 Recessions and Booms  16.1.3 Hot Topic: Is the Roller Coaster Ride Over? The Future of the Business Cycle   15.3.2 The Labor Market o 14.1 Aggregate Demand o The Production Function and Growth o 16.2 Fiscal Policy: The Mainstream o 15.4 Monetary Policy: The Mainstream o Automatic Stabilizers o 15.1 Definitions and the Historical Record o 14.4 The Phillips Curve o 14.5.4 The Creation of Money o 13.2 Policy and Growth o 16. and Growth o 16.2 The Market for Loanable Funds and Government Policy o The Rule of 70.S.3 Case Study: Policy in the Great Depression o Unanticipated Changes in Aggregate Supply Case Study: Cigarettes As Money o The Market for Loanable Funds and Crowding Out o 15.1 Unanticipated Changes in Aggregate Demand o How Banks Create Money o 13.2 The PPF.5 Hot Topic: Should Monetary Policy Be Made by Rule or Discretion? 15.4. Productivity and Growth  15.1 The Classical View o 14. the AD/AS Model.2.1 New Keynesian and New Classical Approaches to Fiscal Policy o 15.1 New Keynesians versus Monetarists o 15. National Debt 14.  13.2 Monetary Policy Using the AD/AS Model o 15.4 Long-Run Macroeconomic Equilibrium o 14.5.2 Equilibrium in the Short Run o Fiscal Policy Using the AD/AS Model o 15.3 Expectations in the Long Run and the Short Run o 14.2 New Classical Macroeconomics o 15.4.3 Monetary Responses to Changes in the Economy o 15.4 Monetary Policy: Accommodation o 15.3 Shifts in Aggregate Demand 14.1 The Elements of Productivity and Growth o 16.5 Monetary Policy: Alternative Approaches o 15.2 Supply-Side Policy 15.1 How Goldsmiths Created Money o 13.

6 The Managed Float 17.4 Case Study: A Successful Transition in the Czech Republic 17.5.3 Analyzing a Change in Equilibrium in an Open Economy o 17.2 Balance of Payments o 17.3.1 Centrally Planned Economies o Other Policies to Encourage Growth o 16.3.4 Government Policies o 17.4.5 Transition Economies o 17.6 Alternative Systems o 17.5 Floating and Fixed Systems o 17.5.2 Policies to Change to Market Systems .4 Case Study: Post-WWII Japan 16.3. 16.4 Case Study: Growing Pains in Indonesia o  Understanding Exports in an Open Economy o 17.6. and Accounting o 17.1 The International Flow of Goods and Services o 17.1 Government Budget Deficits and Trade o Case Study: Post-Mao China o 17.2 Case Study: Revolution and Reform in Mexico o Purchasing Power Parity o 17.4 Determination of Exchange Rates o 17.3 Hot Topic: The Myth of Exploding Populations o 16.2 Trade Policy o Real Exchange Rates o 17.3 Hot Topic: Women's Roles in Rural Economic Growth o 16.1.1 Nominal Exchange Rates o 17. International Focus      17.4 Political Instability and Trade o 17.3 Exchange Rates o Growth in Emerging Economies o 16.2 Exports.3 Emerging Economies o 16.3 Comparative Economic Performance o 17.1 Microeconomics Background o 17.3 Trade Balances 17.2 Policies to Promote Growth o 16.3. Imports.3 Hot Topic: Winners and Losers in NAFTA o 17.4 Analyzing International Trade Using Comparative Advantage Hot Topic: Is the World Trade Organization a Conspiracy? 17.4.1 Determining the Difference between a Closed Economy and an Open Economy o