The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India By David Frawley

One of the main ideas used to interpret and generally devalue the ancient history of India is the theory of the Aryan invasion. According to this account, India was invaded and conquered by nomadic light-skinned Indo-European tribes from Central Asia around 1500-100 BC, who overthrew an earlier and more advanced dark-skinned Dravidian civilization from which they took most of what later became Hindu culture. This so-called preAryan civilization is said to be evidenced by the large urban ruins of what has been called the "Indus valley culture" (as most of its initial sites were on the Indus river). The war between the powers of light and darkness, a prevalent idea in ancient Aryan Vedic scriptures, was thus interpreted to refer to this war between light and dark skinned peoples. The Aryan invasion theory thus turned the "Vedas", the original scriptures of ancient India and the Indo-Aryans, into little more than primitive poems of uncivilized plunderers. This idea totally foreign to the history of India, whether north or south has become almost an unquestioned truth in the interpretation of ancient history Today, after nearly all the reasons for its supposed validity have been refuted, even major Western scholars are at last beginning to call it in question. In this article we will summarize the main points that have arisen. This is a complex subject that I have dealt with in depth in my book "Gods, Sages and Kings: Vedic Secrets of Ancient Civilization", for those interested in further examination of the subject. The Indus valley culture was pronounced pre-Aryans for several reasons that were largely part of the cultural milieu of nineteenth century European thinking As scholars following Max Mullar had decided that the Aryans came into India around 1500 BC, since the Indus valley culture was earlier than this, they concluded that it had to be preAryan. Yet the rationale behind the late date for the Vedic culture given by Muller was totally speculative. Max Muller, like many of the Christian scholars of his era, believed in Biblical chronology. This placed the beginning of the world at 400 BC and the flood around 2500 BC. Assuming to those two dates, it became difficult to get the Aryans in India before 1500 BC. Muller therefore assumed that the five layers of the four 'Vedas' & 'Upanishads' were each composed in 200 year periods before the Buddha at 500 BC. However, there are more changes of language in Vedic Sanskrit itself than there are in classical Sanskrit since Panini, also regarded as a figure of around 500 BC, or a period of 2500 years. Hence it is clear that each of these periods could have existed for any number of centuries and that the 200 year figure is totally arbitrary and is likely too short a figure. It was assumed by these scholars many of whom were also Christian missionaries unsympathetic to the 'Vedas' that the Vedic culture was that of primitive nomads from Central Asia. Hence they could not have founded any urban culture like that of the Indus valley. The only basis for this was a rather questionable interpretation of the 'Rig Veda' that they made, ignoring the sophisticated nature of the culture presented within it. Meanwhile, it was also pointed out that in the middle of the second millennium BC, a number of Indo-European invasions apparently occured in the Middle East, wherein Indo-European peoples the Hittites, Mit tani and Kassites conquered and ruled Mesopotamia for some centuries. An Aryan invasion of India would have been another version of this same movement of Indo-European peoples. On top of this, excavators of the Indus valley culture, like Wheeler, thought they found evidence of destruction of the culture by an outside invasion confirming this. The Vedic culture was thus said to be that of primitive nomads who came out of Central Asia with their horse-drawn chariots and iron weapons and overthrew the cities of the more advanced Indus valley culture, with their superior battle tactics. It was pointed out that no horses, chariots or iron was discovered in Indus valley sites.

This was how the Aryan invasion theory formed and has remained since then. Though little has been discovered that confirms this theory, there has been much hesitancy to question it, much less to give it up. Further excavations discovered horses not only in Indus Valley sites but also in pre-Indus sites. The use of the horse has thus been proven for the whole range of ancient Indian history. Evidence of the wheel, and an Indus seal showing a spoked wheel as used in chariots, has also been found, suggesting the usage of chariots. Moreover, the whole idea of nomads with chariots has been challenged. Chariots are not the vehicles of nomads. Their usage occured only in ancient urban cultures with much flat land, of which the river plain of north India was the most suitable. Chariots are totally unsuitable for crossing mountains and deserts, as the so-called Aryan invasion required. That the Vedic culture used iron & must hence date later than the introduction of iron around 1500 BC revolves around the meaning of the Vedic term "ayas", interpreted as iron. 'Ayas' in other Indo- European languages like Latin or German usually means copper, bronze or ore generally, not specially iron. There is no reason to insist that in such earlier Vedic times, 'ayas' meant iron, particularly since other metals are not mentioned in the 'Rig Veda' (except gold that is much more commonly referred to than ayas). Moreover, the 'Atharva Veda' and 'Yajur Veda' speak of different colors of 'ayas'(such as red & black), showing that it was a generic term. Hence it is clear that 'ayas' generally meant metal and not specifically iron. Moreover, the enemies of the Vedic people in the 'Rig Veda' also use ayas, even for making their cities, as do the Vedic people themselves. Hence there is nothing in Vedic literture to show that either the Vedic culture was an ironbased culture or that there enemies were not. The 'Rig Veda' describes its Gods as 'destroyers of cities'. This was used also to regard the Vedic as a primitive non-urban culture that destroys cities and urban civilization. However, there are also many verses in the 'Rig Veda' that speak of the Aryans as having having cities of their own and being protected by cities upto a hundred in number. Aryan Gods like Indra, Agni, Saraswati and the Adityas are praised as being like a city. Many ancient kings, including those of Egypt and Mesopotamia, had titles like destroyer or conquerer of cities. This does not turn them into nomads. Destruction of cities also happens in modern wars; this does not make those who do this nomads. Hence the idea of Vedic culture as destroying but not building the cities is based upon ignoring what the Vedas actually say about their own cities. Further excavation revealed that the Indus Valley culture was not des- troyed by outside invasion, but according to internal causes and, most likely, floods. Most recently a new set of cities has been found in India (like the Dwaraka and Bet Dwaraka sites by S.R. Rao and the National Institute of Oceanography in India) which are intermidiate between those of the Indus culture and later ancient India as visited by the Greeks. This may eliminate the so-called dark age following the presumed Aryan invasion and shows a continuous urban occupation in India back to the beginning of the Indus culture. The interpretation of the religion of the Indus Valley culture -made incidentlly by scholars such as Wheeler who were not religious scholars much less students of Hinduism was that its religion was different than the Vedic and more likely the later Shaivite religion. However, further excavations both in Indus Valley site in Gujarat, like Lothal, and those in Rajsthan, like Kalibangan show large number of fire altars like those used in the Vedic religion, along with bones of oxen, potsherds, shell jewelry and other items used in the rituals described in the 'Vedic Brahmanas'. Hence the Indus Valley culture evidences many Vedic practices that can not be merely coincidental. That some of its practices appeared non-Vedic to its excavators may also be attributed to their misunderstanding or lack of knowledge of Vedic and Hindu culture generally, wherein Vedism and Shaivism are the same basic tradition. We must remember that ruins do not necessarily have one interpretation. Nor does the ability to discover ruins necessarily gives the ability to interpret them correctly. The Vedic people were thought to have been a fair-skinned race like the Europeans owing to the Vedic idea of a war between light and darkness, and the Vedic people being presented as children of light or children of the sun. Yet this idea of a war between light and darkness exists in most ancient cultures, including the Persian and the Egyptian. Why don't we interpret their scriptures as a war between light and dark-skinned people? It is purely a poetic metaphor, not a cultural statement. Moreover, no real traces of such a race are found in India.

They prove that the Vedic culture existed at these periods and already had a sophisticated system of astronomy. The Saraswati is lauded as the main river (naditama) in the 'Rig Veda' & is the most frequently mentioned in the text. Turvasha. In other words there is no racial evidence of any such Indo-Aryan invasion of India but only of a continuity of the same group of people who traditionally considered themselves to be Aryans.Anthropologists have observed that the present population of Gujarat is composed of more or less the same ethnic groups as are noticed at Lothal in 2000 BC. comming down from Central Asia. Vedic and late Vedic texts also contain interesting astronomical lore. including a number of figures of the 'Rig Veda'. the Saraswati river went dry at the end of the Indus Valley culture and before the so-called Aryan invasion or before 1500 BC. Here the clear meaning of a term in 'Rig Veda' and later times verified by rivers like Saraswati mentioned by name as flowing into the sea was altered to make the Aryan invasion theory fit. The 'Yajur Veda' and 'Atharva Veda' speak of the vernal equinox in the Krittikas (Pleiades. If samudra does noe mean ocean why was it traslated as such? It is therefore without basis to locate Vedic kings in Central Asia far from any ocean or from the . Yamuna and the Ganges. and to rivers flowing in to the sea. There are many points in fact that prove the Vedic nature of the Indus Valley culture. It is said to be a great flood and to be wide. Linguistically the present day population of Gujrat and Punjab belongs to the Indo-Aryan language speaking group. Such texts as 'Vedanga Vedic Astrology' speak of a time when the vernal equinox was in the middle of the Nakshtra Aslesha (or about 23 degrees 20 minutes Cancer). This gives a date about 2400 BC. even to the point of changing the meaning of Vedic words to suit this theory. as modern land studies now reveal. In fact this may have caused the ending of the Indus culture. Yet earlier eras are mentioned but these two have numerous references to substantiate them. The Vedic God of the sea. the more dominent among them having very close ethnic affinities with the present day Indo-Aryan speaking population of India. To preserve the Aryan invasion idea it was assumed that the Vedic (and later sanskrit) term for ocean. the largest concentration of sites appears in an area of Punjab and Rajsthan near the dry banks of ancient Saraswati and Drishadvati rivers. not west of Indus. especially the Indus river in Punjab. According to this theory. The only inference that can be drawn from the anthropological and linguistic evidences adduced above is that the Harappan population in the Indus Valley and Gujrat in 2000 BC was composed of two or more groups. This gives a date of 1300 BC. and south to Vidarbha (Maharashtra). Saraswati is said to be "pure in course from the mountains to the sea". Yadu and Bhujyu are flood figures. originally did not mean the ocean but any large body of water. was indeed one of the largest. the present population of the Punjab is said to be ethnically the same as the population of Harappa and Rupar 4000 years ago. saved from across the sea. In early ancient and pre-historic times. Further excavation has shown that the great majority of the sites of the Indus Valley culture were east. Hence the Vedic people were in these regions by the Krittika equinox or before 2400 BC. The Saraswati. who held to this idea that samudra didn't really mean the ocean. Lands of the Aryans are mentioned in them from Gandhara (Afganistan) in the west to Videha (Nepal) in the east. Agastya and the Bhrigu seers. it once drained the Sutlej. How could the Vedic Aryans know of this river and establish their culture on its banks if it dried up before they arrived? Indeed the Saraswati as described in the 'Rig Veda' appears to more accurately show it as it was prior to the Indus Valley culture as in the Indus era it was already in decline. early Taurus) and the summer solstice (ayana) in Magha (early Leo). Such references were merely ignored or pronounced unintelligible by Western scholars because they yielded too early a date for the 'Vedas' than what they presumed. These passages were also ignored by Western scholars and it was said by them that the 'Vedas' had no evidence of large empires in India in Vedic times. However. Hence the Vedic people were well acquainted with this river and regarded it as their immemorial hoemland. is the father of many Vedic seers and seer families like Vasishta. Yet if we look at the index to translation of the 'Rig Veda' by Griffith for example. The Vedic calender was based upon astronomical sightings of the equinoxes and solstices. Vedic texts like 'Shatapatha Brahmana' and 'Aitereya Brahmana' that mention these astronomical references list a group of 11 Vedic Kings. Vedic ancestors like Manu. whose courses were much different than they are today. as well as dozens of references to ships. the Vedic people were nomads in the Punjab. The Vedic culture was said to have been founded by the sage Manu between the banks of Saraswati and Drishadvati rivers. said to have conquered the region of India from 'sea to sea'. Hence a pattern of ignoring literary evidence or misinterpreting them to suit the Aryan invasion idea became prevalent. if not the largest river in India. In fact. the 'Rig Veda' itself has nearly 100 references to ocean (samudra). even endless in size. we find over 70 references to ocean or sea. Varuna. However. not because such references did not exist. samudra. Similarly.

though the evidence so far is that the people of the mountain regions of the Middle East were Indo-Europeans as far as recorded history can prove. The Indus Valley culture had a form of writing. The Indo-Aryan invasion as an academic concept in 18th and 19th century Europe reflected the cultural milieu of the period. When Wheeler speaks of 'the Aryan invasion of the land of the 7 rivers. In other words. not the cow and barley culture of the 'Vedas'. Painted Grey Ware culture represents an indigenous cultural development and does not reflect any cultural intrusion from the West i. places the IndoEuropeans in Greece as early as 6000 BC. as evidenced by numerous seals found in the ruins. And both interpretations were then used to justify each other. Instead. He also suggests such a possible early date for their entry into India. As far as I can see there is nothing in the Hymns of the 'Rig Veda' which demonstrates that the Vedic-speaking population was intrusive to the area: this comes rather from a historical assumption of the 'comming of the Indo-Europeans. It was also assumed to be non-Vedic and probably Dravidian. as antecedents for it were not found in India. which form the background of their land and the symbolism of their hymns. but a fundamental restructuring of indigenous society. Now it has been shown that the majority of the late Indus signs are identical with those of later Hindu Brahmi and that there is an organic development between the two scripts. If one checks the dozen references in the 'Rig Veda' to the 7 rivers. Colin Renfrew. Vedic literature was interpreted on the assumption that there was an Aryan invasion. It is nothing but a tautology. the Aryans in the Middle East. One of the latest archeological ideas is that the Vedic culture is evidenced by Painted Grey Ware pottery in north India. Therefore. Mitra. Current archeological data do not support the existence of an Indo Aryan or European invasion into South Asia at any time in the preor protohistoric periods. so far as I can see. there is no archeological evidence corroborating the fact of an Indo-Aryan invasion. It is thought to be an inferior grade of pottery and to be associated with the use of iron that the 'Vedas' are thought to mention. an exercise in circular thinking that only proves that if assuming something is true. it is possible to document archeologically a series of cultural changes reflecting indigenous cultural development from prehistoric to historic periods. the Punjab'. In short. It was also assumed that the Indus Valley culture derived its civilization from the Middle East. he has no warrenty at all. probably Sumeria. Varuna and Nasatyas around 1400 BC. Recent French excavations at Mehrgarh have shown that all the antecedents of the Indus Valley culture can be found within the subcontinent and going back before 6000 BC. The Aryan Hittites and Mittani signed a treaty with the name of the Vedic Gods Indra. Prevalent models now suggest an Indo-European base for that language. an Indo-Aryan invasion. Then archeological evidence was interpreted by the same assumption. The Aryan Kassites of the ancient Middle East worshipped Vedic Gods like Surya and the Maruts. The early Vedic literature describes not a human invasion into the area. not Indo-Iranian languages and thereby show a Vedic culture in that region of the world as well. wherein they are already mentioned. some Western scholars are beginning to reject the Aryan invasion or any outside origin for Hindu civilization. not an introduction of invaders. it is found to be true! Another modern Western scholar. there is nothing in them that to me implies invasion: the land of the 7 rivers is the land of . However it is associated with a pig and rice culture. The IndoEuropeans of the ancient Middle East thus spoke Indo-Aryan. which apears to date around 1000 BC and comes from the same region between the Ganges and Yamuna as later Vedic culture is related to.massive Saraswati river.e. have now been found to have been in that region atleast as early as 2200 BC. The Hittites have a treatise on chariot racing written in almost pure Sanskrit. Hence the idea of an Aryan invasion into the Middle East has been pushed back some centuries. In addition. Linguistic data were used to validate the concept that in turn was used to interpret archeological and anthropological data. most notably the Hittites. though this was never proved. Moreover it is now found to be an organic development of indegenous pottery. as well as one named Himalaya.

Despite Wheeler's comments. not scholarship but prejudice. proving the superiority of Western culture and religion. With the proximity and relationship of the latter with the Bible and Christianity. They could claim to be doing only what the Aryan ancestors of the Hindus had previously done millennia ago. They allow Western. Even though Indian Vedic scholars like Dayananda saraswati. Moreover. It would mean that the Vedic literary record already the largest and oldest of the ancient world even at a 1500 BC date would be the record of teachings some centuries or thousands of years before that. it served to divide India into a northern Aryan and southern Dravidian culture which were made hostile to each other. it would affirm the Hindu tradition that the Dravidians were early offshoots of the Vedic people through the seer Agastya. political and economical purpose of domination. It would also tend to validate the Vedic view that the Indo-Europeans and other Aryan peoples were migrants from India. The Western Vedic scholars did in the intellectual spehere what the British army did in the political realm discredit. The Indus Valley culture resembles that of the 'Yajur Veda' and the reflect the pre-Indus period in India. This kept the Hindus divided and is still a source of social tension. This is not to say that such scholars appreciate or understand the 'Vedas' their work leaves much to be desired in this respect but that it is clear that the whole edifice built around the Aryan invasion is beginning to tumble on all sides. became a local skirmish among petty princes that was later exaggerated by poets. it does not mean that the 'Rig Veda' dates from the Indus Valley era. instead of a civil war in which all the main kings of India participated as it is described. scholars to interpret their history for them and quite naturally Hinduism is kept in a reduced role. The 'Mahabharata'. It is unfortunate that this this approach has not been questioned more. It made the Hindus feel that their culture was not the great thing that their sages and ancestors had said it was. It made them feel that the main line of civilization was developed first in the Middle East and then in Europe and that the culture of India was peripheral and secondary to the real development of world culture. It would make ancient India perhaps the oldest. largest and most central of ancient cultures. this kept the Hindu religion as a sidelight to the development of religion and civilization to the West. the compelling reasons for the Aryan invasion theory were neither literary nor archeological but political and religious that is to say. as any Vedic basis was largely disqualified by the primitive nature of the Vedic culture. Fourth. Second. It would mean that the 'Vedas' are our most authentic record of the ancient world. most Hindus today passively accept it.the 'Rig Veda'. In short. Third. Such prejudice may not have been intentional but deep-seated political and religious views easily cloud and blur our thinking. it gave the British an excuse in their conquest of India. In addition. the scene of action. It made Hindus feel ashamed of their culture that its basis was neither historical nor scientific. generally Christian. The acceptance of such views would create a revolution in our view of history as shattering as that in science caused by Einstein's theory of relativity. it served to make Vedic culture later than and possibly derived from Middle Eastern cultures. and not unaryan peoples. when the Saraswati river was more prominent. In short. divide and conquer the Hindus. it is important to examine the social and political implications of the Aryan invasion idea: First. . This discredited not only the 'Vedas' but the genealogies of the 'Puranas' and their long list of the kings before the Buddha or Krishna were left without any historical basis. not that the Indo-Aryans were invaders into India. This served a social. It turned its scriptures and sages into fantacies and exaggerations. Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Arobindo rejected it. it allowed the sciences of India to be given a Greek basis. In closing. Hence Renfrew suggests that the Indus Valley civilization was in fact Indo-Aryan even prior to the Indus Valley era: This hypothesis that early Indo-European languages were spoken in North India with Pakistan and on the Iranian plateau at the 6th millennium BC has the merit of harmonizing symmetrically with the theory for the origin of the IndoEuropean languages in Europe. particularly by Hindus. Such a view is not good scholarship or archeology but merely cultural imperialism. Nor is it implied that the inhabitants of the walled cities (including the Dasyus) were any more aboriginal than the Aryans themselves. It also emphasizes the continuity in the Indus Valley and adjacent areas from the early neolithic through to the floruit of the Indus Valley civilization. it discredited the most of the Hindu tradition and almost all its ancient literature. it is difficult to see what is particularly non-Aryan about the Indus Valley civilization.

Lukas(Ed).4. "Rig Veda" II. who overthrew an earlier and more advanced dark-skinned Dravidian civilization from which they took most of what later became Hindu culture . Fall/Winter 1989. India was invaded and conquered by nomadic light-skinned Indo-European tribes from Central Asia around 1500-100 BC. "Indus Writing". Also the work of Subhash Kak as in "A Frequency Analysis of the Indus Script". Renfrew.20. C. VI. No 3. 1973. No 1 & 2. Trench.2. Asia Publishing House. 1976. p. and "On the Decipherment of the Indus Script A Preliminary Study of its connection with Brahmi". "Shatapat Brahmana". I. Note MLBD Newsletter (Delhi. Confirmed by use of MSS (multi-spectral scanner) and Landsat Satellite photography. "Bharatiya Historiography". Hunter. 85. India. New York. Mitchiner. "The Script of Harappa and Mohenjodaro and its connection with other scripts". 37. Delhi. Trubner & Co. "Rig Veda" VII. It is not an issue to be taken lightly. "Aitareya Brahmana".15. "Archeology and Language". Motilal Banarasidas. Kegan Paul. "Manu Samhita" II. "Rig Veda" VII. 1978. "The Proto-Indoaryans". Kak may be close to deciphering the Indus Valley script into a Sanskrit like or Vedic language.2. Delhi.16. p. the theory has not met majority acceptance within India and is even coming under attack in the West. 158. India: Motilal Banarasidass). Although many Indologists within India have been influenced by such thought. XIII. David Frawley.5.R. G. 1989.8 & IV. 1985. because how a culture is defined historically creates the perspective from which it is viewed in the modern social and intellectual context. VII.17-18.3. India. Cryptologia. VIII. J.189. That is merely self-betrayal. India. S. New York.F. even . Studies from the post-graduate Research Institute of Deccan College.8.14. "Studies in the Indus Valley Inscriptions". "Vedanga Jyotisha of Lagadha".4. July 1988. J.3. According to this account. India. Jodhapur. The Mankind Quarterly. This idea. R. "Lothal and the Indus Valley Civilization". Vol XII.8-13. pp. 2.8. has become an almost unquestioned truth in the interpretation of ancient history today.. J.95. "The Hymns of the Rig Veda". Delhi. one Sanskrit scholar recognized both inside as well as outside of India has assessed the current situation of the Aryan invasion theory thusly: “ One of the main ideas used to interpret . Shaffer.48. Itihasa Sankalana Samiti. MonierWilliams and H. but they will have no one to blame but themselves. Today. I. London. Griffith. Vol 30. and the Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI).and generally devalue .5. Oxford & IBH. pp. Would modern Christians accept an interpretation of the Bible or Biblical history done by Hindus aimed at converting them to Hinduism? Universities in India also use the Western history books and Western Vedic translations that propound such views that denigrate their own culture and country. Scientific American. H. 11-13.1. Bombay. 123-140. No. Cambridge University Press. T. Ibid. Note "Rig Veda" II..the ancient history of India is the theory of the Aryan invasion. Burrow.61. Indian National Science Academy.Many Hindus still accept. "The Indo-Aryan invasions: Cultural Myth and Archeological Reality". 'The people of South Asia'. pp 12-13. p. "The Antecedents of Civilization in the Indus Valley". VI.12.21-23. 140 & 141.27. Pune. it will undoubtly continue. Jarrige and R. from J. 1984. August 1980. Meadow. _______________________Hollow Earth Theory and the Aryan Invasion Revised The Aryan invasion theory has been a basis and justification of Western interpretation upon the civilization and history of India. I. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------References "Atherva Veda" IX. Rao.H. Also Sriram Sathe. Hyderabad.166.E.41. 1989. Nov. For scholars to take a stand against this biased interpretation of the 'Vedas' would indeed cause a reexamination of many of these historical ideas that can not stand objective scrutiny. But if Hindu scholars are silent or passively accept the misinterpretation of their own culture.95.7. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society. VII..1. 22(1):51-62 (1987). Griffith. The modern Western academic world is sensitive to critisms of cultural and social biases. after nearly all the reasons for its supposed validity have been refuted. R. 1934. read or even honor the translations of the 'Vedas' done by such Christian missionary scholars as Max Muller.totally foreign to the history of India. 1973. Tolerance is not in allowing a false view of one's own culture and religion to be propagated without question. Wilson. Indian Journal of History of Science. whether North or South. 1987.

that its basis was neither historical nor scientific. One major platform that Western scholars have relied upon to substantiate the theory is etymology. outside of India. Such prejudice may not have been intentional but deep-seated political and religious views easily cloud and blur our thinking. In short. the compelling reasons for the Aryan invasion theory were neither literary nor archeological but political and religious .major Western scholars are at last beginning to call it into question. no related cemeteries unearthed. proving the superiority of Western culture and religion. Second. instead of a civil war in which all the main kings of India participated as it is described. in the Puranas themselves! The Puranas tell us that at the end of the Kali Yuga. no battle fields identified in relation to the theory. it served to divide India into a northern Aryan and southern Dravidian culture which were made hostile to each other. after the Kalki Avatar brings the Kali Yuga to a close. No monuments to any heros of such invasions have been excavated. It has often been pointed out that few other principal theories have ever been accepted based on such indirect. Fourth. This point. They trace linguistic patterns. It turned its scriptures and sages into fantasies and exaggerations. flimsy evidence. being basically the Caucasians and mountainous regions of Persia. In short. The Mahabharata. This kept the Hindus divided and is still a source of social tension. in shortnothing in the way of physical evidence.right under our noses. it gave the British an excuse in their conquest of India. not scholarship but prejudice. political and economical purpose of domination. Third. no forts.” ( David Frawley. as any Vedic basis was largely disqualified by the primitive nature of the Vedic culture. and such is the explanation they offer for the Caucasian presence in India. They could claim to be doing only what the Aryan ancestors of the Hindus had previously done millennia ago. became a local skirmish among petty princes that was later exaggerated by poets. . The Western Vedic scholars did in the intellectual sphere what the British army did in the political realm discredit. There is a host of other incongruencies. With the proximity and relationship of the latter with the Bible and Christianity.” What impact does the Hollow Earth understanding have on this issue? The impact that it has may be found in one of the best places to hide anything. ” It is important to examine the social and political implications of the Aryan invasion idea: First. This is not the only reference to the hollow earth in the Puranas. and then by implication pinpoint a central geographic area which then serves as a common point of origin of the IndoEuropean language and race. but this is the general idea. encompassing East and West. it discredited the most of the Hindu tradition and almost all its ancient literature. such that the existence of the Aryan race in Northern India is attributed to an invasion.that is to say. “ The Myth of the Aryan Invasion” ) One main reason that the theory has been called into question is that there is no primary evidence. but it is the one which indicates the origin of the Aryans ( Caucasian race ) on the surface of the Earth. This discredited not only the 'Vedas' but the genealogies of the 'Puranas' and their long list of the kings before the Buddha or Krishna were left without any historical basis. When something ends up being so rigidly imposed with such little basis. It made them feel that the main line of civilization was developed first in the Middle East and then in Europe and that the culture of India was peripheral and secondary to the real development of world culture. Again we may rely on the broad understanding of David Frawley. it served to make Vedic culture later than and possibly derived from Middle Eastern cultures. it allowed the sciences of India to be given a Greek basis. divide and conquer the Hindus. is of course. Such a view is not good scholarship or archeology but merely cultural imperialism. It made Hindus feel ashamed of their culture . It made the Hindus feel that their culture was not the great thing that their sages and ancestors had said it was. This served a social. Vedic culture becomes regenerated from the interior of the Earth. this kept the Hindu religion as a sidelight to the development of religion and civilization to the West. a reasonable mind will look for other motives.

” wrote of his travels through Tibet in the 1920s. The reader may keep in mind that in millennia past. No Caucasian migration into India is necessarily indicative of an introduction of Vedic culture. skip and a jump. could have simply reinforced already existent Vedic culture without having been an ------The Aryans and the Vedic Age The Aryans are said to have entered India through the fabled Khyber pass. even down as far as the Indian subcontinent. In addition. of accounting for the Aryan presence in the Indian subcontinent. for example. that their surface migration began in Northern Europe. The Caucasian presence in Northern Europe could be explained by migration from the polar more than a few hundred miles. All three factors were to play a fundamental role in the shaping of Indian culture. They adopted the settled agricultural lifestyle of their predecessors. and it was found that roots. Now the graves lie under permafrost. (www. In addition to the large. which is offset from the North Pole just above the New Siberian Islands? ( See the oval on the map in Chapter Seven ) A hop.The Caucasian race can easily be seen to stretch from Northern India to Scandanavia and to European Russia. . As an example. He was shown caves closed up by boulders. So how difficult would it be for the Caucasian and. any cyclical reappearance of Vedic civilization and the Caucasian race could manifest from at least two points which span the length of the Aryan presence on our Earth. situated above the New Siberian Islands in the Arctic basin.000 years ago have been opened up in Greenland. polar openings there are said to be tunnels which connect the surface of the planet with the hollow portion. developed the Sanskrit language and made significant inroads in to the religion of the times. these areas were not as cold as they are now. Rather. Therefore. and the Hollow Earth Theory explains this admirably well in conjuction with the appearance of the Kalki Avatar and regeneration of the surface population from Shambhalla and the hollow earth. and he wrote of passing over what seemed to be hollow areas by the echos from the horses’ hooves. re-population of the surface of our planet from the madhyatah. blue eyed state. from top to bottom. Nicholas Roerich. previously. How far would it be from the Artic coast of the Siberian and European side of the polar basin to the opening suggested by several hollow Earth researchers. of course. The Aryans are believed to have brought with them the horse. including its chief city Shambhalla. then became sun bleached to their present blond haired. in his book “ Shamballa. otherwise known as the Aryan Invasion Theory. the race has a light tan complexion. vegetation existed in the area and that there was a different climate. This means that. around 1500 BC. along the Artic basin. and established small agrarian communities across the state of Punjab. The hollow Earth theory certainly strengthens the Puranic account of a cyclical. and assimilated themselves into the social framework. This is because in the Middle East and India. the hollow Earth theory offers an intriguing alternative to previous interpretations of the Caucasian presence in India. really. through the Karakorum Pass in the Altai Mountains. at that time. Aryan insertion into any given area. while openings and tunnels in the Tibetan region could account for Caucasian presence also. while is is harder to believe that darker skinned Caucasians migrated Northwards. India included. and suggests that what is past will one day be prologue. from the Polar opening to the hollow Earth. had penetrated the coffins. other human races to re-introduce themselves to the surface of the planet from this particular opening at the end of every Kali Yuga? It does not seem that it would be so difficult at all. Therefore. Cavalry warfare facilitated the rapid spread of Aryan culture across North India. we can surmise that the Caucasians are not Caucasian in origin but rather.the genes which generate fair complexions and blue eyes are passive. It is not a matter. it is a matter of accounting for human presence on the surface of the planet after the end of every chatur yuga. we'll note that Viking graves from 1. It is easier to go from a light complexion to a darker complexion. In this way. the hollow portion.holloworbs. They intermingled with the local populace. and wrote of a current recollection of the hollow Earth in the collective minds of the Tibetan people. the fact that the Caucasian race is so light skinned in Northern Europe is indicative of a top-down migration. and allowed the emergence of large empires.

glances at the problems of lexicostatistics and glottochronology. while family trees result from punctuation episodes. Their social framework was composed mainly of the following groups : the Brahmana (priests). He goes on to explain why linguistic diversity matters.Sanskrit is the basis and the unifying factor of the vast majority of Indian languages. arguably the single most important common denominator of Indian culture. Dixon evaluates the criteria for constructing family trees and the ways in which analyses often fail to match the standards set by work on Indo-European. a division of occupations. but they developed a rich tradition. and about the factors that decide which features are borrowed. Dixon finishes with some applied linguistics. Punctuation can be caused by natural events. He criticises the proposed Niger-Congo language family. He also addresses what he sees as the central problems facing his discipline. which are interesting in their own right. He takes a quick glance at recent history: at invasions and developments in communication technology. Much later. with its rich pantheon of Gods and Goddesses. The Aryans were divided into tribes which had settled in different regions of northwestern India. the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. –--------------In The Rise and Fall of Languages a prominent linguist takes a broad look at language change. Dixon provides an explicit list of his basic assumptions. and its storehouse of myths and legends. Tribal chiefmanship gradually became hereditary. (1000 to 800 BC). The religion. Dixon's central thesis is that linguistic areas result from periods of equilibrium. "The hymns are a poetic testament of a people's collective reaction to the wonder and awe of existence. in the beginning. as a result. the internal division of the Aryan society developed along caste lines. (Here he also explores the consequences of the isolating-agglutinative-fusional cycle for discerning genetic relationships. a region within which languages share common features as a result of diffusion. In general punctuation is associated with aggressive.. This is illustrated with examples from Austronesia. models of linguistic change developed in one context are not necessarily applicable elsewhere. He makes a plea for the . and change from one caste or occupation to another became far more difficult." A settled lifestyle brought in its wake more complex forms of government and social patterns. as such it was open and flexible. where they are borrowed from. Dixon stresses the importance of fieldwork and attacks the myth that purely theoretical work is more difficult and more valuable than description and analysis of languages. As the Nobel Laureate. that took root during the Vedic era. They composed the hymns of the four vedas. Kshatriya (warriors). Dixon's central thesis is that language change varies dramatically in rate and is best modelled as a form of "punctuated equilibrium". Rabindranath Tagore expressed it. and the Americas.A people of vigorous and unsophisticated imagination awakened at the very dawn of civilisation to a sense of inexhaustible mystery that is implicit in life.. caste status and the corresponding occupation came to depend on birth. and at language loss and the social and political factors that influence it. Turning to modes of language change (and language splitting). With work specialisation. with a brief tour of linguistic variation around the world. On less firm territory. and with the positioning of subgroups. taking adjective classes and the marking of subject and object functions as his examples. expanding societies and equilibrium with small-scale ones (a division very much along the lines of Levi-Strauss' hot/cold distinction). The events described in the two great Indian epics. lexical. Australia. Turning to methodological issues within linguistics. are thought to have occurred around this period. became the foundation of the Hindu religion. He offers some tentative generalisations about which language features (phonological. It was. and who borrows them. though the chief usually operated with the help of advice from either a committee or the entire tribe. The Aryans did not have a script. the more familiar classification scheme for languages. He begins his argument proper with the concept of a "linguistic area". Vaishya (agriculturists) and Shudra (workers). material innovation. the great philosophic poems that are at the heart of Hindu thought. and the emergence of kingdoms and republics. grammatical) are most likely to diffuse.. or political and geographical expansion.) The reconstruction of family trees faces problems with proto-languages. Dixon also suggests that the origin of language might be seen as a punctuation event. with dating. Linguistic areas contrast with family trees. This period saw the evolution of the caste system. and demolishes the follies of Nostratic and other such super-families.

are discredited. rather it conditions our perception of India's historical evolution. the very raison d'etre of Hindutva is endangered. which I warmly recommend to anyone curious about language change. If such a false theory is allowed to perpetuate and given credence without any tenable and reliable basis. an attempt has been made to expose the myth of Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) based on scriptural. The Aryan issue is quite controversial and has been the focus of historians. The last couple of decades have witnessed a growing interest among scholars. but The Rise and Fall of Languages should be accessible to pretty much anyone. science. archaeologists. In this essay. and present the factual situation of the ancient Vedic society and how it progressed and evolved into all-embracing and catholic principle. etc. for example).the very foundation of Indian civilization.documentation of languages before it is too late and argues for a focus on "Basic Linguistic Theory" in place of various narrow formalisms. and means to preserve it. Consequently. AIT has no support either in Indian literature. until the British imperialists imposed this theory on an unsuspecting and gullible Indian society and introduced it to the school curriculum. and not a factual event. nay even rejected with the emergence of new knowledge and data pertaining to the subject matter of the theories. Indologists. The most weird aspect of the AIT is that it has its origin not in any Indian records (no where in any of the ancient Indian scriptures or epics or Puranas. This subject must especially and urgently interest to all those people who are committed to the ideology of Hindutva. There is absolutely no reference in Indian traditions and literature of an Aryan Invasion of Northern India. 4 May 1998 _____________________ Demise of the Aryan Invasion Theory By Dr. the validity or invalidity of this theory has an obvious and strong bearing on the contemporary Indian political and social landscape as well as the future of Indian nationalism. The Rise and Fall of Languages is an excellent little book. but in European politics and German nationalism of 19th century. sounds really incredible!). The fact that these pioneers of the ancient Vedic culture and hence the Hinduism were indigenous people of mother India. is mendaciously denied by the Aryan Invasion theory which professes their foreign origin. who were supposed to be the victims of the so-called Aryan invasion) literature and tradition. The subject matter is as relevant today as it was a hundred years ago when it was cleverly introduced in the school text books by British rulers. AIT is merely a proposed 'theory'.Dinesh Agrawal -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aryan Race and Invasion Theory is not a subject of academic interest only. It will be particularly valuable to those in other fields where language change plays a significant part -. and sociologists for over a century. is there any mention of this AIT. tradition. and anthropology. and many nationalist Indians in this some what vapid and prosaic subject due to their aunguish on the great damage this theory has wrought on the psyche of the Indian society. Some background in linguistics would be useful (a reference to ergativity on page 18 precedes a not entirely straightforward explanation on page 56. And theories keep modifying. and its tremendous contribution in creating apparently lasting schism between the different sections of the Hindu society. for one of the primary and fundamental premises of Hindutva philosophy lies in the fact that the Indian cultural nationalism has been evolved and fostered over the millenia by our ancient rishis who at the banks of holy rivers of Saptasindhu had composed the Vedic literature . social scientists. His creation. and realised the eternal truth about the Creator. the validity of AIT is seriously challenged and it stands totally untenable. The AIT can not be accepted as Gospel truth knowing fully well its shaky and dubious foundations. the sources of her ancient glorious heritage. now known as Hindusim. archaeological evidences and proper interpretation of Vedic verses. inhabitants of south India. and indigenous socio-economic-political institutions which have been developed over the millennia. making an effective explanation of their limitations and of alternative models an important antidote to popular enthusiasms. and now with the emergence of new information and an objective analysis of the archaeological data and scriptures.history. among others. So a product of European politics of the 19th century was forced on Indian history only to serve the imperialist policy of British colonialists to divide the Indian society on ethnic and religious lines in order to continue their reign on the one hand and accentuate the religious aims of Christian missionaries on the other. The . or not even in any of the south Indian (Dravidians. Simple family trees and reconstructions of proto-languages are "sexy". archaeology.

barbaric horde of invaders cannot from any stretch of imagination produce the kind of sublime wisdom. And now. Boyed C. Shafer and Hans Kohn who made a deep study of the evolution and character of nationalism in Europe. They even suggest that the Sanskrit language is of non-Indian origin. the excavation of a chain of Harappan sites from Ropar in the Punjab to Lothal and Dhaulavira in Gujarat all along this lost track. preposterous. It is a known fact that most of the original proponents of AIT were not historians or archaeologists but had missionary and political axe to grind. This is all absurd. is the Aryan Invasion Theory? . Even in the early times of the AIT's onward journey of acceptability. but also is destroying all the pillars on which the entire edifice of AIT had been assiduously but cleverly built. pure and pristine spiritual experiences of the highest order. This culminated in the holocaust of millions of innocent people. And as everybody knows this eventually ended up in the most calamitous event of 20th century: the World War II. and make the amends. a universal philosophy of religious tolerance and harmony for the entire mankind.irony is that this is still taught in our schools as an unmitigated truth. and he was challenged by his peers. only motivated by the superiority of German race/nationalism through white Aryan race theory. really. A nomadic. suddenly. Dales. and others like Lassen and Weber were ardent German nationalists. For thousands of years the Hindu society has looked upon the Vedas as the fountainhead of all knowledge: spiritual and secular. The German and French political and nationalist groups exploited this racial phenomenon to propagate the supremacy of an assumed Aryan race of white people. Never our historical or religious records have questioned this fact. accurate and contextual interpretation of Vedas indicate convincingly towards the full identity of the Harappan/Indus civilization with post Vedic civilization. in the last century or so. a renowned Indologist from Germany. Hayes. and defies the commonsense. he recanted and pronounced that Aryan meant only a linguistic family and never applied to a race. They had exposed the unscientificness of many of the budding social sciences which were utilized in the 19th century to create the myth of Aryan Race Theory. In the last couple of decades. Though now this racial nonsense has mostly been discarded in Europe. but in India it is still being exploited and used to divide and denigrate the Hindu society. the discovery of the lost Dwarka city beneath the sea water near Gujarat coast and its similarity with Harappan civilization . Our aim is to expose myth about AIT. they were the creation of a barbaric horde of nomadic tribes descended upon north India and destroyed an advanced indigenous civilization. the term Arya denoted a racial people. and demand a re-examination of the entire gamut of Aryan Race/Invasion Theories which have been forcefully pushed down the throats of Indian society by some European manipulators and Marxist historians all these years. heritage and its existence. Max Muller. This is truly a shame! Now.H. Even western and far eastern travellers who have documented their experiences during their prolonged stay and sojourn in India have testified the importance of Vedic literature and its indigenous origin. since nowhere in the Sanskrit literature. is credited with the popularization of the Aryan racial theory in the middle of 19th century. and the authorities who set the curriculum of Indian history books are not yet prepared to accept the verdict.all these new findings and an objective. decipherment of the Harappan/Indus script by many scholars as a language belonging to Vedic Sanskrit family. and the mainstay of Hindu culture. that the end of the Harappan civilization came not because of the so called Aryan invasion but as a result of a series of floods. the discovery of the archaeological remains of Vedis (alters) and Yupas connected with Vedic Yajnas (sacrifices) at Harrapan sites like Kalibangan. there were numerous challengers like C. with hardly any authority or knowledge on India. Max Muller in fact had been paid by the East India Company to further its colonial aims. Now let us examine the origin and the conditions in which this historical fraud was concocted. the discovery of the lost track of the Rig Vedic river Saraswati. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------What. one finds in the Vedic literature. these the so-called European scholars are pontificating us that the Vedas do not belong to Hindus. and establish the truth of the identity of the pioneers of the Vedic civilization and set the historical events after the Vedic period in proper perspective and in realistic time frame. which Hitler used to its extreme absurdities for his barbaric crusade to terrorize Jews and other societies. Prof. Though later on when Muller's reputation as a Sanskrit scholar was getting damaged. the view of the archaeologists like Prof. But the damage was already done.J. more and more evidence is emerging which not only challenges the old myth of Aryan Invasion. Allchin etc.

their pilgrim centers range from Kailash in the North. 1500 BC: Arbitrary and speculative. astronomy.repositories of life giving water and natural resources. The North and South have never been known to be culturally hostile to each other. is well recognized but cannot be reconciled if Vedas were composed after 1500BC. And what are the evidences AIT advocates present in support of all these wild conjectures: Invasion: Mention of Conflicts in Vedic literature. Date of Invasion. light-skinned RACE of a people called 'ARYANS' who descended from Central Asia (or some unknown land ?) around 1500 BC. or AUSTRICS or now--days' Shudra class etc. Their religious motifs. who were allegedly pushed down to the south by Aryans. there was a continuous interaction and cultural exchange between the two regions. medicine and other sciences provide one of the foundations on which rests the common heritage of mankind. Agastya. and who have written commentaries on Vedic scriptures in Sanskrit only for the benefit of the entire population. logic. to Rameshwaram in the South. is widely venerated in the South as the one who introduced Vedic learning to the South India.According to this theory. Shiva worshippers. Light-skinned: Pure conjecture and misinterpretation of Vedic hymns. they were nomadic. a celebrated Vedic rishi. their holy placeis Mecca. All these are located in greater India only. Also the astronomical references in the Rig Veda allude to events in the third millennium BC and even earlier. No Hindu from any part of India has felt a stranger in any other part of India when on a pilgrimage. Further. Somnath in Gujarat and Kashi in Uttar Pradesh. Racial differences. If Aryans were outsiders why should they consider this land as the 'holy land' and not their original land as the 'holy land' or motherland? For the Muslims. who were the original inhabitants of South India. And also was the South India uninhabitated prior to the pushing of the original population of Indus Valley? If not. These Indus Valley people were supposed to be either Dravidian. the so-called Aryan language was the lingua-franca of the entire society for thousands of years. The Sanskrit language. Prior to the descent of British on Indian scene. how come after doing that they did not occupy these towns? The excavations of these sites indicate that the townships were abandoned. If the Aryan Hindus were outsiders. Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh. their invasion. indicating continuity and identity of Vedic culture with the Indus valley civilization. Dwaraka in the west and Ujjain in central India. The seven holy cities of Hinduism include Kanchipurum in the south. The seven holy rivers in Hinduism. For the Hindus. why don't they name places outside India as their most holy places? Why should they sing paeans in the praise of India's numerous rivers crisscrossing the entire peninsula. chariots. Even in the ancient times some of the great Sutra authors like Baudhayana and Apastamba were from South. northern India was invaded and conquered by nomadic. nay even bestow them a status of goddesses and gods. their original home was outside India. Non-Aryan/Dravidian Nature of Indus civilization: absence of horse. etc. seem to chart out the map of the holy land. how come there is no AryanDravidian divide in the respective literatures and historical traditions. For the Catholics it is Rome or Jerusalem. Nashik in Maharashtra. mathematics. and from Hingalaj (Sindh) in the West to Parusuram Kund (Arunchala Pradesh) in the East. if it is assumed that the socalled Aryans invaded the townships in the Harappa valley and destroyed its habitants and their civilization. The main elements on which the entire structure of AIT has been built are: Arya is a racial group. Biblical chronology. etc. in Mesopotamia and Iraq the presence of the people worshipping Vedic gods around 1700BC. findings of skeletons at the excavated sites of Mohanjodro and Harappa Nomadic. and mountains . -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Major Flaws in the Aryan Invasion Theory A major flaw of the invasion theory was that it had no explanation for why the Vedic literature that was assumed to go back into the second millennium BC had no reference to any region outside of India. The three greatest figures of later Hinduism . deities and sacrificial altars bespeak of Aryan faith. The twelve jyotirlings include Ramashwaram in Tamil Nadu. The contributions of the Vedic world to philosophy. The Sindhu and the Saraswati (now extinct) originating from the Himalayas and move westward . their invasion occurred around 1500 BC. they destroyed an advanced civilization of Indus valley. who accepted the newcomers without any hostility or fight? There is enough positive evidence in support of the religious rites of the Harappans being similar to those of the Vedic Aryans. Madhavacharya and Ramanujam were Southerners who are universally respected in the North. indicating origin ofVedic hymns earlier than 3000BC. and destroyed an earlier and more advanced civilization of the people habitated in the Indus Valley and imposed upon them their culture and language. indeed. light-skinned.Shankaracharya. And if the Harappan civilization had a Dravidian origin.

Princeton University Press) reveals that the people habitated in the Indian subcontinent and nearby including Europe. Therefore. Aryan blood. I mean simply those who speak an Aryan language. only when closer to the equator the skin gets darker. by Luca Cavalli-Sforza. he himself refuted his own theory and wrote: " I have declared again and again that if I say Aryas. nor hair. and further: teacher.S. Biologically all are the same Caucasian type. and deceptive-scholarship. Arya means . Caucasian can be of any color ranging from pure white to almost pure black. that is Bharat. the word Arya was derived from ar-. established several mathas (religious and spiritual centers) including at Badrinath in the north (UP). And therefore the meaning of Arya is given as "excellent. according to Max Muller. the Ganga and the Yamuna also start in the Himalayas and move eastward into the north-eastern sea. Etymologically. and is often used like 'Sir' or 'Shree' before the name of a person like Aryaputra. Many Chinese have skin whiter than many so-called Caucasians. who was born in Kerala. worthy. the Australians and the Negroid.who cared for the equality to all and was dear to everyone. Both the Aryans and Dravidians are related branches of the Caucasian race generally placed in the same Mediterranean sub-branch. Paolo Menozzi and Alberto Piazza. etc. Dwaraka in the west (Gujarat). deliberate falsification of the facts. 1888. This study also confirms that there is no race called as an Aryan race. Caucasian. friend. righteous person. namely. all belong to one single race of Caucasion type. These are some of the obvious serious objections. as opposed to nomads and hunter-gatherers).and southwards into the western sea. Aryan eyes and hair. Buddha. which a prefix a has been appended to give a negating meaning. while the Kaveri winds its way through the south to move into the southern sea. and under the influence of constant heat the bodily frame tends to get a little smaller. good-natured. there is essentially. Adi Shankaracharya. noble-man. pg 120). and glaring anomalies to which the invasionists have no convincing or plausible explanations which could reconcile the above facts with the Aryan invasion theory and destruction of Indus Valley civilization. the word Arya is nowhere defined in connection with either race or language. landlord. Instead it refers to: gentleman. There are only four primary races. to cultivate". that is Hinduism. to me an ethnologist who speaks of Aryan race. I mean neither blood nor bones. Apte's Sanskrit-English dictionary relates the word Arya to the root r-. The voluminous references to various wars and conflicts in Rigveda are frequently cited as the proof of an invasion and wars between invading white-skinned Aryans and dark-skinned . Further."cultivator" agriculturer (civilized sedentary. "plough. However. Biographies of Words and the Home of the Aryas. excellent". Rama is described as an Arya in the following words: Arya . The racial composition has remained almost the same for millennia. In Vedic Literature. lord. the Narmada starts in central India and the Godavari starts in western India. is as great a sinner as a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic dictionary or a brachycephalic grammar.. the Mangolian. nor skull. So nowhere either in the religious scriptures or by tradition the word Arya denotes a race or language. Similarly. Aryakanya. Puri in the east (Orissa). a recent landmark global study in population genetics by a team of internationally reputed scientists over 50 years (The History and Geography of Human Genes. More than a thousand years ago. inconsistencies. Now let us examine the facts about the so-called evidences in support of AIT: Real Meaning of the word Arya In 1853. To impose such a meaning on this epithet is an absolute intellectual dishonesty. In Ramayan (Valmiki). in 1888. "master. employer. followed by "respectable" and as a noun. And these differences can not be the basis of two altogether different races. According to this study. V. Similar differences one can observe even more distinctly among the people of pure Caucasian white race of Europe.. and has been no difference racially between north Indians and the so-called Dravidian South Indians. the Mongolian race is not yellow." (Max Muller. honorable. master. and at Shringeri and Kanchi in the south. best". That is India. with every shade of brown in between. The difference between the so-called Aryans of the north and the Dravidians of the south or other communities of Indian subcontinent is not a racial type. Max Muller introduced the word 'Arya' into the English and European usage as applying to a racial and linguistic group when propounding the Aryan Racial theory. upholder of Arya values.

the conflict and controversy were continued between the two groups often resulting into even physical fights. Rain.32. The descriptions acquire an increasing tendency to shift from naturalism to mythology. and depict the celestial battles of the natural forces. The Iranians not only called their God Ahura (Vedic Asura) and their demons Daevas (Vedic Devas). Some of these were found in contorted positions and groupings that suggest anything but orderly burials. as the Vedic texts depict them on behalf of the Devaworshippers. or as the black demons themselves. since it is he who forces the clouds to part with their all-important wealth. Indra. I. And it is these mythological descriptions which are grabbed at by invasion theorists as descriptions of wars between invading Aryans and indigenous non-Aryans. The invasionists interpret this verse literally on human plane. (Rig Veda. Dales (Former head of department of Southasean Archaeology and Anthropology.10-11) This verse is a beautiful poetic and metamorphical description of snow-clad dark mountains where the life-sustaining water to feed the rivers flowing in the Aryavarta is held by the hardened ice caps (vrtra demon) and Indra.indigenous people. and Dasyus). This is an absurd and ludicrous interpretation of an obvious conflict between the natural forces. Conflicts between the forces of nature: Indra. the dominant God of the Rigveda. What this all indicate that wars or conflicts of this second category are not between Aryans and non-Aryans. This is in no way be construed as the war between white Aryans and black Dravidians. Not a single body was . The waters press against the secret opening of the Vrtra (the coverer) who lay in deep darkness whose enemy is Indra. now known as Iran. cattle. Many are either disarticulated or incomplete. and expand the geographical boundaries of the existing kingdoms. water. the so-called conflicts and wars mentioned in the Rigveda can be categorized mainly in the following three types: A. and often take greater and greater recourse to terrestrial terminology and anthropomorphic depictions. is represented in the Iranian texts by a demon Indra.e. C. moreover depict the conflicts between the daeva-worshippers and the Dahyus on behalf of the Dahyus. USA) in his "The Mythical Massacre at Mohenjo-daro. F. Prof. Mastered by the enemy. but they also called themselves Dahas and Dahyus (Vedic Dasas. the Thunder-God of the Rig Veda. Vedas even mention the gods of Dasyus as Arya also. as the slaying of vrtra. that can be attributed with some certainty to the period of the Indus civilizations. B. the leader of dark skinned Dravidian people of Indus valley by invading white-skinned Aryan king Indra. being the highest wealth. but at some point in the history for some serious philosophical dispute. G. vegetation and land. At one time Iranians and Vedic people formed one society and were living harmoniously in the northern part of India practising Vedic culture. They were all found in the area of the Lower Town . The oldest Iranian texts.probably the residential district. An example of such distorted interpretation is made of the following verse: The body lay in the midst of waters that are neither still nor flowing. Conflicts between various indigenous tribal groups over natural resources and various minor kingdoms to gain supremacy over the land and its expansion: A global phenomenon known to share the natural resources like. Conflict between Vedic and Iranian people: Another category of conflicts in the Rigveda represents the genuine conflict between the Vedic people and the Iranians.a city of three miles in circuit . In this task he is pitted against all sorts of demons and spirits whose main activity is the prevention of rainfall and sunshine. is depicted in terms of more terrestrial forms of wealth. the waters held back like cattle restrained by a trader. This is a perverted interpretation from those who have not understood the meaning and purport of the Vedic culture and philosophy. as the black abodes of the demons who retain the celestial waters of the heavens (i. Berkeley University. or parts thereof. Most of the verses which mention the wars/conflicts are composed using poetic imagery. Expedition Vol VI.3: 1964 states the following about this evidence: What of these skeletal remains that have taken on such undeserved importance? Nine years of extensive excavations at Mohenjo-daro (1922-31) . occupies a central position in the naturalistic aspects of the Rigvedic religion.yielded the total of some 37 skeletons. Indra crushed the vrtra and broke open the withholding outlet of the river. The clouds are depicted in terms of their physical appearance: as mountains. This conflict in no way suggests any war or invasion by outsiders on the indigenous people. However. the rains). the society got divided and one section moved to further north-west. the rain god by allowing the sun to light its rays on the mountains makes the ice caps break and hence release the water. Well. such as cows or soma. It is argued that in the excavations at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro the human skeletons found do prove that a massacre had taken place at these townships by invading armies of Aryan nomads. but between two estranged groups of the same parent society which got divided by some philosophical dichotomy. the rain.

Nor does the fleetness in battle. strongholds and citadels.found within the area of the fortified citadel where one could reasonably expect the final defence of this thriving capital city to have been made. expelled by the incursion of the war like Aryas in their warchariots. 1819-27) in his magnum opus. .." M. is there any allusion to a prior residence or to a knowledge of more than the name of any country out of India. writes: Hindu scripture.S. As far as I can see there is nothing in the Hymns of the Rigveda which demonstrates that the Vedic-speaking population were intrusive to the area: this comes rather from a historical assumption about the 'coming' of the Indo-Europeans. the smashed chariots and bodies of in the invaders and defenders? Despite the extensive excavations at the largest Harappan sites. Even mythology goes no further than the Himalayan chain. in his famous work. Elphinstone (1841): (first governor of Bombay Presidency. O Indra. and heaven and sky and earth display his comely form. for thy desire hath been gratified by my praise. but from east to west. also. In Indra.. the Gods have joyed at feast. The Dasyus have been thought by some commentators to represent the original. and as little for denying that they may have done so before the earliest trace of their records or tradition.. I believe. "It is opposed to their (Hindus) foreign origin. yea in him victorious through his strength. that neither in the Code (of Manu) nor. Where. indeed.When Wheeler speaks of the Aryan invasion of the Land of the Seven Rivers. . History of India. Indeed the chariot is not a vehicle especially associated with nomads. Cambridge Univ. and even to analogy. glorifying in battle. Elphinstone's final verdict: There is no reason whatever for thinking that the Hindus ever inhabitated any country but their present one. It is certainly true that the gods invoked do aid the Aryas by over-throwing forts. and they are not by any means all warlike. Prof. pieces of armour. the scene of the action.. Colin Renfrew. so far as I can see. emigration and civilization have not spread in a circle. Syria and Arabia untouched? And.. . and Italy and yet leave Chaldea. for. may behold and may have faith . and when the Soma flowed.To say that it spread from a central point is an unwarranted assumption. weapons. he has no warranty at all.. 1988. there is nothing in any of them that to me which implies an invasion: the land of the Seven Rivers is the land of the Rigveda. The Rigveda gives no grounds for believing that the Aryas themselves lacked for forts. "Archeology and Language : The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins". .. The Seven Rivers bear his glory far and wide.. Nothing implies that the Aryas were strangers there. Some of these hymns. though repetitive. If one checks the dozen references in the Rigveda to the Seven Rivers. Most of the references. provided by horses (who were clearly used primarily for pulling chariots). in which is fixed the habitation of the gods. nor in any book that is certainly older than the code. nonVedic-speaking population of the area. simple cause: certainly there are no grounds for blaming its demise upon invading hordes. could the central point be. This seems instead to have been a system collapse. are very general ones such as the beginning of the Hymn to Indra (Hymn 102 of Book 9). in the Vedas. Nor is it implied that the inhabitants of the walled cities (including the Dasyus) were any more aboriginal than the Aryas themselves. there is not a single bit of evidence that can be brought forth as unconditional proof of an armed conquest and the destruction on the supposed scale of the Aryan invasion.. This was clearly a heroic society. Press. makes the following comments about the real meaning and interpretation of Rig Vedic hymns: "Many scholars have pointed out that an enemy quite frequently smitten in these hymns is the Dasyu. in itself suggest that the writers of these hymns were nomads. and local movements of people may have followed it. To thee the Mighty One I bring this mighty Hymn. the arrow heads. Greece. are very beautiful pieces of poetry. of Archeology at Cambridge. . the Punjab'. The Sun and Moon in change alternate run their course that we. from which a language could spread over India. He further questions: Where are the burned fortresses. Recent work on the decline of the Indus Valley civilization shows that it did not have a single. but this does not in itself establish that the Aryas had no forts themselves.

the red metal). but upon Saraswati. helpful kind") and sam (therefore meaning "being or existing for happiness or welfare. 5 gms. therefore the habitants of Indus valley were Dravidians. (Sanskrit. For this reason. SR Rao. Moreover. The proponents of AIT also present terra-cotta lumps found in the fire-alters at the Harappan and other sites as an evidence of Shiva linga. Now numerous excavated sites along Indus valley and along the dried Saraswati river have produced bones of domesticated horses. SR Rao and his team in 1984-88 (Marine Archaeology Unit) undertook an extensive search of this city along the coast of Gujarat where the Dwarikadeesh temple stands now. to become angry) and cembu (copper. and not confined to South India only. Indra himself is called Shiva several times in Rig Veda (2:20:3. the world renowned scholar of archeology. informs us that horse bones have been found both from the 'Mature Harappan' and 'Late Harappan' levels. the Dwarka is mentioned as being gradually swallowed by the ocean. The words Siva and Shambhu are not derived from the Tamil words civa (to redden. Krishna is also known as RANCHHOR (one who runs away from the battle-field). going completely dry around 1900 BC. 6:45:17. and the words are used in this sense only. and finally they succeeded in unearthing the ruins of this submerged city off the Gujarat coast. gracious. . Origin of Siva-worship The advocates of AIT argue that the inhabitants of Indus valley were Siva worshippers and since Siva cult is more prevalent among the South Indian Dravidians. But these terra-cotta lumps have been proved to be the measures for weighing the commodities by the shopkeepers and merchants. Presence of Horse at Indus-Saraswati sites It is argued that the Aryans were horse riding. Wakankar has shown that the Saraswati changed her course several times. now a dry river. the habitants of Indus valley cannot be Aryans. Well. helpful. Saraswati River Discovered It is well known that in the Rig Veda. kind"). this was the case in the 1930-40 when the excavation of many sites were not completed. but from the Sanskrit roots si (therefore meaning "auspicious. right from their very first occurrence. the traditional holy abode of Shiva is Kailash mountain which is in the far-north. But the remains of this submerged city along the coast of Gujarat were dated 3000BC to 1500BC. Monier-Williams). benevolent. and since no signs of horse was found at the sites of Harappa and Mohanjo-daro. The Ganga is mentioned only once while the Saraswati is mentioned at least 60 times. the honor of the greatest and the holiest of rivers was not bestowed upon the Ganga.English Dictionary by Sir M. granting or causing happiness. Dr. The Sabha Parva gives a detailed account of Krishna's flight from Mathura with his followers to Dwaraka to escape continuous attacks of Jarasandh's on Mathura and save the lives of its subjects. there are passages in Rigvada which mention Siva and Rudra and consider him an important deity. used chariots for transport. but once a mighty flowing river all the way from the Himalayas to the ocean across the Rajasthan desert. implying the Shiva cult was prevalent among the Indus valley people. and by no means a nonVedic god. most important symbols of Shaivites are located in North India: Kashi is the most revered and auspicious seat of Shaivism which is in the north. The latest satellite data combined with field archaeological studies have shown that the Rig Vedic Saraswati had stopped being a perennial river long before 3000 BC. Dr. Aryans were indigenous people. in the manner like 1 gm. and the decline of the Indus valley civilization is due to some natural calamity. Krishna had forewarned the residents of Dwaraka to vacate the city before the sea submerged it. 2 gms. So far the AIT advocates used to either dismiss the Mahabharat epic as a fictional work of a highly talented poet or would place it around 1000 BC. Many other scholars since then have also unearthed numerous bones of horses: both domesticated and combat types. benevolent. They were not used as the Shiva lingas for worship. Discovery of the Submerged city of Krishna's Dwaraka The discovery of this city is very significant and a kind of clinching evidence in discarding the Aryan invasion as well as its proposed date of 1500BC. Its discovery not only establishes the authenticity of Mahabharat war and the main events described in the epic. Their weights have been found in perfect integral ratios.So what these eminent scholars have concluded based on the archaeological and literary evidence that there was no invasion by the so-called Aryans. This simply debunks the non-Aryan nature of the habitants of the Indus valley and also identifies the Vedic culture with the Indus valley civilization. So Siva is not a Dravidian god only. but as the weight measurements. but clinches the traditional antiquity of Mahabharat and Ramayana periods. 8:93:3). But Shiva worship is not alien to Vedic culture. Extensive research by the late Dr. 10 gms etc. there was no massacre at Harappan and Mohanjo-dara sites. In Mahabharat's Musal Parva.

dyau (heaven). Mohenjo-Daro. shine out brilliantly for men) citra id raja rajaka id anyake sarasvatim anu. trika. is an ex-head of Archaeological Survey of India. Manu.S. chatus. SR Rao.4. Rao's decipherment are the numerals aeka. anna (food). All this shows that the Rig Veda must have been in existence no later than 3500 BC. It is not only the most sacred river but the Goddess of wisdom. He has authored several monumental works on Harappan civilization and Indus script. has been studying archeology since 1948 and has discovered and excavated numerous Indus sites.95.5. the Apaya and the Saraswati rivers. . the best Goddess.18) (Splendor is the king. the best river. pa(protector). The Harappa culture was a part of a continuing evolution of the Vedic culture which had developed on the banks of Saraswati river. Paris recently observed.21. she rules all inspirations) ni tva dadhe vara a prthivya ilayspade sudinatve ahnam: drsadvatyam manuse apayayam sarasvatyam revad agne didhi (III. a renowned Marine archaeologist.we now know. On the Drishadvati. She is said to be the Mother of the Veda. all others are princes.. Gara. Among the many words yielded by Dr. apa (water). and other sites were culturally Aryan is thus confirmed by the decipherment of the Harappan script and its identity with Sanskrit family. Saraswati) maho arnah saraswati pra cetayati ketuna dhiyo visva virajati (I. in the land of Ila. dashada. (Aryan Invasion of India: The Myth and the Truth By N. oh sacred fire. da. ".3. Kasyapa. moks. The people who resided at Harappa.3. gatha. The language that emerged turned out to be an "Aryan" one belonging to Sanskrit family. Numerous archaeological sites have also been located along the course of this great prehistoric river thereby confirming Vedic accounts. dasa.4) (We set you down. 10. surpassing all other rivers and waters: visva apo mahina sindhur anyah. tar (savior).16) (The best mother. para (supreme). and many common Sanskrit words like. Daksa. Rajaram) River Saraswati IN RIGVEDA The river called Saraswati is the most important of the rivers mentioned in the Rig Veda. tra. And it should be rightly termed as VedicSaraswati civilization. To summarize his method of decipherment of Indus script. mahat. in the clear brightness of the days. But satellite 'photos show that a great prehistoric river that was over 7 kilometers wide did indeed flow through the area at one time. pure in her course from the mountains to the sea: sucir yati girbhya a samudrat (VII. maha.12) (Saraswati like a great ocean appears with her ray. panta.As Paul-Henri Francfort of CNRS. This means that the Rig Veda describes the geography of North India long before 3000 BC. This was the Saraswati described in the Rig Veda. and were inspired by its beauty and its vasteness that they composed several hymns in her praise and glorification. at the most holy place on Earth. Like the Rain God extending with rain he grants a thousand times ten thousand cattle) Saraswati like a bronze city: ayasi puh. Sara. Kasu. A few Rig Vedic hymns which mention Saraswati river are presented below: ambitame naditame devitame sarasvati (II. thanks to the field work of the Indo-French expedition that when the proto-historic people settled in this area. who dwell along the Saraswati river. parjanya iva tatanadhi vrstya sahasram ayuta dadat (VIII. The image of this 'great goddess stream' dominates the text. Druhu. happta/sapta. Decipherment of Indus Script Dr. who has deciphered the Indus script.41.7. he proceeded to try to read the inscriptions on the Indus seals. dvadasa and sata (1. After assigning these values to the Indus letters.. Trita. The great Saraswati that flowed "from the mountain to the sea" is now seen to belong to a date long an terior to 3000 BC.23. no large river had flowed there for a long time. he assigned to each Indus basic letter the same sound-value as the West Asian letter which closely resembled it. This also indicates that the Vedas are much older than Mahabharat period which mentions Saraswati as a dying river. etc.100) and the names of Vedic personalities like Atri.1-2) All this indicates that the composers of the Vedic literature were quite familiar with the Saraswati river." The proto-historic people he refers to are the early Harappans of 3000 BC.

the most realistic and accurate chronological events of the pre-historic period of India should be fixed as follows: Vedic Age .3750 BC End of Ramayana . dating 1000 BC. i. and even towards European regions. Mesopotamia and other neighboring regions. (Sources: Decipherment of the Indus Script. which have bridged the gap between the two. and must have supported over 30 million people and believed to be living an advanced civilization. went into Iran. all by S. This calamity . Sounds incredible! The Vedic Aryans and their successors on the other hand have left us a literature that is probably the largest and most profound in the world. and all the accounts presented here above. Therefore. have been unearthed by various archaeologists. archaeological evidences. and some to north west. There was no destruction of an existing civilization or invasion by any racial nomads of any kind to cause the destruction or abandonment of these settlements.e. This chronology first proposed by Max Muller was primarily based on his firm belief in the Biblical date of the creation of the world. respectively. Now it is evident that the Brahmi script evolved directly from the Indus script.arily be dated in the period 1200-1000BC. more and more inscriptions have been found all over the country in the last few years.the drying up of the Saraswati .and not any invasion was what led to the disruption and abandonment of the settlements along Saraswati river by the people who lived a Vedic life. scriptural testimonies.Mahabharat Period . and most importantly defies the commonsense and scientific method. based on Vedic testimonies. Around the same time (2000-1900 BC). Some of them moved to south east. which led to a massive outflow of people. there were constant floods or/and prolonged draughts along the Sindhu river and its tributaries which forced the inhabitants of the Indus valley to move to other safer and greener locations.1400 .While the direct connection between the late Indus script (1600 BC) and the Brahmi script could not be definitely established earlier. and hence a slow but continuous migration of these highly civilized and prosperous Vedic people took place. They propose the period of 1400-1300 BC as the beginning of the Vedic age when the Vedas were composed and Aryans began to impose their culture and religion on the indigenous population of the northern India. And.250 BC -------------------------------------------------------------------------------David Frawley's Paradox The Harappans of the Indus Valley have left profuse archaeological records over a vast region from the borders of Iran and beyond Afghanistan to eastern UP and Tapti valley. if considered as real events. traditional beliefs. They place the end of this civilization around 1900BC. Buddha's birth etc. Puranic references. Lothal and the Indus Civilization. There is also no plausible explanation from these invasion advocates for a gap of 400 years between the end of the Indus Valley civilization (IVC) and the appearance of Aryans on the Indian scene if Aryans were responsible for the destruction of the IVC. Chronology of the pre-historic period of India According to the invasionists. But according to the AIT there is absolutely no archaeological record that .2000-1500 BC Period of evolution of syncretic Hindu culture . the Indian civilization or the Indus Valley civilization is only 40005000 years old. covering nearly a million and half square kilometers. And only after 1000BC. have to be dated.7000-4000 BC End of Rig Vedic Age . and invasion of Aryans around 1500BC. the historic accounts of empire building. but archaeologists now know. 700 BC. Rao) New Archaeological findings Since the first discovery of buried townships of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro on the Ravi and Sindhu rivers in 1922. 4004 BC. For the next thousand years and more. must be according to them arbitr.3000-2000 BC Decline of Indus and Saraswati Civilization .3000 BC Development of Saraswati-Indus Civilization . but along the now dried up Saraswati river. the fact which was not known 70 years ago. dynasties and rulers with Indian names appear and disappear all over the West Asia confirming the migration of people from East towards West. October 23. The Ramayana and Mahabharat. is that about 75% of these settlements are concentrated not along the Sindhu or even the Ganga. numerous other settlements. especially the elite. now number over 2500 stretching from Baluchistan to the Ganga and beyond and down to Tapti valley. Dawn and Development of Indus Civilization. And yet these people have left absolutely no literary records. The drying up of the Saraswati river was a catastrophe of the vast magnitude. Such chronology contradicts all the archaeological evidences. and so on. R.2200-1900 BC Period of Complete chaos and migration .

If the theory of Aryan invasion and its proposed period were true. instead of being a civil war of global proportion in which all the main kings of India participated as is described in the epic. It turns its scriptures and sages into fantasies and exaggerations. The situation gets more absurd when we consider that there is profuse archaeological and literary records indicating a substantial movement of Indian Aryans out of India into Iran and West Asia around 2000 BC. The Vedic seers in Vedic literature have proclaimed and practiced the following all-embracing. How can such people be accused of annihilater of a civilization. Either on the Indian soil or outside its boundaries. And no invasion by nomadic hordes from outside India ever occurred and the civilization was not destroyed but the population simply moved to other areas. the propaganda by the Macaulayists was made that there was nothing great in the Hindu culture and their ancestors and sages. It allows the science of India to be given a Greek basis. catholic. this discredited not only the Vedas but the genealogies of the Puranas. So we have concrete history and archeology of a vast civilization of 'Dravidians' lasting thousands of years that left no literature. and destroying large number of cities? ahm bhumimdadamaryam (Rgveda) Creater declares: I have bestowed this land to Aryas. and a huge literature by the Vedic Aryans who left no history and no archaeological records. the theory makes Vedic culture later than and possibly derived from Middle Eastern cultures. Since the identification of Christianity and the Middle Eastern cultures. and harmonious principles for a peaceful coexistence of various communities. and all the kings mentioned in these scriptures including Lord Krishna. would be dismissed as a local skirmish among petty princes that was later exaggerated by poets. As a corollary. Rama. The Mahabharat. On the basis of this theory. murderer of innocent people. So. And most Hindus fell for this devious . how can all these obvious anomalies and serious flaws be reconciled? By accepting the truth that the so-called Aryans were the original people habitants of the townships along the Indus. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Consequences of the Aryan Invasion Theory in Context of India It serves to divide artificially India into a northern Aryan and southern Dravidian culture which were made hostile to each other by various interested parties: A major source of social tension in south Indian states. and I am her son. In other words. Buddha etc. and developed a new syncretic civilization and culture by mutual interaction and exchange of ideas. as any Vedic basis was largely disqualified by the primitive nature of the Vedic culture: In fact the opposite is true. especially the Greek culture: An absurd proposition. The argument goes that they were doing only what Aryan ancestors of the Hindus had previously done millennia ago to the indigenous population. Mata Bhumih putro ham prithvyah (Atharv veda) Earth is my mother. Aa na bhadra katavo yanto vishwatah (Rgveda) Let noble thoughts come from all sides. Vasudeva kutumbubakam The entire universe is one family. It gave an easy excuse to the Britishers to justify their conquest over India as well as validating the various conquests and mayhems of invading armies of religious fanatics from Arab lands and central Asia. the Hindu religion and Indian civilization are considered as a sidelight to the development of religion and civilization in the west: A deliberate and dishonest undermining of the antiquity and the greatness of the ancient Indian culture. Kirnvanto Vishwaryam (Rgbeda) Make the entire world noble.they ever existed. would become as fictional characters with no historical basis: Which simply means disowning and discarding the very basis and raison de'etre of the Hindu civilization. Saraswati and other rivers of the vast northern region of the Indian subcontinent. the Aryan Invasion Theory invalidates and discredits the most Hindu traditions and almost all its vast and rich literary and civilizational heritage. Ravi.

The ending of Indus Valley and the Saraswati civilization was due to the constant floods and drought in the Indus area and the drying up of the Saraswati river. According to some. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Swami Vivekananda on Aryan Invasion Theory "Our archaeologists' dreams of India being full of dark-eyed aborigines. It made Hindus feel ashamed of their culture . the Brahmins. and the bright Aryans came from . to prove that the Aryans came from anywhere outside of India." (The Complete Work of Swami Vivekananda.) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------So. they came from Central Tibet. and this is how the European languages have strong association and origin in the Vedic Sanskrit language.the Lord knows where. There is now strong evidence that the movement of the ancient Aryan people was from east to west.that its basis was neither historical nor scientific. and then by differences of occupations they went on dividing themselves into different castes. theory and all. There is no evidence in any of the literature which indicate any Aryan-Dravidian or North-South divide. The only explanation is to be found in the Mahabharat. and Aryan-Dravidian conflicts are a 19th century fabrication by some European scholar. What are the facts? Now. the Aryans were all black-haired.III Page 293. based on what has been presented above. They are being exploited even now for political reasons. Some say now that they lived at the North Pole. they were never culturally hostile to each other. This had caused a massive emigration of the habitants to safer and interior areas of the Indian subcontinent and even towards the west. It could not have been possible in those days that a few Aryans settled and lived there with a hundred thousand slaves at their command. And in the coming Satya Yuga all other castes will have to go back to the same condition. not one. Of late. following facts about an ancient and glorious period of India clearly emerge: The Aryan Invasion and Racial theories." "And the theory that the Shudra caste were all non-Aryans and they were a multitude. and that is the only true and rational explanation that has been given.. The language of the Indus script is related to Sanskrit. which says that in the beginning of the Satya Yoga there was only one caste. The Indus valley civilization should be aptly called as Saraswati Vedic civilization. The slaves would have eaten them up. the language of Vedas. The population living in the Indus valley and surrounding the dried up Saraswati river practiced the Vedic culture and religion. made chutney of them in five minutes. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------References . The hymns of Rigveda had been composed and completed by 3700BC. as the new evidences and right interpretation of the archaeological findings indicate. In short such a view and this concocted Aryan Invasion theory by a few European historians in order to prove the supremacy of Christianity and Western civilization. the Vedas were the work of nomadic shepherds and not the divine revelations or eternal truth perceived by the rishis during their spiritual journey. There it ends. this can be scientifically proved. and in ancient India was included Afghanistan. nothing to be proud of being Hindu. there is notone word in our scriptures. served (and still serving) the purpose: 'divide and conquer the Hindus'. I should not be sorry if they had been all drowned there. and hence there is nothing to feel proud about India's past. think that they were all black-haired. others will have it that they came from Central Asia. is equally illogical and irrational.. Others. The Vedic literature has no mention of any invasion or destruction of a civilization. according to their idea. If the writer happens to be a black-haired man. Vol. There was no destruction of the civilization in the Indus valley due to any invasion of any barbaric hordes. There are patriotic Englishmen who think that the Aryans were all red haired. Lord bless the Aryans and their habitations! As for as the truth of these theories. there was an attempt made to prove that the Aryans lived on Swiss lake.plan.

New Light on The Aryan Problem: Manthan Oct.S. Aryan Invasion of India: The Myth and the Truth By N. 1994 (Journal of Deendayal Research Institute) . 1. Rajaram (Voice of India Publication) 5. Vedic Aryans and the Origins of Civilization (1995) By N.Most of the material presented above has been taken from the following books. The Aryan Invasion Theory and Indian Nationalism (1993) By Shrikant G. Talageri (Voice of India) 2. Rajaram and David Frawley (World Heritage Press) 4. The Astronomical Code of India (1992) By Subhash Kak 3.S. Indigenous Indians: Agastya to Ambedkar (1993) By Koenraad Elst 6.