Hybrid shaft generator propulsion system upgrade

Making fixed engine speed history

In many instances. electric motors and generators). all generator current goes through the HSG drive which ensures that the switchboards see a constant frequency and voltage at variable engine rpm. The desired ship speed is maintained by altering propeller pitch. The ability to reduce engine rpm to match the overall vessel power requirements results in lower fuel consumption and less emissions. The shaft generator and electric motor can be one and the same component. The same diesel engine also drives the propeller via a common gearbox. (shown right). This means that engine rpm must be kept constant to maintain the network frequency and to allow load flow and load sharing with other generators. This means that the diesel engine and the propeller can operate at variable speeds. and does not allow the shaft generator to operate in parallel with the auxiliary gen sets. . driven by the diesel engine. The Hybrid Shaft Generator (HSG) upgrade is a modification to the power electronics system which controls the shaft generator to switchboard power flow. is used to produce the network electrical power. often with more energy produced than can be effectively used. G G G G Diesel/ gas engine Diesel / gas engine With the HSG system the switchboards see HSG drive a constant voltage and frequency at variable engine rpm. a shaft generator. AC DC DC AC Converter Reduction gear SG M Reduction gear SG M In current hybrid systems (shown left) power generating requires a fixed engine rpm when operating the shaft generator. With the HSG solution. whilst keeping the network frequency-stable and the voltage fixed.Fixed engine speed is history Upgrade to an electric hybrid propulsion system that significantly reduces fuel consumption and emissions – ideal for vessels that operate in a variety of modes One of the major challenges when using a hybrid propulsion system is controlling the power flow and load sharing between the various power sources on a vessel (engines.

3.5 years. Harness the potential Case study Although the benefits vary from vessel to vessel and are dependent on the operating profile.600 hours per year.000 litres of fuel each year • Reduce NOx emissions by 64 tonnes per year • Reduce CO2 emissions by 2.000 litres Upgrading this vessel with HSG propulsion and thruster systems will: • Save 1. two 320 kW auxiliary generator sets and one 882 kW and two 622 kW tunnel thrusters.000 litres Zero pitch losses reduced by 120 kW per thruster with AFE drives. the payback time can be short and the reduction in the vessel’s environmental footprint significant. and spend periods at slow speeds. Fuel consumption 230 g/kWhr 5. as can be seen from this example.000 litres Annual use of auxiliary sets reduced by 50 per cent.600 running hrs per year Tunnel thrusters (3) Zero pitch losses 300 kW in total. The vessel: A PSV (built in 1998) currently operating as an offshore storage vessel in the North Sea.700 tonnes per year Estimated payback time for equipment is 2. in transit.600 kW diesel driving shaft generators and CP propellers through gears. Ideal vessels are those that don’t need to steam at full speed from point to point.000 running hrs per year Auxiliary generator sets (2) 2. or anchorhandlers where full bollard pull is only used intermittently can benefit a HSG upgrade. the vessel’s operational profile is the key. Annual fuel saving 171.000 litres fuel saving per engine per year. (A fairly equal split of time spent in port. Annual fuel saving 250. Offshore vessels spending several hours a day on DP or standby. The more operating hours. Operating profile: Total operating hours estimated at 5.191. the greater the savings. 386.000 running hrs per year Fuel consumption 85. . 83.000 litres fuel saving per thruster per year. alongside installations and standby/green DP) Normal operation Main engines and CP propellers Zero pitch losses per propeller 560 kW. Annual fuel saving 770.New technology means a new opportunity Most low voltage (LV) systems on vessels equipped with a gearbox PTO will benefit from an HSG upgrade To maximise the return on investment. It is powered by two 3.5 l/hr With HSG Zero pitch losses per propeller reduced by 300 kW by optimising propeller load to a lower engine rpm.

000 litres of fuel saved every 24 hours. This will reduce the necessary shaft input power by 400 kw resulting in 2. PROPELLER CURVE 182 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 h /k W 18 5 g h W 87 g/k 1 h 189 g/kW h 92 g/kW 1 5 g/kWh MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE (bar) 18 198 g/kWh 400 450 500 550 600 650 kW h g/ 700 750 800 . reducing zero pitch losses by 800 kW. rpm can be reduced to idling but fixed frequency and voltage to the electrical system is maintained. Maximum Continuous Rating 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 OUTPUT (kW/CYL. For example. Propeller shaft Input power as a function of RPM 2200 2000 1800 1600 Power [kW] 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 130 Propeller RPM 140 110 Zero Pitch Sailing 10 knots Sailing 12 knots Sailing 14 knots Sailing 15 knots Optimising engine efficiency The graph shows fuel consumption based on engine rpm per cylinder.500 kW CP propeller will have about 900 kW loss at fixed nominal rpm with zero pitch. The potential is even greater as engine output is less. both propeller and engine efficiency can be optimised Optimising propeller efficiency The graph shows the necessary input power as a function of propeller rpm in vessels sailing at different speeds. For example. With the HSG engine. a typical 6. fuel consumption can be reduced from 198 g/kWh to 188 g/kWh. the propeller efficency can be improved by reducing the rpm from 145 to 90 rpm and at the same time increasing the pitch.) OPERATING LIMIT THEOR. This translates to a 5 per cent fuel saving. based on a 200 kW output. If the vessel is sailing at 14 knots. 800 kW of power for 24 hours translates to 4.000 litres of fuel saved.Maximising engine and propeller efficiencies By reducing rpm on the engine and shaft line.

The shaft generator is operating as a motor with an output of 2. This gives a total power of 8. the energy flow between the various components of the power system and how they are matched to the vessel’s operating mode. including output from the auxiliary generator sets for propulsion. optimising the vessel power system to suit the operational requirements. The two auxiliary gen sets are running at 50 per cent power providing 900 kW each to the system.500 kW running in parallel with the 6. so that both propeller and engine efficiencies can be maximised by ensuring that they are running at their most efficient point. Diesel-electric mode For vessels on standby or waiting in harbour. . in detail. In this mode.500 kW on the propeller shaft.000 kW main diesel engine running at 750 rpm. Boost mode This mode is selected for maximum speed and harnesses most of the ship’s power. This opens the door to various modes of operation. In this case.500 kW is available for propulsion. diesel-electric mode is an economic setting that doesn’t require the main engine. the shaft generator is running as a motor with the HSG system controlling the shaft speed. 300 kW is used for hotel loads and 1. The illustrated modes show.HSG – ideal for a range of vessels A variety of operational modes ensure that you are always operating at maximum efficiency The HSG system upgrade allows for more flexible use of engine and propeller speed variations.

It allows the main engine to run at variable speed with the shaft generator supplying the ship’s electrical needs.Parallel mode This is a new efficient way of running two engines. The HSG can also synchronise against the power grid to avoid “black out” during changeover. where the power required for propulsion and hotel loads exceeds that available from the generator sets alone. Therefore. which will save fuel and reduce emissions. The hybrid shaft generator drive is able to convert the shore supply frequency to match the ship’s 60 Hz power system. the shaft generator is feeding 500 kW into the electrical system in parallel with one auxiliary generator. . There is no need to run any of the auxiliary gen sets. and is used to optimise propeller efficiency for the required speed. Transit mode This mode is a new setting available with the HSG upgrade. Shore connection mode As its name suggests. if available. With the main engine running at around half power. noise and vibration levels on board are reduced to a minimum. shore connection mode is utilised when the ship is in harbour and connected to the normal shore power supply (50Hz). In addition. The HSG system keeps the frequency fixed at 60 HZ. and variable rpm to optimise propeller efficiency. both auxiliary generators can be shut off.

diesel electric mode. As a motor. transit mode and shore connection mode. or together with the main engine for more power options. • Increased comfort on board – Lower noise and vibration levels with reduced engine rpm and running hours. • Improved redundancy – Propulsion system still operates. it can operate alone. • Optimised propulsion mode selection – This system has fast and easy mode change capability between generating and motoring for five options: boost mode. This results in considerable potential for fuel savings and NOx/CO2 reduction. parallel mode. while maintaining the voltage and frequency to the switchboard. the shaft generator also acts as an electric motor. . • System compatibility – Further additional fuel savings can be made when combined with the PES thruster starter upgrade. even if one engine should fail. thrusters and electric motors extends their lives and maintenance intervals. • Flexible operations – With the Hybrid Shaft Generator upgrade. • Longer engine life and reduced maintenance – reduced running hours on auxiliary gen sets. lowering operating costs.Customer Benefits • Reduced fuel consumption – Optimised system operation means that engine rpm can be reduced.

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