Dynamic Response of a Variable Pitch Wells Turbine

Dr W.K.Tease Turbine Department Wavegen, 13a Harbour Road, Inverness, IV1 1SY, Scotland

The paper describes a theoretical and experimental investigation concerning the aerodynamic performance of a variable pitch Wells turbine. Initial comparisons are made with steady state tests which were carried out on Wavegen’s variable pitch turbine test-rig, ref. Fig.1. The turbine blade pitch angle and rotational speed was held fixed while the flow through the system was increased through the full range. The blade pitch angle was increased incrementally through a range of 0 to 30 degs. Non-dimensional performance curves of efficiency and pressure versus flow coefficient are presented, and the correlation between theoretical and experimental results is shown. A secondary set of tests was carried out to access the influence of introducing a variation in the axial flow incident on the turbine blades. Rectified pseudo sinusoidal pulses were supplied to the turbine and the effect of this on the devices performance was studied. A predictive control technique was implemented in order to maintain the average cycle efficiency as system response was important. Numerical results were generated for a full scale prototype Variable Pitch Turbine which is to be installed on the LIMPET OWC test facility.

h Hub to tip ratio


Rh Rt


Rt - Tip radius of turbine rotor, (m) Rh – Hub radius of turbine rotor, (m) S Blade solidity

N C tc η

NC π (Rt + Rh )


Number of turbine blades Blade chord length, (m) Tip clearance, (m) Blade efficiency, %


Tω ∆PQ


∆P – Pressure drop across rotor, (Pa) Q – Flow rate, (m3/s) T – Shaft Torque, (Nm) ω - Angular velocity of rotor system, (Rads/s) P* - Non-dimensional pressure

P* =

∆P ρω 2 Rt2


ρ - Density of air, (Kg/m3) φ - Non-dimensional flow coefficient


Vx Vt


φ can be expressed as an angle

φ = Tan −1  

 Vx  Vt

   


Figure 1

Vx - Axial velocity in duct annulus upstream of turbine blades, (m/s) Vt - Circumferential tip velocity of turbine rotor, (m/s)

Research carried out by Gato. A. typically biplanar and contra-rotational rotors with and without guide vanes(1-5). (2) Blade actuation. The . Sarmento and Salter et al highlighted the potential rewards(6-14). The aerodynamic part of the turbine model is based on average values and is constructed using 2D aerofoil lift and drag characteristics. (4) Pressure loss across valves. The main questions that remained unanswered were: (1) How would the VPT perform in real life? Could it react in time so that conversion efficiency is maintained? (2) Could the VPT be safely controlled at all times? (3) Could the VPT be manufactured for an acceptable price? (4) Would the VPT operate reliably? This paper presents the preliminary findings of experimental and theoretical research work being carried out under Wavegen’s Variable Pitch Turbine (VPT) development program. Falcao. The VPTIME model has input pressure time traces which have been generated from a tank model for the collector geometry at optimum damping. To further improve the performance of these devices the operational bandwidth must be further extended. Improvements were made both in terms of peak efficiency and operational bandwidth. Mach number compressibility has been corrected for. Wells in the mid-1970s has been extensively researched over the last 30 years. The control algorithm defining when the blades should pitch is assumed ideal. The following electrical loss models have been included: (1) Generator (2) Inverter (3) Transformer (4) Grid limitations The rotor speed is fixed and operational limits can be set so startup. A variety of modifications have been made to the basic turbine geometry during this period based mainly on techniques used in the fan and gas turbine industries. (2) Hub windage.Vt = ωRt Eqn. The following aerodynamic loss models have been included: (1) Rotor tip and hub clearance losses.(7) φs – Effective blade flow angle threshold flow coefficient Abbreviations VPT – Variable Pitch Turbine LVDT – Linear Voltage Displacement Transducer OWC – Oscillating Water Column LIMPET – Land Installed Marine Powered Energy Transformer Introduction The ‘conventional’ Wells turbine which was invented by Prof. Once the effective angle of attack on the blades has reached a pitch threshold. then the blades pitch instantaneously to keep the effective angle of attack on the blades constant thus preventing stall. first code is called VPFREQ and is based on a statistical frequency domain technique and the second is called VPTIME and is a full time domain method.A. Blade proximity pressure field effects are accounted for by using cascade corrections pre and post stall. VPFREQ is used for fast design iterations for optimising the overall layout of the rotor geometry and predicting the average performance variation throughout the year. shutdown (incident power levels must be sufficient to overcome the fixed losses of the system) and power limiting (the system can only absorb power up to the limits which are imposed by the power absorption equipment and the grid) can be accounted for. Increasing the peak system efficiency was not considered feasible due to the symmetry of the turbines geometry and the variations in pressure and flow. The incident flow variation to the turbine is represented by a gaussian distribution. The sea state variation throughout the year is represented by a series of 8 sea Numerical Modelling Two types of fully parametric numerical model have been constructed to simulate the performance of the variable pitch turbine. The following mechanical loss models have been included: (1) Frictional loss in bearings as they become loaded and unloaded. caused by flow separation and skin friction effects. Postponement of blade stall via pitch actuation would increase the operational envelope of the turbine while maintaining high conversion efficiencies. (3) Duct losses due to reduced pressure recovery from axial diffusion and swirl recovery.

power has to be supplied to the rotor to overcome the blade drag. Power v Flow Rate 40000 30000 20000 Power. The damping also reduces quickly as the blades are pitched. to represent the annual average incident pneumatic power captured in the wave energy collector. Beyond this point the aerodynamic lift mechanism has broken down and the power drops off and goes negative. P ressu re v F lo w R ate 6000 4000 2000 P. The pressure time signals are scaled to reflect full-scale device data using Froude scaling and according to their proportional applicability. (Pa) B lade P itc h 0 Degs 5 Degs 10 Degs 0 -10 -5 -2000 -4000 -6000 Q. Because the model can operate in the time domain then it is possible to simulate dynamic behaviour of the system. (W) 0 Degs 5 Degs 10 Degs 15 Degs 20 Degs 25 Degs 30 Degs 10000 0 -10 -5 -10000 -20000 -30000 Q. which would occur for the particular turbine geometry chosen. For a fixed blade pitch the rotor pressure drop flow variation is linear up to the point of stall. The effect of varying the blade pitch angle is shown. Increasing the pitch angle pushes the curve to the right delaying stall to higher flow rates. (m ^ 3/s) 0 5 10 15 Degs 20 Degs 25 Degs 30 Degs Figure 2 Figure 3 shows steady state power vs flow with the effect of varying the blade pitch angle. The turbine speed can be allowed to vary and the system rotary inertia is included. In the post stall region the power drops off. beyond this it is highly non-linear. This is important when checking the effects of grid failure and the safety chain events which take place to ensure the plant remains under control at all times. Increasing the flow rate overcomes these losses and larger power levels can be generated at the expense of larger flow rates. During periods of low incident power the plant shuts down while during periods of excessive power where the capacity of the generator or grid is exceeded an inline valve partially closes to limit the supply. As the flow rate increases the blade power increases non-linearly positively so power could be extracted up to the stall point. due to any damping modification. (m^3/s) 0 5 10 Figure 3 Figure 4 shows steady state damping vs flow with the effect of varying the blade pitch angle. At zero pitch and small flow rates. . This is because pitching the blades rotates the lift force further towards the direction of rotation and the drag force away and the net result is increased positive torque. The incident power level is assumed to remain unchanged and the power damping equation adjusts the chamber pressures. It should be noted that once the turbine stalls the damping falls of dramatically. Steady State Numerical Results Figure 2 shows steady state pressure vs flow numerical results which have been generated to simulate the performance of the VPT test rig operating at 4000RPM. All the loss models outlined in the VPFREQ model are included in the VPTIME model and have been modified to represent time and speed variation effects. The system flow is then calculated for any instant in time by solving the pressure flow damping equation for the system. Further adjustment is made to the pressures. It is therefore possible to study different control algorithms and hence the effects of system response.states. As the blades are pitched the drag caused by the blades at zero flow increases and the greater the pitch the more power has to be supplied to keep the rotor spinning at the set speed. This must be correctly accounted for when matching the device to the OWC collector. The turbine section aerodynamically is constructed as a strip model and therefore represents the full blade 3D geometry and how it behaves as it pitches.

The turbine blades were manufactured from aluminium alloy and have an aerodynamically smooth surface finish. Air is drawn in through the bellmouth shaped entrance and the flow rate can be regulated via a vane damper. Figure 5. Figure 7 shows the level of flow uniformity.2775m 0. reference Table 1 for geometry details. Variable Pitch Rotor Dynamometer Actuation System Air Flow Diffusers Figure 5 . The turbine rotor is positioned in an annular test section which has symmetrical annular diffusers. (m^3/s) 0 5 10 Blade Pitch 0 Degs 5 Degs 10 Degs 15 Degs 20 Degs 25 Degs 30 Degs Figure 4 Figure 6 Experimentation Test Geometry The turbine tested was a variable pitch monoplane Wells turbine. Instrumentation Flow Calibration The flow rate through the wind tunnel has been calibrated for different inlet damper settings by measuring the velocity profile at a reference station upstream of the turbine for each setting. The rotor tip clearance is about 1. Blades c Blade Profile tc ω Table 1 0. The rig is also equipped with pressure transducers for the measurement of pressure drop across different sections of the system. Parameters Rt h No.5mm 3500 RPM The turbine test rig is powered by a 75kW centrifugal blower.Damping v Flow Rate 2000 1500 1000 P/Q. A wide angle diffuser slows the air down as it expands into the settling chamber. The turbine rotor is mechanically connected to a pneumatically operated brake disk dynamometer which is computer controlled.5mm when the machine is running. A toothed wheel magnetic pickup is used to measure accurately the systems rotational speed. The calibration factors for the torque transducer. (Pas/m^3) 500 0 -10 -5 -500 -1000 -1500 -2000 Q. rotational speed sensor and pressure transducers for pressure and flow measurements were checked before and after a series of tests were conducted and were found to be within the manufacturers specifications. ref. Anti turbulence screens and a honeycomb flow straightener conditions the air before it enters the test section. An inductive type shaft torque transducer is positioned between the rotor and the dynamometer so the power developed by the rotor can be measured. A pitot static probe was used to measure the flow velocity into the system.7 13 55mm NACA0012 1.

it was important to breakdown the power flow components in the system so that the magnitude of the losses and behaviour could be fully understood. (Nm) Turbine Torque Transducer Calibration 80 60 40 20 0 -80 -60 -40 -20 -20 -40 -60 -80 Applied Torque.8159E+00x R 2 = 9. Further tests were carried out without any blades attached so the blade drag could be separated out. . This was also checked mathematically.0101 R2 = 1 35 Velocity. Velocity Measured at Station P3 and Annulus Axial Velocity 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 Pitot ref. (Nm) 0 20 40 60 80 Series5 Linear (Series5) y = 0. (mm) Figure 7 Figure 8 shows the relationship between the annular velocity incident on the turbine blades and that at the measurement station over the full flow range.9791x + 0. The turbine was then spun up to 3000RPM using the startup motor and the shaft torque and rotational speed were recorded with respect to time after the motor was switched off. The brakes surface temperature was monitored in real time so that the unit’s temperature was kept within safe operating limits.Duct Velocity Distribution 50 45 40 Station P1 P2 P3 Torque Readout. Power levels of up to 20kW's can be dissipated.9965E-01 Figure 9 System losses Because the design of rotor systems change with size due to structural strength and performance considerations. (m/s) Series1 Linear (Series1) Figure 8 Torque Calibration The power developed by the turbine was measured using an inductive shaft torque transducer. A pneumatic computer controlled braking system was used to load the turbine as more flow was forced through the device. Water-cooling was used to dump the heat during high load tests. care must be taken when using extrapolation to calculation the losses at these higher values. The blades were pitched to different angles. Because the test speeds are above 3000 RPM. (-30º to 30º) to assess the effect the change in body geometry has on windage. Relationship Between Pitot ref. Before any measurements were taken the system was spun at 3000RPM until the bearings had reached operating temperature (minimum of 30°C). Annulus Velocity. The mechanical losses in the system were determined using an indirect method. Velocity. calibration results are shown in Figure 9. This showed how the values decayed with time for zero flow rate as the rotor system decelerated. Corrections for flow profile shape have been made. rotor disk friction and blade drag for different blade pitch angles. the flow has been assumed to be incompressible. Also some steady state results were recorded at 3000 RPM. It was then possible to derive a relationship between rotational speed and power loss due to the combined action of bearings. (m/s) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Radial Position. (m/s) 30 40 y = 1. Figure 10 shows the combined hub windage and bearing friction variation with rotational speed for different pitch angles. Combining the deceleration and steady state tests it was possible to calculate the system’s inertia.

ref. (30Degs) Poly. and axial velocity.(8) Blade Pitch Angle. (Degs) 10 Figure 12 0 5 10 0 -15 -10 -5 -10 y = -4. Average pitch rates of up to 32degs/s were achievable. It is therefore possible to define an open loop control system where. Vx.r. an effective blade flow angle threshold flow coefficient can be set. Figure 12. Turbine stall is prevented. This is achieved by using a computer controlled stepper motor worm drive which converts rotary into a linear motion.1. If the flow through the turbine continues to increase for a set speed and the flow coefficient continues to increase then the blade pitch angle can be calculated to keep this threshold angle constant.t.8.6. Fig.9974E-01 -30 Ax ia l Displa ce m e nt. (W) 30Degs -30Degs 0Degs Poly. Fixed Pitch Consider first the case of a fixed pitch turbine.9748E+00x -20 R 2 = 9.3564E-09x 3 . Figure 11.17 (for a monoplane) then the turbine stalls. Blade Pitch 0 0 -100 -200 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Hub Windage. Beyond this point the turbine will stall in the usual way.9649E-02x 2 .035 the turbine cannot operate due to friction losses associated with the rotating part of the system. So the turbine has limits over which it can operate. because the instantaneous flow coefficient is known. Several physical constraints limit the flow coefficient range over which the turbine can operate.Variation of System Windage Loss w.0263E-05x 2 . Vx Vt Direction of Rotation φ Vr Direction of Air Fixed Pitch Turbine 20 φ = TAN-1(Vx/Vt) Eqn. which in turn is linked to the blades via bell-horns.0913E-03x 3 . The power the system can absorb can be increased if the system set speed is allowed to increase therefore keeping the turbine within the correct flow coefficient range.9189E-01 Figure 10 Blade Pitch Angle The turbine blade pitch angle can be regulated in real time while the turbine is in motion. towards the rotor are known. Below a flow coefficient of 0. (m m ) Figure 11 Controls The turbine was controlled primarily from two real time control signals. Blade Pitch Calibration 30 losses. The turbine blade pitch angle was correlated against the linear displacement of the actuation mechanism using an LVDT.2. If the flow coefficient increases beyond a value of about 0. ref. the power in is not sufficient to overcome these Variable Pitch If the turbine blade pitch angle is allowed to change with time. ref. The power developed becomes positive and increases and so does the blade efficiency. (-30Degs) Poly. Figure 13. Vt. This is due to the aerodynamic lift mechanism which drives the turbine. rotational speed and axial velocity incident on the rotor blades. ref. (0Degs) -300 -400 -500 -600 -700 Omega. (RPM) y = -9.8. This presses against a swash plate. then the effective angle of attack onto the turbine blades can be limited and stall prevented up to the maximum pitch angle achievable. . The instantaneous incident angle of attack onto the turbine blades can be calculated if the tip velocity. As the incident power level increases more flow is supplied to the turbine and this increases the flow coefficient for a set speed.9961E-02x R2 = 9. breaking down. A sample rate of 40Hz was used when acquiring the data.

2 1.(9) Figure 13 Steady State Test Conditions The turbine was spun up to 3000RPM. This is achieved by modulating the inlet vane damper. . Table 2. Good agreement is achieved between the experiment and the numerical model. particularly at high blade pitch angles.10). It was gradually accelerated to its test speed of 35004500 RPM by opening the inlet control damper. Dynamic Test Conditions Before a dynamic test can commence the turbines speed is first stabilised using the steady state test start-up procedure. In the numerical model the kink in the P* flow coefficient curve occurs at too low a flow coefficient.8 1 1. (%) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0. Effect of Blade Pitch 100 90 80 Blade Efficiency. The controller was instructed only to begin pitching the blades once the effective angle of attack had been exceeded. More and more air is forced through the turbine as the inlet vane damper is opened. The numerical model under-predicts the blade efficiency in the post stall region.5 Effective Blade Flow Angle Threshold (Degs) 11 Blade Pitch Angle Flow Coefficient Figure 14 Figure 15 shows the variation of the rotor nondimensional pressure with flow coefficient for different blade pitch angles. Good agreement is achieved between the experiment and the numerical model in the prestall region. Pulse Period (Secs) 5 Table 2 NonDimensional Flow Coefficient Amplitude 1.4 0. in reality the turbine does not stall as quickly.6 0. The kink offset is also over predicted. The shape of the blade efficiency flow coefficient curves for zero pitch matches that produced for monoplane Wells turbines of similar solidity and hub to pitch ratio tested in independent test laboratories(7. After this had been achieved the control module is instructed to send a rectified pseudo sinusoidal flow pulse of fixed period and amplitude to the turbine. ref.2 0. the gradient and position of the curves for the different pitch angles match well.4 1. The following test case was analysed. In the post stall region the predictions are not so good due to current modelling limitations. As the blades are pitched the same holds true.Vx β Vt φs Vr Correlation Between Experimental and Numerical Results Steady State Results Figure 14 shows the variation of blade efficiency with flow coefficient for different blade pitch angles. above this speed the device was air powered. In the post stall region the predictions are not so good due to current modelling limits.6 Exp 0Degs Exp 3Degs Exp 11Degs Exp 24Degs Exp 32Degs Num 0Degs Num 3Degs Num 11Degs Num 24Degs Num 32Degs Direction of Rotation Direction of Air Variable Pitch Wells Turbine If φ < φs β = 0 Otherwise β = φ − φs Eqn. The air is effectively deflected by the blade under these conditions. Once the test speed had been reached the dynamometers computer controlled PID braking system automatically takes over and applies sufficient pressure to the brake pads to hold the turbine at constant speed as it is being loaded.

Blade Angle v Angle of Attack 8 6 30 35 45 55 6 5 75 85 -10 T e. (Secs ) 3 5 45 55 6 5 7 5 8 5 -10 -20 -30 time (s) Figure 17 Figure 19 Effective Angle of Attack Blade Angle Blade Angle Effective Flo Ang w le 2 10 .6 Numerical Predictions For LIMPET Full Scale VPT Blade Pitch Angle Exp 0Degs 1.6 0.8 1 1. 8 sea states were used to represent the variations in power levels throughout the year. Figure 19 shows how the blade pitch angle varies with time and how the effective angle of attack on the blade is controlled. N 100 2500 650 455 13 Dimensions Ns/m 5 Figure 15 Dynamic Results Figure 16 shows the variation of the pseudo rectified input power pulse to the turbine with time with a 5 sec period. were generated by factoring the results from the individual sea states and their percentage occurrence. Figures 19 . 5S R ec ectifiedPu lse 40 35 30 25 Power. (Degs) 1 0 Bla Pitch de 0 15 -2 -4 -6 -8 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 0 5 0 2 5 -5 Time.2 0. R h Number of Blades. (Secs im ) Figure 16 Figure 17 shows the variation of blade angle and effective angle of attack on the turbine blades. initially the effective angle of attack on the blades can be seen to over shoot and then correct itself to the requested effective blade flow angle threshold. Specification No.4 1. ω Tip Radius. Some noise is evident on the control signals and this is causing the blades to pitch about the calculated value.4 0. The annual average pneumatic power captured by the shoreline OWC chamber is estimated to be about 160 kW. note the flattening of the effective blade angle traces. (P/Q)t Rotational Speed.4 1.6 0. R t Hub Radius.2 1 P* Exp 3Degs Exp 11Degs Exp 24Degs 0. (kW) RPM mm mm 20 15 10 5 0 25 -5 BladePow O er ut Pne c Pow In umati er Table III A closed loop control system was implemented with an optimum blade coefficient being maintained with a data sample rate of 40Hz. The composite curves shown in Figures 20 – 23. Blade stall was prevented and high blade efficiency was maintained for a varying flow input. Peak incident powers of 35kWs are achieved.6 Flow Coefficient Exp 32Degs Num 0Degs Num 3Degs Num 11Degs Num 24Degs Num 32Degs Following the good correlation between the steady state experimental and numerical data sets for the VPT test rig it was decided to carry out a preliminary performance study on a full size VPT suitable for installation on the LIMPET test facility.Effect of Blade Pitch 1.8 0.23 are presented to give an overview of the findings.4 0. 5Sec R ectifiedPulse 2 5 2 0 Effective Angle of Attack (deg) 20 1 5 4 Angle . Table III gives the basic turbine parameters for the design. The output blade power peaks at about 30kWs and lags the incident power by 1sec. Due to the time delay in responding.2 0 0 0. 1 2 3 4 5 Key Parameters Damping.2 1.

• Peak blade pitch rates of 32 °/s are required in order to maintain conversion efficiency. the data is showing a convergence of the data curves and practically this is an achievable objective in relation to the design of the blade retension and pitch mechanisms.5 times the annual average electrical output. Electrical Power output for LIMPET fitted with ideal VPT as a function of Generator Size 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Generator Capacity (kW) Maximum Blade Turning rate (deg/sec) Figure 20 Figure 21 shows the variation of blade efficiency with respect to pneumatic power inputs for different blade pitch range limitations. • A robust numerical model for sizing VP turbine systems has been developed. • Signal acquisition rates of 40Hz are required to enable system response. Maximum Blade Turning Rate 120 100 80 A nnual Distribution of Blade Pitch 25 20 % Occurrence 15 10 5 0 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Blade Pitch Angle. This is 3 . A blade pitch range of ±30° has been set for the full scale device. similar to what would be used in wind turbines. Previous research(6. Annual Average Electrical Output (kW) . Maximum Blade Pitch Range 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Pneumatic Power (kW) Blade Pitch Range Blade Efficiency. % 30 degs 20 degs 10 degs Figure 23 Conclusions • The VPT can extend the efficient operational flow envelope for wave energy turbines by avoiding stall at high flow rates by pitching the blades. This enables the turbine to cope with the increase in the average power available during the winter months without being hit by too high electrical losses during the summer months.7kW/2500rpm Figure 22 Figure 23 shows how the annual average electrical output for a full size VPT fitted to the LIMPET OWC varies with the installed generator capacity.8) had indicated a peak pitch rate of 32°/sec was required in order for the device to respond efficiently to the pulse flow input.3.Figure 20 shows the effect of restricting the maximum blade pitch rate on the shaft power absorbed for different incident power levels and operating speeds. Figure 20 confirms this finding.1kW/2150rpm 136. • Maximum blade pitch angles can be limited to ±30° without severe performance drop off. A generator of 250300kW’s capacity would be suitable for the power module. For the annual pneumatic power of 160kW it is evident that limiting the blade pitch range to ±10° severely reduces the blade efficiency. Figure 21 Figure 22 shows the annual distribution of blade pitch motions. This data is of use when designing the blade retension and pitch systems with respect to fatigue and the wear of bearing surfaces.6kW/1720rpm 91. (Degs) Shaft Power 60 40 20 0 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 45.

May 26-31.. Setoguchi.F.F. & Falcao. Mech.Y. (6) Salter. ‘TurbineControlled Wave Energy Absorption by Oscillating Water Column Devices’.. Lisbon. (8) Sarmento. Aerospace Sci..C. et al.. K. L. "Variable Pitch Air Turbines". Instituto Superior Tecnico.. 425434. De O. (9) Vakalis. 113. & Falcao. Dixon for their assistance in the design and development of the variable pitch turbine test rig. J. S. Vol. ’ Performance of the Wells Turbine with a Double Row of Guide Vanes’.... Journal of Energy Engineering Vol 35. & Inoue M. A.N.C. . ‘Aerodynamics of the Wells Turbine’. L. pp. Proceedings of the 7th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. (2) Raghunathan S. Whittaker T. S. A. Jan 1995. (11)Sarmento.J.M. No. Kitakyushu. Kaneko K. Lisbon. L. The work was financially supported under the DTI contract project reference No. 1995. pp 668-673. A. Sci.C. Mech.J. Proceedings of the 12th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference.Further Developments •Minimisation of losses •Detailed design development.. 21-24th July 1993 Edinburgh. Honolulu. A. 1990.. De O. & Kaneko..J. H. (7) Gato. Jan 1990. Japan. •Practical implementation.M. 6. De O. Lewis and G. Heath for assistance with the numerical modelling. A. (5) Curran R. ‘Wave. 465473.C. De O. L. May 1997.N. 30. & Beattie W. A. & Falcao. (12)Gato L.T. Raghunathan S. ‘Performance of the Wells Turbine with Variable Pitch Rotor Blades’..C.C. (10)Gato.C. References (1) Gato L.N. Tim.J. Takao M. ‘Variable-Pitch Turbine and High-Speed Stop-Valve’.F. 1993 European Wave Energy Symposium... Ocean Engineering. Prog. 1988.A. •Cost engineering. 383-395. A.A. V/06/00202/00/00 and by Wavegen. (4) Setoguchi T.. ‘Air Turbine Using SelfPitch-Controlled Blades for Wave Energy Conversion’. Portugal.H. & Falcao. 1989.. & Falcao. De O.. September 1991. Proc.. pp. Department of Mechanical Engineering. (3) Gato L.F.M. J. A.C. 2002. & Falcao. De O.F. ‘Phase Control of OWC by Wells Turbine with Swinging Rotor Blades: Turbine Aerodynamic Performance’. Vol 31.. Eca. & Falcao. (14)Salter. pp. Department of Mechanical Engineering.Energy Absorption by an OWC Device with Blade-Pitch-Controlled Air-Turbine’.H. S. Aug 1998. T. pp. Sci. & Sarmento.V. under contract JOR3CT950002.F.F. 141-146. Int... (13)Kinoue..M. S. ‘Real-Time Control for the Performance Improvement of an OWC with a Variable Pitch Blades Wells Turbine’. Acknowledgement The author would like to thank Dr T. pp 335386.R.A.. Vol. 31.. pp 435-442. Gato. L.M. Portugal. ‘Aerodynamics of the Wells Turbine: Control by Swinging Rotor-Blades’. Ellen. Gato. Journal of Energy Resources Technology. A..M. Instituto Superior Tecnico. T. De O. ‘Performance Prediction of Contrarotating Wells Turbines for Wave Energy Converter Design’.C. A.M. Int.H. ’The Wells Air Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion’. ’Effect of Guide Vanes on the Performance of a Wells Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion’.