Notes on Abbreviations in

Greek Manuscripts

BY

T.

W.

ALLEN

queen's college, oxford

craven fellow

WITH

ELEVEN PAGES OF FACSIMILES
BY PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
M DCCC LXXXIX
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c/mt^A^j/Zt^^^Ja^tat^

IJyrujL^ao^xMi

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oxford craven fellow WITH ELEVEN PAGES OF FACSIMILES BY PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY Oxford AT THE CLARENDON PRESS M DCCC LXXXIX ^// rights reserved [ '\ .Notes 07t Abbreviations in Greek Manuscripts BY T. ALLEN queen's college. W.

E. HENRY FROWDE Oxford University Press Warehouse Amen Corner.bonbon.C. .

or is at least that portion of it necessary for its progress is not the production of all possible definiteness all- inclusive handbooks with an immediate practical aim. 1880. iste h.. 'il est absolu- ment indispensahle que beaucoup soient d'abord publiees avant que.

paleographes science of puissent un jour etablir I'etat des abreviations usitees dans monde byzantin de siecle en siecle The which deals with contractions. but rather a series of observations of the usage of manuscripts.NO T E S ON ABBRE VIA TIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. and hypotheses writing. d' observations exactes naturalla faune I'exemple du qui dresse comparativement un tableau de les ou de le la flore des divers regions du globe. has reached a point at which what Greek Palaeography. anyone who has ' tried to find definite information etc. is How to has been done towards such collection known 68. the object little and main must be the collection of fresh evidence. conclusions are laid down with where and actual width. p. as with any other yet undeveloped science. Notices bibliographiques. A SENTENCE that occurs in the late Charles Graux' review of Lehmann's Die tachygraphisclien Ahhilrzungen will -^-*- explain the purpose of this pamphlet. He says. . noted with all available accuracy by investigators whose occupations have given them familiarity with the ways of scribes and the possibilities of Greek Such observations indeed must be classified and brought into relations with one another. 1 upon the Revue Critique. but. may be suggested to explain the facts observed first .

origin and history of any single Com- on the subject of compendia in Montfaucon's great book. and moreover hardly recognises the principle of chronological development in the history of a compendium. The Museo in Italiano. is actual value of a model in all respects of what such a work should be.2 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. a work that with all its industry and system is in point of actual palaeographical expertness far behind the Commentatio both Graux and Vitelli have pointed out. 9-15. Greek abbreviation. palaeography from the compilation of fac- Professor Yitelli however has at length given us the first instalments of a treatise. paratively little stress is laid and the work of one whose palaeographical knowledge can seldom have been surj^assed. The bulk of the material presented here is taken from manuscripts in the Bodleian and the British Museum but a tour in France and Italy in the early part of last year (1888). it is as hypotheses that they are given. the impossibility of deriving general conclusions in similes. . and Bast's well-known Commentatio Palaeogra^hica. though stimulating in the highest degree. at the end are collected some instances of tachygraphy which are grouped under the several manuscripts. has enabled a number of additional examples to be added to those already collected. pp. of his observations upon the Laurentian and if else- I shall be more than gratified which owes so much to the Sjiicilegio Fiorentino. . II. In arranging the compendia in alphabetical order I have thoupht to consult the convenience of those looking for examples of any one in particular. I have endeavoured in discussing the various forms to avoid the faults urged against others where hypotheses are ventured. where. part 168-173 contains a great codices number this I. and with the pamphlet. has a directly practical intention. Falaeograiiiliica . with indisputable truth. The recognition and application of such principles to compendia forms the cardinal merit of Lehmann's handbook. . be thought a not unworthy companion to it. undertaken under the Craven Trust. independent of the its results. that. 32.

Melanges Graux. still occurs freely with other letters lastly.knowledge that a little increase in our information may overset them I shall feel no particular shame if such a fate befalls one or two of my combinations caedimus inque viceni jpraehemus crura sagittis is a line that every palaeographer should accept. and Vitelli CoJleziotie Fiorentina fasc. apparently in the same hand : Euclid (888). Bollig at the Vatican. The plates have been produced by a photographic process at the University Press. M. Gio. Maass in the ' here refer to five—the D'Orville iv. ' ' . to whose kindness the possibility of making this collection has been due to some of them my thanks have been already elsewhere given here . A. which make use of the notation both in the original and in the illegitimate sense. 10 (Canones eccl. and will. this abuse of the most frequent in combination with T. F. 126 (Clement Alex. Bodley's Librarian and Mr.) and Vallicell. and afterwards archbishop of Caesarea. Antonio Ceriani at the Ambrosiana. so far as the scholia are concerned. stroke. for constant it is encouragement and advice. properly represented by a horizontal . cf. 749 sq. and which contain large quantities of I scholia. at home and abroad.' I mean the manuscripts which are known to have belonged to Arethas. ' ' : : : I gladly record my obligation to the Kev. Clarke Plato (896). Clement Paris grec 451 (914). 1880. Lucian Harleian 5694 (undated). and in this sense often found. 3 (Aristides) is in the hand of the Clarke Plato. A certain resemblance also.. generally the Ohservat tones Palaeogyaphkae of E. I have finally the pleasant duty of thanking many librarians. Madan in Oxford.' Paris. . be thought more successful than previous repioductions of drawings. Conte Soranzo at Venice. the Abate Auziani at the Laurenziana. Aristotle Urbinas 35 (undated). Henri Omont at Paris. is to be seen in the mss. deacon of Patrae. B 2 . 60. pt. the Rev. I. well known. ^. and lastly to the Principal Librarian of the British Museum. it is hoped. I give examples of dots. two these four cases: (i) the simple horizontal stroke appears to be exclusively used in the scholia of the Arethas-mss.). By the 'Arethas-mss. is Alpha. where it is shewn that Laur. though probably not so often as the dotted t. Mutin. improperly dotted is the latter sign properly denotes by a horizontal stroke ra. there are many mss.

ra. (s. X) xauxa xdHic exovxa. XI) ndvxa. 171). 126 (s. E. with the dotted in anyone's Kaxa xdSiv. eraSev rd . : (s. xd. Auct. X-XI) Hermogenes Paris grec 1983 (s. 12 X) exovxa. Bodl. XII) navra . iii. dvTiKaeiGTajuevoov (3) The most frequent case is that in which a manuscript uses at one and the same time the dotted stroke and the dotted t to express xa such are the Paris Demosthenes^ (2. pt. Not 1 107 as the Catalocrue. tq S. 2nd scholia. 12 (s. total cf. XII) 70 s. . anaropeuovxa. i. 1 149). the . .) et-jLioAeovxa (text) Psalter. It is power to extend it is (4) The use of the x is double dots in combination with other consonants than fairly common . de Nolhac {Fuhuo Orsini. The dots may be more certainly said not to appear 5. a. cf. PaUadius Clarke 12 for aljpha Aed. 11 (s. 18231 (a. Selden supr. 1886. with pdoKovoc. (Greg. (s. of so large an extent of scholia certainly. : s. jnexd. Bodl. 9. xix (a. earlier than M. Pal. in the school of S. X) xa osxd Iliad Venetus A eneixa (schol. . 3. series. X) combines the simple stroke x for xa. Petr. X) Kara. it is impossible to speak ra or a. 972) rd Vat. Auct. am inclined to put this ms. XI-XII) ^ rpajujuofa. 8 (s. ^ ^ Not X. mss. Clement Mutin. 1104)^ neipd^exai. in which the dotted stroke occurs always ra. (s. but npoc to. Naz. 34. . are Grotta Ferrata B. 1298 (s. Soc. 5. Maximus S. 22 (a. o\h}i(x eujuaSeia from : Lucian. infra I p. Auct. Cf. . Mutin. A I. juaraioTHTa Epistles. nopa^ Kara. 45 Arch.4 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. Aristides Vat. also (f)i\ayddov is -rroWaKi^ from the ms. Christ. p. AaoO from B. E. cf. xd npariuaxa (a. Nonnus Add. ovxa X) evQTdoeic. T. are but at least the tachygraphic dots. 19 (s. S. unooTdaeooc. hand . though the amount of abbreviation here is comparatively small : paaiAeiav is and Tct (2) mss. T. voHjuaxa bo£a^ovxa. whether as very rare in these mss. Kara. in the Gospels Bodl. Turin from C4alen H. napaGaAacjoiov. XII-XIII). 1982 ^ (s. Philo. ' most thoroughly carried out perhaps Nilo cf. rather late instance of the simple stroke B. this list. a. grec 2934. 965. . raOra.examples come from the ^ * See the description of this ms. as Bast. - See the facsimile. Maximus Angelic. 4. X) oujunepacjuaja. "* . X-XI).

. ms. 172 n. 18231. The tacJiygraphic form has not met me scholia. 5 of S. seems to think rare.2 Al —All. 209 r. the dots are thus freely combined with consonants are Nonnus Paris suppl. B. sign trom its preceding consonant. and similarly the Hermogenes Par. curious form occurs repeatedly in Barocc. ineunt. XI r. cpeapxHv from B. f. : it is not unlike the sign which Vitelli a prolongation it 12 n.) ^. 1982 evrauBa. eSaropd^ovrai f. dnoedvei onepjua from ^: Angel. diphthong ai hardly needs fresh it is constant in the Arethas- among other tenth-century mss. which Prof. &c. Add. nopeuovrai f. in At the same time the sign must have been * existence by the beginning of the Lehmann well illustrates the use from Nonnus. D'Orv. grec 1983. eniOappHoeic . Nilo).: cf. to be one of indifference.. cf. where is turned indifferently up or down. 986) rd beo]ua Vat.) . 347 8) r. but render it by the sign for ai with sigma attached : so dpeaic. raic from the D'Orv. Euclid. 986. Lehmann's of the remarks double upon the comparatively are just . i (a.).. 346 the Karexovrai (p. The ordinary sign exemplification - for the . pdpei oappdrco. djuapTHjudroav. v. grec 990 . F. explains as . 126 (Clement). (already fully rendered judpTuc. Euclid. All. and.. The matter seems and 3032 (q. napd. is a as the ring in the compendium characteristic of the school Other mss. acpidpa Lucian also vv^^ai . naAaioavrec paGoc . TrAevpai Mutin. Vat. v. a. A s. 3) y«i)fi€TpaLs. /caKoScrt/idfos Vallicell. ^ Since this was written I have seen it in Par. 1298 napabeirjuciTiKoac . dAAd. ^ The separation of the Vitelli (p. grec 469 A (a. hand of Paul). use no single sign for the syllable. 3. binnoTe from the same ms. late origin apostrophe for aic the Arethas-mss. in Clarke 1 and Mutin. 10.. 26 (Canons. outside the Grotta Ferrata school (q. 126. may sign used by itacism cf. 11 the use of the dots for the syllable ap by the compendium) in such words from the London Nonnus. Al. is common in the Arethas-mss. of tachygraphic be merely symbol the but I think for e as likely that it . (f)aLViTai Plato.

). The examples that pendiums are meant to it I give of this illustrate the commonest of comfreedom with which letter. f. navTi oTav from dv.. occurs in Clarke 12. The sign is uniformly absent from the Grotta Ferrata mss. which I take to be of the earlier half of 1807 offer. Harl. viz. 12. may as probably belong to the century before line. uppeoiv. unoAajupdvoo Vat. grec 469 A of a. ineunt. aioxpaic. uses both modes.. 251 (Epictetus. gr. f. XI r. use the tachygraphic symbol. supr. vi/uxaic i. gr.. 47 (s. 12. xaic. Kdv ^ Philo. rale napeevoic. Eoe 16 (Epistles. which. of whicli Vitelli gives some examples.. I subjoin one or two instances of its use in this sense and also as representing ar. grec tenth century. 1S71. X exeunt. Selden opjualc. where they give the syllable abbreviated. but the ms. a collation of part of which by Mr. ^ Another example is eV ratf avrutv enapxlais from Vallicell. TeAeiOTdraic rmc AN. in which the sign occurs appears to be the interesting Nonnus. it is in bold minuscule above the . both modes of rendering r. cf v^xwic Vat. schohu to the Paris Phi to. f. ev will forgive me if I Euclid Laur. 96 V. xmc . 1298 (X-XI) again. jaic djuapiiaic. 96 r. ouaav from Selden supr. as Bast : the syllable c£ eucoxiaic f 7 1 the tenth century . ndv ouk from BodL Misc. XII) ^ Vitelli has noticed (p. 1807. 20 1 v. 362 sqq. xmc f. The double apostrophe occurs in the nis. 986.6 A BBRE I 'I A TIONS IN GR EEK MA Ni 'SCRIP TS. 171) that this sign sometimes stands for the syllable a^. 1982. 99 r. for the was aware. F.g. p. 2. s. Lucian. eb bp loai ^. Euclid. . auralc : the earliest dated ms. toic oiKejaic. Paris suppl. xi Coxe. Bywater will be found in Hermes. 12 \ f. 129 V. ' The same ms.). auraTc. Aajupavojuevai. can be written on the line or attached to a preceding ebwKav ordv from the Paris Plato. s. 28. The single apostrophe. edv. 135 v. F. saec. dvaAajupdvei. cf. 10 146 v. Clarke 2. e. kqi beivmc ]). 39 (s. f 83 v. papeiaic Laud. d. X). D'Orv. of Gregory Nazianzen's poems. ouK dvTeaxev from Vat. 3 and Prof Vitelli add an instance from the beautiful XI) buo bn al op pb buoi lalc (s. a late hand has expanded the symbol in question into -at?.

f. Lehmann. from the Bologna Euclid.). dnoioMH . Archi(S) ginnasio A. dno i). from Bodl. 1982. the similar case quoted ap. some further The form however instances may not be out of place. Since Prof. anebei^ev. it s. The Arethas-mss. 217 r. 235 r. s. ano tou ano thc from i. cf. including the London this Nonnus. from Nonnus. thc. dnoAoriac 18. IT. X-XI). dno. vary between mode of abbreviation and a very decided type of the compendium. ^ ^ So also dno^\en(ov Par. Forms a step further removed are Misc. For the same sign in the sense of uno. that may be taken as the purest form of it existing in minuscule : cf. same form is offered by Vat. last example the scribe was unaware of the proper force of the symbol. Laur. 3032.. dvdrKHc Clarke A correct account is given in Lehmann of this pre- position. 28. v. dnoedvei. enixdpjuou : . Euclid. AP. though his examples as is may be greatly multiplied. : I give from the dnopHaeiai. 3. dnoAorHcaMevoc. 1316 (s. XIII}. ano (TT€pT)(Tis [sic] %o.. 251 dnobei£ai2. dno Forms more or less departing from tJw. gr. (B. also eni. in the i (Psalter. 19 (s. 7 dvarKalov D'Orv. dno eaAdsoHc from Angel.. this type are of very Paris Demosthenes common 2934 j occurrence f.AN— AP. dno THC. 84. a. 229 r. AfTO. Plato. The Arethas-mss. 1298 Plato. dno Vat. npos and vno. Yitelli has thought the article in Lehmann is quite cannot be called rare inadequate. ^ So with Cf. worth while to collect evidence for the use of this compendium. 235 (Caten. dno from Barocc. B. from Isidore 3. . in Psalm. The Grotta Ferrata mss. . and abbreviate by the same is the rule with the Paris superimposing n . use the symbol very seldom of those in England I have found it only in the Clarke of the Paris Clement and Urbinas Plato. XI) p. =^ . dnorovoi from Laud. Par. dno. (Aristid. anobueaBai from Clarke 12. Precisely the dnoA6ivj/€oeai. their general wont with pre- positions\ reject the symbol altogether. 370 V. v. s. XI).

1982. avajuapTHTOuc from Epictetus Bodl. grec 384. p. s. As a part of napd. scholia of the other Arethas-mss. Misc. 6.. 2 . E. 22 (s. pdppapov. as a rule in the text. 13. 3. e. i. without accent scribe . XI). undpxeiv from Neap. it occurs in the mathematical to the 5). djuaproAouc Kapnov from Laud. math. 278 (Frag. napeAAHoiv from Nonnus. is frequent in mss. 251. In the D'Orville Euclid naturally frequent. 3 from the Clarke Urbinas 35 f. math. dcpeaprov from G. Laiu'. XI-XII). a. 6). Other examples are ovap. rare on the whole. napGevou from Bodl. 1 ^ may notice here that the Alpha with crossed downstroke which Belger. XV) it has the sign occasionally. no. F. X). with the ring above or below. E. 9. Kaeapeevrec. 'Afiapriau Yallicell.g. 12 (s. The form cf. with and without the superfluous dots. no. B. Archigin. 7 20 r. 28.. Hermes XVI. gr. &c. 7. in the middle or at the end of words cf. the stroke horizontal or slanting. 10. Bologn. under A). XI-XII). aurapKooc. A. is frequent and r. of the Grotta Ferrata schooP. XII) : the simple form occurs also in Vat. 40 (Caten. XII) oapKoc. (v. 5. 191 (varia 12. Auct. nos. 6 judpKoc from Vallicell. II. in Bodl. 10. 251 (s. no. in the sense of dpa.g. Stephanus very largely with accent and breathit is omits both accents and breathings ing in the scholia Plato. grec 1807. 114. Hnap from Clarke 12. 8). 126 (s. 4 from : cf. kt dprouc from Mutin. Anthology in Euclid (Paris suppl. B. Bobiense f. Vitelli's remark that is this compendium. Misc. iii (s. XII). 11). 11. s. A a.. both round and angular forms in Euclid i. though possibly class. : among mathematical scholia cf. found also in the mss. 8 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. II (s. 9dpjLiaK0v 9eapTHv from Isidore. whose nos. X).. Vat. The Grotta Ferrata school 35 I would not be so positive \ on the other hand have the sign ^yassim. 30) imagines to be «/j" is . beAeap. APA.. that with the dots in Mutin. 639. (nos. HjuapTHKooi 9peap from Angel. 1. i (s. 3 (no. no. I have not seen ^ in mss. of a particular I illustrated by the examples that it is have here to give. a^apTiav. 18 (nos. dvdSapxoc. F. ff. both shapes are found in the Paris Plato.

70 4. AY. X) i : of minuscule forms. text). auToIc auTHv eaurwv ooGauTooc from Gr. B. T051). 9 I X-XI). Nos. 19. (s. XII) TQUTHc. (a. Roe 16. Vat. i. grec 990 will be found in the account of that ms. 11. 1 1057). Auct. XpHoasOai Clarke 12. Christ. 1982. 1982 (a. and this uncial form in the Arethas-scholia : usual no. i and 2 are from the D'Orville Euclid and is Harleian Lucian respectively.APA— PAP. . Ferr. Ferr. A similar combination of a and u occurs in aujoG from Aed. 9 I give a few examples of this compendium used otherwise than at the end of words: dnapouoidsTooc Clarke Plato. Auct. 15 (Iliad D X). (s. 11 from 3. and very occurs most abundantly in the The sign often. E. this ms. XI). E. 8 is Auct. 3 is Euclid. ToiaiTH eauTov. from Bodl. xapaGoovrec vouvjec Nonnus Add. it consists of the a and atroc u run together with the case-ending added cf. ^ hope to call attention elsewhere to the mis-deciphering of Examples from Par. raarpijuaprouc Of this diphthong I can only produce instances from (bis) a few mss. 5. s. 13 from the Paris Demosthenes 2 (from the Vat. 5 Barocc. 7^ (a. AI. more or less tachy graphical in character: viz. s. 6 from Mutin. 4 from Genuens. Christ. 14. P. 986). 1 104). Grott. a. 12 from Angel. bibdoKei HvarKaojuevoc X). from the text of the D'Orv. a. 10 from Vat. 1982 evrauea iii. 18231. : TAP. ecpaoKev Vat. 1042). doee- doOeveiac 4. xauTa and passim. B. from Laur. in reality eorai. Forms with the fro^i^ uncial Gamma are (a. 104). 32. 1298 (Aristides.37- . 70 (a. but ap- parently only in the strictly tachy graphical portion \ AYTOZ. 9 (s. Grott. 18 from Bodl. 7 from Aed. I give a selection of more noticeable forms assumed by rdp. 40 XI). Ferr. B. 17 from Bodl.. and the ligature is probably common. 19 (s. 15 from 16 from Vallicell. B. T. Bodl. a. and Angel. London Nonnus. 3. Eoe 16 (s. 196 230 (a. 1 1. in A ligature for this pronoun worth recording occurs some of the Grotta Ferrata mss. T. B.

usage may ^ possibly be so explained is This form perhaps analogous to those examples of ep given from Laur. The same sign in Laud. s. 587 (Cyril. Alex. i. and can only cite examples from Laud. 59. most common perhaps in mathematical mss. KecpaXr] above. 3. 5. Roe i (s. XII) : TeAefv TeAer'v Ke(paAH The and ^. for rpa. British 1982. XII) It may be doubted whether rjfifi^iTo College. 32. Cf. The ordinary usage for the particle be probably needs I may however add one or two examples to that given by Prof. Laur. 15 (man. of fi' New xii). D'Orville Euclid (text). 15. 6.jeAHv. Oxford (No. yet exists to prove Lehraann's conclusions 92). s. Cf. 2 for riverai acquires The simple contraction from the thenes I. (s. It may be doubted 986). E. 7 4 from the Paris Demoss.7 r] . 3 (Clem. scholia to the Paris Anthology. from Vat. g. GHjuaivo:)VTec ec). i. this particular is itacistic (cf. represents v. Vitelli (p. also evepyfjo-aaav Tip. ^j oe. s. as to the origin of the two modes of representing the syllables riNETAI. 7. interest from the varying forms It is some under which it appears. and in other combinations of the syllable ]ue (e. Tr)v XII-XIIIj. 1149).lo ABBREVIATIONS IX GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. which seems one of the peculiarities of the Grotta Ferrata school. bena from Vat. etbeac from the no illustration . 20 from Laud. 5 ^ by Vitelli. XI). Museum Xonnus. 22 (a. from Laur. cn&jTrjy trjfirjrpas. The waved line which in minuscule represents both at and e is universal in the verbal endings -juevoc and -Meea. and relation ap and ep. is this mode of abbreviation found . 2. p. rare. 11.a>pi]6ri(TovTai s. 2 from Roe 16. B. . spelling of the ms. may be illustrated by rpd9eiv from Isidore (a. XIThe abbreviation whether sufficiently precise evidence as (p. 19. eela rpa9H from Angel. 21 from XII) \ 22 from Turin B. 89 (s. from a ms. 3 from mathematical X). 5. Lehmann's article on e is thorough and practically sufficient. 169) of the syllable be at the beginning or in the middle of a word viz. AE. juevei from the London Nonnus). bexerai bebwKooc Eather unusual ligatures are nos. i. X). 72. But the abbreviation of e attached to other consonants I is comparatively (s.

Mus. eiv.. 1298. that I know of where the suppl. use the proper they use both modes of abbreviation. eiv following four have a common sign for hv and iv. and a foHiori inferences from. . A. Yen. F. the usage of Nonnus. E. the point. Ferr. A correct account of the ms. Laur. I have not may here say once and for all. eiv. HN. B. Grott..lv paid attention to drawn up" or drawn down. for eiv Bodl. 5 (Caten. 33 sq. 986) '^i cf. no is (s. (s. for iv are used recur constantly. in Evang. I Brit.riNETAI— EIN. > Prof. B. mss. i. that Lehmann's statements of. 18231. and consists in the ordinary tachygraphical sign for jj. iv are question somewhat \ represented by the single sign are the five Arethas-mss. (986). another ms. 35. X). Lucian. is correctly stated cir- by Lehmann. 28. B. Clarke 12. s. duplicated the earliest dated ms. The following two differentiate i. . 41 (Caten. 888). mss. while is cqjj^arently always written in full : Iliad a. ly. is know an exact parallel. eiv. On the other side. XI). in Matth. in lob. n. but have a common sign for hv and iv: Aiigel. Aristotle Auct. the s. XII). that Lehmann's observations upon the mode at different periods— whether the strokes were are 2 where they abbreviate eiv. Euclid (a. iii. tachygraphical symbol that » The abbreviations of this ms. lo. 4. X-XI).. had originally a common sign. and that at a doubling of later period they were differentiated by the for iv. 14 (Liban. p. and iv original sign being appropriated to hv. : Urbin. X ineunt. ib. Angelica B. 4. the adding of diacritic points. Angel. C. 2. Add. grec 469 A sign is used for eiv is the Nonnus Paris (a. iv (992) \ A late example 4 (i of the use of the original sign 106). Bodl. whether in regard of given on p. 55. dnoQTd^eiv niveiv. but those The two Grotta Ferrata . At what time and under what cumstances these steps took place cannot at present be determined the statistics here presented may advance the Manuscripts in which hv. EIN.'c. T. 19. cpepeiv. IN. s. i Canon. 3) of forming the compendium for . Ferr. undated but before the twelfth centur3^ A very remarkable usage occurs on a page of Vallicell. entirely erroneous. 3. epp. Clement (914). B.need modification. X). II The proposition that the three syllables hv. Plato (896). Vat. for €iv. trated in the words wept afiaprrj^iaTcop /cat KkripiKcov. tachygraphy or the ordinary system of abbreviation. Auct. a. the the sign. are strictly limited in number. I did not find instances of ir. ay. s. It is illus- tenth-century minuscule bound up with the ms. ValliceU. Bodl. Vitelli thinks (p. a. Grott..). 7 (Oaten. I do not lo.

105 1). 3 (s. Genuens. etc bia9epeiv. 9 Manuscripts in which stands for hc and in all three syllables are the Clarke Plato. 218 OrjaavplCds creai'Tw. 1066). Kooiue'iv esTiv. Bodl. A. comparatively rare it . cf. appear to write the syllable eic in fulP. observation (p. and Clement Mutin. earlier and (2) that the differentiation of than that of iv from hv. 2 (1075). 230^ particular conclusion can be drawn than that the old system lasted long. certainly not late in the tenth century. navHrupeic from Bodl. 9. ii. and I think Lehmann's remark (p. 57) well-founded. vneic. g. v. Hjueic Euclid Laur. 2) that the double sigma in the sense of half of the tenth century is Clarke Plato. where in of Arethas the etc was in use in the first more than confirmed by the the scholia that come from the hand word . as a rule the proper tachygraphic sign for but the single full. sigma occurs occasionally. Harl. Par. abbreviation etc is.. that the . E. and doubtless in many other tenth-century mss. Auct.. - now an example in Vat. From these instances it is plain that no more . 126: the D'Orv. Later dated examples are 105 1). grec 469 A in (986). 5. 67). began IS. The Grotta Ferrata school use eic. 230 (a. eiv HI. relatively to hv and eiv. from Ell. (a. the . 70 (1104). by Lehmann. ^ My I notes do not give an instance from this ms. I a A BBRE VIA TIONS IN GREEK MA N US CRIP IS. Mutin. iv. Lucian. evoxdoeic occurs with the final syllable thus represented stands for in the rest of the ms. Lastly. of find eiv abbreviated. T.. oneiibeiv. Christ. S. Clarke it ic 12. Iliad Ven. 2 (a. Auct. drevi^eiv Aed. 1982. pHGeioiv. ic e. rare (a similar remark is made . 28. is usually written in Early examples of the ordinary double sigma are 9ooKeic Demosth. Vitelli's 169. Genuens. in early mss. the last four mss. eAGcooiv. HV p. n. X-XI) two dated instances are buvdjueic from Mutin. would seem) in Nonnus Par. . however the single sigma seems always to be found. neither nor ic is abbreviated (as suppl. has the later usage throughout for the syllables eiv. 7 (1057). eKepe\j/€ic from Nonnus the syllable these mss. Vat. 1982 of y for m : f. and the new system began early but Ijerhajjs it may be said (i) that the abbreviation of iv was. Euclid.

words cf. (schol. The ordinary sign for hc hardly needs conThe itacistic " occurs in Laud. Vat. (s. gr. as observed above. eni thc. diacritic To turn 2 (a. . avdrvooGic. i already adduced cf. x. XIV) TO. ms. already appears 9. 2 fs. a far earlier Bodl. but it 5. gr. 2 (Etym. ajcoi'a?] Vat. thv. '^. ii. e. 1 982. n. Magn. in Iliad. An usage of the double " for ic. Genuens. Bodl.3 syllable is often cf. eic i. article. p. fls TTjv Grott. Les scoJiefi . GuveAeusic. touc. Auct.. 11 n. i. XI). eic (s. Z. Prof. firmation. also 6tr Tovi aioiva^. I ). Martin. E. have found the form tov. i. rov. . 12 eic XII) D'Orv. mostly written in and where con- itacistic tracted represented by the strict tachy graphic symbol. the compendium. certainly of the tenth century. XII) eic Tov (bis). Clarke 12 this I f. to dots occurs in Mutin. TIC. 189 r. 1456 XI).. is i by Aofiojuoi. that the sigma was strictly speaking unrepresented in the later sign with the (a. ejy tovto Vat. (no. full. Auct. A ^ Cf. eioiv the ligature occurs not in combination with the .g. Vitelli (12 . in the Grotta Ferrata mss. and with the sigma expressed and ground for explaining the form ligature for so the scribe ei think gives some the itself as ordinary plus a cross-stroke to denote abbreviation it who used for elaiv would have been conscious ic. is though from The sign occurs freely in the middle of the same ms. xvii. 1066) Kpi'aic. du niannscrit d'Arisfoplntiie a Tlarenue. is juopcpoooic. The form - is in fact fairly common. 251 s. T. Misc. Laud. of Odyssey-scholia [Aristarchs Horn. ElZ. p. juisoc Bodl. KpanoTe from Clarke 1 2. The syllable. Texi698) \ In one instance. eic (s. KeKAeiGjuevai I. KiveisBai 2) enough abbreviated in the middle of a word from Clarke 12. min. occurs in Laud. XI). gr. in 1075) ms. Mutin. 230 ii. dno othc. of the sort noticed Vitelli. and it is evidently the sign found by Ludwich in the Hamburg hritih. Ferr. Cf. eic. s. xxv. KaewnAiaxo Iliad Ven. (a. and a marginal gloss where both usages occur together. 172 n. . 105 1) 2. fiy t\ovs a. that this an exception shown by panriajuaToc . eic in Clarke rd. KaAunrouoHc 9paTTouGHc The (scholia). i. challenges the explanation of a ligature I eic for of which he gives examples 12.

the shape the sign assumes in the Arethas-mss. Vat. occurs in Clarke 12. cf. '^ And (Ix^v. 6. (992). (Paris portion) offer 8 and 9.. is is prolonged n. p. p. nevOepac Auct. a. ev Lucian. oubev Mutin. 66) by which they are due to the desire for symmetry. a. 2 from Plato Paris 1807. BodL Misc. 14. B. or that of Graux (Rev. GooGHeijuev [sic]. 3 a similar form from Vat. ev0ev cf. 1982 ^ In explaining the genesis of the original form it is difficult to accept either Lehmann's view that the two dots come by false analogy from the sign for fVr/. E. Paris grec 251 no. oo':)^ojnev cf. 1982 eAerev 9 strictly tachygraphical sign by no means (s. here and in without accent or breathing. etc. second hand. For other tenth-century 5. 3 no. 7 from Lucian shewn by 4 from Euclid. 1982 no. downstroke (VitelH. Angelica T. pouAnGevTa Clarke 12. in The The is which the ev. and the odd ligature 235 (s. compendium in the by evHOKouai from Clarke To the various forms of the sign for elvai given by Lehmann and Vitelli I add the following: nos. 15. . (Aristides. AerojLiev Kaxexojuevoi Vat. 1823 1. from the Harl. Notices Bibliographiques. iv. Auct. iv. that are not otherwise particularly tachygraphic e. from Barocc. from Plato f 395 v. 2). The horizontal type 28. occurs Vat. no. Angel. also ev XII). is illus- use of the trated EINAI. Demosthenes S and the Anthol. Crit. Ferr. evroAdc Nonnus Add. is XI-XII) no. 13. 230 (a. 1 1 from the London Nonnus. 17. (a. Pal. eicibeajuev by juevroi. -. 3. i. 105 tion 1). ixkv (bis) ev (bis) unojuvnoojuev Nonnus juev Add. i. 12 jpassim. g. no. 11. and found in : mss. which are apparently a near approach to the original form'. 8 XI) (s. E. . middle of a word 12. 5 from Plato. eoiKev. i i X-XI) Ferr. (s. Laur. further ojuiAoujuev 5. 992) no. 18231. . no. Vat. i8passm. juev. Grott. 1298 X-XI) is . 10 . 16. B. Grott. mss. 6eev Poe 16. It will be observed that these forms are either variain right angles or slight departures therefrom.1 4 A BBRE VIA TIONS LY GREEK MA NUSCRTP TS. 11. rare. occurs the stroke for abbreviation. B. Hermog. 1878. 1298 1983 EN. The form which illustrated ev this syllable takes in the Arethas-mss.

EINAI— EI.
EP.

15

Of both the methods of representing ep there are abundant examples in older minuscule. The more common
is

perhaps

that consisting of a stroke, inclined to the
line,

left,

but

above or below the

with a ring attached

;

this is to be
i,

found
28,

in the scholia of the

D'Orv. Euchd (onep

Hnep),

the Clarke Plato (onep
3 (onep
4),

3),

Laur. 2), Clarke 12 (uneppoAHv), Mutin. 126 (unep 3,
bis),
4),

Plato Paris 1807 (unep

onep

Vat. 1298 (unep

Mutin. 193, Lucian
(iljanep,
e.

(ei'nep),

Mutin.

12,

s.

XII.

in the Grotta Ferrata school,

g.

XI-XII. and throughout suveproi Nonnus, onepiua
s.

dnep),

G. F. B.
a. iv.,

a. i.,

bepjuarivouc
ib.

Angel. B.

3.

11, unep 9uaiv

G. F. B.

onep obsnep

B.

a. iii.

The second mode, the simple

cross-stroke, of

whatever

origin,

may

be seen in the text

of the D'Orv. Euclid

(cinep),

often in the scholia to the

Clarke Plato (coanep onep unep), in those to Demosthenes

Z

(coonep 2, onep
'

Vallae

parallel

and it occurred in the now lost codex of Archimedes \ I have suggested under rap a to the form quoted by Vitelli, p. 15.
2),
'

EZ.

The normal use of the sign
is

for ec

(e. g.
;

as in viKoovrec
it is

from the Harl. Lucian)

well established

less

com-

mon
line.

to find it either in the middle of a

word or upon the
;

Of the former
from Auct. E.

case rfeveoeai dpeoKeiv from Clarke 12,
S-

egeoTiv

n
3.

are examnles

for the latter

one

may compare
B,

jLtdSaviec

Plato Par. 1807, Aeovrec Mutin.
11,

126, beonoToi Angel. B.
evi'^ovrec ib.

ouveipaviec
a. iii.,

G. F. B.

a.

i.,

a. iv., eoTiv ib.

B.

cpedoavrec dnoAei'veaeai

by which the double apostrophe, aic, is employed for ec, of which Vitelli gives some instances, p. 12, is more widely spread than is commonly supposed, and occurs in mss. of a good age and often otherwise carefully written such are the
Vat. 1982.

The

itacism

ordinary representative of

;

well-known Laur.

D

of the Iliad (32, 15)
s.

juevovrec.

Angel.

C. 4. 14 (Liban. epp.

X-XI)

boKoOvrec dvaAobaaviec, Bodl.

' As we are told by the writer of the Angelica C. 2. 6, who gives a table of the abbreviations used in his archetype I take thence nep and the explanation. Cf. Heiberg, Philologus 42, p. 421 sq., and my own notes on the Biblio:

teca Angelica, forthcoming in the Classical Ben'eir.

]6

ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS.
4.

Auct. T.
I

19

(s.

X

exeunt.) bebooKorec j^assim, Laud. gr.

gr. 37 (s. XII) cHjuaivoovxec KaAouvrec, XI) anavxec, Barocc. 235 (s. XI) ibovrec, 89 Bibl. Corsini 41 G. i6(Evang. s. XII) pAenovxec baijuovoovrec, Vallicell. E. 29 (s. X) eKxeTHKOTec.
baijuovec navrec,

Laud.

Laud.

gr.

(s.

EITAI,

One

of the most interesting of

and that may almost be said to since the appearance of Lehmann's handbook,
that represents earai

Greek compendia, have been discovered
is

the sign

— almost

technical in geometrical mss.,

but occurring with a certain frequency in mss. of other subjects. The sign was originally found by Bast in the ms. S. Germ. 249 (Comm. Pal., p. 810), and this is the
only instance that
(p.

Lehmann
it in

has before him

;

Prof

Vitelli

168) has found

the Laur. Aeschylus, the Aristotle
3.

Paris grec 1853, and the Euclid Laur. 28.

The

oldest

instance that I

am

able to give of

it

is

the

Fragmentum

mathematicum Bobiense, £ 1 1 4 v. 30 in Belger's copy, Hermes XVI, where Belger misreads it dpa \ Next it is used in most of the Arethas-mss. the Bologna Euclid Archiginnasio A. i. 18 ^ has it, and doubtless most other
;

mathematical mss. before the twelfth century lastly, it is one of the many compendia used by the scribe of the
;

Bodleian Epictetus Misc.
the following -chain
:

251

{s.

XII).

Hence we get

i

Frag. Bobiense, 2-4 D'Orv. Euclid
8 Urbin. Aristotle,
28, 3 rather different to the

(text), 5 ib. (scholia), 6 Plato, 7 Lucian,

9-12 forms from Laur.
given by
Vitelli,

one

13-16 from the Bologna Euclid, 17-20 from the Bodl. Epictetus. I enclose in brackets Prof Vitelli's no. 53 for greater completeness. On comparing these forms with those given by Bast and Vitelli, it
appears
(i)

that

the

dots' signifying

t

are

absent and
;

present indifferently in mss. of the same age (2) that, with this qualification, the original form is best represented by the type given by tlie Bobbio fragment and the text
^

to

I have to defer the proof of this statement, but its trath anyone who tries to read the passage grammatically.

will be evident

^

Heiberg's

b, saec. xi.

EITAI-K.

17

of the D'Orville Euclid, and that the letters contained in

the sign are therefore

(t)

+

a

+

the tachygraphic
1.

i

either

attached to or crossing the downstroke of a
late

(3)
i
;

The
the

forms 17-20 are direct descendants of no.
Vitelli's no.

transition from one type to the other will be plain if

we

53 written with the His no. 39 I should be inclined to explain as due to carelessness on the part of the scribe, but in any case it does not disturb the general result ^.

imagine such a form as
curve open instead

of closed.

I.

The

curious expedient of representing, in late

manuis

scripts, iota

by two dots on a

level

with each other,
it

well known, but not so universal that

may
;

not be

worth while illustrating from four dated mss. viz. kojujuQTiKov from Coll. Nov, 258 (a. 1298 written by Demetrius Triclinius) where the usage is frequent, juvhgGhti from a note in Roe i that bears the date 141 7, retoprioi from Matinensis 118 (a. I4?8)2, and KovreAeovTi from Vat. Ottobon. 58
(a.

1538).

IN A.

A

simple contraction for

i'va,

consisting of an iota with
occurs in three mss. of
(s.

a mark of abbreviation beneath

it,

my
(s.

observation:

Angel. T.

i.

8

XI), Vallicell. E. 40
(s.

XI), and the Bodleian Epictetus, Misc. 251
is

XII).

The form
K.

practically the

same

in all three

•*.

The

article in

Lehmann shows

well

how
k,

the

waved

line,

descendant of the original tachygraphic
^

represents final

Lehmann's analysis (p. 104) comes near to this, thougli in the single form it was impossible to perceive the direct presence of the a. (Since the article on eo-rai was written, I have found instances of both the plain and the dotted form in the Aristotle Ven. 201 of a.d. 955. In either case the form was open, and the example is important as an indication of the age at which this tendency manifested itself.) ^ To Lehmann's account of f ort little exception is to be taken I doubt howgiven by Bast
;

ever his statement
V

(p. 102)

that the horizontal line over

./.

in Vat. 1809 denotes

— surely
^

it

is
i

the general sign of omission.

Curious representations of the

word are

from G. F. B. n. iii, no. 2 from Laud. gr. i (s. XII). On the date I must refer to my notes on the Estense in the Classical
no.
It is to

Revieiv for February, 1889.
*

be seen also in

Vallicell. E. 63
is

(s.

XII), a ms. in a

hand not unlike

that of the Bodleian Epictetus, and

probably common.

C

^. 9. diKaiocrvvrj. Nonnus however 5. where . Kaxd 3 (6) the abbreviation suffice 5. e. gr. KaraiMv Angel. 8 (s. E. ^ Prof. enieujuHxiKoo Clarke 39. 47 (s. viKaia. Notices Bibliographiques. that I have seen taxpiKH. ouK enibeiKTiKoac. His examples however admit aTroo-roXi/cj)?. 172) considers the waved line in the sense of the syllable Kai a 5- rarity. E. ' 165. e. Crit. I have found it in at least four mss. 990. 12 Vat. i'88o. ]ua- Auct.g. Vitelli 15) has given Kard. X). much of the ms. firia-KOTTcov from Vallicell. E. (a) much illustration of the may distinguish (i) modes of representing partial abbreviation. Auct. '' I. 3. k. 9. 9 1. 298 '. T. A few examples will to illustrate this cf Kard 9 KarabiooKeiv Bodl. ei'pHKev. Paris 2 2. dpiGjuHTiKH. Instances of terminations other than -koc are jLtiKpov ^c(^c(KToc Clarke Plato. KATA. gr.. also KaraXafjL^dvco Par. is appears from KareXa^tv from the same ms. eeoopHTiKoC lajupiKoc Clarke noAiriKov Auct. usually exhibits the case-termination. 15 (Iliad D). etSbojUHKovrdKic Demosth. Kara 2 KOxeKdei i^ic) ] and 4 Laur. the proper tachygraphical KaxabuojuevH sign. Eev. XI). The sign universal in the more tachygraphical parts of in as Nonnus. p.. Auct. erivcoGKov. 587 XII). syllables beginning with cf. a superimposed Lambda that afterwards assumes . : The usage 12. F. etc. so also juepiKHv Auct. * Cf. Rather individual forms of the k with case-termination are (yKXrjfxaTiKia. (p. KOKd Laud. e. chiefly but not exclusively is ter- minations in -Koc. Nonnus Add. very constant in mss. Kard 11. I. 9. confined to the other letters. (2) Complete abbreviation. is 28. Laud (s.1 8 A BBRE VIA TIONS IN GREEK MA NUSCRIP TS. 39 Kaipov. i. etc. One k is the tachygraphically rendered so Kaid i KOTaxptoaac often in the London Nonnus.g. or Clarke 12. E. . but does not occur written in minuscule A. where the pair of dots appear to do double duty. Kaxd 5 Vat. 18231. Vitelli (p. KaTa9e6ipei Vat. 32. How uncertain the use of the symbol various shapes. Roe 16 XIII). Neither Lehmann nor Prof. E. ^ 11 Kai(Tapeia. dneAaariKHv. Kaicrapos. 5. is Clarke 12. Kpov Laur. 1316 (s. 1982. 1298. Kara 6 Vat. Plato 5. Kara 7 and 8 Vat. as is Lehmann's account of the 5 traction for syllables and usage of the conbeginning with Lambda is deorio^in servedly commended by Graux. iKKAHoiaoTiKHc. Kara 10 Demosthenes 1.

. One of the most curious signs that is still remain for the palaeographer to analyse that occurring in some s. oujupoAov Clarke 12. naCAac. whether the eOHpdaajuev 176 v. Lastly. give as types 6 yos. The Grotta Ferrata : school use the contraction not unfrequently KcovGTavTivonoAeooc so kukaoc. the Arethas-ms. E. Lucian. of. Nonnus. 450 (s. may i be cited: (the Laud. eeoAdrou. Clarke X^. Otherwise (Frag. juevouv ib. though rarely. 9 (but 6 dnoaioAoc ib. gr. It may be well therefore to say here briefly. and even where the percentage earlier enquirers Vitelli does by not notice ^ It may be worth is noticing that the simple contraction for Xo'yoy and I its compounds Xoyov "^ freely used in the Arethas-mss. . Bibl. 38 (for the syllable /xe). A in all of these instances how the right stroke of the A is prolonged. Z. form toG biapoAou). 73 v. 11. pasiAeiov Nonnus Paris suppl. Lucian f. I add a somewhat more interesting example.) xeAoc. Xuyovs. Xoyos 2. B. manuscripts for quotations of it 6]uo0. oKoyov. 39. 5. Ferr. by no means tachygraphic. it. has collected the and Gitlbauer (Vat. OMOY. n. Bobiense. Both Graux. 161. p. contraction for fxera^v which I cannot satisfactorily explain occurs in the Clarke Plato f. E. of the poems of Gregory Nazianzen. et For other tachygraphical usages 1 of this ms. that the number of a-rixoi is in this case precisely the number of verses in the poems. Laud. The form occurs in mss. p. Xoyov. in . F.. okoAhvov. The Bodleian ms. ^jy v. evXoyos. isoGKeAec Plato. from Grott. p.g. Freer examples from the same 5. 2 have demanded information upon the stichometry of this ms. gr. Revue Critique 1878. i. i. 57 v. 1809). C 2 . frequently the tachygraphical symbol for particle or a syllable in a saej). B. gxoAhv. a few eleventh-century mss. n. KecpdAaiov djuneAov Demosth. KaivoXoyos. ^ * A . noAic Lucian other tenth-century examples are nauAoc. grec it 469 A. from Phot. eccentric MEN. under Kard and re *. has not un]uev. a. a. 12 saec. Harl. KATA— OMOY. grec 990.^ V.e.. e. 2. from the Harl. napapoAAv will be noticed Iliad Yen. Ven.. I. the instance in the table. Euclid) fiera^v is represented by §1. enioroAHc. so often already cited. X)\ Selden supr.. largely of multiplication. 124. and Vitelli. Lehmann v. century are enioroAHv Auct. D'Orv. paoiAeuc Auct. See also infra under Par. noAic. word so ]uev f. dXoycos Further of. 19 The use occurs. dnooroAoi G.

XI-XII). 73). the accent and breathing are run parallel strokes crossed . is Another instance nXijdns from Par. it 1 809 the single stroke i is vertical. and may either have the rough breathing and circumflex or be without either and in late mss. ouf. s. 114 v. To the examples given by (s. no. npoc 198 v. Prof. : it common cf drarovxec from Euclid..' . that offers .ojuoO ON. also (piKinTTov. together into a single waved line (so analyses it).20 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS.. . 39 XI ineunt. s. 2 Mutin. i ^. Coxe but it may be as much as a centuiy later. ap. o/iotcoj. Bobiense. 71 (Synaxarium. Saec. ai. distortion (s. mathemat. 7 Other instances of the compendium are no. 3032 cf. Belger Hermes XVI. it is most common perhaps in mathematical mss. n. no. A. in the is middle of words as Lehmann's examples suggest in the Arethas-mss. V. TOP ^ " from the latter ms. from Vat. XIII). var. e. dnoaroAoc f.. also s.) xeAoc Kovovcov toov ev viKaia.). 73) juovov. OZ. 1404. XV). 4 Mutin. ' ' of ordinary abbreviation is not great it . toc. no. is given in the table: Bologn. 11. I add some ineunt. 18 (Euchd. 6 aurdc toivuv Aofoc 182 An 26. 990. the double stroke in the sense of the single (Lehm. XI). r. 904 (s. i. Two additions may be made ov. for ^ * ofioioi/ (p. 3032. . g. 6 from Par. (Synesius. Archigin. eveprouvTOC 338 v. 191 (circ. XI ineuntis. no. gr.).*"' r. 8 from Vat. gr. 28. is A curious misapprehension. a ms. 5 from Laud. 26 oc in ordinary mss. form. meaning ^ 990. R -. nai^ovrec Plato. 55 or Vat. n. Lehmann rightly In Vat. occurs as early as Laud. s. (2) The single stroke is not so seldom met with . V. etc. ' plate no. but occurs in others also It consists of where it is necessary to add up a total. but it must be admitted that certainty as to its is difficult. identical form appears to be presented inihe Frag. 1319 (s. to the otherwise very full article of Lehmann's upon (i) The illegitimate use of p.. f. and that the two crossing horizontal \ but later the form viz. XV). 3 is to be compared with the sign given by Vitelli 172. two by a single one. I. Xeyovres Par. cipXovTec. More remarkable examples are oVrw? Par. from Laur. Vitelli (p. XI some other 249 ' peculiarities of contraction'' viz. 4) of the tachygraphical sign for instances from Barocc. eKoviec Lucian ^. 9uAdTTovTac. 3 s.

76) leaves to have met with any account the question open. that which is closed in ouv may similarly be inferred to sent V. Ferr. no. Compare ovp as represented in Vat. 9. cf. T. n. from the Paris Greek Anthology. X) toutouc touc niGTeuovxac. 3032. it is plain that they have one part in common.). 992) is perhaps worth recording. represent ^ OYI. Aiict. f. cf. grec 469 A (Nonnus a. 41 (s. The double waved line (Vitelli pp. 61 (s. 992). (a. 2. ^ I give a few examples of the sign for on. resembles the primitive form as given in Vat. a combination frequent in Grott.g. suppl. and the unusual ligature pepaioCvroc. 2. I take almost ouv random KaAouvrai. 469 A. X) tolc . may be taken to repre- and while the open curve in ev \vi\ stand for e. no. 986). . also nos. XV). 22. 1809. Of the ordinary form of the compendium for this syllable illustration is needless somewhat remarkable forms however are dAAouc Par. v. occurs in Roe 16 (s. iv. whether is as the particle or the syllable. 5 " from Vallicell. 18231. 39 eKooToc. C. 4 from Par. is by gr. These examples may go some way toward (p. e. in either case. 21 Of the genesis of the symbol I do not remember (s. from Land. Laud. X). a. 180 v. If however we compare this ordinary sign for ouv with the tachygraphic symbol for ev (v. nepi toG further Aoroc KaTa9aTiK('c (a.ON — OYI. onooc oOv from the D'Orv. 21 little noticed hitherto. I. Euclid. 1809. : stroke therefore. namely the crooked stroke that concludes either compendium this . ouv 2 from Par. B. a. ouv from Barocc. i. npoc uvoc Grott. awearwros. C. grec suppl. I from the Clarke Plato. Lehmann's doubt 75) about the meaning of the sigma in the two words resolving that he quotes from Sabas \ OYN. 2 (s. from Clarke 12 f. no. Ferr. hardly needful. is an instance of the omission of the dots. npoc. 195 r. Theophrastus Urbinas 61 (s. 3. supra). at Illustration of this common compendium. B. napaxeeevTOc and oxiGjuajiKwv .. B. XI ineunt. Lehmann {p. 39 touc xpovouc. XII). nveujuariKouc. Another mode of expressing oc. iv. 169) gr. rKTepoc Bodl. Nonnus add. an uncial sigma. Touc Tonouc Vallicell.

. napa 9 Vallicell.) okidQai-vovcnv^ rov Xaov. T. napd 5 napaboSoav Laur. Par. 10 (s. s. a few others. X). (2) n with the topstroke crossed by a slanting line. 3. F. 1 1. napabpajuoav Isidore. contrary system as well. napdox^J^viai from so tachygraphic a ms. Auct. qutouc xpioTiavouc OYTOZ. ib. it is sec. frequent in the Arethas-scholia cf. B. 4. further 6 ouTOoc Vat. (3) A certain number of : mss. napabebojuevov from Nonnus. 1 1 (man. napajuueHodjuevoc Plato. i (p. in which not round but angular. offer instances of both forms at once. 5 outoc. 7 ouTooc Vat. 2 5. ^ 4. X-XI) hAXous. iii. grec A 469. 26. eAeueepoujuevouc. riAPA. napapoAflc Mutin. vii. Euclid. napd tov. 30 (s. Angel. F. 1809. n.) avjovs. To Vitelli's examples cf. Turin B. . X exeunt. occurs in '. The the usual method followed by the Grotta cf. and + may be thought not to need exemplification some instances from mss. 19 (s. A. napd Urbin. 8 outooc Mutin. ( i) The former is by far the more common. etc. Euclid (text). has the more usual system so napd 10. however. is may add 3. 3 for ou. outooc. ii. Auct. 12. XI-XII). cross-stroke is napabeirjuaxa. as Vat. 990 avveXdovarjs see further under Tachygraphy. 4. 19. napd jueTpwv from Bodl. also irnpa 8 Valiiccll. the single Tonouc^.. suppl. Ferrata school. B. 3. I give however : for any reason noticeable from Plato Paris 1807. S. napdpaoiv Angel. 193 (Lucian. (4) I have 1 1 Par. waved line (the proper tachygraphic ''^. G.22 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. (scholia). in addition to Vat. outoi. F. that are napd I. 3. The abbreviation outoo almost a 2 oCtooc feature of the Arethas-mss. 1298. cf napaKaAoo napd T. . Cf. X). 1982 in its nature^ as (2) The other njethod is Lehmann rightly observes. (i) The word napd may be compendiously expressed by n the sign for dpa. . napd 3 Nonnus Par. E. napaAmdov Demosth. ^ The form of the sign Bodl. a. 3032 yov^. B. 35^. 1982. 9. At the same time the Plato-scholia use the e. I etc. napd 6 napapAHefl Toic D'Orv. napd tov Auct. napd 4 Iliad Ven. outooc Lucian . napoiKAHoiv napacpuAoKH Clarke 12. napd 7 Lucian. tachygraphic. g. Beside the Clarke Plato quoted above. The twelfth-century ms. 3) of outoc. 47 (s. 28. sign) in Barocc.

The difference consists in a hook at the top of the 91). XI) must apparently be explained as an individual error of the scribe's. have not seen the sign for npoc in the Arethasits place scholia. 11. represented. T) some acquaintance with tachygraphy. The upon the forms given above leads us back to the type that is in use in Vat. a. 8 Epictetus Bodl. npoc 5 Anth. 170. p. 87) must be read to be believed.. and is found in mss. An exaggeration of this variation appears to be the form napd 13 which I take from Angel. rac 11. I. 1809. napabeiriuoTiKooc. who had (v. (scholia" to the Paris portion) A npoordxai npoc 6 Yat. It is extraordinary that a doubt can exist as to the origin of this sign. in Psalm. 34. otherwise of the ordinary type of writing far more often than is usually supposed. cf. 24. if the semi-circle were 1298 wanting. The speculations in Lehmann (p. T. slightest reflection . — form: cf nos. 59. iii. 1298. 1-4. it is curious that these forms. A degraded form s. Grotta Ferrata. s. 14) from Laur. 32. few instances of its occurrence elsewhere are npooconov. 15 Lastly. 235 (Caten. Angel. XI) \ T. TTPOZ. Vitelli (p. . The representation of t by across the following vowel or syllable will show. is npoc 9 from Barocc. upstroke. the singular form napd 14 (Liturgiae. noticed some variations in the 33 more usual form which cannot be explained as coalescence of accent (Lehmann p. a. Pal. Z. npoc 7. napd 12 from Vat. 251. B. napasKtuHv. and of -which not a bad example will be found under the Each of the four letters is xiith century ms. 32. 25). two dots placed over or is one of the most characteristic and consistently carried out practices of Greek tachygraphy. C 8 (s. would be almost exactly like those given by Prof. p. and it will probably be found not to occur It is constant however in the text of the is taken by np. a large and characteristic D'OrviUe Euclid (Stephanus) I . It is in fact often the only trace of tachygraphy that a ms.OYTOI— T. 4. npoGKAoajuevoc. 7. misc. 9 and Laur. 1165). The scanty account by Prof in Lehmann has been greatly added to ^ Vitelli (xa. 9 (jilate nos. npoc rd Demosth.

Par. noxe 4 Hermog. Misc. xdc Bodl. 40. a.. of ^ . cooxe a. orav 3032. Grott. Par. grec 1983. (s. ndvxec dnoAauoovxec 12 (s. Vat. Kaxa9opouvxac (a. 32.. A a. Auct. iii. ouxe 5. 2) i.34 ABBREVIATIONS 173.. collection of instances. exovrac Demosth. tou IIV GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. tcoc 11). 9. xto 70. 22. Aeovxec Mutiu. 138 (s. E. B. Add. 3. 11. ^ 11 (man. evioTe coGxe Mus. x6x€ noxe Clarke 12. For ra v. rdc Vat. It is worth recording however that the use occurs passim in the Ravenna Aristophanes. Hjuexepoic Par. The notation appears from the Arethas-schoHa.. 18. 2 Par. 3. evi^ovxec dvapdvxec Clarke 12. toov i re ib. here or under es. ouxe 3 Bologn. (pedoavxec naAaioavxec Vat.. ouxe 4. XII). 126 (Clement). Angel. T<^l^: jii€juvHTai Nonn. noxe xoxe ojoxe juhWe Neap. 1 ndvxec Iliad Ven. I have not concerned myself. 251. bpdaavxec Angel. A. s. i. 1 Par. KaiposKonoOvxec Mutin. 1982. Ferr. Vat. T. xond^ovxac Turin B. cooxe 5. and I am able to offer here first some further syllable. ovxec exovxec Laur. A. eauxdc Angel. T^C ndvxac Nonn. 8. iv (992). 1982. II. dnejunoAoOvxac Vallicell. 2)-. Ferr. is taken from Museum Nonnus cases where the example strictly comes from the tachy graphic part of that ms. ib. xeKvoic. T. (i. 22 149). evxaCea Vat. XII). Archigin. B. 990. with the illegitimate use of the two dots in the sense of er. Hermog.. coaxe tooxe 2. esjai Par. : noAejuoOvxac Barocc. Tec : 9ooxiaeevxec Nonn. 8. The example of each the British by way of type. I.. (circ. 982. 191 1404). E. and is most remarkable in a ms. T<^N : OTQv Nonn. B. Brit. are entirely absent enclosed in brackets. 990. 138. . 28. 2 T<^IC : I from Nonn. grec 1983. 28. nepiAapovxec i. Tolc 11. xunouxe Bodl. xauxHc xaGxa Par. Nonn. 990.. I Laur. 3 Thucydid. 990. T^Y 76: : xauxaic Nonn. XI). A. 3. 3032. juooxonoiHsavxec Barocc.727 5. 1. Grott.. ouxe 1298. 9opoOvTai Par.

Ferr. 8. B. H. rex^^iVTes (scholia. 3. 990. unep 2 unep gov Nonnus. i. Tl : napeoTi Vat. : TIN eoTLv Grott.. i. 4 Vallicell. huKnepavres (text). 3 Laud. 1982. 11. B. 8. djuuHToo Par. aurcu eaurco outoo Vat. 2 Grott. Vat. xix (a. T. unep Aorov Gr. 990.). in addition to those already brought together by M. 2 (Etym. XIV). toIc Vat. B. Ferr. THN : 25 a. 251. cpoiToivToov Par.. Cf however unep Ta)v unep cpcoKeoov from Demosth. 990. TON TOC : auTov Nonn. AeAHeorooc Bodl. 990. coojuaToc outoc Vat. 9eapTov Par. that age and style. Albert Martin in his admirable study upon this ms. unep i from Grott. 43. tov. a. I Noun. Ferr. Mutin.. TOIC: TouToic Nonn. : auTQC Nonn. outouc touc Vat. 1982.. ndvToov D'Orvill.. T. The tachygraphic abbreviation to said for unep cannot be occur frequently outside of the Grotta Ferrata school. tou Petr. eaurov e9eauT6v Vat. i. OUTOOC Par. D. in. tcov ovtoov Angel. 1982. Toov 1982. B. iv. Arch. 1982. Ferr. bia navroc Par. TtOC : ouTooc Nonn. iii. eiKorooc i. Cf. TCON I. 990. 45 (Galen.. B. This hand of the scholia may serve as another proof of the identity of the hands. 990. 990. s. npcoroKdeebpoi Par. Nonn. touto Par. s.T— YnEP. ouToo Nonn. magn. first coincidence between the text and the man. 12. 3032. X.. TOY : auToO S. s. misc. a. toG xpiorou Par.. 1982. unep 3 uneppdc Angel. : ndvTcov toov veoov Vat. I have not found it in the Arethas-scholia. EP. a. . outcoc 1982. YFTEP. v. cpiAoao(p()u TOYC TOJ : : Touc Nonn. 1982. XII-XIII). For the partial-abbreviation. 965). gr. TO : €KTdTO Nonn. ndvTtoc dbiasTdTooc Angel. 990.. which is frequent. Z. toIc biKoioic Par. i passim.

but his own and especially his theory of the original identity of the two signs. 191 circ. viz. upon the origin and relation of the signs for vnep and of proof or disproof. vno. and only distinguished from it by the breathing. B. 1404.26 YTTO. iitto. is identical in shape with the symbol for ano (q. uno 2 uno thc unovoiaic Nonnus. and by a mathematical ms.. 12). 251 . already known from tachygraphy. (2) that the right- hand cross-stroke in either case is a mere mark of abbreviation.). A simple comparison of the common letters in virip. a. QN. Germ. from Certain instances are unobfiiKvuovTa. F. it . Under this head line sign. or in fact. 88) The argumentation between Gitlbauer and Lehmann (Lehm. 3. rightly described article as a by Lehmann : have to notice the tachygraphic at the beginning of his it is waved in fact not unlike it is an open omega ' inverted. revolution of the sign for vnep as a preliminary to explaining it. Epictetus. uno^uriov Angel. so 'no i G. 990'. 11. Misc. uno KaKoO. (2) Another sign. B.) so largely used by the Grotta Ferrata school. n + and though I do not hold this conjecture proved. analysis of Lehmann justly doubts Gitlbauer's halfit . quite unlike the former. In this form used by an ancient hand p. especially as regards the 0. already quoted by Bast (p. and frequent in the Grotta Ferrata mss. uno The fact of one compendium standing for both dno late and uno at once suggests that the letters actually denoted by the sign must be those common to both words. uno 3 Par. ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. 794) from S. 1982 in unobeeelGa (sine further 5 [sic). xix. appear to me no less arbitraiy. letters p and o into substantive symbols for lirep and For an analogy I may refer to my own analysis of the strange sign for iLs (p. Vat. There appear to be two distinct symbols in use ( i ) one. by the : : context. to erect the vtto. with the common strokes in the two compendia suggests that is o (i) the left-hand stroke in vnep is p. but it does not perhaps admit may be allowable to suggest another hypothesis that appears at least as probable. spir. 249. v. uno 4 the same form is the Bodl. clusion arrived at may at all events strengthen the conby Lehmann (p. . A tacbygraphical contraction for uno occurs more frequently than for unep but without being itself common. where the breathing is ambiguous or incorrect. while the left-hand stroke in vivo (the tachygraphic o is a line bent into two curves) . 84) from consideration I of dno alone. probably given by Vat.

XI-XIT. cosnep ib. more with tachygraphy. which the last curve of the sign takes a as turn upwards. 15 (a. 2 demanded by the context. 990. F. to be added to those given by Vitelli (pp. 10. XI). Ferr. cf. navTOKpdioap Vallicell. nXdrav Par. 6 pHToap Bodl. iv. B. Another instance of this form of cos is o^ewy Vat. 15 (text). IL QZ. 1982. D'Orville Euclid ' f. (2) The syllable is found written on the or less connected line most constantly in mss. nAdroov (as a rule the Arethas-mss. i. Vitelli. e. s. it is ws + ep. also Vat. ouTOic. B. 10. by Prof. C. dvTiAHnrcop Laud. 6 was copied. MHTpondroop Laur. ndvTcov Par. E. The examples that form and its position I give of wc are meant to illustrate line. 11. 3. s. 172. g. plate II. as Prof. X). 450 (Phot. cosre Angel. QP. 3032. a. 5. so ware wanep often in the Arethas-scholia. Cf. 32. aa-nep. Misc. but It is found also in the text of the and it existed in the codex Vallae of Archimedes from which Angel. aiirooc. gr. 3 (not cited. the passage in the plate from f. uboop Mutin. 32. 222 v. explaining coc and nooc 2. 40. 2 : (8. among the Plato Arethas-scholia. as often within the e. a. eKToop Iliad Laur.YnO— QI. Toov eeoopHjud Tcov. its A a. iii. retopriKwv Harl. 27 roav ovtwv. 1075). The beginner may with profit contemplate the fourth example of cos in . 171) are pHToop Clarke Plato. Genuens. and that Toov vfcoov word as at the end). X). n. 1982. which. 1456 (s. I2\ n. a peculiarity of the strongly-marked writing of the Plato Paris grec 1807 (cf. Bibl. 2 (a. 28. dic I. few instances of the compendium for this syllable. rau alpert. ^ XI). Bast notices. outooc Nonnus. apxoJv. reooprioc Neap. ' A few more examples are rmv i Vallicell. Vitelli says. p. is no. 1 20 v. dTTiKooc). Lucian (both in the : A scholia). 2. outooc Kopeooc Yat.e. B.Kwi' Ven. \|/uxa)v Angel. (i) with regard to the The slight variation by is. 22. but not unfrequently elsewhere. 15. 29 (s. Tcov dfioov Mutin. <x>c 2 Laur. 2) are roav Early dated examples of the coalescence of the circumflex accent with the ordinary sign (Vitelli p. Vitelli). I. ' cpuoeooc Grott. 251. C. rcbv 2 Vat. use the ordinary form. g. 1165). I think. 193 (Lucian. ^ I make bold to explain in this way the sign given by Prof. text). 3 ^. 4.

writing I also in the D'Orv. I do not remember to have seen or read of a single . . outoo Aerexai xP'Ma Kai XpiojLia.. but at the moment of without examples. It has been often pointed out that in Greek minuscule and late uncial writing there are two systems of abbreviation in use at once far : one. It represents x'^P'Of. 312 sq. Magn. of which by the ms.^a)pi'otf. § 47. Euclid. The second cross-stroke is doubtless a mark of abbrevia3. 28. D'Orville x. I may however here mention one that is quoted by Hultsch ap. any page of Gitlbauer's facsimile. consisting of the is tachygraphical signs for both syllables interlaced. 3 . 258. ]}. on wonep Aerexai Kpoujua koi KpoCsjiia. 28 A BBRE YA 1 T/OXS IN GB EEK MA Nl 'SCRIP TS. p.2 a facsimile is prefixed to Gaisford's edition of the E. Hermes ^ I have in this tract hardly touched the large and mathematical sip'ns. of rare oc- currence and of obviously tachygraphic origin. nor even from Diels' explanation of the Fragmentum Bobiense. Examples i and 2 are x^pioj/. M. Etym. sign for toonep is the separate abbreviation of either syllable of coarse frequent enough. onep from the tachygraphic part of Nonnus \ Tachygbaphy. commoner. upon the same system as that employed in Vat. 4 j^up/a. All these come from Euclid 1877. 1.ending. It consists of x and p rendered tachygraphically. both are at the end iGxeov be of the Ime. Journal des Savants 1 88 1 p. Facts as to the coincidences and di- vergencies of the two systems are well given by in his introductory chapters. but that has not hitherto found an explanation. s. The context of the is first is. so ' to be known by contrast as the ordinary ' system. The formation of the symbol clear if we compare toonep. i. ' ' Lehmann. The usage occurs am tion. I from f 289 v. cf . Lehmann subject. there with illustrations. and is found with or without case. Gardthausen from Vat. no.. . the other. A ligature. QlfTEP. will be . 421 sq. 2 from 288 r. He will not get light from Gardthausen. interesting province of Laur. no. and though familiar as also ultimately tachygraphic in source. 211. That the system was far more widely spread and more generally used in books than w^as commonly supposed. 1809. cf. and a masterly sketch of the found in Graux' review of Gardthausen. given XIV. The extent to which the tachygraphic system entered into the writing of ordinary books is one of the questions in palaeography which most stand in need of additional evidence.

still in the S.TACHVGRAPHV. can be no doubt . Streifziige. iv. 544 sq. for more than a day . and whether any place. the monastery and village between Frascati and Marino on the lower slopes of the Alban Hills. Gitlbauer. quoted by Rocchi under minuta. Nilo at Grotta Ferrata. de Borne. 29 but whether any principle governed its employment. from the Vita Nili Bom. P. and in Basilian school of Grotta Ferrata near Eome. one may have been. Antonio Eocchi may be convenient to say that San Nilo. to the present the distinctive characteristics mss. 11. established The school may therewith a school and style of writing. Philologische 2 Codices Cryptenses. Nilo ^ may be traced. and another. Tusculani. the founder of the monastery at the close of the tenth century. the extract by the Palaeographical Society. a. Nilo himself (B. xx. 1624. one in the Biblioteca Manuscripts with which I am Angehca'at Eome. xxi). the London Nomius ^ and of Lehmaun's For examples of tachygraphy published since the appearance Ecole Fmn^aise Spicilegio Fwrentino. and ^ Cf.. 1886. xix. is to be the looked for in the Frolegomena that are to complete learned librarian catalogue not long since published by the '\ In the mean time it of the Abbey. Bibliobe said to continue. seven were certainly written at Grotta Ferrata. a. beside the three books in the hand of mss. 1 3. " WTien I was at Rome the celebrated Yat. i and B. Facsimiles of the three B. acquainted that exhibit this type of writing are. Vitelli. B. B. p. 1S09 was temporarily inacces- . persons or style of author can be connected with it. Of the eleven manuscripts whose usage I proceed to summarise. at least in the person of the thecarius. in generation. Basil. written by his disciples. a. of the handwriting of S. though written elsewhere. 28. a. Melanges de V book cf. practised certain is that the later tachygraphical system was especial by the ly monks of the order of S. two monastery. 387 sq. p. was the work of a Basilian \ (i) An account of the history of the school of S. Desrousseaux. p. xix: litemnun forma uteris densa et the one from the Angelica are shortly to be published Grotta Ferrata mss. 1883. must for the present One of the few facts known for remain an open question. 18S6.

s. add. Eawl.231 have been more carefully examined. a. still as a particularly neat and close minuscule authentic examples are B. iii. On occur a considerable number of compendia tachygraphically are unep (unep toG AaoO). 43. of the British Museum. independently of the hand. 0. Nilo is to be recognised there also. etc. and the latter part of Angelica have imagined resemblances in Mutinensis 12 and Bodl. 3. that S. 43. 1809 and Nonnug and. p. v. from the description given by Graux [Arch. in Vallicell. that have fallen to the writer's experience. 1 1. 1982 common sign. 3°. hand of Nilo (a. that the ms. sible style of but to judge from Gitlbauer's facsimile of the tachygraphical part. B. full. V. or of their production in this direction. ElZ (i'acic). I a. The ms. in ordinary writing. last sign is one of the rarest of those in use by the and will probably hardly exist elsewhere than in the purely tachygraphical parts of Vat. xix in the S. Vallicell.30 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. add. mss. most noticeable uno. The other mss. The three mss. twelfth The type century. the S. loses its chief exists but . 123) of the ms. des Missions. and 10 in h dnAn . but for the arrangements that he was good enough to undertake for my entertainment in the village. appear to give the syllable always in gives the (2) Vat. rvooGic. abbreviated. the fragment characteristics in the D. and two great examples Vat. D. 18. May he accept an imperfect acknowledgment of one of the pleasantest weeks 965) are unthe last four pages however of B. Lastly. still the codices that practically remain in the Abbey we Piacentini.231. 1809 and less Mus. access to the manuscripts that he have to thank Padre Eocchi's benevolence not only for knows so well. still depend upon Montfaucon and A stay of five me I days at Grotta Ferrata in May of last year (1888) gave opportunity to inspect the library with this purpose. . It has always been well known the Nile's disciples were tachygraphers.' . 18. The school. it is of course well known. ser. 156. but for our knowledge of Brit. 74 of the Biblioteca Nacional at Madrid it would seem that it also belonged to the ' Scnola di san Nilo. came from Grotta Ferrata.

writer has not written. it is well known. has graver fault. 3^ the comcontaining works by Gregory Nazlanzen with ment of Nonnus. uscule 3i8r. in 972. 14 v. has for some years past been known I need^ not extensive examples of tachygraphy to offer . etc. of his facsimile of a single page... 53) has rightly concluded. was that are found in the minuscule part of it. contracted. but the may some day Lehmann (p. tadiygraphical marginal remarks. but I offer here signs nothing beyond a collection of the tachygraphical The ms. is introduced first the be It is to of these three classes that I here notice. nor to the facsimiles of pages in the various (a) minof writing It may be said to exhibit three styles and various the text. which on the contrary are very closely : : 330 (fe) V. beginning percentage of without contractions. than the wrong identiRelying upon the evidence of the hand. who in their forthcoming fasciculus that the several facsimiles of Grotta Ferrata mss. however. 151'-. and the resemblance is obvious Ferrata who has been both at London and Grotta anyone but he phical is certainly wrong in identifying the scribe with PalaeograPaul who wrote the Isidore. 4^-' 12. the from a comparison of facsimiles. gradually increase the they almost reach pure tachygraphy (c) purely corrections. A been committed fication of its by Lehmann. and therefore it is signs till . decide hand of Nonnus is the same as that of the Angelica and there is a clear Theodoretus. only rarely abbreviated. with regard to this . refer to the passages in the handbooks where it is noticed. collections. difference of writing between these mss. indices. given his name.. (ff. to be noticed below Isidore. contents of hoped indeed that the whole tachy graphical the ms. which. glosses and so far as it In this article I deal with tachygraphy only in only into ordinary writing. be made public.) almost scholia in large semi-uncial. and the ms.introductions. he has in various places book made sreneral statements of the usage of the entire . that it belongs to to Grotta Ferrata school. The editors of the publish Society. 13. TACHYGRAPHY.

consistent contraction for tout' esTi also deserves notice uncial scholia in the semi- words are still farther for abbreviated. : at. Cf. the last compendium occurs Vallicell. ep. Theodoretus B. unep.' The manuscript then. The sign for as I have already noticed. unep. 11. 61 C. elvai. and based upon them theories It is as to the history of Tachygraphy. 43 and Par. ante s. Tau singularly The other signs are more or to v. ioubaloc. the The curiously . — which are wrong . as to the representations in the Nonnus of the syllables eiv. ap. tooc. ordinary writing. For instances of ante A . ra. description of it A will be found in my notes on the Angelica . ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. ou. of the school. D. eniKoGioac. IV. is The of the book consists of two parts. ev. of 3. 54. the words 9aibp6TaTe. which are necessarily even further from the truth. and a conspicuous examj)le of the results of ' Palaeograj^hy from Facsimiles. reiv. 67.' only in the mss. in this part of it. eiv. eoTi. the school of Grotta Ferrata. thv t€. eic. 21. is very rare in all the Grotta Ferrata school. eieaiv. (3) The Biblioteca Angelica at Eome possesses one ms. The matter is the most serious blot in a meritorious handbook. uno. is in always written in true to the extent that the tachygraphical sign does not occur in this part of the ms. aic. euxalc. napa. iv. aic. are incorrect. dno. tout' ouTooc. KOTHverKev. the second of the eleventh or twelfth. 990. kotq. napd has also been ic previously illustrated. this ms. 57. sufficient to warn anyone who uses the book that the statements in pp. undpxeiv. of a I. is Otherwise the use of the symbol limited. it is . unovoiaic. -t' 6Gti. aujunpaioubeic. exhibits specifically tachygraphical signs for the following syllables ano. 53. eiv. and ig. thv. and especially in ' is noticeable .32 nis. 22. less characteristic s. iv Here the frequent use ou. in the scholia in the common. eni. is Lehmanu's statement that full. of which the first tenth century. and the pure tachygraphic glosses minuscule part itself the ordinary : sign sometimes represents the syllable v. the usage of the manuscript for ap.

a confirmation of what sugme at first sight that the writer is Paul. contracted words (5) is large. ante s. dno (^ante). An ai. where a facsimile of a page from the earlier part is given. unusual way of rendering The diacritic point is for critic In Vat. i. at the end of which were leaves of a bound up two Grotta Ferrata. Gregorius Magnus.). shortly to 33 appear in the Classical Bevieiv. of the Dialogues of It was my S. eni (eniKaAeaoovxai). point that together give ei. tachygraphical signs used by the ai (oHjuaivei). B. the scribe of the Isidore B. EN. The second hand. (doKHGiv). offers the following distinctively tachygraphical signs ap. a. His conclusion as to the A hand is. written in 986 by Paul. dno [ante). Rocchi at the Monastery. Greek ms. The : first hand ap are as follows aic (rijuoopiaic). saec XI.). napd [ante). oubeic). later. uno (id. 11 is there The scribe uses the ordinary system of abbreviation freely. though v. itself. IV (bajud^ei) ^. and in the first current fasciculus of the Palaeographical Society. (4) The well-known Isidore.d. eic (HjueTc. Mr. ei. is curious that neither here nor in Angel. This hand is as that of the Maunde Thompson tells me. is not without traces of tachygraphy. ep [ante). eiv (ucpaiveiv).). and he was afterwards good enough to examine the ms. a Latin ms. of the double dots for t any employment which are so frequent in most mss. 1809.TACHYGRAPHY. one day in February of this year. London Nonnus of a. : ai (okoAiqi). unep {id. i. second Abbot of Grotta Ferrata. 43. 3. aic (oiaGHKaic) and combinations of ei a with other letters It [ante). eni (eniGujui'aic). 972 it is very conthe same. a. and the total proportion of that are at all tachygraphic. €iv iv (juxeiv). urrep (unep Aofou). ep [ante). I gested itself to am happy to say. as one sees in Gitlbauer's facsimile. TTapd (ante). . it is iofa appended to the sign and the dia- D . (uaKivGivov). siderably abbreviated. B. : monk ' of Grotta Ferrata. {id. in the writing of photograph of one leaf was sent to Pre. good fortune to have brought to me in the Biblioteca Yallicelliana at Rome. numbered D.

a.. as : Nonnus has have already observed. napapdrHv. possibly S. the words dnapxH. ic. eK. in his opinion. Of these signs four are of great rarity. gives the tachy graphical signs that I aic. unep. ava. is far less Ferr. fragmentum indicis codicis The tain. F. The leaves. eni. thv. subject-matter . uno^uriov. is found elsewhere only in G. of S. 43. the rulings are on the above the line. uno ve9eAaic. and ou only in Nonnus and Par. Iktoc. says. ic. measure lof x 8 in. napa. The interest however of the fragment is palaeographical. unep. . is harder to determine the leaves cona librarian's note on the first of them and at the beginning of the ms. napa. (6) The ms. B. F. a commentary on part of the New Testament. Paul's Epistles. Grott. eic. The abbrevia. B. numbered Z^ and 89.34 ABBREVIATIONS OF GREEK MANUSCRIPTS'. I. and. ap. have found IV. xix. Kae'oTi. iv written in 992 by Neophytus. It is" I instructive to the same scribe in these two mss. 9aiveTai. B. following : list ai. no other ' ordinary writing at present known to have come from Grrotta Ferrata can compare with these two pages. grec 990. Oejuic. piece of The eivai. Ga<p6ic. a.. xoGJfeoTi. eKbHjuel ano^Hjuel. Ik. ep. the text being continuous. vellum is is The writing the outward. eori. i and Vallicell. as ' but the work to which the index was prefixed was unable to discover it was probably. Maximus. while on the other hand some examples of . 1982 and Par. TOuieoTi. aiToOaiv. cf. €ivai. eici. eioi. widely contracted than the it offers Isidore. oCk. Eocchi . are in double columns with 44 lines in each they together form one sheet of vellum. D. juejepxcjuevouc. in ordinary bookhand tion : Ik but in the tachygraphical poroccurs also in Vat. voou/ievoc. eoTi. enicpaivojuevou. know another instance it. must therefore have been the middle leaves of a quire flesh-side of the hair-side. antiqni. compare the amount of abbreviation used by a. dva. . : ou. dvarevvoovjai. G. ano. grec 990 ic. tions are extraordinarily and for the rarity of ' numerous both in this respect some of the symbols used. ou : of dva I do not .' Pre.

A. does not use. 191 r. signs which that ms. 191 r. eeseai be movoo tw rrpdc dAhieoiav [?] (8) Montfaucon Pal. f. in a good calligraphic hand. 6v (ojuiAoOjuev). ai (on vai). an extract from Chrysostom 191 V. 190 r. XII according to Rocchi). The entire collection once belonging to known to be now in the Vatican. and v. of f. Graec.. CK ToO).' this order is well it is incorporated beginning at 1962.. but very frequent here. containing S.). IV 35 Cf. 190 v. by Montfaucon as I have found Vat. iii (s. outhv : : graphy from pAenovTi. for on a modern fly-leaf at the beginning is the inscription Ex libris MS. follows: being blank leaves of the same book. blank. 223 ff. is. xd rdp nAeiara Ta)v djuapTHjudTOiv). has. on 1 90 v. . 1982 or Basil. eP. the end. 8 x 5! in. s. 29 hues to the page. in a much smaller but contemporary hand. much abbreviated. 192-223 are apparently a different book. only slightly contracted. eauTov. is (inc. but was certainly not written there. Basil's Aoroi on various portions of scripture. s. B. AP. Ik : (wc (eeAHoiv). Monasterii D 2 . . AY and the examples tquthc. where under the 'Vatican! ticular ms. intended graeci.. are filled with contemporary semi-tachygraphic writing. The as parout.) a small piece of more continuous tachygraphy occurs on the margin pHTOOV JUUGTHpiOiV.. 21. unknown elsewhere in the ordinary writing of the school. Its description is membr. fF. 390 (7) Again ms. containing on 1 90 r. whether as au or rau cf. etc. 1-189 are in ordinary script. €IN.TA CHYGRA PHY. tec (ante). a. 283 gives a facsimile of a manuscript in the house of the Basilian order at Rome. ff. 36 lines on a page. with an abundance of compendia of the peculiarity the ordinary sort (cf. various medical receipts. Sy v. thv (id. of the tachygraphic sign for au. I take a longer piece of tachyrauTHv. Ff. the first being that on Psalm VII which Montfaucon facsimiled it is defective at . in a rather small good eleventh-century hand below the line. p. The book may have come from Grotta Ferrata.

^ S. tov. in is two hands. of which the former 1-56) that partly tachygraphical. 2 Montfaucon's mistake had already been perceived. from a comparison of facsimiles. A. uno (unobeeeiaa). oiv (oqrecov) the most noticeable of these that for IV. go (jiia and oa very frequently). This hand is upright and well-formed. p. TCOV {cinte). from this Libraiy are now to be found at Grotta Ferrata. oov (ante). noiooGiv). as KaAAi903viac). series of r-svllables. Tec. of the eleventh to twelfth century. the words immediately preceding I 6 oooTHp. The non-tachy: graphic abbreviations are uniformly of the later type those for etc. jua (onepjua]. g.. such as kq. g. eiv. AE. toic. Anglonen. eni (eniGujuiac). . appears aic to use the followiiig tachy graphical signs (evraOea). see also under ]na. rec. e. and without. The ms. forms. and bears some resemblance to the twelfth- ^ MSS. as (pinioeeioa). the of signs" for ai. ev [ante). rare The most noticeable points are the use of some quite eK. syllables which are so common Ferrata school. 54. be kq (both {(vnte). X 4in. 12. Kop. A manuscript in the Estense at Modena. with a dot. v. : (napoijLuaic). Kop (Kapbia). which is very frequent. CINAI. eiC. Helie Carhonensis S. tou. Basilii Nullius Bioecesis. 135. A. iv iv . ii. That is. is occur for ap (QapKoc). unep. . a. jitap Ta. au dno (dno twv). ic. and the hand bears not the slightest resemblance to that of the famous Isidore of Grotta Ferrata it is in fact hard to see what can have suggested their identity to Montfaucon -. uno (in the and the absence more usual in the Grotta form. are TaOra Ae£ac (9) add a phrase that I cannot at present decipher. e. KaTexojuevoi. touc.36 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS'. (rvooGiv. i). eic. from f 190 r. iv. Ordinis Magni. ^ by Lehmann. luap. cf ante). Tachygraphic signs napa (ante). xa. Tac. xiii sq. eiv. A. tcov. S. tachygraphic signs. tcoc (cinte). it is fF. Kara (djuapTHjudiTOOv). membr. eK (no. TTAPA. Maximus de : shows some tachygraphical it is in- fluence 5:^ (ff. (q. toc. go (KaracpSeipei). ic. to>. ante). caritate.

of the sort are the is text as a rule written out in London Nonnus. written. and especially at the ends of legitimate. tise the tachy graphical system sets himself to write a book for the purposes of an ordinary reading public. century type of Grotta Ferrata hand. mostly below in a small upright ornamental . not very constantly. The book falls into two parts. and it is inevitable that here. are annotations in pure tachygraphy in the same hand as that of the text. that has long been famous in the history of Greek tachygraphy that of Hermogenes at Paris. as is well known. with an shorthand improved interpretation in Kopp's Palaeographia Critica. We have therefore an instance of what may be called the normal case for the introduction of tachygraphy into bookhand the case namely where a scribe accustomed to prac. the greater proportion of his text. is For much abbreviation of any sort excluded lines. which is now numbered grec 3032. as shown 37 m B. pp. it is but at times. hi. a. the line. the text and the marginal annotations. ' omnium taken . — From this book Montfaucon took his ' notae rhetoricae et which for more than oratoriae a century were the only pubhshed examples of Greek they reappeared. a scribe . It is not however with this venerable material that I have to concern myself. of no doubt the tenth century.' . con- siderably ligatured in the margin. not however without a diligent inspection of ends of lines yielding a fair return of . The second hand (10) I have is quite dissimilar. is a small vellum book. and in characters quite as large. who use. and it is the latter that Montfaucon published and Kopp revised.TA CHYGRAPHY. Of the text.' in 181 7. is cognisant of tachygraphy will borrow signs from it as well as from the system of abbreviation ordinarily in Mss. on the other hand. The ms. next to mention a ms. where the full. it offers nevertheless considerable palaeograpliical mterest. minuscule. in quaternions. 152. no account hitherto has been lectu difficillimae.

Graux. V. especially when. ano (dnopAencov). and I therefore take the opportunity of giving here such further particulars as I inspection of the ms. pp. A considerable number tachygraphical I therefore of signs usually considered may be taken from the text of this ms. oti (5?s). 38 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPT^.. the addition of even a handful of new forms is worth making. gvec 990. was short. are ai (buvajuai). and is of the ordinary minuscule . adopting the same system as that in which he afterwards wrote his marginal comments. there are at hand the means for reproduction. being published. was able to gather during a short I lament that my account is not and does not better take the place of the authoritative study that was to have been expected of the rebut. enumerate those that I have found. Par.. in the bril- Greek Tachygraphy to which I have already Journal des Savants. which is there promised. in The text is on the whole little question. adding that as my study both of this and the following ms. 1881. 316. where the tradition of the school manifests itself in the same manner in a twelfth-centurv hand. 317. B. vou (aioxivou). This is precisely what has happened in the ms. of that period . TQi (eoTai). there is nothing in the character of the hand to suggest the tachygraphical knowledge of the . oc (nAflGoc). cov (nAdjwv). fuller.. 3. and the second part of Angel. contracted. ov (tov. is dated 1030. to (toGto). liant sketch of referred. jav (otov). 5 juQTOc). apa (apa). Omont that there is no likelihood of the complete study of the ms. OYC (11) Another tachygraphical Paris ms. the list Syllables represented : must not be considered exhaustive. The ms. II. as tachygraphy now gretted French palaeographer stands. also s. (napabeir- 01 (boC'Aoi). as in the present instance. I learn from M. but frequently at the ends of lines. grec 3032. and occasionally in the body of the paragraph. has been indicated and in part described by Ch. tachygraphical symbols. cpiAinnov). the scribe allows himself to shorten a word.

(xolc biKaioic). remark or two upon some of these forms may be in place to discuss the ms. wv (cLgoov). 18231. kqi represented by three dots occurs elsewhere in Vat. With 73 discussed by M. to which must be added the forms already quoted by Graux. of being an^anged one on . Kai Kara (KaraAajupdvoo). Pal. eA. I The syllables oa. n. 32. jue (no. that the abbreviations occur. ojlioC (no. xooc (ouxcoc). Vat. are used. examination. pau are of very great do not know can be quoted from any ms. ou (ouveAeouGHc). and in the late ms. (drro GTepHoic). xoc (KAanevxoc). Fiorent. au (nauoerai). i). mss. uno (uno xhv). found by Martin in the scholia to the Kavenna Aristophanes the tachygraphical ordinary bookhand . p. xou (xoO xpit>TOu). (xskvoic. n. 18231. in some Laurentian mss. 1809 and Add. kq (KareAapev). quoted by Vitelh. as a whole will need more complete A . The form eu has been 13. con- tains the Gregory Nazianzen with a prose . 5 Kepauvoc). (nveujua). iv ep (napep(no. 1809. Tov). as in ndvxcac. rarity. aA (6cp8aAjUouc). 4). is is the sign for ov very uncommon in not generally found on the line . either side of a stroke of the sign for the following syllable . 168 it must still be called rare. xo (npooxoKdOebpoi). in parallel columns it is in the paraphrase. ov (dvTooc. as Graux clearly have observed the following. unepeibwjuara).. 3 ]U6Td). xoo (djUUHxoo). for exhibit the later stage of the forms. g. aic. pp. 2). Add. Desrousseaux (v. xau (v. xov). eni (no. xauxa above). paraphrase. Xerai). e. 15. aic (dvoiaic). eA (peAxKSTGv). mss. jai (cpopouvrai). scribe. the most interesting of which are no and describes. c. xac (KaTa90pouvrac). eiv. xoic Ta (ndvTO. but Vat. there is to be noticed the freedom with which the dots are superimposed instead (their more usual position). xhc xov (xHC OaAaGGHc). and by Vitelli 8])ig. 01 (dvejuoi). The ms. xauTa. (cpeapxov. pau (no. TACHYGRAPHY. xoov (90ixobvx(X)v). dno l). eu (koAoOgiv). 28. if parallels jue. according to the necessities of space. regard to the series of Tau-abbreviations. 39 The ordinary compendia that poems of S. illustrated : The form 01 is by Graux 1. pp. nav (ndvrooc). xe Hjuexepoic). I boc : ai (juoopaivovrec).

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^ r' '^- n j^^ ri"ii: ^C y ^-7..^--- ^^^'"^ ' tL^^f -^^Af^^ \ >! A c •• '^-^ ^ ' __^ w -rr -(1/ . ^< A*- '^ '^ ^^ <W\ V ' ' T^ rf "' VtA e ' ^ -i' '^. 'vcri ovK^ ^ AD 1 e^.LnJ. AN or/ I'AtcKj 5^^ H ru-'-'^ ^ ' °H ^^ . o ' . Abbrcinations T~Z m Greek .Plate II. " ~~~" Clarendon Press./. „„tMi>^.X^ ^-^f""^-^ ^VV j'^^'f-^ TT" /^>-«- p y« \/<5" w — T~. .

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e. AY " '-^ ^'^' -"" r^p U>r ^ + >^ rY r| rt r-j- r|- ^A -rt- . Ccarendon Press. .^ yt ^^ J^ i^tfv -^"j^t^ y I 'Z.Plate III.H v4' "^/^^ "^^"^ '^t^ ^^Y/ Abbreviations in Greek MSS.

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^. s- G 7 ^ ^ ' o^ H^ Ot^ ott^ 5Tr7 Y^^ I T/7T7 W L^l OD ff^ fl ^n OrTTj/^o/ ^^ o-L'yyci ^ '«i GC ^'"^^ Rn-^ ^f^ e^ T '_. Clarendon Press.' Plate IV. .^ /* ^'j^iiv'^3? xltuti ^A/^Ai'P'^ l^^'-^oiJT d\ ]<~o i2o-r CLiJ^Lao fFiyjT Abbreviations in Greek MSS. (^^ o^}/ c5^ "^ ^yv^ Of^ (JUT 1 2.

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Abh-eviations in Greek MSS.Plate V. cLrccrcujT iitj/jT ^'cyvST^^y-^' d\sf^ i^^oy (Zi^t' GOT I 7 A ^^^/' y 11 IX. Clarendon Press. .

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M6N "L -4 frM/^p^"^ ON ^vX-ryV Z.^/^' ^fX^ yvpytcY" -nnUl4j^ fcVoLtr -TOY ""^ ^ T^p°^T"^^^yr 2.. o— -Tf ^ ^^' 9 ' oirNX^ -TB-n^ nrV\KY TOUT* v-roltT^^VT SJ Si y9(po^ ffn >Yf ^' ^^V Abbreviations in Greek MSS.Plate VI. OYN QTC ^^x^T4. . Clarendon Press.

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'!>" L / -^ -^ . MIC l^'Xj j -r/- ^i"— ' i9^.Plate VII. ^' yyy / nvZiko?'^ 7 vi ^^^ V- "y vi^ v ^ _<i^ TT TTK ./ -^ "' •. 9 TT^/<^Xw " TT -a)UL6ff\ tK5o>hc^ '7f"^<^d'^^ 1 2. . „ ^ Tr-CJ-'T^ <? V -nx TTVgXH^-. Clarendon Press." ^'^ K'^ 6-4^ 'o-A coc' * y TV Try cu o- Abbreviations in Greek MSS.. OT o^l^yi^ V / f A ^^ <rcc</^ ""a-' oTToc Y TT.

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-<r^ TTj ^^ . Abbreviations in Greek MSS.Plate VIII. THN yi- /• / / TIN 7/ \ TOT *T TOYC ] I" ^ K U ^'"Xo^TD '|^^J [^'] --^ T~ODN A. . L '^^ ^ fje^ O- /> op/^ ti . Press. Clureniior.

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. Clarendon Press.Plate IX. Cor o?0V XtopiON Abbreviations in Greek MSS.^ 2. cop PH^ renK ^<T /^JoTT^T^ <V^t|X/i'^ f U3\^ -xX. 2 u\ v. y-rv\_ 2^~P-q >^ OLA/T IX .

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^^1 i^. Ciiirendon Press. . v^'f -17^ fi.tir /-re f/ (IVJ -ko^C ^4^.Plate X.'^ )9^ Abbreviations in Greek AISS.^Y ^v^-^ (V.V^ ^^c..) i^# ^^W pe<^&f^ /y-i?^ M>»^H< Cvd.

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G.bonbon HENRY FROWDE Oxford University Press Warehouse Amen Corner. \^ . E.

Related Interests

paleographes science of puissent un jour etablir I'etat des abreviations usitees dans monde byzantin de siecle en siecle The which deals with contractions. but rather a series of observations of the usage of manuscripts.NO T E S ON ABBRE VIA TIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. and hypotheses writing. d' observations exactes naturalla faune I'exemple du qui dresse comparativement un tableau de les ou de le la flore des divers regions du globe. has reached a point at which what Greek Palaeography. anyone who has ' tried to find definite information etc. is How to has been done towards such collection known 68. the object little and main must be the collection of fresh evidence. conclusions are laid down with where and actual width. p. as with any other yet undeveloped science. Notices bibliographiques. A SENTENCE that occurs in the late Charles Graux' review of Lehmann's Die tachygraphisclien Ahhilrzungen will -^-*- explain the purpose of this pamphlet. He says. . noted with all available accuracy by investigators whose occupations have given them familiarity with the ways of scribes and the possibilities of Greek Such observations indeed must be classified and brought into relations with one another. 1 upon the Revue Critique. but. may be suggested to explain the facts observed first .

origin and history of any single Com- on the subject of compendia in Montfaucon's great book. and moreover hardly recognises the principle of chronological development in the history of a compendium. The Museo in Italiano. is actual value of a model in all respects of what such a work should be.2 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. a work that with all its industry and system is in point of actual palaeographical expertness far behind the Commentatio both Graux and Vitelli have pointed out. 9-15. Greek abbreviation. palaeography from the compilation of fac- Professor Yitelli however has at length given us the first instalments of a treatise. paratively little stress is laid and the work of one whose palaeographical knowledge can seldom have been surj^assed. The bulk of the material presented here is taken from manuscripts in the Bodleian and the British Museum but a tour in France and Italy in the early part of last year (1888). it is as hypotheses that they are given. the impossibility of deriving general conclusions in similes. . and Bast's well-known Commentatio Palaeogra^hica. though stimulating in the highest degree. at the end are collected some instances of tachygraphy which are grouped under the several manuscripts. has enabled a number of additional examples to be added to those already collected. pp. of his observations upon the Laurentian and if else- I shall be more than gratified which owes so much to the Sjiicilegio Fiorentino. . II. In arranging the compendia in alphabetical order I have thoupht to consult the convenience of those looking for examples of any one in particular. I have endeavoured in discussing the various forms to avoid the faults urged against others where hypotheses are ventured. where. part 168-173 contains a great codices number this I. and with the pamphlet. has a directly practical intention. Falaeograiiiliica . with indisputable truth. The recognition and application of such principles to compendia forms the cardinal merit of Lehmann's handbook. . be thought a not unworthy companion to it. undertaken under the Craven Trust. independent of the its results. that. 32.

Melanges Graux. still occurs freely with other letters lastly.knowledge that a little increase in our information may overset them I shall feel no particular shame if such a fate befalls one or two of my combinations caedimus inque viceni jpraehemus crura sagittis is a line that every palaeographer should accept. and Vitelli CoJleziotie Fiorentina fasc. apparently in the same hand : Euclid (888). Bollig at the Vatican. The plates have been produced by a photographic process at the University Press. M. Gio. Maass in the ' here refer to five—the D'Orville iv. ' ' . to whose kindness the possibility of making this collection has been due to some of them my thanks have been already elsewhere given here . A. which make use of the notation both in the original and in the illegitimate sense. 10 (Canones eccl. and will. this abuse of the most frequent in combination with T. F. 126 (Clement Alex. Bodley's Librarian and Mr.) and Vallicell. and afterwards archbishop of Caesarea. Antonio Ceriani at the Ambrosiana. so far as the scholia are concerned. stroke. for constant it is encouragement and advice. properly represented by a horizontal . cf. 749 sq. and which contain large quantities of I scholia. at home and abroad.' I mean the manuscripts which are known to have belonged to Arethas. ' ' : : : I gladly record my obligation to the Kev. Clarke Plato (896). Clement Paris grec 451 (914). 1880. Lucian Harleian 5694 (undated). and in this sense often found. 3 (Aristides) is in the hand of the Clarke Plato. A certain resemblance also.. generally the Ohservat tones Palaeogyaphkae of E. I have finally the pleasant duty of thanking many librarians. Madan in Oxford.' Paris. . be thought more successful than previous repioductions of drawings. Conte Soranzo at Venice. the Abate Auziani at the Laurenziana. Aristotle Urbinas 35 (undated). Henri Omont at Paris. is to be seen in the mss. deacon of Patrae. B 2 . 60. pt. the Rev. I. well known. ^. and lastly to the Principal Librarian of the British Museum. it is hoped. I give examples of dots. two these four cases: (i) the simple horizontal stroke appears to be exclusively used in the scholia of the Arethas-mss.). By the 'Arethas-mss. is Alpha. where it is shewn that Laur. though probably not so often as the dotted t. Mutin. improperly dotted is the latter sign properly denotes by a horizontal stroke ra. there are many mss.

ra. (s. X) xauxa xdHic exovxa. XI) ndvxa. 171). 126 (s. E. with the dotted in anyone's Kaxa xdSiv. eraSev rd . : (s. xd. Auct. X-XI) Hermogenes Paris grec 1983 (s. 12 X) exovxa. Bodl. XII) navra . iii. dvTiKaeiGTajuevoov (3) The most frequent case is that in which a manuscript uses at one and the same time the dotted stroke and the dotted t to express xa such are the Paris Demosthenes^ (2. pt. Not 1 107 as the Catalocrue. tq S. 2nd scholia. 12 (s. total cf. XII) 70 s. . anaropeuovxa. i. 1 149). the . .) et-jLioAeovxa (text) Psalter. It is power to extend it is (4) The use of the x is double dots in combination with other consonants than fairly common . de Nolhac {Fuhuo Orsini. The dots may be more certainly said not to appear 5. a. cf. PaUadius Clarke 12 for aljpha Aed. 11 (s. 18231 (a. Selden supr. 1886. with pdoKovoc. (Greg. (s. of so large an extent of scholia certainly. : s. jnexd. Bodl. 9. xix (a. earlier than M. Pal. in the school of S. X) xa osxd Iliad Venetus A eneixa (schol. . 3. series. X) combines the simple stroke x for xa. Petr. X) Kara. it is impossible to speak ra or a. 972) rd Vat. Auct. am inclined to put this ms. XI-XII) ^ rpajujuofa. 8 (s. ^ ^ Not X. mss. Clement Mutin. 1104)^ neipd^exai. in which the dotted stroke occurs always ra. (s. but npoc to. Naz. 34. . are Grotta Ferrata B. 1298 (s. Soc. 5. Maximus S. 22 (a. o\h}i(x eujuaSeia from : Lucian. infra I p. Auct. Cf. . Mutin. A I. juaraioTHTa Epistles. nopa^ Kara. 45 Arch.4 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. Aristides Vat. also (f)i\ayddov is -rroWaKi^ from the ms. Christ. p. AaoO from B. E. cf. xd npariuaxa (a. Nonnus Add. ovxa X) evQTdoeic. T. are but at least the tachygraphic dots. 19 (s. S. unooTdaeooc. hand . though the amount of abbreviation here is comparatively small : paaiAeiav is and Tct (2) mss. T. voHjuaxa bo£a^ovxa. whether as very rare in these mss. Kara. in the Gospels Bodl. Turin from C4alen H. napaGaAacjoiov. XII-XIII). 1982 ^ (s. Philo. ' most thoroughly carried out perhaps Nilo cf. rather late instance of the simple stroke B. this list. a. grec 2934. 965. . raOra.examples come from the ^ * See the description of this ms. as Bast. - See the facsimile. Maximus Angelic. 4. X) oujunepacjuaja. "* . X-XI).

. ms. 172 n. 18231. The tacJiygraphic form has not met me scholia. 5 of S. seems to think rare.2 Al —All. 209 r. the dots are thus freely combined with consonants are Nonnus Paris suppl. B. sign trom its preceding consonant. and similarly the Hermogenes Par. curious form occurs repeatedly in Barocc. ineunt. XI r. cpeapxHv from B. f. : it is not unlike the sign which Vitelli a prolongation it 12 n.) ^. 1982 evrauBa. eSaropd^ovrai f. dnoedvei onepjua from ^: Angel. diphthong ai hardly needs fresh it is constant in the Arethas- among other tenth-century mss. which Prof. &c. Add. nopeuovrai f. in At the same time the sign must have been * existence by the beginning of the Lehmann well illustrates the use from Nonnus. D'Orv. grec 1983. eniOappHoeic . Nilo).: cf. to be one of indifference.. cf. where is turned indifferently up or down. 986) rd beo]ua Vat.) . 347 8) r. but render it by the sign for ai with sigma attached : so dpeaic. raic from the D'Orv. Euclid. 986. Lehmann's of the remarks double upon the comparatively are just . i (a.).. 346 the Karexovrai (p. The ordinary sign exemplification - for the . pdpei oappdrco. djuapTHjudroav. v. grec 990 . F. explains as . 126 (Clement). (already fully rendered judpTuc. Euclid. All. and.. The matter seems and 3032 (q. napd. is a as the ring in the compendium characteristic of the school Other mss. acpidpa Lucian also vv^^ai . naAaioavrec paGoc . TrAevpai Mutin. Vat. v. a. A s. 3) y«i)fi€TpaLs. /caKoScrt/idfos Vallicell. ^ Since this was written I have seen it in Par. 1298 napabeirjuciTiKoac . dAAd. ^ The separation of the Vitelli (p. grec 469 A (a. hand of Paul). use no single sign for the syllable. 3. binnoTe from the same ms. late origin apostrophe for aic the Arethas-mss. in Clarke 1 and Mutin. 10.. 26 (Canons. outside the Grotta Ferrata school (q. 126. may sign used by itacism cf. 11 the use of the dots for the syllable ap by the compendium) in such words from the London Nonnus. Al. is common in the Arethas-mss. of tachygraphic be merely symbol the but I think for e as likely that it . (f)aLViTai Plato.

). The examples that pendiums are meant to it I give of this illustrate the commonest of comfreedom with which letter. f. navTi oTav from dv.. occurs in Clarke 12. The sign is uniformly absent from the Grotta Ferrata mss. which I take to be of the earlier half of 1807 offer. Harl. viz. 12. may as probably belong to the century before line. uppeoiv. unoAajupdvoo Vat. grec 469 A of a. ineunt. aioxpaic. uses both modes.. 251 (Epictetus. gr. f. XI r. use the tachygraphic symbol. supr. vi/uxaic i. gr.. 47 (s. 12. xaic. Kdv ^ Philo. rale napeevoic. Eoe 16 (Epistles. which. of whicli Vitelli gives some examples.. I subjoin one or two instances of its use in this sense and also as representing ar. grec tenth century. 1S71. X exeunt. Selden opjualc. where they give the syllable abbreviated. but the ms. a collation of part of which by Mr. ^ Another example is eV ratf avrutv enapxlais from Vallicell. TeAeiOTdraic rmc AN. in which the sign occurs appears to be the interesting Nonnus. it is in bold minuscule above the . both modes of rendering r. cf v^xwic Vat. schohu to the Paris Phi to. f. ev will forgive me if I Euclid Laur. 96 V. xmc . 1298 (X-XI) again. jaic djuapiiaic. 96 r. ouaav from Selden supr. as Bast : the syllable c£ eucoxiaic f 7 1 the tenth century . ndv ouk from BodL Misc. XII) ^ Vitelli has noticed (p. 1807. 20 1 v. 362 sqq. xmc f. The double apostrophe occurs in the nis. 986.6 A BBRE I 'I A TIONS IN GR EEK MA Ni 'SCRIP TS. 171) that this sign sometimes stands for the syllable a^. 1982. 99 r. for the was aware. F.g. p. 2. s. Lucian. eb bp loai ^. Euclid. . auralc : the earliest dated ms. toic oiKejaic. Paris suppl. xi Coxe. Bywater will be found in Hermes. 12 \ f. 129 V. ' The same ms.). auraTc. Aajupavojuevai. can be written on the line or attached to a preceding ebwKav ordv from the Paris Plato. s. 28. The single apostrophe. edv. 135 v. F. saec. dvaAajupdvei. cf. 10 146 v. Clarke 2. e. kqi beivmc ]). 39 (s. f 83 v. papeiaic Laud. d. X). D'Orv. of Gregory Nazianzen's poems. ouK dvTeaxev from Vat. 3 and Prof Vitelli add an instance from the beautiful XI) buo bn al op pb buoi lalc (s. a late hand has expanded the symbol in question into -at?.

f. Lehmann. from the Bologna Euclid.). dnoioMH . Archi(S) ginnasio A. dno i). from Bodl. 1982. the similar case quoted ap. some further The form however instances may not be out of place. Since Prof. anebei^ev. it s. The Arethas-mss. 217 r. 235 r. s. ano tou ano thc from i. cf. including the London this Nonnus. from Nonnus. thc. dnoAoriac 18. IT. X-XI). dno. vary between mode of abbreviation and a very decided type of the compendium. ^ ^ So also dno^\en(ov Par. Forms a step further removed are Misc. For the same sign in the sense of uno. that may be taken as the purest form of it existing in minuscule : cf. same form is offered by Vat. last example the scribe was unaware of the proper force of the symbol. Laur. 3032.. dvdrKHc Clarke A correct account is given in Lehmann of this pre- position. 28. v. dnoedvei. enixdpjuou : . Euclid. AP. though his examples as is may be greatly multiplied. : I give from the dnopHaeiai. 3. dnoAorHcaMevoc. 1316 (s. XIII}. ano (TT€pT)(Tis [sic] %o.. 251 dnobei£ai2. dno Forms more or less departing from tJw. gr. (B. also eni. in the i (Psalter. 19 (s. 7 dvarKalov D'Orv. dno eaAdsoHc from Angel.. this type are of very Paris Demosthenes common 2934 j occurrence f.AN— AP. dno THC. 84. a. 229 r. AfTO. Plato. The Arethas-mss. 1298 Plato. dno Vat. npos and vno. Yitelli has thought the article in Lehmann is quite cannot be called rare inadequate. ^ So with Cf. worth while to collect evidence for the use of this compendium. 235 (Caten. dno from Barocc. B. from Isidore 3. . in Psalm. The Grotta Ferrata mss. . and abbreviate by the same is the rule with the Paris superimposing n . use the symbol very seldom of those in England I have found it only in the Clarke of the Paris Clement and Urbinas Plato. XI) p. =^ . dnorovoi from Laud. Par. dno. (Aristid. anobueaBai from Clarke 12. Precisely the dnoA6ivj/€oeai. their general wont with pre- positions\ reject the symbol altogether. 370 V. v. s. XI).

1982. avajuapTHTOuc from Epictetus Bodl. grec 384. p. s. As a part of napd. scholia of the other Arethas-mss. Misc. 6.. 2 . E. 22 (s. pdppapov. as a rule in the text. 13. 3. e. i. without accent scribe . XI). undpxeiv from Neap. it occurs in the mathematical to the 5). djuaproAouc Kapnov from Laud. math. 278 (Frag. napeAAHoiv from Nonnus. is frequent in mss. 251. In the D'Orville Euclid naturally frequent. 3 from the Clarke Urbinas 35 f. math. dcpeaprov from G. Laiu'. XI-XII). a. 6). Other examples are ovap. rare on the whole. napGevou from Bodl. 1 ^ may notice here that the Alpha with crossed downstroke which Belger. XV) it has the sign occasionally. no. F. X). with the ring above or below. E. 9. Kaeapeevrec. 'Afiapriau Yallicell.g. 12 (s. The form cf. with and without the superfluous dots. no. B. Archigin. 7 20 r. 28.. Hermes XVI. gr. &c. 7. in the middle or at the end of words cf. the stroke horizontal or slanting. 10. Bologn. under A). XI-XII). aurapKooc. A. is frequent and r. of the Grotta Ferrata schooP. XII) : the simple form occurs also in Vat. 40 (Caten. XII) oapKoc. (v. 5. 191 (varia 12. Auct. nos. 6 judpKoc from Vallicell. II. in Bodl. 10. 251 (s. no. in the sense of dpa.g. Stephanus very largely with accent and breathit is omits both accents and breathings ing in the scholia Plato. grec 1807. 114. Hnap from Clarke 12. 8). 126 (s. 4 from : cf. kt dprouc from Mutin. Anthology in Euclid (Paris suppl. B. Bobiense f. Vitelli's remark that is this compendium. Misc. iii (s. XII). 11). 11. s. A a.. both round and angular forms in Euclid i. though possibly class. : among mathematical scholia cf. found also in the mss. 8 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. II (s. 9dpjLiaK0v 9eapTHv from Isidore. whose nos. X).. Vat. The Grotta Ferrata school 35 I would not be so positive \ on the other hand have the sign ^yassim. 30) imagines to be «/j" is . beAeap. APA.. that with the dots in Mutin. 639. (nos. HjuapTHKooi 9peap from Angel. 1. i (s. 3 (no. no. I have not seen ^ in mss. of a particular I illustrated by the examples that it is have here to give. a^apTiav. 18 (nos. dvdSapxoc. F. ff. both shapes are found in the Paris Plato.

70 4. AY. X) i : of minuscule forms. text). auToIc auTHv eaurwv ooGauTooc from Gr. B. T051). 9 I X-XI). Nos. 19. (s. XII) TQUTHc. (a. Roe 16. Vat. i. grec 990 will be found in the account of that ms. 11. 1 1057). Auct. XpHoasOai Clarke 12. Christ. 1982. 1982 (a. and this uncial form in the Arethas-scholia : usual no. i and 2 are from the D'Orville Euclid and is Harleian Lucian respectively.APA— PAP. . Ferr. Ferr. A similar combination of a and u occurs in aujoG from Aed. 9 I give a few examples of this compendium used otherwise than at the end of words: dnapouoidsTooc Clarke Plato. Auct. 15 (Iliad D X). (s. 11 from 3. and very occurs most abundantly in the The sign often. E. this ms. XI). E. 8 is Auct. 3 is Euclid. ToiaiTH eauTov. from Bodl. xapaGoovrec vouvjec Nonnus Add. it consists of the a and atroc u run together with the case-ending added cf. ^ hope to call attention elsewhere to the mis-deciphering of Examples from Par. raarpijuaprouc Of this diphthong I can only produce instances from (bis) a few mss. 5. s. 13 from the Paris Demosthenes 2 (from the Vat. 5 Barocc. 7^ (a. AI. more or less tachy graphical in character: viz. s. 6 from Mutin. 4 from Genuens. Christ. 14. P. 986). 1 104). Grott. a. 12 from Angel. bibdoKei HvarKaojuevoc X). from the text of the D'Orv. a. 10 from Vat. 1982 evrauea iii. 18231. : TAP. ecpaoKev Vat. 1042). doee- doOeveiac 4. xauTa and passim. B. from Laur. in reality eorai. Forms with the fro^i^ uncial Gamma are (a. 104). 32. 1298 (Aristides.37- . 70 (a. but ap- parently only in the strictly tachy graphical portion \ AYTOZ. 9 (s. Grott. 18 from Bodl. 7 from Aed. I give a selection of more noticeable forms assumed by rdp. 40 XI). Ferr. B. 17 from Bodl.. and the ligature is probably common. 19 (s. 15 from 16 from Vallicell. B. T. Bodl. a. and Angel. London Nonnus. 3. Eoe 16 (s. 196 230 (a. 1 1. in A ligature for this pronoun worth recording occurs some of the Grotta Ferrata mss. T. B.

usage may ^ possibly be so explained is This form perhaps analogous to those examples of ep given from Laur. The same sign in Laud. s. 587 (Cyril. Alex. i. and can only cite examples from Laud. 59. most common perhaps in mathematical mss. KecpaXr] above. 3. 5. Roe i (s. XII) : TeAefv TeAer'v Ke(paAH The and ^. for rpa. British 1982. XII) It may be doubted whether rjfifi^iTo College. 32. Cf. The ordinary usage for the particle be probably needs I may however add one or two examples to that given by Prof. Laur. 15 (man. of fi' New xii). D'Orville Euclid (text). 15. 6.jeAHv. Oxford (No. yet exists to prove Lehraann's conclusions 92). s. Cf. 2 for riverai acquires The simple contraction from the thenes I. (s. It may be doubted 986). E. 7 4 from the Paris Demoss.7 r] . 3 (Clem. scholia to the Paris Anthology. from Vat. g. GHjuaivo:)VTec ec). i. this particular is itacistic (cf. represents v. Vitelli (p. also evepyfjo-aaav Tip. ^j oe. s. as to the origin of the two modes of representing the syllables riNETAI. 7. interest from the varying forms It is some under which it appears. and in other combinations of the syllable ]ue (e. Tr)v XII-XIIIj. 1149).lo ABBREVIATIONS IX GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. which seems one of the peculiarities of the Grotta Ferrata school. bena from Vat. etbeac from the no illustration . 20 from Laud. 5 ^ by Vitelli. XI). Museum Xonnus. 22 (a. from Laur. cn&jTrjy trjfirjrpas. The waved line which in minuscule represents both at and e is universal in the verbal endings -juevoc and -Meea. and relation ap and ep. is this mode of abbreviation found . 2. p. rare. 11.a>pi]6ri(TovTai s. 2 from Roe 16. B. . spelling of the ms. may be illustrated by rpd9eiv from Isidore (a. XIThe abbreviation whether sufficiently precise evidence as (p. 19. eela rpa9H from Angel. 21 from XII) \ 22 from Turin B. 89 (s. from a ms. 3 from mathematical X). 5. Lehmann's article on e is thorough and practically sufficient. 169) of the syllable be at the beginning or in the middle of a word viz. AE. juevei from the London Nonnus). bexerai bebwKooc Eather unusual ligatures are nos. i. X). 72. But the abbreviation of e attached to other consonants I is comparatively (s.

Mus. eiv.. 1298. that I know of where the suppl. use the proper they use both modes of abbreviation. eiv following four have a common sign for hv and iv. and a foHiori inferences from. . A. Yen. F. the usage of Nonnus. E. the point. Ferr. A correct account of the ms. Laur. I have not may here say once and for all. eiv. HN. B. Grott..lv paid attention to drawn up" or drawn down. for eiv Bodl. 5 (Caten. 33 sq. 986) '^i cf. no is (s. (s. for iv are used recur constantly. in Evang. I Brit.riNETAI— EIN. > Prof. B. mss. i. that Lehmann's statements of. 18231. and consists in the ordinary tachygraphical sign for jj. iv are question somewhat \ represented by the single sign are the five Arethas-mss. (986). another ms. 35. X). Lucian. is correctly stated cir- by Lehmann. 28. B. Clarke 12. s. duplicated the earliest dated ms. The following two differentiate i. . 41 (Caten. 888). mss. while is cqjj^arently always written in full : Iliad a. ly. is know an exact parallel. eiv. On the other side. XI). in Matth. in lob. n. but have a common sign for hv and iv: Aiigel. Aristotle Auct. the s. XII). that Lehmann's observations upon the mode at different periods— whether the strokes were are 2 where they abbreviate eiv. Euclid (a. iii. tachygraphical symbol that » The abbreviations of this ms. lo. 4. X-XI).. had originally a common sign. and that at a doubling of later period they were differentiated by the for iv. 14 (Liban. p. and iv original sign being appropriated to hv. : Urbin. X ineunt. ib. Angelica B. 4. the adding of diacritic points. Angel. C. 2. Add. grec 469 A sign is used for eiv is the Nonnus Paris (a. iv (992) \ A late example 4 (i of the use of the original sign 106). Bodl. whether in regard of given on p. 55. dnoQTd^eiv niveiv. but those The two Grotta Ferrata . At what time and under what cumstances these steps took place cannot at present be determined the statistics here presented may advance the Manuscripts in which hv. EIN.'c. T. 19. cpepeiv. IN. s. i Canon. 3) of forming the compendium for . Ferr. undated but before the twelfth centur3^ A very remarkable usage occurs on a page of Vallicell. entirely erroneous. 3. epp. Clement (914). B.need modification. X). II The proposition that the three syllables hv. Plato (896). Vat. for €iv. trated in the words wept afiaprrj^iaTcop /cat KkripiKcov. tachygraphy or the ordinary system of abbreviation. Auct. a. the the sign. are strictly limited in number. I did not find instances of ir. ay. s. It is illus- tenth-century minuscule bound up with the ms. ValliceU. Bodl. Vitelli thinks (p. a. Grott..). 7 (Oaten. I do not lo.

105 1). 3 (s. Genuens. etc bia9epeiv. 9 Manuscripts in which stands for hc and in all three syllables are the Clarke Plato. 218 OrjaavplCds creai'Tw. 1066). Kooiue'iv esTiv. Bodl. A. comparatively rare it . cf. appear to write the syllable eic in fulP. observation (p. and Clement Mutin. earlier and (2) that the differentiation of than that of iv from hv. 2 (1075). 230^ particular conclusion can be drawn than that the old system lasted long. certainly not late in the tenth century. navHrupeic from Bodl. 9. ii. and I think Lehmann's remark (p. 57) well-founded. vneic. g. v. Hjueic Euclid Laur. 2) that the double sigma in the sense of half of the tenth century is Clarke Plato. where in of Arethas the etc was in use in the first more than confirmed by the the scholia that come from the hand word . as a rule the proper tachygraphic sign for but the single full. sigma occurs occasionally. Harl. Par. abbreviation etc is.. that the . E. and doubtless in many other tenth-century mss. Auct.. - now an example in Vat. From these instances it is plain that no more . 126: the D'Orv. Later dated examples are 105 1). grec 469 A in (986). 5. 67). began IS. The Grotta Ferrata school use eic. 230 (a. eiv HI. relatively to hv and eiv. from Ell. (a. the . 70 (1104). by Lehmann. ^ My I notes do not give an instance from this ms. I a A BBRE VIA TIONS IN GREEK MA N US CRIP IS. Mutin. iv. Lucian. evoxdoeic occurs with the final syllable thus represented stands for in the rest of the ms. Lastly. of find eiv abbreviated. T.. oneiibeiv. Christ. S. Clarke it ic 12. Iliad Ven. 2 (a. Auct. drevi^eiv Aed. 1982. pHGeioiv. ic e. rare (a similar remark is made . 28. is usually written in Early examples of the ordinary double sigma are 9ooKeic Demosth. Vitelli's 169. Genuens. in early mss. the last four mss. eAGcooiv. HV p. n. X-XI) two dated instances are buvdjueic from Mutin. would seem) in Nonnus Par. . however the single sigma seems always to be found. neither nor ic is abbreviated (as suppl. has the later usage throughout for the syllables eiv. 7 (1057). eKepe\j/€ic from Nonnus the syllable these mss. Vat. 1982 of y for m : f. and the new system began early but Ijerhajjs it may be said (i) that the abbreviation of iv was. Euclid.

words cf. (schol. The ordinary sign for hc hardly needs conThe itacistic " occurs in Laud. Vat. (s. gr. as observed above. eni thc. diacritic To turn 2 (a. . avdrvooGic. i already adduced cf. x. XIV) TO. ms. already appears 9. 2 fs. a far earlier Bodl. but it 5. gr. 2 (Etym. ajcoi'a?] Vat. thv. '^. ii. e. 1 982. n. Magn. in Iliad. An usage of the double " for ic. Genuens. Bodl.3 syllable is often cf. eic i. article. p. fls TTjv Grott. Les scoJiefi . GuveAeusic. touc. Auct.. 11 n. i. XI). eic (s. Z. Prof. firmation. also 6tr Tovi aioiva^. I ). Martin. E. have found the form tov. i. rov. . 12 eic XII) D'Orv. mostly written in and where con- itacistic tracted represented by the strict tachy graphic symbol. the compendium. certainly of the tenth century. XII) eic Tov (bis). Clarke 12 this I f. to dots occurs in Mutin. TIC. 189 r. 1456 XI).. is i by Aofiojuoi. that the sigma was strictly speaking unrepresented in the later sign with the (a. ejy tovto Vat. (no. full. Auct. A ^ Cf. eioiv the ligature occurs not in combination with the .g. Vitelli (12 . in the Grotta Ferrata mss. and with the sigma expressed and ground for explaining the form ligature for so the scribe ei think gives some the itself as ordinary plus a cross-stroke to denote abbreviation it who used for elaiv would have been conscious ic. is though from The sign occurs freely in the middle of the same ms. xvii. 1066) Kpi'aic. du niannscrit d'Arisfoplntiie a Tlarenue. is juopcpoooic. The form - is in fact fairly common. 251 s. T. Misc. Laud. of Odyssey-scholia [Aristarchs Horn. ElZ. p. juisoc Bodl. KpanoTe from Clarke 1 2. The syllable. Texi698) \ In one instance. eic (s. KeKAeiGjuevai I. KiveisBai 2) enough abbreviated in the middle of a word from Clarke 12. min. occurs in Laud. XI). gr. in 1075) ms. Mutin. 230 ii. dno othc. of the sort noticed Vitelli. and it is evidently the sign found by Ludwich in the Hamburg hritih. Ferr. Cf. eic. s. xxv. KaewnAiaxo Iliad Ven. (a. and a marginal gloss where both usages occur together. 172 n. . 105 1) 2. fiy t\ovs a. that this an exception shown by panriajuaToc . eic in Clarke rd. KaAunrouoHc 9paTTouGHc The (scholia). i. challenges the explanation of a ligature I eic for of which he gives examples 12.

the shape the sign assumes in the Arethas-mss. Vat. occurs in Clarke 12. cf. '^ And (Ix^v. 6. (992). (Paris portion) offer 8 and 9.. is is prolonged n. p. p. nevOepac Auct. a. ev Lucian. oubev Mutin. 66) by which they are due to the desire for symmetry. a. 2 from Plato Paris 1807. BodL Misc. 14. B. or that of Graux (Rev. GooGHeijuev [sic]. 3 a similar form from Vat. ev0ev cf. 1982 ^ In explaining the genesis of the original form it is difficult to accept either Lehmann's view that the two dots come by false analogy from the sign for fVr/. E. Paris grec 251 no. oo':)^ojnev cf. 1982 eAerev 9 strictly tachygraphical sign by no means (s. here and in without accent or breathing. etc. second hand. For other tenth-century 5. 3 no. 7 from Lucian shewn by 4 from Euclid. 1982 no. downstroke (VitelH. Angelica T. pouAnGevTa Clarke 12. in The The is which the ev. and the odd ligature 235 (s. compendium in the by evHOKouai from Clarke To the various forms of the sign for elvai given by Lehmann and Vitelli I add the following: nos. 15. . (Aristides. AerojLiev Kaxexojuevoi Vat. 1823 1. from the Harl. Notices Bibliographiques. iv. Auct. iv. that are not otherwise particularly tachygraphic e. from Barocc. from Plato f 395 v. 2). The horizontal type 28. occurs Vat. no. Angel. also ev XII). is illus- use of the trated EINAI. Demosthenes S and the Anthol. Crit. Ferr. evroAdc Nonnus Add. is XI-XII) no. 13. 230 (a. 1 1 from the London Nonnus. 17. (a. Pal. eicibeajuev by juevroi. -. 3. i. 105 tion 1). ixkv (bis) ev (bis) unojuvnoojuev Nonnus juev Add. i. 12 jpassim. g. no. 11. and found in : mss. which are apparently a near approach to the original form'. 8 XI) (s. E. . middle of a word 12. 5 from Plato. eoiKev. i i X-XI) Ferr. (s. Laur. further ojuiAoujuev 5. 992) no. 18231. . no. Vat. i8passm. juev. Grott. 1298 X-XI) is . 10 . 16. B. Grott. mss. 6eev Poe 16. It will be observed that these forms are either variain right angles or slight departures therefrom.1 4 A BBRE VIA TIONS LY GREEK MA NUSCRTP TS. 11. rare. occurs the stroke for abbreviation. B. Hermog. 1878. 1298 1983 EN. The form which illustrated ev this syllable takes in the Arethas-mss.

EINAI— EI.
EP.

15

Of both the methods of representing ep there are abundant examples in older minuscule. The more common
is

perhaps

that consisting of a stroke, inclined to the
line,

left,

but

above or below the

with a ring attached

;

this is to be
i,

found
28,

in the scholia of the

D'Orv. Euchd (onep

Hnep),

the Clarke Plato (onep
3 (onep
4),

3),

Laur. 2), Clarke 12 (uneppoAHv), Mutin. 126 (unep 3,
bis),
4),

Plato Paris 1807 (unep

onep

Vat. 1298 (unep

Mutin. 193, Lucian
(iljanep,
e.

(ei'nep),

Mutin.

12,

s.

XII.

in the Grotta Ferrata school,

g.

XI-XII. and throughout suveproi Nonnus, onepiua
s.

dnep),

G. F. B.
a. iv.,

a. i.,

bepjuarivouc
ib.

Angel. B.

3.

11, unep 9uaiv

G. F. B.

onep obsnep

B.

a. iii.

The second mode, the simple

cross-stroke, of

whatever

origin,

may

be seen in the text

of the D'Orv. Euclid

(cinep),

often in the scholia to the

Clarke Plato (coanep onep unep), in those to Demosthenes

Z

(coonep 2, onep
'

Vallae

parallel

and it occurred in the now lost codex of Archimedes \ I have suggested under rap a to the form quoted by Vitelli, p. 15.
2),
'

EZ.

The normal use of the sign
is

for ec

(e. g.
;

as in viKoovrec
it is

from the Harl. Lucian)

well established

less

com-

mon
line.

to find it either in the middle of a

word or upon the
;

Of the former
from Auct. E.

case rfeveoeai dpeoKeiv from Clarke 12,
S-

egeoTiv

n
3.

are examnles

for the latter

one

may compare
B,

jLtdSaviec

Plato Par. 1807, Aeovrec Mutin.
11,

126, beonoToi Angel. B.
evi'^ovrec ib.

ouveipaviec
a. iii.,

G. F. B.

a.

i.,

a. iv., eoTiv ib.

B.

cpedoavrec dnoAei'veaeai

by which the double apostrophe, aic, is employed for ec, of which Vitelli gives some instances, p. 12, is more widely spread than is commonly supposed, and occurs in mss. of a good age and often otherwise carefully written such are the
Vat. 1982.

The

itacism

ordinary representative of

;

well-known Laur.

D

of the Iliad (32, 15)
s.

juevovrec.

Angel.

C. 4. 14 (Liban. epp.

X-XI)

boKoOvrec dvaAobaaviec, Bodl.

' As we are told by the writer of the Angelica C. 2. 6, who gives a table of the abbreviations used in his archetype I take thence nep and the explanation. Cf. Heiberg, Philologus 42, p. 421 sq., and my own notes on the Biblio:

teca Angelica, forthcoming in the Classical Ben'eir.

]6

ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS.
4.

Auct. T.
I

19

(s.

X

exeunt.) bebooKorec j^assim, Laud. gr.

gr. 37 (s. XII) cHjuaivoovxec KaAouvrec, XI) anavxec, Barocc. 235 (s. XI) ibovrec, 89 Bibl. Corsini 41 G. i6(Evang. s. XII) pAenovxec baijuovoovrec, Vallicell. E. 29 (s. X) eKxeTHKOTec.
baijuovec navrec,

Laud.

Laud.

gr.

(s.

EITAI,

One

of the most interesting of

and that may almost be said to since the appearance of Lehmann's handbook,
that represents earai

Greek compendia, have been discovered
is

the sign

— almost

technical in geometrical mss.,

but occurring with a certain frequency in mss. of other subjects. The sign was originally found by Bast in the ms. S. Germ. 249 (Comm. Pal., p. 810), and this is the
only instance that
(p.

Lehmann
it in

has before him

;

Prof

Vitelli

168) has found

the Laur. Aeschylus, the Aristotle
3.

Paris grec 1853, and the Euclid Laur. 28.

The

oldest

instance that I

am

able to give of

it

is

the

Fragmentum

mathematicum Bobiense, £ 1 1 4 v. 30 in Belger's copy, Hermes XVI, where Belger misreads it dpa \ Next it is used in most of the Arethas-mss. the Bologna Euclid Archiginnasio A. i. 18 ^ has it, and doubtless most other
;

mathematical mss. before the twelfth century lastly, it is one of the many compendia used by the scribe of the
;

Bodleian Epictetus Misc.
the following -chain
:

251

{s.

XII).

Hence we get

i

Frag. Bobiense, 2-4 D'Orv. Euclid
8 Urbin. Aristotle,
28, 3 rather different to the

(text), 5 ib. (scholia), 6 Plato, 7 Lucian,

9-12 forms from Laur.
given by
Vitelli,

one

13-16 from the Bologna Euclid, 17-20 from the Bodl. Epictetus. I enclose in brackets Prof Vitelli's no. 53 for greater completeness. On comparing these forms with those given by Bast and Vitelli, it
appears
(i)

that

the

dots' signifying

t

are

absent and
;

present indifferently in mss. of the same age (2) that, with this qualification, the original form is best represented by the type given by tlie Bobbio fragment and the text
^

to

I have to defer the proof of this statement, but its trath anyone who tries to read the passage grammatically.

will be evident

^

Heiberg's

b, saec. xi.

EITAI-K.

17

of the D'Orville Euclid, and that the letters contained in

the sign are therefore

(t)

+

a

+

the tachygraphic
1.

i

either

attached to or crossing the downstroke of a
late

(3)
i
;

The
the

forms 17-20 are direct descendants of no.
Vitelli's no.

transition from one type to the other will be plain if

we

53 written with the His no. 39 I should be inclined to explain as due to carelessness on the part of the scribe, but in any case it does not disturb the general result ^.

imagine such a form as
curve open instead

of closed.

I.

The

curious expedient of representing, in late

manuis

scripts, iota

by two dots on a

level

with each other,
it

well known, but not so universal that

may
;

not be

worth while illustrating from four dated mss. viz. kojujuQTiKov from Coll. Nov, 258 (a. 1298 written by Demetrius Triclinius) where the usage is frequent, juvhgGhti from a note in Roe i that bears the date 141 7, retoprioi from Matinensis 118 (a. I4?8)2, and KovreAeovTi from Vat. Ottobon. 58
(a.

1538).

IN A.

A

simple contraction for

i'va,

consisting of an iota with
occurs in three mss. of
(s.

a mark of abbreviation beneath

it,

my
(s.

observation:

Angel. T.

i.

8

XI), Vallicell. E. 40
(s.

XI), and the Bodleian Epictetus, Misc. 251
is

XII).

The form
K.

practically the

same

in all three

•*.

The

article in

Lehmann shows

well

how
k,

the

waved

line,

descendant of the original tachygraphic
^

represents final

Lehmann's analysis (p. 104) comes near to this, thougli in the single form it was impossible to perceive the direct presence of the a. (Since the article on eo-rai was written, I have found instances of both the plain and the dotted form in the Aristotle Ven. 201 of a.d. 955. In either case the form was open, and the example is important as an indication of the age at which this tendency manifested itself.) ^ To Lehmann's account of f ort little exception is to be taken I doubt howgiven by Bast
;

ever his statement
V

(p. 102)

that the horizontal line over

./.

in Vat. 1809 denotes

— surely
^

it

is
i

the general sign of omission.

Curious representations of the

word are

from G. F. B. n. iii, no. 2 from Laud. gr. i (s. XII). On the date I must refer to my notes on the Estense in the Classical
no.
It is to

Revieiv for February, 1889.
*

be seen also in

Vallicell. E. 63
is

(s.

XII), a ms. in a

hand not unlike

that of the Bodleian Epictetus, and

probably common.

C

^. 9. diKaiocrvvrj. Nonnus however 5. where . Kaxd 3 (6) the abbreviation suffice 5. e. gr. KaraiMv Angel. 8 (s. E. ^ Prof. enieujuHxiKoo Clarke 39. 47 (s. viKaia. Notices Bibliographiques. that I have seen taxpiKH. ouK enibeiKTiKoac. His examples however admit aTroo-roXi/cj)?. 172) considers the waved line in the sense of the syllable Kai a 5- rarity. E. ' 165. e. Crit. I have found it in at least four mss. 990. 12 Vat. i'88o. ]ua- Auct.g. Vitelli 15) has given Kard. X). much of the ms. firia-KOTTcov from Vallicell. E. (a) much illustration of the may distinguish (i) modes of representing partial abbreviation. Auct. '' I. 3. k. 9. 9 1. 298 '. T. A few examples will to illustrate this cf Kard 9 KarabiooKeiv Bodl. ei'pHKev. Paris 2 2. dpiGjuHTiKH. Instances of terminations other than -koc are jLtiKpov ^c(^c(KToc Clarke Plato. KATA. gr.. also KaraXafjL^dvco Par. is appears from KareXa^tv from the same ms. eeoopHTiKoC lajupiKoc Clarke noAiriKov Auct. usually exhibits the case-termination. 15 (Iliad D). etSbojUHKovrdKic Demosth. Kara 2 KOxeKdei i^ic) ] and 4 Laur. the proper tachygraphical KaxabuojuevH sign. Eev. XI). The sign universal in the more tachygraphical parts of in as Nonnus. p.. Auct. erivcoGKov. 587 XII). syllables beginning with cf. a superimposed Lambda that afterwards assumes . : The usage 12. F. etc. so also juepiKHv Auct. * Cf. Rather individual forms of the k with case-termination are (yKXrjfxaTiKia. (p. KOKd Laud. e. chiefly but not exclusively is ter- minations in -Koc. Nonnus Add. very constant in mss. Kard 11. I. 9. confined to the other letters. (2) Complete abbreviation. is 28. Laud (s.1 8 A BBRE VIA TIONS IN GREEK MA NUSCRIP TS. 39 Kaipov. i. etc. One k is the tachygraphically rendered so Kaid i KOTaxptoaac often in the London Nonnus.g. or Clarke 12. E. . but does not occur written in minuscule A. where the pair of dots appear to do double duty. Kaxd 5 Vat. 18231. Vitelli (p. KaTa9e6ipei Vat. 32. How uncertain the use of the symbol various shapes. Roe 16 XIII). Neither Lehmann nor Prof. E. ^ 11 Kai(Tapeia. dneAaariKHv. Kaicrapos. 5. is Clarke 12. Kpov Laur. 1316 (s. 1982. 1298. Kara 6 Vat. Plato 5. Kara 7 and 8 Vat. as is Lehmann's account of the 5 traction for syllables and usage of the conbeginning with Lambda is deorio^in servedly commended by Graux. iKKAHoiaoTiKHc. Kara 10 Demosthenes 1.

. One of the most curious signs that is still remain for the palaeographer to analyse that occurring in some s. oujupoAov Clarke 12. naCAac. whether the eOHpdaajuev 176 v. Lastly. give as types 6 yos. The Grotta Ferrata : school use the contraction not unfrequently KcovGTavTivonoAeooc so kukaoc. the Arethas-ms. E. Lucian. of. Nonnus. 450 (s. may i be cited: (the Laud. eeoAdrou. Clarke X^. Otherwise (Frag. juevouv ib. though rarely. 9 (but 6 dnoaioAoc ib. gr. It may be well therefore to say here briefly. and even where the percentage earlier enquirers Vitelli does by not notice ^ It may be worth is noticing that the simple contraction for Xo'yoy and I its compounds Xoyov "^ freely used in the Arethas-mss. . Bibl. 38 (for the syllable /xe). A in all of these instances how the right stroke of the A is prolonged. Z. form toG biapoAou). 73 v. 11. pasiAeiov Nonnus Paris suppl. Lucian f. I add a somewhat more interesting example.) xeAoc. Xuyovs. Xoyos 2. B. manuscripts for quotations of it 6]uo0. oKoyov. 39. 5. Ferr. by no means tachygraphic. it. has collected the and Gitlbauer (Vat. OMOY. n. Bobiense. Both Graux. 161. p. contraction for fxera^v which I cannot satisfactorily explain occurs in the Clarke Plato f. E. of the poems of Gregory Nazianzen. et For other tachygraphical usages 1 of this ms. that the number of a-rixoi is in this case precisely the number of verses in the poems. Laud. The form occurs in mss. p. Xoyov. in . F.. okoAhvov. The Bodleian ms. ^jy v. evXoyos. isoGKeAec Plato. from Grott. p.g. Freer examples from the same 5. 2 have demanded information upon the stichometry of this ms. gr. Revue Critique 1878. i. i. 57 v. 1809). C 2 . frequently the tachygraphical symbol for particle or a syllable in a saej). B. gxoAhv. a few eleventh-century mss. n. KecpdAaiov djuneAov Demosth. KaivoXoyos. ^ * A . noAic Lucian other tenth-century examples are nauAoc. grec it 469 A. from Phot. eccentric MEN. under Kard and re *. has not un]uev. a. a. 12 saec. Harl. KATA— OMOY. grec 990.^ V.e.. e. 2. from the Harl. napapoAAv will be noticed Iliad Yen. Ven.. I. the instance in the table. Euclid) fiera^v is represented by §1. enioroAHc. so often already cited. X)\ Selden supr.. largely of multiplication. 124. and Vitelli. Lehmann v. century are enioroAHv Auct. D'Orv. paoiAeuc Auct. See also infra under Par. noAic. word so ]uev f. dXoycos Further of. 19 The use occurs. dnooroAoi G.

XI-XII). 73). the accent and breathing are run parallel strokes crossed . is Another instance nXijdns from Par. it 1 809 the single stroke i is vertical. and may either have the rough breathing and circumflex or be without either and in late mss. ouf. s. 114 v. To the examples given by (s. no. npoc 198 v. Prof. : it common cf drarovxec from Euclid..' . that offers .ojuoO ON. also (piKinTTov. together into a single waved line (so analyses it).20 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS.. . 39 XI ineunt. s. 2 Mutin. i ^. Coxe but it may be as much as a centuiy later. ap. o/iotcoj. Bobiense. 71 (Synaxarium. Saec. ai. distortion (s. mathemat. 7 Other instances of the compendium are no. 3032 cf. Belger Hermes XVI. it is most common perhaps in mathematical mss. n. no. A. in the is middle of words as Lehmann's examples suggest in the Arethas-mss. V. TOP ^ " from the latter ms. from Vat. XIII). var. e. dnoaroAoc f.. also s.) xeAoc Kovovcov toov ev viKaia.). 73) juovov. OZ. 1404. XV). 4 Mutin. ' ' of ordinary abbreviation is not great it . toc. no. is given in the table: Bologn. 11. I add some ineunt. 18 (Euchd. 6 aurdc toivuv Aofoc 182 An 26. 990. the double stroke in the sense of the single (Lehm. XI). r. 904 (s. i. Two additions may be made ov. for ^ * ofioioi/ (p. 3032. . g. 6 from Par. (Synesius. Archigin. eveprouvTOC 338 v. 191 (circ. XI ineuntis. no. gr.).*"' r. 8 from Vat. gr. 28. is A curious misapprehension. a ms. 5 from Laud. 26 oc in ordinary mss. form. meaning ^ 990. R -. nai^ovrec Plato. 55 or Vat. n. Lehmann rightly In Vat. occurs as early as Laud. s. (2) The single stroke is not so seldom met with . V. etc. ' plate no. but occurs in others also It consists of where it is necessary to add up a total. but it must be admitted that certainty as to its is difficult. identical form appears to be presented inihe Frag. 1319 (s. to the otherwise very full article of Lehmann's upon (i) The illegitimate use of p.. f. and that the two crossing horizontal \ but later the form viz. XV). 3 is to be compared with the sign given by Vitelli 172. two by a single one. I. Xeyovres Par. cipXovTec. More remarkable examples are oVrw? Par. from Laur. Vitelli (p. XI some other 249 ' peculiarities of contraction'' viz. 4) of the tachygraphical sign for instances from Barocc. eKoviec Lucian ^. 9uAdTTovTac. 3 s.

76) leaves to have met with any account the question open. that which is closed in ouv may similarly be inferred to sent V. Ferr. no. Compare ovp as represented in Vat. 9. cf. T. n. from the Paris Greek Anthology. X) toutouc touc niGTeuovxac. 3032. it is plain that they have one part in common.). 992) is perhaps worth recording. represent ^ OYI. Aiict. f. cf. grec 469 A (Nonnus a. 41 (s. The double waved line (Vitelli pp. 61 (s. 992). (a. 2. ^ I give a few examples of the sign for on. resembles the primitive form as given in Vat. a combination frequent in Grott.g. suppl. and the unusual ligature pepaioCvroc. 2. I take almost ouv random KaAouvrai. 469 A. X) tolc . may be taken to repre- and while the open curve in ev \vi\ stand for e. no. 986). . also nos. XV). 22. 1809. Of the ordinary form of the compendium for this syllable illustration is needless somewhat remarkable forms however are dAAouc Par. v. occurs in Roe 16 (s. iv. whether is as the particle or the syllable. 5 " from Vallicell. 18231. 39 eKooToc. C. 4 from Par. is by gr. These examples may go some way toward (p. e. in either case. 21 Of the genesis of the symbol I do not remember (s. from Land. Laud. X). a. 180 v. If however we compare this ordinary sign for ouv with the tachygraphic symbol for ev (v. nepi toG further Aoroc KaTa9aTiK('c (a.ON — OYI. onooc oOv from the D'Orv. 21 little noticed hitherto. I. Euclid. 1809. : stroke therefore. namely the crooked stroke that concludes either compendium this . ouv 2 from Par. B. a. ouv from Barocc. i. npoc uvoc Grott. awearwros. C. grec suppl. I from the Clarke Plato. Lehmann's doubt 75) about the meaning of the sigma in the two words resolving that he quotes from Sabas \ OYN. 2 (s. from Clarke 12 f. no. Ferr. hardly needful. is an instance of the omission of the dots. npoc. 195 r. Theophrastus Urbinas 61 (s. 3. supra). at Illustration of this common compendium. B. napaxeeevTOc and oxiGjuajiKwv .. B. XI ineunt. Lehmann {p. 39 touc xpovouc. XII). nveujuariKouc. Another mode of expressing oc. iv. 169) gr. rKTepoc Bodl. Nonnus add. an uncial sigma. Touc Tonouc Vallicell.

. napa 9 Vallicell.) okidQai-vovcnv^ rov Xaov. T. napd 5 napaboSoav Laur. Par. 10 (s. s. a few others. X). (2) n with the topstroke crossed by a slanting line. 3. F. 1 1. napabpajuoav Isidore. contrary system as well. napdox^J^viai from so tachygraphic a ms. Auct. qutouc xpioTiavouc OYTOZ. ib. it is sec. frequent in the Arethas-scholia cf. B. 4. further 6 ouTOoc Vat. (3) A certain number of : mss. napabebojuevov from Nonnus. 1 1 (man. napajuueHodjuevoc Plato. i (p. in which not round but angular. offer instances of both forms at once. 5 outoc. 7 ouTooc Vat. 2 5. ^ 4. X-XI) hAXous. iii. grec A 469. 26. eAeueepoujuevouc. riAPA. napapoAflc Mutin. vii. Euclid. napd tov. 30 (s. Angel. F. 1809. n.) avjovs. To Vitelli's examples cf. Turin B. . X exeunt. occurs in '. The the usual method followed by the Grotta cf. and + may be thought not to need exemplification some instances from mss. 19 (s. A. napd Urbin. 8 outooc Mutin. ( i) The former is by far the more common. etc. Euclid (text). has the more usual system so napd 10. however. is may add 3. 3 for ou. outooc. ii. Auct. 12. XI-XII). cross-stroke is napabeirjuaxa. as Vat. 990 avveXdovarjs see further under Tachygraphy. 4. 19. napd jueTpwv from Bodl. also irnpa 8 Valiiccll. the single Tonouc^.. suppl. Ferrata school. B. 3. I give however : for any reason noticeable from Plato Paris 1807. S. napdpaoiv Angel. 193 (Lucian. (4) I have 1 1 Par. waved line (the proper tachygraphic ''^. G.22 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. (scholia). in addition to Vat. outoi. F. that are napd I. 3. The abbreviation outoo almost a 2 oCtooc feature of the Arethas-mss. 1298. cf napaKaAoo napd T. . Cf. X). 1982 in its nature^ as (2) The other njethod is Lehmann rightly observes. (i) The word napd may be compendiously expressed by n the sign for dpa. . napd 3 Nonnus Par. E. napaAmdov Demosth. ^ The form of the sign Bodl. a. 3032 yov^. B. 35^. 1982. 9. At the same time the Plato-scholia use the e. I etc. napd 6 napapAHefl Toic D'Orv. napd tov Auct. napd 4 Iliad Ven. outooc Lucian . napoiKAHoiv napacpuAoKH Clarke 12. napd 7 Lucian. tachygraphic. g. Beside the Clarke Plato quoted above. The twelfth-century ms. 3) of outoc. 47 (s. 28. sign) in Barocc.

The difference consists in a hook at the top of the 91). XI) must apparently be explained as an individual error of the scribe's. have not seen the sign for npoc in the Arethasits place scholia. 11. represented. T) some acquaintance with tachygraphy. The upon the forms given above leads us back to the type that is in use in Vat. a. 8 Epictetus Bodl. npoc 5 Anth. 170. p. 87) must be read to be believed.. and is found in mss. An exaggeration of this variation appears to be the form napd 13 which I take from Angel. rac 11. I. 1809. napabeiriuoTiKooc. who had (v. (scholia" to the Paris portion) A npoordxai npoc 6 Yat. It is extraordinary that a doubt can exist as to the origin of this sign. in Psalm. 34. otherwise of the ordinary type of writing far more often than is usually supposed. cf. 24. if the semi-circle were 1298 wanting. The speculations in Lehmann (p. T. slightest reflection . — form: cf nos. 59. iii. 1298. 1-4. it is curious that these forms. A degraded form s. Grotta Ferrata. s. 14) from Laur. 32. few instances of its occurrence elsewhere are npooconov. 15 Lastly. 235 (Caten. Angel. XI) \ T. TTPOZ. Vitelli (p. . The representation of t by across the following vowel or syllable will show. is npoc 9 from Barocc. upstroke. the singular form napd 14 (Liturgiae. noticed some variations in the 33 more usual form which cannot be explained as coalescence of accent (Lehmann p. a. Pal. Z. npoc 7. napd 12 from Vat. 251. B. napasKtuHv. and of -which not a bad example will be found under the Each of the four letters is xiith century ms. 32. 25). two dots placed over or is one of the most characteristic and consistently carried out practices of Greek tachygraphy. C 8 (s. would be almost exactly like those given by Prof. p. and it will probably be found not to occur It is constant however in the text of the is taken by np. a large and characteristic D'OrviUe Euclid (Stephanus) I . It is in fact often the only trace of tachygraphy that a ms.OYTOI— T. 4. npoGKAoajuevoc. 7. misc. 9 and Laur. 1165). The scanty account by Prof in Lehmann has been greatly added to ^ Vitelli (xa. 9 (jilate nos. npoc rd Demosth.

Par. noxe 4 Hermog. Misc. xdc Bodl. 40. a.. of ^ . cooxe a. orav 3032. Grott. Par. grec 1983. (s. ndvxec dnoAauoovxec 12 (s. Vat. Kaxa9opouvxac (a. 32.. A a. Auct. iii. ouxe 5. 2) i.34 ABBREVIATIONS 173.. collection of instances. exovrac Demosth. tou IIV GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. tcoc 11). 9. xto 70. 22. Aeovxec Mutiu. 138 (s. E. B. Add. 3. 11. ^ 11 (man. evioTe coGxe Mus. x6x€ noxe Clarke 12. For ra v. rdc Vat. It is worth recording however that the use occurs passim in the Ravenna Aristophanes. Hjuexepoic Par. The notation appears from the Arethas-schoHa.. 18. 2 Par. 3. evi^ovxec dvapdvxec Clarke 12. toov i re ib. here or under es. ouxe 3 Bologn. (pedoavxec naAaioavxec Vat.. ouxe 4. XII). 126 (Clement). Angel. T<^l^: jii€juvHTai Nonn. noxe xoxe ojoxe juhWe Neap. 1 ndvxec Iliad Ven. I have not concerned myself. 251. bpdaavxec Angel. A. s. i. 1 Par. KaiposKonoOvxec Mutin. 1982. Ferr. Vat. T. xond^ovxac Turin B. cooxe 5. and I am able to offer here first some further syllable. ovxec exovxec Laur. A. eauxdc Angel. T^C ndvxac Nonn. 8. iv (992). 1982. II. dnejunoAoOvxac Vallicell. 2)-. Ferr. is taken from Museum Nonnus cases where the example strictly comes from the tachy graphic part of that ms. ib. xeKvoic. T. (i. 22 149). evxaCea Vat. XII). Archigin. B. 990. with the illegitimate use of the two dots in the sense of er. Hermog.. coaxe tooxe 2. esjai Par. : noAejuoOvxac Barocc. Tec : 9ooxiaeevxec Nonn. 8. The example of each the British by way of type. I.. (circ. 982. 191 1404). E. and is most remarkable in a ms. T<^N : OTQv Nonn. B. Brit. are entirely absent enclosed in brackets. 990. 138. . 28. 2 T<^IC : I from Nonn. grec 1983. 28. nepiAapovxec i. Tolc 11. xunouxe Bodl. xauxHc xaGxa Par. Nonn. 990.. I Laur. 3 Thucydid. 990. T^Y 76: : xauxaic Nonn. XI). A. 3. 3032. juooxonoiHsavxec Barocc.727 5. 1. Grott.. ouxe 1298. 9opoOvTai Par.

Ferr. 8. B. H. rex^^iVTes (scholia. 3. 990. unep 2 unep gov Nonnus. i. Tl : napeoTi Vat. : TIN eoTLv Grott.. i. 4 Vallicell. huKnepavres (text). 3 Laud. 1982. 11. B. 8. djuuHToo Par. aurcu eaurco outoo Vat. 2 Grott. Vat. xix (a. T. unep Aorov Gr. 990.). in addition to those already brought together by M. 2 (Etym. XIV). toIc Vat. B. Ferr. THN : 25 a. 251. cpoiToivToov Par.. Cf however unep Ta)v unep cpcoKeoov from Demosth. 990. TON TOC : auTov Nonn. AeAHeorooc Bodl. 990. coojuaToc outoc Vat. 9eapTov Par. that age and style. Albert Martin in his admirable study upon this ms. unep i from Grott. 43. tov. a. I Noun. Ferr. Mutin.. TOIC: TouToic Nonn. : auTQC Nonn. outouc touc Vat. 1982.. ndvToov D'Orvill.. T. The tachygraphic abbreviation to said for unep cannot be occur frequently outside of the Grotta Ferrata school. tou Petr. eaurov e9eauT6v Vat. i. OUTOOC Par. D. in. tcov ovtoov Angel. 1982. Toov 1982. B. iv. Arch. 1982. Ferr. bia navroc Par. TtOC : ouTooc Nonn. iii. eiKorooc i. Cf. TCON I. 990. 45 (Galen.. B. This hand of the scholia may serve as another proof of the identity of the hands. 990. 990. s. npcoroKdeebpoi Par. Nonn. touto Par. s.T— YnEP. ouToo Nonn. magn. first coincidence between the text and the man. 12. 3032. X.. TOY : auToO S. s. misc. a. toG xpiorou Par.. 1982. unep 3 uneppdc Angel. : ndvTcov toov veoov Vat. I have not found it in the Arethas-scholia. EP. a. . outcoc 1982. YFTEP. v. cpiAoao(p()u TOYC TOJ : : Touc Nonn. 1982. XII-XIII). For the partial-abbreviation. 965). gr. TO : €KTdTO Nonn. ndvTtoc dbiasTdTooc Angel. 990.. which is frequent. Z. toIc biKoioic Par. i passim.

but his own and especially his theory of the original identity of the two signs. 191 circ. viz. upon the origin and relation of the signs for vnep and of proof or disproof. vno. and only distinguished from it by the breathing. B. 1404.26 YTTO. iitto. is identical in shape with the symbol for ano (q. uno 2 uno thc unovoiaic Nonnus. and by a mathematical ms.. 12). 251 . already known from tachygraphy. (2) that the right- hand cross-stroke in either case is a mere mark of abbreviation.). A simple comparison of the common letters in virip. a. QN. Germ. from Certain instances are unobfiiKvuovTa. F. it . Under this head line sign. or in fact. 88) The argumentation between Gitlbauer and Lehmann (Lehm. 3. rightly described article as a by Lehmann : have to notice the tachygraphic at the beginning of his it is waved in fact not unlike it is an open omega ' inverted. revolution of the sign for vnep as a preliminary to explaining it. Epictetus. uno^uriov Angel. so 'no i G. 990'. 11. Misc. uno KaKoO. (2) Another sign. B.) so largely used by the Grotta Ferrata school. n + and though I do not hold this conjecture proved. analysis of Lehmann justly doubts Gitlbauer's halfit . quite unlike the former. In this form used by an ancient hand p. especially as regards the 0. already quoted by Bast (p. and frequent in the Grotta Ferrata mss. uno The fact of one compendium standing for both dno late and uno at once suggests that the letters actually denoted by the sign must be those common to both words. uno 3 Par. ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. 794) from S. 1982 in unobeeelGa (sine further 5 [sic). xix. appear to me no less arbitraiy. letters p and o into substantive symbols for lirep and For an analogy I may refer to my own analysis of the strange sign for iLs (p. Vat. There appear to be two distinct symbols in use ( i ) one. by the : : context. to erect the vtto. with the common strokes in the two compendia suggests that is o (i) the left-hand stroke in vnep is p. but it does not perhaps admit may be allowable to suggest another hypothesis that appears at least as probable. spir. 249. v. uno 4 the same form is the Bodl. clusion arrived at may at all events strengthen the conby Lehmann (p. . A tacbygraphical contraction for uno occurs more frequently than for unep but without being itself common. where the breathing is ambiguous or incorrect. while the left-hand stroke in vivo (the tachygraphic o is a line bent into two curves) . 84) from consideration I of dno alone. probably given by Vat.

XI-XIT. cosnep ib. more with tachygraphy. which the last curve of the sign takes a as turn upwards. 15 (a. 2 demanded by the context. 990. F. to be added to those given by Vitelli (pp. 10. XI). Ferr. cf. navTOKpdioap Vallicell. nXdrav Par. 6 pHToap Bodl. iv. B. Another instance of this form of cos is o^ewy Vat. 15 (text). IL QZ. 1982. D'Orville Euclid ' f. (2) The syllable is found written on the or less connected line most constantly in mss. nAdroov (as a rule the Arethas-mss. i. Vitelli. e. s. it is ws + ep. also Vat. ouTOic. B. 10. by Prof. C. dvTiAHnrcop Laud. 6 was copied. MHTpondroop Laur. ndvTcov Par. E. The examples that form and its position I give of wc are meant to illustrate line. 11. 3. s. 172. g. plate II. as Prof. X). 450 (Phot. cosre Angel. QP. 3032. a. 5. so ware wanep often in the Arethas-scholia. Cf. 32. aa-nep. Misc. but It is found also in the text of the and it existed in the codex Vallae of Archimedes from which Angel. aiirooc. gr. 3 (not cited. the passage in the plate from f. uboop Mutin. 32. 222 v. explaining coc and nooc 2. 40. 2 : (8. among the Plato Arethas-scholia. as often within the e. a. eKToop Iliad Laur.YnO— QI. Toov eeoopHjud Tcov. its A a. iii. retopriKwv Harl. 27 roav ovtwv. 1075). The beginner may with profit contemplate the fourth example of cos in . 171) are pHToop Clarke Plato. Genuens. and that Toov vfcoov word as at the end). X). n. 1982. which. 1456 (s. I2\ n. a peculiarity of the strongly-marked writing of the Plato Paris grec 1807 (cf. Bibl. 2 (a. 28. dic I. few instances of the compendium for this syllable. rau alpert. ^ XI). Bast notices. outooc Nonnus. apxoJv. reooprioc Neap. ' A few more examples are rmv i Vallicell. Vitelli says. p. is no. 1 20 v. dTTiKooc). Lucian (both in the : A scholia). 2. outooc Kopeooc Yat.e. B.Kwi' Ven. \|/uxa)v Angel. (i) with regard to the The slight variation by is. 22. but not unfrequently elsewhere. 15. 29 (s. Tcov dfioov Mutin. <x>c 2 Laur. 2) are roav Early dated examples of the coalescence of the circumflex accent with the ordinary sign (Vitelli p. Vitelli). I. ' cpuoeooc Grott. 251. C. rcbv 2 Vat. use the ordinary form. g. 1165). I think. 193 (Lucian. ^ I make bold to explain in this way the sign given by Prof. text). 3 ^. 4.

writing I also in the D'Orv. I do not remember to have seen or read of a single . . outoo Aerexai xP'Ma Kai XpiojLia.. but at the moment of without examples. It has been often pointed out that in Greek minuscule and late uncial writing there are two systems of abbreviation in use at once far : one. It represents x'^P'Of. 312 sq. Magn. of which by the ms.^a)pi'otf. § 47. Euclid. The second cross-stroke is doubtless a mark of abbrevia3. 28. D'Orville x. I may however here mention one that is quoted by Hultsch ap. any page of Gitlbauer's facsimile. consisting of the is tachygraphical signs for both syllables interlaced. 3 . 258. ]}. on wonep Aerexai Kpoujua koi KpoCsjiia. 28 A BBRE YA 1 T/OXS IN GB EEK MA Nl 'SCRIP TS. p.2 a facsimile is prefixed to Gaisford's edition of the E. Hermes ^ I have in this tract hardly touched the large and mathematical sip'ns. of rare oc- currence and of obviously tachygraphic origin. nor even from Diels' explanation of the Fragmentum Bobiense. Examples i and 2 are x^pioj/. M. Etym. sign for toonep is the separate abbreviation of either syllable of coarse frequent enough. onep from the tachygraphic part of Nonnus \ Tachygbaphy. commoner. upon the same system as that employed in Vat. 4 j^up/a. All these come from Euclid 1877. 1.ending. It consists of x and p rendered tachygraphically. both are at the end iGxeov be of the Ime. Journal des Savants 1 88 1 p. Facts as to the coincidences and di- vergencies of the two systems are well given by in his introductory chapters. but that has not hitherto found an explanation. s. The context of the is first is. so ' to be known by contrast as the ordinary ' system. The formation of the symbol clear if we compare toonep. i. ' ' Lehmann. The usage occurs am tion. I from f 289 v. cf . Lehmann subject. there with illustrations. and is found with or without case. Gardthausen from Vat. no.. . the other. A ligature. QlfTEP. will be . 421 sq. 2 from 288 r. He will not get light from Gardthausen. interesting province of Laur. no. and though familiar as also ultimately tachygraphic in source. 211. That the system was far more widely spread and more generally used in books than w^as commonly supposed. 1809. cf. and a masterly sketch of the found in Graux' review of Gardthausen. given XIV. The extent to which the tachygraphic system entered into the writing of ordinary books is one of the questions in palaeography which most stand in need of additional evidence.

still in the S.TACHVGRAPHV. can be no doubt . Streifziige. iv. 544 sq. for more than a day . and whether any place. the monastery and village between Frascati and Marino on the lower slopes of the Alban Hills. Gitlbauer. quoted by Rocchi under minuta. Nilo at Grotta Ferrata. de Borne. 29 but whether any principle governed its employment. from the Vita Nili Bom. P. and in Basilian school of Grotta Ferrata near Eome. one may have been. Antonio Eocchi may be convenient to say that San Nilo. to the present the distinctive characteristics mss. 11. established The school may therewith a school and style of writing. Philologische 2 Codices Cryptenses. Nilo ^ may be traced. and another. Tusculani. the founder of the monastery at the close of the tenth century. the extract by the Palaeographical Society. a. Nilo himself (B. xx. 1624. one in the Biblioteca Manuscripts with which I am Angehca'at Eome. xxi). the London Nomius ^ and of Lehmaun's For examples of tachygraphy published since the appearance Ecole Fmn^aise Spicilegio Fwrentino. and ^ Cf.. 1886. xix. is to be the looked for in the Frolegomena that are to complete learned librarian catalogue not long since published by the '\ In the mean time it of the Abbey. Bibliobe said to continue. seven were certainly written at Grotta Ferrata. a. beside the three books in the hand of mss. 1 3. " WTien I was at Rome the celebrated Yat. i and B. Facsimiles of the three B. acquainted that exhibit this type of writing are. Vitelli. B. B. p. 1S09 was temporarily inacces- . persons or style of author can be connected with it. Of the eleven manuscripts whose usage I proceed to summarise. at least in the person of the thecarius. in generation. Basil. written by his disciples. a. of the handwriting of S. though written elsewhere. 28. a. Melanges de V book cf. practised certain is that the later tachygraphical system was especial by the ly monks of the order of S. two monastery. 387 sq. p. was the work of a Basilian \ (i) An account of the history of the school of S. Desrousseaux. p. xix: litemnun forma uteris densa et the one from the Angelica are shortly to be published Grotta Ferrata mss. 1883. must for the present One of the few facts known for remain an open question. 18S6.

s. add. Eawl.231 have been more carefully examined. a. still as a particularly neat and close minuscule authentic examples are B. iii. On occur a considerable number of compendia tachygraphically are unep (unep toG AaoO). 43. of the British Museum. independently of the hand. 0. Nilo is to be recognised there also. etc. and the latter part of Angelica have imagined resemblances in Mutinensis 12 and Bodl. 3. that S. 43. 1809 and Nonnug and. p. v. from the description given by Graux [Arch. in Vallicell. that have fallen to the writer's experience. 1 1. 1982 common sign. 3°. hand of Nilo (a. that the ms. sible style of but to judge from Gitlbauer's facsimile of the tachygraphical part. B. full. V. or of their production in this direction. ElZ (i'acic). I a. The ms. in ordinary writing. last sign is one of the rarest of those in use by the and will probably hardly exist elsewhere than in the purely tachygraphical parts of Vat. xix in the S. Vallicell.30 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. add. mss. most noticeable uno. The other mss. The three mss. twelfth The type century. the S. loses its chief exists but . 123) of the ms. des Missions. and 10 in h dnAn . but for the arrangements that he was good enough to undertake for my entertainment in the village. appear to give the syllable always in gives the (2) Vat. rvooGic. abbreviated. the fragment characteristics in the D. and two great examples Vat. D. 18. May he accept an imperfect acknowledgment of one of the pleasantest weeks 965) are unthe last four pages however of B. Lastly. still the codices that practically remain in the Abbey we Piacentini.231. 1809 and less Mus. access to the manuscripts that he have to thank Padre Eocchi's benevolence not only for knows so well. still depend upon Montfaucon and A stay of five me I days at Grotta Ferrata in May of last year (1888) gave opportunity to inspect the library with this purpose. . It has always been well known the Nile's disciples were tachygraphers.' . 18. The school. it is of course well known. ser. 156. but for our knowledge of Brit. 74 of the Biblioteca Nacional at Madrid it would seem that it also belonged to the ' Scnola di san Nilo. came from Grotta Ferrata.

writer has not written. it is well known. has graver fault. 3^ the comcontaining works by Gregory Nazlanzen with ment of Nonnus. uscule 3i8r. in 972. 14 v. has for some years past been known I need^ not extensive examples of tachygraphy to offer . etc. of his facsimile of a single page... 53) has rightly concluded. was that are found in the minuscule part of it. contracted. but the may some day Lehmann (p. tadiygraphical marginal remarks. but I offer here signs nothing beyond a collection of the tachygraphical The ms. is introduced first the be It is to of these three classes that I here notice. nor to the facsimiles of pages in the various (a) minof writing It may be said to exhibit three styles and various the text. which on the contrary are very closely : : 330 (fe) V. beginning percentage of without contractions. than the wrong identiRelying upon the evidence of the hand. who in their forthcoming fasciculus that the several facsimiles of Grotta Ferrata mss. however. 151'-. and the resemblance is obvious Ferrata who has been both at London and Grotta anyone but he phical is certainly wrong in identifying the scribe with PalaeograPaul who wrote the Isidore. 4^-' 12. the from a comparison of facsimiles. gradually increase the they almost reach pure tachygraphy (c) purely corrections. A been committed fication of its by Lehmann. and therefore it is signs till . decide hand of Nonnus is the same as that of the Angelica and there is a clear Theodoretus. only rarely abbreviated. with regard to this . refer to the passages in the handbooks where it is noticed. collections. difference of writing between these mss. indices. given his name.. (ff. to be noticed below Isidore. contents of hoped indeed that the whole tachy graphical the ms. which. glosses and so far as it In this article I deal with tachygraphy only in only into ordinary writing. be made public.) almost scholia in large semi-uncial. and the ms.introductions. he has in various places book made sreneral statements of the usage of the entire . that it belongs to to Grotta Ferrata school. The editors of the publish Society. 13. TACHYGRAPHY.

consistent contraction for tout' esTi also deserves notice uncial scholia in the semi- words are still farther for abbreviated. : at. Cf. the last compendium occurs Vallicell. ep. Theodoretus B. unep.' The manuscript then. The sign for as I have already noticed. unep. 11. 61 C. elvai. and based upon them theories It is as to the history of Tachygraphy. 43 and Par. ante s. Tau singularly The other signs are more or to v. ioubaloc. the The curiously . — which are wrong . as to the representations in the Nonnus of the syllables eiv. ap. tooc. ordinary writing. For instances of ante A . ra. description of it A will be found in my notes on the Angelica . ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS. ou. of the school. D. eniKoGioac. IV. is The of the book consists of two parts. ev. of 3. 54. the words 9aibp6TaTe. which are necessarily even further from the truth. and a conspicuous examj)le of the results of ' Palaeograj^hy from Facsimiles. reiv. 67.' only in the mss. in this part of it. eiv. eoTi. the school of Grotta Ferrata. thv t€. eic. 21. is very rare in all the Grotta Ferrata school. eieaiv. (3) The Biblioteca Angelica at Eome possesses one ms. The matter is the most serious blot in a meritorious handbook. uno. is in always written in true to the extent that the tachygraphical sign does not occur in this part of the ms. aic. euxalc. napa. iv. aic. are incorrect. dno. tout' ouTooc. KOTHverKev. the second of the eleventh or twelfth. 990. kotq. napd has also been ic previously illustrated. this ms. 57. sufficient to warn anyone who uses the book that the statements in pp. undpxeiv. of a I. is Otherwise the use of the symbol limited. it is . unovoiaic. -t' 6Gti. aujunpaioubeic. exhibits specifically tachygraphical signs for the following syllables ano. 53. eiv. and ig. thv. and especially in ' is noticeable .32 nis. 22. less characteristic s. iv Here the frequent use ou. in the scholia in the common. eni. is Lehmanu's statement that full. of which the first tenth century. and the pure tachygraphic glosses minuscule part itself the ordinary : sign sometimes represents the syllable v. the usage of the manuscript for ap.

a confirmation of what sugme at first sight that the writer is Paul. contracted words (5) is large. ante s. dno (^ante). An ai. where a facsimile of a page from the earlier part is given. unusual way of rendering The diacritic point is for critic In Vat. i. at the end of which were leaves of a bound up two Grotta Ferrata. Gregorius Magnus.). shortly to 33 appear in the Classical Bevieiv. of the Dialogues of It was my S. eni (eniKaAeaoovxai). point that together give ei. tachygraphical signs used by the ai (oHjuaivei). B. the scribe of the Isidore B. EN. The second hand. (doKHGiv). offers the following distinctively tachygraphical signs ap. a. His conclusion as to the A hand is. written in 986 by Paul. dno [ante). Rocchi at the Monastery. Greek ms. The : first hand ap are as follows aic (rijuoopiaic). saec XI.). napd [ante). oubeic). later. uno (id. 11 is there The scribe uses the ordinary system of abbreviation freely. though v. itself. IV (bajud^ei) ^. and in the first current fasciculus of the Palaeographical Society. (4) The well-known Isidore.d. eic (HjueTc. Mr. ei. is curious that neither here nor in Angel. This hand is as that of the Maunde Thompson tells me. is not without traces of tachygraphy. ep [ante). eiv (ucpaiveiv).). and he was afterwards good enough to examine the ms. a Latin ms. of the double dots for t any employment which are so frequent in most mss. 1809.TACHYGRAPHY. one day in February of this year. London Nonnus of a. : ai (okoAiqi). unep {id. i. second Abbot of Grotta Ferrata. 43. 3. aic (oiaGHKaic) and combinations of ei a with other letters It [ante). eni (eniGujui'aic). 972 it is very conthe same. a. and the total proportion of that are at all tachygraphic. €iv iv (juxeiv). urrep (unep Aofou). ep [ante). I gested itself to am happy to say. as one sees in Gitlbauer's facsimile. TTapd (ante). . it is iofa appended to the sign and the dia- D . (uaKivGivov). siderably abbreviated. B. : monk ' of Grotta Ferrata. {id. in the writing of photograph of one leaf was sent to Pre. good fortune to have brought to me in the Biblioteca Yallicelliana at Rome. numbered D.

a.. as : Nonnus has have already observed. napapdrHv. possibly S. the words dnapxH. ic. eK. in his opinion. Of these signs four are of great rarity. gives the tachy graphical signs that I aic. unep. ava. is far less Ferr. fragmentum indicis codicis The tain. F. The leaves. eni. thv. subject-matter . uno^uriov. is found elsewhere only in G. of S. 43. the rulings are on the above the line. uno ve9eAaic. and ou only in Nonnus and Par. Iktoc. says. ic. measure lof x 8 in. napa. The interest however of the fragment is palaeographical. unep. . is harder to determine the leaves cona librarian's note on the first of them and at the beginning of the ms. napa. (6) The ms. B. F. a commentary on part of the New Testament. Paul's Epistles. Grott. eic. The abbrevia. B. numbered Z^ and 89.34 ABBREVIATIONS OF GREEK MANUSCRIPTS'. I. and. ap. have found IV. xix. Kae'oTi. iv written in 992 by Neophytus. It is" I instructive to the same scribe in these two mss. 9aiveTai. B. following : list ai. no other ' ordinary writing at present known to have come from Grrotta Ferrata can compare with these two pages. grec 990. Oejuic. piece of The eivai. Ga<p6ic. a.. xoGJfeoTi. eKbHjuel ano^Hjuel. Ik. ep. the text being continuous. vellum is is The writing the outward. eori. i and Vallicell. as ' but the work to which the index was prefixed was unable to discover it was probably. Maximus. while on the other hand some examples of . 1982 and Par. TOuieoTi. aiToOaiv. cf. €ivai. eici. eioi. widely contracted than the it offers Isidore. oCk. Eocchi . are in double columns with 44 lines in each they together form one sheet of vellum. D. juejepxcjuevouc. in ordinary bookhand tion : Ik but in the tachygraphical poroccurs also in Vat. voou/ievoc. eoTi. enicpaivojuevou. know another instance it. must therefore have been the middle leaves of a quire flesh-side of the hair-side. antiqni. compare the amount of abbreviation used by a. dva. . : ou. dvarevvoovjai. G. ano. grec 990 ic. tions are extraordinarily and for the rarity of ' numerous both in this respect some of the symbols used. ou : of dva I do not .' Pre.

A. does not use. 191 r. signs which that ms. 191 r. eeseai be movoo tw rrpdc dAhieoiav [?] (8) Montfaucon Pal. f. in a good calligraphic hand. 6v (ojuiAoOjuev). ai (on vai). an extract from Chrysostom 191 V. 190 r. XII according to Rocchi). The entire collection once belonging to known to be now in the Vatican. and v. of f. Graec.. CK ToO).' this order is well it is incorporated beginning at 1962.. but very frequent here. containing S.). IV 35 Cf. 190 v. by Montfaucon as I have found Vat. iii (s. outhv : : graphy from pAenovTi. for on a modern fly-leaf at the beginning is the inscription Ex libris MS. follows: being blank leaves of the same book. blank. 223 ff. is. xd rdp nAeiara Ta)v djuapTHjudTOiv). has. on 1 90 v. . 1982 or Basil. eP. the end. 8 x 5! in. s. 29 hues to the page. in a much smaller but contemporary hand. much abbreviated. 192-223 are apparently a different book. only slightly contracted. eauTov. is (inc. but was certainly not written there. Basil's Aoroi on various portions of scripture. s. B. AP. Ik : (wc (eeAHoiv). Monasterii D 2 . . AY and the examples tquthc. where under the 'Vatican! ticular ms. intended graeci.. are filled with contemporary semi-tachygraphic writing. The as parout.) a small piece of more continuous tachygraphy occurs on the margin pHTOOV JUUGTHpiOiV.. 21. unknown elsewhere in the ordinary writing of the school. Its description is membr. fF. 390 (7) Again ms. containing on 1 90 r. whether as au or rau cf. etc. 1-189 are in ordinary script. €IN.TA CHYGRA PHY. tec (ante). a. 283 gives a facsimile of a manuscript in the house of the Basilian order at Rome. ff. 36 lines on a page. with an abundance of compendia of the peculiarity the ordinary sort (cf. various medical receipts. Sy v. thv (id. of the tachygraphic sign for au. I take a longer piece of tachyrauTHv. Ff. the first being that on Psalm VII which Montfaucon facsimiled it is defective at . in a rather small good eleventh-century hand below the line. p. The book may have come from Grotta Ferrata.

^ S. tov. in is two hands. of which the former 1-56) that partly tachygraphical. 2 Montfaucon's mistake had already been perceived. from a comparison of facsimiles. A. uno (unobeeeiaa). oiv (oqrecov) the most noticeable of these that for IV. go (jiia and oa very frequently). This hand is upright and well-formed. p. TCOV {cinte). from this Libraiy are now to be found at Grotta Ferrata. oov (ante). noiooGiv). as KaAAi903viac). series of r-svllables. Tec. of the eleventh to twelfth century. the words immediately preceding I 6 oooTHp. The non-tachy: graphic abbreviations are uniformly of the later type those for etc. jua (onepjua]. g.. such as kq. g. eiv. AE. toic. Anglonen. eni (eniGujuiac). . appears aic to use the followiiig tachy graphical signs (evraOea). see also under ]na. rec. e. and without. The ms. forms. and bears some resemblance to the twelfth- ^ MSS. as (pinioeeioa). the of signs" for ai. ev [ante). rare The most noticeable points are the use of some quite eK. syllables which are so common Ferrata school. 54. be kq (both {(vnte). X 4in. 12. Kop. A manuscript in the Estense at Modena. with a dot. v. : (napoijLuaic). Kop (Kapbia). which is very frequent. CINAI. eiC. Helie Carhonensis S. tou. Basilii Nullius Bioecesis. 135. A. iv iv . ii. That is. is occur for ap (QapKoc). unep. . a. jitap Ta. au dno (dno twv). ic. and the hand bears not the slightest resemblance to that of the famous Isidore of Grotta Ferrata it is in fact hard to see what can have suggested their identity to Montfaucon -. uno (in the and the absence more usual in the Grotta form. are TaOra Ae£ac (9) add a phrase that I cannot at present decipher. e. KaTexojuevoi. touc.36 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPTS'. (rvooGiv. i). eic. from f 190 r. iv. Ordinis Magni. ^ by Lehmann. luap. cf ante). Tachygraphic signs napa (ante). xa. Tac. xiii sq. eiv. A. tcov. S. tachygraphic signs. tcoc (cinte). it is fF. Kara (djuapTHjudiTOOv). membr. eK (no. TTAPA. Maximus de : shows some tachygraphical it is in- fluence 5:^ (ff. (q. toc. go (KaracpSeipei). ic. to>. ante). caritate.

of the sort are the is text as a rule written out in London Nonnus. written. and especially at the ends of legitimate. tise the tachy graphical system sets himself to write a book for the purposes of an ordinary reading public. century type of Grotta Ferrata hand. mostly below in a small upright ornamental . not very constantly. The book falls into two parts. and it is inevitable that here. are annotations in pure tachygraphy in the same hand as that of the text. that has long been famous in the history of Greek tachygraphy that of Hermogenes at Paris. as is well known. with an shorthand improved interpretation in Kopp's Palaeographia Critica. We have therefore an instance of what may be called the normal case for the introduction of tachygraphy into bookhand the case namely where a scribe accustomed to prac. the greater proportion of his text. is For much abbreviation of any sort excluded lines. which is now numbered grec 3032. as shown 37 m B. pp. it is but at times. hi. a. the line. the text and the marginal annotations. ' omnium taken . — From this book Montfaucon took his ' notae rhetoricae et which for more than oratoriae a century were the only pubhshed examples of Greek they reappeared. a scribe . It is not however with this venerable material that I have to concern myself. of no doubt the tenth century.' . con- siderably ligatured in the margin. not however without a diligent inspection of ends of lines yielding a fair return of . The second hand (10) I have is quite dissimilar. is a small vellum book. and in characters quite as large. who use. and it is the latter that Montfaucon published and Kopp revised.TA CHYGRAPHY. Of the text.' in 181 7. is cognisant of tachygraphy will borrow signs from it as well as from the system of abbreviation ordinarily in Mss. on the other hand. The ms. next to mention a ms. where the full. it offers nevertheless considerable palaeograpliical mterest. minuscule. in quaternions. 152. no account hitherto has been lectu difficillimae.

Graux. V. especially when. ano (dnopAencov). and I therefore take the opportunity of giving here such further particulars as I inspection of the ms. pp. A considerable number tachygraphical I therefore of signs usually considered may be taken from the text of this ms. oti (5?s). 38 ABBREVIATIONS IN GREEK MANUSCRIPT^.. the addition of even a handful of new forms is worth making. gvec 990. was short. are ai (buvajuai). and is of the ordinary minuscule . adopting the same system as that in which he afterwards wrote his marginal comments. there are at hand the means for reproduction. being published. was able to gather during a short I lament that my account is not and does not better take the place of the authoritative study that was to have been expected of the rebut. enumerate those that I have found. Par.. in the bril- Greek Tachygraphy to which I have already Journal des Savants. which is there promised. in The text is on the whole little question. adding that as my study both of this and the following ms. 1881. 316. where the tradition of the school manifests itself in the same manner in a twelfth-centurv hand. 317. B. vou (aioxivou). This is precisely what has happened in the ms. of that period . TQi (eoTai). there is nothing in the character of the hand to suggest the tachygraphical knowledge of the . oc (nAflGoc). cov (nAdjwv). fuller.. 3. and the second part of Angel. contracted. ov (tov. is dated 1030. to (toGto). liant sketch of referred. jav (otov). 5 juQTOc). apa (apa). Omont that there is no likelihood of the complete study of the ms. OYC (11) Another tachygraphical Paris ms. the list Syllables represented : must not be considered exhaustive. The ms. II. as tachygraphy now gretted French palaeographer stands. also s. (napabeir- 01 (boC'Aoi). as in the present instance. I learn from M. but frequently at the ends of lines. grec 3032. and occasionally in the body of the paragraph. has been indicated and in part described by Ch. tachygraphical symbols. cpiAinnov). the scribe allows himself to shorten a word.

(xolc biKaioic). remark or two upon some of these forms may be in place to discuss the ms. wv (cLgoov). 18231. kqi represented by three dots occurs elsewhere in Vat. With 73 discussed by M. to which must be added the forms already quoted by Graux. of being an^anged one on . Kai Kara (KaraAajupdvoo). Pal. eA. I The syllables oa. n. 32. jue (no. that the abbreviations occur. ojlioC (no. xooc (ouxcoc). Vat. are used. examination. pau are of very great do not know can be quoted from any ms. ou (ouveAeouGHc). and in the late ms. (drro GTepHoic). xoc (KAanevxoc). Fiorent. au (nauoerai). i). mss. uno (uno xhv). found by Martin in the scholia to the Kavenna Aristophanes the tachygraphical ordinary bookhand . p. xou (xoO xpit>TOu). (xskvoic. n. 18231. in some Laurentian mss. 1809 and Add. kq (KareAapev). quoted by Vitelh. as a whole will need more complete A . The form eu has been 13. con- tains the Gregory Nazianzen with a prose . 5 Kepauvoc). (nveujua). iv ep (napep(no. 1809. Tov). as in ndvxcac. rarity. aA (6cp8aAjUouc). 4). is is the sign for ov very uncommon in not generally found on the line . either side of a stroke of the sign for the following syllable . 168 it must still be called rare. xo (npooxoKdOebpoi). in parallel columns it is in the paraphrase. ov (dvTooc. as Graux clearly have observed the following. unepeibwjuara).. 3 ]U6Td). xoo (djUUHxoo). for exhibit the later stage of the forms. g. aic. pp. 2). Add. Desrousseaux (v. xau (v. xov). eni (no. xauxa above). paraphrase. Xerai). e. 15. aic (dvoiaic). eA (peAxKSTGv). mss. jai (cpopouvrai). scribe. the most interesting of which are no and describes. c. xac (KaTa90pouvrac). eiv. xoic Ta (ndvTO. but Vat. there is to be noticed the freedom with which the dots are superimposed instead (their more usual position). xhc xov (xHC OaAaGGHc). and by Vitelli 8])ig. 01 (dvejuoi). The ms. xauTa. (cpeapxov. pau (no. TACHYGRAPHY. xoov (90ixobvx(X)v). dno l). eu (koAoOgiv). 28. if parallels jue. according to the necessities of space. regard to the series of Tau-abbreviations. 39 The ordinary compendia that poems of S. illustrated : The form 01 is by Graux 1. pp. nav (ndvrooc). xe Hjuexepoic). I boc : ai (juoopaivovrec).

.

^ r' '^- n j^^ ri"ii: ^C y ^-7..^--- ^^^'"^ ' tL^^f -^^Af^^ \ >! A c •• '^-^ ^ ' __^ w -rr -(1/ . ^< A*- '^ '^ ^^ <W\ V ' ' T^ rf "' VtA e ' ^ -i' '^. 'vcri ovK^ ^ AD 1 e^.LnJ. AN or/ I'AtcKj 5^^ H ru-'-'^ ^ ' °H ^^ . o ' . Abbrcinations T~Z m Greek .Plate II. " ~~~" Clarendon Press./. „„tMi>^.X^ ^-^f""^-^ ^VV j'^^'f-^ TT" /^>-«- p y« \/<5" w — T~. .

.

e. AY " '-^ ^'^' -"" r^p U>r ^ + >^ rY r| rt r-j- r|- ^A -rt- . Ccarendon Press. .^ yt ^^ J^ i^tfv -^"j^t^ y I 'Z.Plate III.H v4' "^/^^ "^^"^ '^t^ ^^Y/ Abbreviations in Greek MSS.

.

^. s- G 7 ^ ^ ' o^ H^ Ot^ ott^ 5Tr7 Y^^ I T/7T7 W L^l OD ff^ fl ^n OrTTj/^o/ ^^ o-L'yyci ^ '«i GC ^'"^^ Rn-^ ^f^ e^ T '_. Clarendon Press.' Plate IV. .^ /* ^'j^iiv'^3? xltuti ^A/^Ai'P'^ l^^'-^oiJT d\ ]<~o i2o-r CLiJ^Lao fFiyjT Abbreviations in Greek MSS. (^^ o^}/ c5^ "^ ^yv^ Of^ (JUT 1 2.

.

Abh-eviations in Greek MSS.Plate V. cLrccrcujT iitj/jT ^'cyvST^^y-^' d\sf^ i^^oy (Zi^t' GOT I 7 A ^^^/' y 11 IX. Clarendon Press. .

.

M6N "L -4 frM/^p^"^ ON ^vX-ryV Z.^/^' ^fX^ yvpytcY" -nnUl4j^ fcVoLtr -TOY ""^ ^ T^p°^T"^^^yr 2.. o— -Tf ^ ^^' 9 ' oirNX^ -TB-n^ nrV\KY TOUT* v-roltT^^VT SJ Si y9(po^ ffn >Yf ^' ^^V Abbreviations in Greek MSS.Plate VI. OYN QTC ^^x^T4. . Clarendon Press.

.

'!>" L / -^ -^ . MIC l^'Xj j -r/- ^i"— ' i9^.Plate VII. ^' yyy / nvZiko?'^ 7 vi ^^^ V- "y vi^ v ^ _<i^ TT TTK ./ -^ "' •. 9 TT^/<^Xw " TT -a)UL6ff\ tK5o>hc^ '7f"^<^d'^^ 1 2. . „ ^ Tr-CJ-'T^ <? V -nx TTVgXH^-. Clarendon Press." ^'^ K'^ 6-4^ 'o-A coc' * y TV Try cu o- Abbreviations in Greek MSS.. OT o^l^yi^ V / f A ^^ <rcc</^ ""a-' oTToc Y TT.

.

-<r^ TTj ^^ . Abbreviations in Greek MSS.Plate VIII. THN yi- /• / / TIN 7/ \ TOT *T TOYC ] I" ^ K U ^'"Xo^TD '|^^J [^'] --^ T~ODN A. . L '^^ ^ fje^ O- /> op/^ ti . Press. Clureniior.

.

. Clarendon Press.Plate IX. Cor o?0V XtopiON Abbreviations in Greek MSS.^ 2. cop PH^ renK ^<T /^JoTT^T^ <V^t|X/i'^ f U3\^ -xX. 2 u\ v. y-rv\_ 2^~P-q >^ OLA/T IX .

.

^^1 i^. Ciiirendon Press. . v^'f -17^ fi.tir /-re f/ (IVJ -ko^C ^4^.Plate X.'^ )9^ Abbreviations in Greek AISS.^Y ^v^-^ (V.V^ ^^c..) i^# ^^W pe<^&f^ /y-i?^ M>»^H< Cvd.

.

.

.

.

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G.bonbon HENRY FROWDE Oxford University Press Warehouse Amen Corner. \^ . E.

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