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One of the main ideas used to interpret and generally devalue the ancient history of India is the theory of the Aryan invasion. According to this account, India was invaded and conquered by nomadic light-skinned Indo-European tribes from Central Asia around 1500-100 BC, who overthrew an earlier and more advanced dark-skinned Dravidian civilization from which they took most of what later became Hindu culture. This so-called preAryan civilization is said to be evidenced by the large urban ruins of what has been called the "Indus valley culture" (as most of its initial sites were on the Indus river). The war between the powers of light and darkness, a prevalent idea in ancient Aryan Vedic scriptures, was thus interpreted to refer to this war between light and dark skinned peoples. The Aryan invasion theory thus turned the "Vedas", the original scriptures of ancient India and the Indo-Aryans, into little more than primitive poems of uncivilized plunderers. This idea totally foreign to the history of India, whether north or south has become almost an unquestioned truth in the interpretation of ancient history Today, after nearly all the reasons for its supposed validity have been refuted, even major Western scholars are at last beginning to call it in question. In this article we will summarize the main points that have arisen. This is a complex subject that I have dealt with in depth in my book "Gods, Sages and Kings: Vedic Secrets of Ancient Civilization", for those interested in further examination of the subject. The Indus valley culture was pronounced pre-Aryans for several reasons that were largely part of the cultural milieu of nineteenth century European thinking As scholars following Max Mullar had decided that the Aryans came into India around 1500 BC, since the Indus valley culture was earlier than this, they concluded that it had to be preAryan. Yet the rationale behind the late date for the Vedic culture given by Muller was totally speculative. Max Muller, like many of the Christian scholars of his era, believed in Biblical chronology. This placed the beginning of the world at 400 BC and the flood around 2500 BC. Assuming to those two dates, it became difficult to get the Aryans in India before 1500 BC. Muller therefore assumed that the five layers of the four 'Vedas' & 'Upanishads' were each composed in 200 year periods before the Buddha at 500 BC. However, there are more changes of language in Vedic Sanskrit itself than there are in classical Sanskrit since Panini, also regarded as a figure of around 500 BC, or a period of 2500 years. Hence it is clear that each of these periods could have existed for any number of centuries and that the 200 year figure is totally arbitrary and is likely too short a figure. It was assumed by these scholars many of whom were also Christian missionaries unsympathetic to the 'Vedas' that the Vedic culture was that of primitive nomads from Central Asia. Hence they could not have founded any urban culture like that of the Indus valley. The only basis for this was a rather questionable interpretation of the 'Rig Veda' that they made, ignoring the sophisticated nature of the culture presented within it. Meanwhile, it was also pointed out that in the middle of the second millennium BC, a number of Indo-European invasions apparently occured in the Middle East, wherein Indo-European peoples the Hittites, Mit tani and Kassites conquered and ruled Mesopotamia for some centuries. An Aryan invasion of India would have been another version of this same movement of Indo-European peoples. On top of this, excavators of the Indus valley culture, like Wheeler, thought they found evidence of destruction of the culture by an outside invasion confirming this. The Vedic culture was thus said to be that of primitive nomads who came out of Central Asia with their horse-drawn chariots and iron weapons and overthrew the cities of the more advanced Indus valley culture, with their superior battle tactics. It was pointed out that no horses, chariots or iron was discovered in Indus valley sites.
This was how the Aryan invasion theory formed and has remained since then. Though little has been discovered that confirms this theory, there has been much hesitancy to question it, much less to give it up. Further excavations discovered horses not only in Indus Valley sites but also in pre-Indus sites. The use of the horse has thus been proven for the whole range of ancient Indian history. Evidence of the wheel, and an Indus seal showing a spoked wheel as used in chariots, has also been found, suggesting the usage of chariots. Moreover, the whole idea of nomads with chariots has been challenged. Chariots are not the vehicles of nomads. Their usage occured only in ancient urban cultures with much flat land, of which the river plain of north India was the most suitable. Chariots are totally unsuitable for crossing mountains and deserts, as the so-called Aryan invasion required. That the Vedic culture used iron & must hence date later than the introduction of iron around 1500 BC revolves around the meaning of the Vedic term "ayas", interpreted as iron. 'Ayas' in other Indo- European languages like Latin or German usually means copper, bronze or ore generally, not specially iron. There is no reason to insist that in such earlier Vedic times, 'ayas' meant iron, particularly since other metals are not mentioned in the 'Rig Veda' (except gold that is much more commonly referred to than ayas). Moreover, the 'Atharva Veda' and 'Yajur Veda' speak of different colors of 'ayas'(such as red & black), showing that it was a generic term. Hence it is clear that 'ayas' generally meant metal and not specifically iron. Moreover, the enemies of the Vedic people in the 'Rig Veda' also use ayas, even for making their cities, as do the Vedic people themselves. Hence there is nothing in Vedic literture to show that either the Vedic culture was an ironbased culture or that there enemies were not. The 'Rig Veda' describes its Gods as 'destroyers of cities'. This was used also to regard the Vedic as a primitive non-urban culture that destroys cities and urban civilization. However, there are also many verses in the 'Rig Veda' that speak of the Aryans as having having cities of their own and being protected by cities upto a hundred in number. Aryan Gods like Indra, Agni, Saraswati and the Adityas are praised as being like a city. Many ancient kings, including those of Egypt and Mesopotamia, had titles like destroyer or conquerer of cities. This does not turn them into nomads. Destruction of cities also happens in modern wars; this does not make those who do this nomads. Hence the idea of Vedic culture as destroying but not building the cities is based upon ignoring what the Vedas actually say about their own cities. Further excavation revealed that the Indus Valley culture was not des- troyed by outside invasion, but according to internal causes and, most likely, floods. Most recently a new set of cities has been found in India (like the Dwaraka and Bet Dwaraka sites by S.R. Rao and the National Institute of Oceanography in India) which are intermidiate between those of the Indus culture and later ancient India as visited by the Greeks. This may eliminate the so-called dark age following the presumed Aryan invasion and shows a continuous urban occupation in India back to the beginning of the Indus culture. The interpretation of the religion of the Indus Valley culture -made incidentlly by scholars such as Wheeler who were not religious scholars much less students of Hinduism was that its religion was different than the Vedic and more likely the later Shaivite religion. However, further excavations both in Indus Valley site in Gujarat, like Lothal, and those in Rajsthan, like Kalibangan show large number of fire altars like those used in the Vedic religion, along with bones of oxen, potsherds, shell jewelry and other items used in the rituals described in the 'Vedic Brahmanas'. Hence the Indus Valley culture evidences many Vedic practices that can not be merely coincidental. That some of its practices appeared non-Vedic to its excavators may also be attributed to their misunderstanding or lack of knowledge of Vedic and Hindu culture generally, wherein Vedism and Shaivism are the same basic tradition. We must remember that ruins do not necessarily have one interpretation. Nor does the ability to discover ruins necessarily gives the ability to interpret them correctly. The Vedic people were thought to have been a fair-skinned race like the Europeans owing to the Vedic idea of a war between light and darkness, and the Vedic people being presented as children of light or children of the sun. Yet this idea of a war between light and darkness exists in most ancient cultures, including the Persian and the Egyptian. Why don't we interpret their scriptures as a war between light and dark-skinned people? It is purely a poetic metaphor, not a cultural statement. Moreover, no real traces of such a race are found in India.
This gives a date of 1300 BC. Saraswati is said to be "pure in course from the mountains to the sea". The only inference that can be drawn from the anthropological and linguistic evidences adduced above is that the Harappan population in the Indus Valley and Gujrat in 2000 BC was composed of two or more groups. especially the Indus river in Punjab. These passages were also ignored by Western scholars and it was said by them that the 'Vedas' had no evidence of large empires in India in Vedic times. The Vedic culture was said to have been founded by the sage Manu between the banks of Saraswati and Drishadvati rivers. In early ancient and pre-historic times. samudra. comming down from Central Asia. said to have conquered the region of India from 'sea to sea'. Hence the Vedic people were in these regions by the Krittika equinox or before 2400 BC. even endless in size. Vedic ancestors like Manu. originally did not mean the ocean but any large body of water. early Taurus) and the summer solstice (ayana) in Magha (early Leo). They prove that the Vedic culture existed at these periods and already had a sophisticated system of astronomy. Similarly. However. if not the largest river in India. Here the clear meaning of a term in 'Rig Veda' and later times verified by rivers like Saraswati mentioned by name as flowing into the sea was altered to make the Aryan invasion theory fit. The Vedic God of the sea. including a number of figures of the 'Rig Veda'. Yamuna and the Ganges. There are many points in fact that prove the Vedic nature of the Indus Valley culture. Turvasha. Such texts as 'Vedanga Vedic Astrology' speak of a time when the vernal equinox was in the middle of the Nakshtra Aslesha (or about 23 degrees 20 minutes Cancer). Agastya and the Bhrigu seers. the present population of the Punjab is said to be ethnically the same as the population of Harappa and Rupar 4000 years ago. However. who held to this idea that samudra didn't really mean the ocean. Further excavation has shown that the great majority of the sites of the Indus Valley culture were east. If samudra does noe mean ocean why was it traslated as such? It is therefore without basis to locate Vedic kings in Central Asia far from any ocean or from the . This gives a date about 2400 BC. not west of Indus. whose courses were much different than they are today. In other words there is no racial evidence of any such Indo-Aryan invasion of India but only of a continuity of the same group of people who traditionally considered themselves to be Aryans. is the father of many Vedic seers and seer families like Vasishta. we find over 70 references to ocean or sea. According to this theory. not because such references did not exist. as well as dozens of references to ships. the largest concentration of sites appears in an area of Punjab and Rajsthan near the dry banks of ancient Saraswati and Drishadvati rivers. and south to Vidarbha (Maharashtra). Hence a pattern of ignoring literary evidence or misinterpreting them to suit the Aryan invasion idea became prevalent. even to the point of changing the meaning of Vedic words to suit this theory. The Vedic calender was based upon astronomical sightings of the equinoxes and solstices. was indeed one of the largest. as modern land studies now reveal. In fact this may have caused the ending of the Indus culture. the Vedic people were nomads in the Punjab. the more dominent among them having very close ethnic affinities with the present day Indo-Aryan speaking population of India. Vedic and late Vedic texts also contain interesting astronomical lore. Varuna. and to rivers flowing in to the sea. It is said to be a great flood and to be wide. In fact. the 'Rig Veda' itself has nearly 100 references to ocean (samudra). Yadu and Bhujyu are flood figures. Vedic texts like 'Shatapatha Brahmana' and 'Aitereya Brahmana' that mention these astronomical references list a group of 11 Vedic Kings. The 'Yajur Veda' and 'Atharva Veda' speak of the vernal equinox in the Krittikas (Pleiades. Yet earlier eras are mentioned but these two have numerous references to substantiate them.Anthropologists have observed that the present population of Gujarat is composed of more or less the same ethnic groups as are noticed at Lothal in 2000 BC. Hence the Vedic people were well acquainted with this river and regarded it as their immemorial hoemland. The Saraswati is lauded as the main river (naditama) in the 'Rig Veda' & is the most frequently mentioned in the text. Such references were merely ignored or pronounced unintelligible by Western scholars because they yielded too early a date for the 'Vedas' than what they presumed. How could the Vedic Aryans know of this river and establish their culture on its banks if it dried up before they arrived? Indeed the Saraswati as described in the 'Rig Veda' appears to more accurately show it as it was prior to the Indus Valley culture as in the Indus era it was already in decline. Lands of the Aryans are mentioned in them from Gandhara (Afganistan) in the west to Videha (Nepal) in the east. Yet if we look at the index to translation of the 'Rig Veda' by Griffith for example. The Saraswati. Linguistically the present day population of Gujrat and Punjab belongs to the Indo-Aryan language speaking group. it once drained the Sutlej. the Saraswati river went dry at the end of the Indus Valley culture and before the so-called Aryan invasion or before 1500 BC. saved from across the sea. To preserve the Aryan invasion idea it was assumed that the Vedic (and later sanskrit) term for ocean.
though the evidence so far is that the people of the mountain regions of the Middle East were Indo-Europeans as far as recorded history can prove. It was also assumed to be non-Vedic and probably Dravidian. as evidenced by numerous seals found in the ruins. And both interpretations were then used to justify each other. not Indo-Iranian languages and thereby show a Vedic culture in that region of the world as well. The IndoEuropeans of the ancient Middle East thus spoke Indo-Aryan. places the IndoEuropeans in Greece as early as 6000 BC. It is thought to be an inferior grade of pottery and to be associated with the use of iron that the 'Vedas' are thought to mention. Varuna and Nasatyas around 1400 BC. In short. Hence the idea of an Aryan invasion into the Middle East has been pushed back some centuries. Moreover it is now found to be an organic development of indegenous pottery. The early Vedic literature describes not a human invasion into the area. Instead.massive Saraswati river. However it is associated with a pig and rice culture. In other words. Prevalent models now suggest an Indo-European base for that language. The Aryan Kassites of the ancient Middle East worshipped Vedic Gods like Surya and the Maruts. Colin Renfrew. Painted Grey Ware culture represents an indigenous cultural development and does not reflect any cultural intrusion from the West i. In addition. Current archeological data do not support the existence of an Indo Aryan or European invasion into South Asia at any time in the preor protohistoric periods. The Indo-Aryan invasion as an academic concept in 18th and 19th century Europe reflected the cultural milieu of the period. have now been found to have been in that region atleast as early as 2200 BC. which form the background of their land and the symbolism of their hymns. the Aryans in the Middle East. Then archeological evidence was interpreted by the same assumption. The Indus Valley culture had a form of writing. some Western scholars are beginning to reject the Aryan invasion or any outside origin for Hindu civilization. which apears to date around 1000 BC and comes from the same region between the Ganges and Yamuna as later Vedic culture is related to. as well as one named Himalaya. It is nothing but a tautology. it is possible to document archeologically a series of cultural changes reflecting indigenous cultural development from prehistoric to historic periods. The Aryan Hittites and Mittani signed a treaty with the name of the Vedic Gods Indra. as antecedents for it were not found in India. there is no archeological evidence corroborating the fact of an Indo-Aryan invasion. One of the latest archeological ideas is that the Vedic culture is evidenced by Painted Grey Ware pottery in north India. wherein they are already mentioned. it is found to be true! Another modern Western scholar. Therefore. an exercise in circular thinking that only proves that if assuming something is true. Mitra. The Hittites have a treatise on chariot racing written in almost pure Sanskrit. an Indo-Aryan invasion. probably Sumeria. As far as I can see there is nothing in the Hymns of the 'Rig Veda' which demonstrates that the Vedic-speaking population was intrusive to the area: this comes rather from a historical assumption of the 'comming of the Indo-Europeans. When Wheeler speaks of 'the Aryan invasion of the land of the 7 rivers. but a fundamental restructuring of indigenous society. not the cow and barley culture of the 'Vedas'. If one checks the dozen references in the 'Rig Veda' to the 7 rivers. It was also assumed that the Indus Valley culture derived its civilization from the Middle East.e. he has no warrenty at all. so far as I can see. most notably the Hittites. Now it has been shown that the majority of the late Indus signs are identical with those of later Hindu Brahmi and that there is an organic development between the two scripts. the Punjab'. not an introduction of invaders. though this was never proved. He also suggests such a possible early date for their entry into India. Recent French excavations at Mehrgarh have shown that all the antecedents of the Indus Valley culture can be found within the subcontinent and going back before 6000 BC. Linguistic data were used to validate the concept that in turn was used to interpret archeological and anthropological data. Vedic literature was interpreted on the assumption that there was an Aryan invasion. there is nothing in them that to me implies invasion: the land of the 7 rivers is the land of .
In addition. proving the superiority of Western culture and religion. The Western Vedic scholars did in the intellectual spehere what the British army did in the political realm discredit. it is important to examine the social and political implications of the Aryan invasion idea: First. It is unfortunate that this this approach has not been questioned more. It would mean that the 'Vedas' are our most authentic record of the ancient world. This served a social. With the proximity and relationship of the latter with the Bible and Christianity. The 'Mahabharata'. it is difficult to see what is particularly non-Aryan about the Indus Valley civilization. It would also tend to validate the Vedic view that the Indo-Europeans and other Aryan peoples were migrants from India. They could claim to be doing only what the Aryan ancestors of the Hindus had previously done millennia ago. . The acceptance of such views would create a revolution in our view of history as shattering as that in science caused by Einstein's theory of relativity. Such a view is not good scholarship or archeology but merely cultural imperialism. Even though Indian Vedic scholars like Dayananda saraswati. it discredited the most of the Hindu tradition and almost all its ancient literature. It made them feel that the main line of civilization was developed first in the Middle East and then in Europe and that the culture of India was peripheral and secondary to the real development of world culture. instead of a civil war in which all the main kings of India participated as it is described. In closing. particularly by Hindus. It would mean that the Vedic literary record already the largest and oldest of the ancient world even at a 1500 BC date would be the record of teachings some centuries or thousands of years before that. political and economical purpose of domination. It made the Hindus feel that their culture was not the great thing that their sages and ancestors had said it was. this kept the Hindu religion as a sidelight to the development of religion and civilization to the West. it gave the British an excuse in their conquest of India. it does not mean that the 'Rig Veda' dates from the Indus Valley era. Moreover. In short. This is not to say that such scholars appreciate or understand the 'Vedas' their work leaves much to be desired in this respect but that it is clear that the whole edifice built around the Aryan invasion is beginning to tumble on all sides. Nor is it implied that the inhabitants of the walled cities (including the Dasyus) were any more aboriginal than the Aryans themselves. it served to divide India into a northern Aryan and southern Dravidian culture which were made hostile to each other. as any Vedic basis was largely disqualified by the primitive nature of the Vedic culture. It also emphasizes the continuity in the Indus Valley and adjacent areas from the early neolithic through to the floruit of the Indus Valley civilization. it allowed the sciences of India to be given a Greek basis. it served to make Vedic culture later than and possibly derived from Middle Eastern cultures. Such prejudice may not have been intentional but deep-seated political and religious views easily cloud and blur our thinking. This kept the Hindus divided and is still a source of social tension. scholars to interpret their history for them and quite naturally Hinduism is kept in a reduced role. Third. It turned its scriptures and sages into fantacies and exaggerations. not scholarship but prejudice. the scene of action. generally Christian. most Hindus today passively accept it. It would make ancient India perhaps the oldest. and not unaryan peoples.the 'Rig Veda'. Despite Wheeler's comments. became a local skirmish among petty princes that was later exaggerated by poets. They allow Western. In short. not that the Indo-Aryans were invaders into India. it would affirm the Hindu tradition that the Dravidians were early offshoots of the Vedic people through the seer Agastya. Fourth. It made Hindus feel ashamed of their culture that its basis was neither historical nor scientific. divide and conquer the Hindus. the compelling reasons for the Aryan invasion theory were neither literary nor archeological but political and religious that is to say. Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Arobindo rejected it. The Indus Valley culture resembles that of the 'Yajur Veda' and the reflect the pre-Indus period in India. largest and most central of ancient cultures. This discredited not only the 'Vedas' but the genealogies of the 'Puranas' and their long list of the kings before the Buddha or Krishna were left without any historical basis. Hence Renfrew suggests that the Indus Valley civilization was in fact Indo-Aryan even prior to the Indus Valley era: This hypothesis that early Indo-European languages were spoken in North India with Pakistan and on the Iranian plateau at the 6th millennium BC has the merit of harmonizing symmetrically with the theory for the origin of the IndoEuropean languages in Europe. when the Saraswati river was more prominent. Second.
New York. David Frawley.189. R. pp 12-13. But if Hindu scholars are silent or passively accept the misinterpretation of their own culture. VI. "The Script of Harappa and Mohenjodaro and its connection with other scripts". "Rig Veda" VII. the theory has not met majority acceptance within India and is even coming under attack in the West. VI. XIII. p. July 1988. Ibid. "Manu Samhita" II. For scholars to take a stand against this biased interpretation of the 'Vedas' would indeed cause a reexamination of many of these historical ideas that can not stand objective scrutiny. read or even honor the translations of the 'Vedas' done by such Christian missionary scholars as Max Muller. "The Proto-Indoaryans". 140 & 141. because how a culture is defined historically creates the perspective from which it is viewed in the modern social and intellectual context. 22(1):51-62 (1987).20. VII. Lukas(Ed). New York. Itihasa Sankalana Samiti.48. Renfrew. Delhi. VII.2. Hyderabad. No 3. "Aitareya Brahmana". "The Indo-Aryan invasions: Cultural Myth and Archeological Reality". "Bharatiya Historiography". "Archeology and Language". Studies from the post-graduate Research Institute of Deccan College. "Indus Writing". Kak may be close to deciphering the Indus Valley script into a Sanskrit like or Vedic language. Pune. 85. Nov. _______________________Hollow Earth Theory and the Aryan Invasion Revised The Aryan invasion theory has been a basis and justification of Western interpretation upon the civilization and history of India. Griffith. This idea. The modern Western academic world is sensitive to critisms of cultural and social biases. I.E. Kegan Paul. London. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------References "Atherva Veda" IX. 11-13. India. 1976. Delhi.R. I.12. 1989. T. India. "The Antecedents of Civilization in the Indus Valley". 'The people of South Asia'. August 1980.4. S. Wilson. Indian National Science Academy. but they will have no one to blame but themselves. who overthrew an earlier and more advanced dark-skinned Dravidian civilization from which they took most of what later became Hindu culture .95. "Rig Veda" VII.8. Hunter.166. "Lothal and the Indus Valley Civilization". "The Hymns of the Rig Veda". "Studies in the Indus Valley Inscriptions". p. Jodhapur.16. 1973. Oxford & IBH. Also Sriram Sathe. Would modern Christians accept an interpretation of the Bible or Biblical history done by Hindus aimed at converting them to Hinduism? Universities in India also use the Western history books and Western Vedic translations that propound such views that denigrate their own culture and country..8-13. Indian Journal of History of Science. Rao.the ancient history of India is the theory of the Aryan invasion. 1978. 1987. R. India. Confirmed by use of MSS (multi-spectral scanner) and Landsat Satellite photography.27. J.7. No. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society.3.41.8. No 1 & 2. MonierWilliams and H. 158. India. Motilal Banarasidas.2.14. p.8 & IV. 1934. It is not an issue to be taken lightly.4. "Shatapat Brahmana". Asia Publishing House. Jarrige and R. Scientific American.H. Tolerance is not in allowing a false view of one's own culture and religion to be propagated without question. Note "Rig Veda" II. from J.. India was invaded and conquered by nomadic light-skinned Indo-European tribes from Central Asia around 1500-100 BC.95. 37. Vol 30.17-18. and the Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI). Trench. G. Meadow. J. 123-140. Shaffer. pp.5. Also the work of Subhash Kak as in "A Frequency Analysis of the Indus Script". Trubner & Co. has become an almost unquestioned truth in the interpretation of ancient history today. Vol XII. The Mankind Quarterly. whether North or South. That is merely self-betrayal.5.3.totally foreign to the history of India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 2.61. India: Motilal Banarasidass). "Rig Veda" II. Although many Indologists within India have been influenced by such thought. "Vedanga Jyotisha of Lagadha".Many Hindus still accept. 1985. and "On the Decipherment of the Indus Script A Preliminary Study of its connection with Brahmi". 1984.F. Fall/Winter 1989. H. it will undoubtly continue. 1989. According to this account. Bombay.. Today.1. Note MLBD Newsletter (Delhi.and generally devalue . even .1. after nearly all the reasons for its supposed validity have been refuted. Delhi. 1973. one Sanskrit scholar recognized both inside as well as outside of India has assessed the current situation of the Aryan invasion theory thusly: “ One of the main ideas used to interpret . J.21-23. VIII. Burrow. I. Mitchiner.15. Griffith. Cryptologia. C.
it allowed the sciences of India to be given a Greek basis. It turned its scriptures and sages into fantasies and exaggerations. as any Vedic basis was largely disqualified by the primitive nature of the Vedic culture. In short. but it is the one which indicates the origin of the Aryans ( Caucasian race ) on the surface of the Earth. Again we may rely on the broad understanding of David Frawley. This discredited not only the 'Vedas' but the genealogies of the 'Puranas' and their long list of the kings before the Buddha or Krishna were left without any historical basis. Such a view is not good scholarship or archeology but merely cultural imperialism. after the Kalki Avatar brings the Kali Yuga to a close.” ( David Frawley. With the proximity and relationship of the latter with the Bible and Christianity. When something ends up being so rigidly imposed with such little basis. is of course. in shortnothing in the way of physical evidence. political and economical purpose of domination.that its basis was neither historical nor scientific. Such prejudice may not have been intentional but deep-seated political and religious views easily cloud and blur our thinking.major Western scholars are at last beginning to call it into question. in the Puranas themselves! The Puranas tell us that at the end of the Kali Yuga. no related cemeteries unearthed. this kept the Hindu religion as a sidelight to the development of religion and civilization to the West.right under our noses. it discredited the most of the Hindu tradition and almost all its ancient literature. This kept the Hindus divided and is still a source of social tension. outside of India. It made the Hindus feel that their culture was not the great thing that their sages and ancestors had said it was.” What impact does the Hollow Earth understanding have on this issue? The impact that it has may be found in one of the best places to hide anything. They trace linguistic patterns. being basically the Caucasians and mountainous regions of Persia. the compelling reasons for the Aryan invasion theory were neither literary nor archeological but political and religious . ” It is important to examine the social and political implications of the Aryan invasion idea: First. This is not the only reference to the hollow earth in the Puranas. Third. and such is the explanation they offer for the Caucasian presence in India. This point. but this is the general idea. No monuments to any heros of such invasions have been excavated. It made them feel that the main line of civilization was developed first in the Middle East and then in Europe and that the culture of India was peripheral and secondary to the real development of world culture. “ The Myth of the Aryan Invasion” ) One main reason that the theory has been called into question is that there is no primary evidence. flimsy evidence. a reasonable mind will look for other motives. Fourth. . The Mahabharata. Vedic culture becomes regenerated from the interior of the Earth. It has often been pointed out that few other principal theories have ever been accepted based on such indirect. proving the superiority of Western culture and religion. There is a host of other incongruencies. encompassing East and West. not scholarship but prejudice. instead of a civil war in which all the main kings of India participated as it is described. The Western Vedic scholars did in the intellectual sphere what the British army did in the political realm discredit. Second. In short. it served to make Vedic culture later than and possibly derived from Middle Eastern cultures. divide and conquer the Hindus.that is to say. no forts. became a local skirmish among petty princes that was later exaggerated by poets. it served to divide India into a northern Aryan and southern Dravidian culture which were made hostile to each other. and then by implication pinpoint a central geographic area which then serves as a common point of origin of the IndoEuropean language and race. such that the existence of the Aryan race in Northern India is attributed to an invasion. it gave the British an excuse in their conquest of India. One major platform that Western scholars have relied upon to substantiate the theory is etymology. no battle fields identified in relation to the theory. This served a social. They could claim to be doing only what the Aryan ancestors of the Hindus had previously done millennia ago. It made Hindus feel ashamed of their culture .
blue eyed state. As an example. They adopted the settled agricultural lifestyle of their predecessors.com) ------The Aryans and the Vedic Age The Aryans are said to have entered India through the fabled Khyber pass. This is because in the Middle East and India. in his book “ Shamballa. Therefore. including its chief city Shambhalla. otherwise known as the Aryan Invasion Theory. This means that. developed the Sanskrit language and made significant inroads in to the religion of the times. it is a matter of accounting for human presence on the surface of the planet after the end of every chatur yuga. How far would it be from the Artic coast of the Siberian and European side of the polar basin to the opening suggested by several hollow Earth researchers. All three factors were to play a fundamental role in the shaping of Indian culture.the genes which generate fair complexions and blue eyes are passive. They intermingled with the local populace. then became sun bleached to their present blond haired. at that time. which is offset from the North Pole just above the New Siberian Islands? ( See the oval on the map in Chapter Seven ) A hop. even down as far as the Indian subcontinent. and allowed the emergence of large empires. vegetation existed in the area and that there was a different climate. So how difficult would it be for the Caucasian and. and he wrote of passing over what seemed to be hollow areas by the echos from the horses’ hooves. that their surface migration began in Northern Europe. from top to bottom. around 1500 BC. re-population of the surface of our planet from the madhyatah. previously. The hollow Earth theory certainly strengthens the Puranic account of a cyclical. India included. Nicholas Roerich. had penetrated the coffins. and wrote of a current recollection of the hollow Earth in the collective minds of the Tibetan people.” wrote of his travels through Tibet in the 1920s.The Caucasian race can easily be seen to stretch from Northern India to Scandanavia and to European Russia.no more than a few hundred miles. In addition to the large. Therefore. could have simply reinforced already existent Vedic culture without having been an introduction. while openings and tunnels in the Tibetan region could account for Caucasian presence also. situated above the New Siberian Islands in the Arctic basin. while is is harder to believe that darker skinned Caucasians migrated Northwards. any cyclical reappearance of Vedic civilization and the Caucasian race could manifest from at least two points which span the length of the Aryan presence on our Earth. of accounting for the Aryan presence in the Indian subcontinent.holloworbs. and assimilated themselves into the social framework. The Caucasian presence in Northern Europe could be explained by migration from the polar opening. In this way. He was shown caves closed up by boulders. No Caucasian migration into India is necessarily indicative of an introduction of Vedic culture. the fact that the Caucasian race is so light skinned in Northern Europe is indicative of a top-down migration. Cavalry warfare facilitated the rapid spread of Aryan culture across North India. It is not a matter. . skip and a jump. and suggests that what is past will one day be prologue. and established small agrarian communities across the state of Punjab. through the Karakorum Pass in the Altai Mountains. It is easier to go from a light complexion to a darker complexion. we'll note that Viking graves from 1. for example. along the Artic basin. In addition. of course. these areas were not as cold as they are now. polar openings there are said to be tunnels which connect the surface of the planet with the hollow portion. The reader may keep in mind that in millennia past.000 years ago have been opened up in Greenland. The Aryans are believed to have brought with them the horse. (www. the race has a light tan complexion. the hollow Earth theory offers an intriguing alternative to previous interpretations of the Caucasian presence in India. really. Now the graves lie under permafrost. and the Hollow Earth Theory explains this admirably well in conjuction with the appearance of the Kalki Avatar and regeneration of the surface population from Shambhalla and the hollow earth. other human races to re-introduce themselves to the surface of the planet from this particular opening at the end of every Kali Yuga? It does not seem that it would be so difficult at all. Rather. Aryan insertion into any given area. the hollow portion. and it was found that roots. we can surmise that the Caucasians are not Caucasian in origin but rather. from the Polar opening to the hollow Earth.
or political and geographical expansion. Turning to methodological issues within linguistics. and demolishes the follies of Nostratic and other such super-families. while family trees result from punctuation episodes. He offers some tentative generalisations about which language features (phonological. Vaishya (agriculturists) and Shudra (workers). became the foundation of the Hindu religion. and at language loss and the social and political factors that influence it. but they developed a rich tradition. the internal division of the Aryan society developed along caste lines. material innovation. with its rich pantheon of Gods and Goddesses.. He takes a quick glance at recent history: at invasions and developments in communication technology. He goes on to explain why linguistic diversity matters. He begins his argument proper with the concept of a "linguistic area". that took root during the Vedic era. As the Nobel Laureate. "The hymns are a poetic testament of a people's collective reaction to the wonder and awe of existence. are thought to have occurred around this period. Kshatriya (warriors). expanding societies and equilibrium with small-scale ones (a division very much along the lines of Levi-Strauss' hot/cold distinction). the more familiar classification scheme for languages. Turning to modes of language change (and language splitting). with a brief tour of linguistic variation around the world. The events described in the two great Indian epics. Their social framework was composed mainly of the following groups : the Brahmana (priests). with dating. caste status and the corresponding occupation came to depend on birth. lexical. as a result. as such it was open and flexible. (Here he also explores the consequences of the isolating-agglutinative-fusional cycle for discerning genetic relationships. Dixon finishes with some applied linguistics. glances at the problems of lexicostatistics and glottochronology. They composed the hymns of the four vedas. arguably the single most important common denominator of Indian culture. taking adjective classes and the marking of subject and object functions as his examples. a division of occupations. and with the positioning of subgroups.) The reconstruction of family trees faces problems with proto-languages. With work specialisation. It was." A settled lifestyle brought in its wake more complex forms of government and social patterns. The Aryans were divided into tribes which had settled in different regions of northwestern India. (1000 to 800 BC). –--------------In The Rise and Fall of Languages a prominent linguist takes a broad look at language change. He criticises the proposed Niger-Congo language family. and the emergence of kingdoms and republics. Australia. Rabindranath Tagore expressed it. The religion. In general punctuation is associated with aggressive. Dixon evaluates the criteria for constructing family trees and the ways in which analyses often fail to match the standards set by work on Indo-European. and who borrows them. the great philosophic poems that are at the heart of Hindu thought. Dixon also suggests that the origin of language might be seen as a punctuation event.A people of vigorous and unsophisticated imagination awakened at the very dawn of civilisation to a sense of inexhaustible mystery that is implicit in life. Tribal chiefmanship gradually became hereditary. grammatical) are most likely to diffuse. in the beginning. which are interesting in their own right. the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. On less firm territory. This period saw the evolution of the caste system. and the Americas. Much later. He also addresses what he sees as the central problems facing his discipline. Dixon stresses the importance of fieldwork and attacks the myth that purely theoretical work is more difficult and more valuable than description and analysis of languages. though the chief usually operated with the help of advice from either a committee or the entire tribe. Linguistic areas contrast with family trees. and its storehouse of myths and legends. and about the factors that decide which features are borrowed. He makes a plea for the .. models of linguistic change developed in one context are not necessarily applicable elsewhere. a region within which languages share common features as a result of diffusion.Sanskrit is the basis and the unifying factor of the vast majority of Indian languages. This is illustrated with examples from Austronesia. The Aryans did not have a script.. Dixon's central thesis is that language change varies dramatically in rate and is best modelled as a form of "punctuated equilibrium". Punctuation can be caused by natural events. and change from one caste or occupation to another became far more difficult. Dixon provides an explicit list of his basic assumptions. where they are borrowed from. Dixon's central thesis is that linguistic areas result from periods of equilibrium.
The . and not a factual event. In this essay. and now with the emergence of new information and an objective analysis of the archaeological data and scriptures.the very foundation of Indian civilization. It will be particularly valuable to those in other fields where language change plays a significant part -. inhabitants of south India. archaeologists. science. and anthropology. His creation. now known as Hindusim. The fact that these pioneers of the ancient Vedic culture and hence the Hinduism were indigenous people of mother India. rather it conditions our perception of India's historical evolution. sounds really incredible!).documentation of languages before it is too late and argues for a focus on "Basic Linguistic Theory" in place of various narrow formalisms. and realised the eternal truth about the Creator. The last couple of decades have witnessed a growing interest among scholars. The AIT can not be accepted as Gospel truth knowing fully well its shaky and dubious foundations. the very raison d'etre of Hindutva is endangered. 4 May 1998 _____________________ Demise of the Aryan Invasion Theory By Dr. making an effective explanation of their limitations and of alternative models an important antidote to popular enthusiasms. but in European politics and German nationalism of 19th century. or not even in any of the south Indian (Dravidians. So a product of European politics of the 19th century was forced on Indian history only to serve the imperialist policy of British colonialists to divide the Indian society on ethnic and religious lines in order to continue their reign on the one hand and accentuate the religious aims of Christian missionaries on the other. and its tremendous contribution in creating apparently lasting schism between the different sections of the Hindu society. Simple family trees and reconstructions of proto-languages are "sexy". an attempt has been made to expose the myth of Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) based on scriptural. The Aryan issue is quite controversial and has been the focus of historians. and means to preserve it. is mendaciously denied by the Aryan Invasion theory which professes their foreign origin. are discredited. This subject must especially and urgently interest to all those people who are committed to the ideology of Hindutva. the sources of her ancient glorious heritage. archaeological evidences and proper interpretation of Vedic verses. Indologists. but The Rise and Fall of Languages should be accessible to pretty much anyone. nay even rejected with the emergence of new knowledge and data pertaining to the subject matter of the theories.Dinesh Agrawal -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aryan Race and Invasion Theory is not a subject of academic interest only. AIT has no support either in Indian literature. If such a false theory is allowed to perpetuate and given credence without any tenable and reliable basis. who were supposed to be the victims of the so-called Aryan invasion) literature and tradition. until the British imperialists imposed this theory on an unsuspecting and gullible Indian society and introduced it to the school curriculum. which I warmly recommend to anyone curious about language change. etc. archaeology. And theories keep modifying. AIT is merely a proposed 'theory'. is there any mention of this AIT. for one of the primary and fundamental premises of Hindutva philosophy lies in the fact that the Indian cultural nationalism has been evolved and fostered over the millenia by our ancient rishis who at the banks of holy rivers of Saptasindhu had composed the Vedic literature . The Rise and Fall of Languages is an excellent little book.history. for example). Consequently. social scientists. the validity of AIT is seriously challenged and it stands totally untenable. and indigenous socio-economic-political institutions which have been developed over the millennia. among others. There is absolutely no reference in Indian traditions and literature of an Aryan Invasion of Northern India. The subject matter is as relevant today as it was a hundred years ago when it was cleverly introduced in the school text books by British rulers. and sociologists for over a century. the validity or invalidity of this theory has an obvious and strong bearing on the contemporary Indian political and social landscape as well as the future of Indian nationalism. and many nationalist Indians in this some what vapid and prosaic subject due to their aunguish on the great damage this theory has wrought on the psyche of the Indian society. tradition. and present the factual situation of the ancient Vedic society and how it progressed and evolved into all-embracing and catholic principle. Some background in linguistics would be useful (a reference to ergativity on page 18 precedes a not entirely straightforward explanation on page 56. The most weird aspect of the AIT is that it has its origin not in any Indian records (no where in any of the ancient Indian scriptures or epics or Puranas.
Our aim is to expose myth about AIT. and the mainstay of Hindu culture. the term Arya denoted a racial people. Max Muller in fact had been paid by the East India Company to further its colonial aims. They had exposed the unscientificness of many of the budding social sciences which were utilized in the 19th century to create the myth of Aryan Race Theory. This is truly a shame! Now. really. It is a known fact that most of the original proponents of AIT were not historians or archaeologists but had missionary and political axe to grind. a renowned Indologist from Germany.irony is that this is still taught in our schools as an unmitigated truth. Prof. Allchin etc. Now let us examine the origin and the conditions in which this historical fraud was concocted. Boyed C. that the end of the Harappan civilization came not because of the so called Aryan invasion but as a result of a series of floods. they were the creation of a barbaric horde of nomadic tribes descended upon north India and destroyed an advanced indigenous civilization. Even in the early times of the AIT's onward journey of acceptability. these the so-called European scholars are pontificating us that the Vedas do not belong to Hindus. And now. and others like Lassen and Weber were ardent German nationalists. in the last century or so.all these new findings and an objective. barbaric horde of invaders cannot from any stretch of imagination produce the kind of sublime wisdom. and make the amends. heritage and its existence. The German and French political and nationalist groups exploited this racial phenomenon to propagate the supremacy of an assumed Aryan race of white people. decipherment of the Harappan/Indus script by many scholars as a language belonging to Vedic Sanskrit family. accurate and contextual interpretation of Vedas indicate convincingly towards the full identity of the Harappan/Indus civilization with post Vedic civilization. For thousands of years the Hindu society has looked upon the Vedas as the fountainhead of all knowledge: spiritual and secular. the discovery of the lost track of the Rig Vedic river Saraswati. since nowhere in the Sanskrit literature. Hayes. but in India it is still being exploited and used to divide and denigrate the Hindu society. the excavation of a chain of Harappan sites from Ropar in the Punjab to Lothal and Dhaulavira in Gujarat all along this lost track. Shafer and Hans Kohn who made a deep study of the evolution and character of nationalism in Europe. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------What. the discovery of the lost Dwarka city beneath the sea water near Gujarat coast and its similarity with Harappan civilization . suddenly. Though now this racial nonsense has mostly been discarded in Europe. But the damage was already done. Max Muller.J.H. with hardly any authority or knowledge on India. Dales. This is all absurd. and establish the truth of the identity of the pioneers of the Vedic civilization and set the historical events after the Vedic period in proper perspective and in realistic time frame. and he was challenged by his peers. only motivated by the superiority of German race/nationalism through white Aryan race theory. This culminated in the holocaust of millions of innocent people. the view of the archaeologists like Prof. They even suggest that the Sanskrit language is of non-Indian origin. he recanted and pronounced that Aryan meant only a linguistic family and never applied to a race. more and more evidence is emerging which not only challenges the old myth of Aryan Invasion. and demand a re-examination of the entire gamut of Aryan Race/Invasion Theories which have been forcefully pushed down the throats of Indian society by some European manipulators and Marxist historians all these years. preposterous. A nomadic. but also is destroying all the pillars on which the entire edifice of AIT had been assiduously but cleverly built. the discovery of the archaeological remains of Vedis (alters) and Yupas connected with Vedic Yajnas (sacrifices) at Harrapan sites like Kalibangan. one finds in the Vedic literature. Though later on when Muller's reputation as a Sanskrit scholar was getting damaged. there were numerous challengers like C. is credited with the popularization of the Aryan racial theory in the middle of 19th century. and the authorities who set the curriculum of Indian history books are not yet prepared to accept the verdict. is the Aryan Invasion Theory? . Never our historical or religious records have questioned this fact. which Hitler used to its extreme absurdities for his barbaric crusade to terrorize Jews and other societies. a universal philosophy of religious tolerance and harmony for the entire mankind. Even western and far eastern travellers who have documented their experiences during their prolonged stay and sojourn in India have testified the importance of Vedic literature and its indigenous origin. And as everybody knows this eventually ended up in the most calamitous event of 20th century: the World War II. pure and pristine spiritual experiences of the highest order. and defies the commonsense. In the last couple of decades.
their holy placeis Mecca. is widely venerated in the South as the one who introduced Vedic learning to the South India. a celebrated Vedic rishi. medicine and other sciences provide one of the foundations on which rests the common heritage of mankind. Biblical chronology. chariots. or AUSTRICS or now--days' Shudra class etc. Light-skinned: Pure conjecture and misinterpretation of Vedic hymns. Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh. Nashik in Maharashtra. light-skinned. to Rameshwaram in the South. The contributions of the Vedic world to philosophy. indeed.repositories of life giving water and natural resources. in Mesopotamia and Iraq the presence of the people worshipping Vedic gods around 1700BC. And also was the South India uninhabitated prior to the pushing of the original population of Indus Valley? If not. deities and sacrificial altars bespeak of Aryan faith. nay even bestow them a status of goddesses and gods. Agastya. if it is assumed that the socalled Aryans invaded the townships in the Harappa valley and destroyed its habitants and their civilization. why don't they name places outside India as their most holy places? Why should they sing paeans in the praise of India's numerous rivers crisscrossing the entire peninsula. Somnath in Gujarat and Kashi in Uttar Pradesh. who were allegedly pushed down to the south by Aryans. their invasion occurred around 1500 BC. and destroyed an earlier and more advanced civilization of the people habitated in the Indus Valley and imposed upon them their culture and language. astronomy. The North and South have never been known to be culturally hostile to each other. Date of Invasion. Also the astronomical references in the Rig Veda allude to events in the third millennium BC and even earlier. the so-called Aryan language was the lingua-franca of the entire society for thousands of years. indicating origin ofVedic hymns earlier than 3000BC. Prior to the descent of British on Indian scene. These Indus Valley people were supposed to be either Dravidian. northern India was invaded and conquered by nomadic. All these are located in greater India only. how come after doing that they did not occupy these towns? The excavations of these sites indicate that the townships were abandoned. If the Aryan Hindus were outsiders. how come there is no AryanDravidian divide in the respective literatures and historical traditions. Non-Aryan/Dravidian Nature of Indus civilization: absence of horse.According to this theory. For the Hindus. Their religious motifs. their invasion. mathematics. findings of skeletons at the excavated sites of Mohanjodro and Harappa Nomadic. The seven holy rivers in Hinduism. And what are the evidences AIT advocates present in support of all these wild conjectures: Invasion: Mention of Conflicts in Vedic literature. seem to chart out the map of the holy land. logic. etc. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Major Flaws in the Aryan Invasion Theory A major flaw of the invasion theory was that it had no explanation for why the Vedic literature that was assumed to go back into the second millennium BC had no reference to any region outside of India. there was a continuous interaction and cultural exchange between the two regions. is well recognized but cannot be reconciled if Vedas were composed after 1500BC. 1500 BC: Arbitrary and speculative. Even in the ancient times some of the great Sutra authors like Baudhayana and Apastamba were from South. their pilgrim centers range from Kailash in the North. light-skinned RACE of a people called 'ARYANS' who descended from Central Asia (or some unknown land ?) around 1500 BC. Racial differences. and mountains . Dwaraka in the west and Ujjain in central India. No Hindu from any part of India has felt a stranger in any other part of India when on a pilgrimage. etc. Shiva worshippers. who were the original inhabitants of South India. And if the Harappan civilization had a Dravidian origin. The Sanskrit language. The twelve jyotirlings include Ramashwaram in Tamil Nadu. Madhavacharya and Ramanujam were Southerners who are universally respected in the North. and who have written commentaries on Vedic scriptures in Sanskrit only for the benefit of the entire population. they destroyed an advanced civilization of Indus valley. indicating continuity and identity of Vedic culture with the Indus valley civilization. and from Hingalaj (Sindh) in the West to Parusuram Kund (Arunchala Pradesh) in the East. Further. who accepted the newcomers without any hostility or fight? There is enough positive evidence in support of the religious rites of the Harappans being similar to those of the Vedic Aryans. The seven holy cities of Hinduism include Kanchipurum in the south. If Aryans were outsiders why should they consider this land as the 'holy land' and not their original land as the 'holy land' or motherland? For the Muslims. The main elements on which the entire structure of AIT has been built are: Arya is a racial group. For the Catholics it is Rome or Jerusalem. The three greatest figures of later Hinduism . their original home was outside India. they were nomadic. The Sindhu and the Saraswati (now extinct) originating from the Himalayas and move westward .Shankaracharya.
And these differences can not be the basis of two altogether different races. Aryan blood. The voluminous references to various wars and conflicts in Rigveda are frequently cited as the proof of an invasion and wars between invading white-skinned Aryans and dark-skinned . and further: teacher. master. and at Shringeri and Kanchi in the south. and deceptive-scholarship. father-in-law. "plough. to cultivate". as opposed to nomads and hunter-gatherers). Caucasian can be of any color ranging from pure white to almost pure black. by Luca Cavalli-Sforza. and under the influence of constant heat the bodily frame tends to get a little smaller. pg 120). and is often used like 'Sir' or 'Shree' before the name of a person like Aryaputra. worthy. Both the Aryans and Dravidians are related branches of the Caucasian race generally placed in the same Mediterranean sub-branch. followed by "respectable" and as a noun. who was born in Kerala. to me an ethnologist who speaks of Aryan race. Aryan eyes and hair. Puri in the east (Orissa). Arya means . Biographies of Words and the Home of the Aryas. Caucasian. "master. excellent". More than a thousand years ago. he himself refuted his own theory and wrote: " I have declared again and again that if I say Aryas. Many Chinese have skin whiter than many so-called Caucasians. that is Hinduism. good-natured. the Mangolian. To impose such a meaning on this epithet is an absolute intellectual dishonesty. Max Muller introduced the word 'Arya' into the English and European usage as applying to a racial and linguistic group when propounding the Aryan Racial theory.to which a prefix a has been appended to give a negating meaning. honorable. There are only four primary races. Similarly.and southwards into the western sea. landlord. the word Arya was derived from ar-. established several mathas (religious and spiritual centers) including at Badrinath in the north (UP). That is India. Aryakanya. Rama is described as an Arya in the following words: Arya . Similar differences one can observe even more distinctly among the people of pure Caucasian white race of Europe. namely. Therefore. righteous person. Princeton University Press) reveals that the people habitated in the Indian subcontinent and nearby including Europe. all belong to one single race of Caucasion type. However. In Ramayan (Valmiki). So nowhere either in the religious scriptures or by tradition the word Arya denotes a race or language. Paolo Menozzi and Alberto Piazza.. that is Bharat. the Mongolian race is not yellow. lord. Now let us examine the facts about the so-called evidences in support of AIT: Real Meaning of the word Arya In 1853.who cared for the equality to all and was dear to everyone. nor hair. inconsistencies. and glaring anomalies to which the invasionists have no convincing or plausible explanations which could reconcile the above facts with the Aryan invasion theory and destruction of Indus Valley civilization. only when closer to the equator the skin gets darker. nor skull." (Max Muller. friend.. upholder of Arya values. According to this study. In Vedic Literature. in 1888. there is essentially."cultivator" agriculturer (civilized sedentary. V. deliberate falsification of the facts. while the Kaveri winds its way through the south to move into the southern sea. Apte's Sanskrit-English dictionary relates the word Arya to the root r-. 1888. I mean simply those who speak an Aryan language. Dwaraka in the west (Gujarat). The racial composition has remained almost the same for millennia. and has been no difference racially between north Indians and the so-called Dravidian South Indians. Instead it refers to: gentleman. Etymologically. the Ganga and the Yamuna also start in the Himalayas and move eastward into the north-eastern sea. Biologically all are the same Caucasian type. the word Arya is nowhere defined in connection with either race or language. the Narmada starts in central India and the Godavari starts in western India. with every shade of brown in between. best".S. Buddha. I mean neither blood nor bones. Adi Shankaracharya. The difference between the so-called Aryans of the north and the Dravidians of the south or other communities of Indian subcontinent is not a racial type. These are some of the obvious serious objections. This study also confirms that there is no race called as an Aryan race. a recent landmark global study in population genetics by a team of internationally reputed scientists over 50 years (The History and Geography of Human Genes. noble-man. according to Max Muller. Further. is as great a sinner as a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic dictionary or a brachycephalic grammar. employer. And therefore the meaning of Arya is given as "excellent. etc. the Australians and the Negroid.
At one time Iranians and Vedic people formed one society and were living harmoniously in the northern part of India practising Vedic culture. the waters held back like cattle restrained by a trader. The descriptions acquire an increasing tendency to shift from naturalism to mythology. being the highest wealth. the leader of dark skinned Dravidian people of Indus valley by invading white-skinned Aryan king Indra. and Dasyus). is depicted in terms of more terrestrial forms of wealth. What this all indicate that wars or conflicts of this second category are not between Aryans and non-Aryans. the society got divided and one section moved to further north-west. Conflicts between the forces of nature: Indra. G. An example of such distorted interpretation is made of the following verse: The body lay in the midst of waters that are neither still nor flowing.indigenous people. The Iranians not only called their God Ahura (Vedic Asura) and their demons Daevas (Vedic Devas). vegetation and land. now known as Iran. F. or parts thereof. Rain. the conflict and controversy were continued between the two groups often resulting into even physical fights. This is an absurd and ludicrous interpretation of an obvious conflict between the natural forces. but between two estranged groups of the same parent society which got divided by some philosophical dichotomy. This conflict in no way suggests any war or invasion by outsiders on the indigenous people. This is a perverted interpretation from those who have not understood the meaning and purport of the Vedic culture and philosophy. Expedition Vol VI.probably the residential district. and depict the celestial battles of the natural forces. Vedas even mention the gods of Dasyus as Arya also.e. Not a single body was . Many are either disarticulated or incomplete. moreover depict the conflicts between the daeva-worshippers and the Dahyus on behalf of the Dahyus. but at some point in the history for some serious philosophical dispute.3: 1964 states the following about this evidence: What of these skeletal remains that have taken on such undeserved importance? Nine years of extensive excavations at Mohenjo-daro (1922-31) . the dominant God of the Rigveda. cattle. The clouds are depicted in terms of their physical appearance: as mountains. Some of these were found in contorted positions and groupings that suggest anything but orderly burials. And it is these mythological descriptions which are grabbed at by invasion theorists as descriptions of wars between invading Aryans and indigenous non-Aryans. C. They were all found in the area of the Lower Town . Conflicts between various indigenous tribal groups over natural resources and various minor kingdoms to gain supremacy over the land and its expansion: A global phenomenon known to share the natural resources like. the rain god by allowing the sun to light its rays on the mountains makes the ice caps break and hence release the water. occupies a central position in the naturalistic aspects of the Rigvedic religion. Berkeley University. and often take greater and greater recourse to terrestrial terminology and anthropomorphic depictions. Prof. Dales (Former head of department of Southasean Archaeology and Anthropology. as the Vedic texts depict them on behalf of the Devaworshippers. Most of the verses which mention the wars/conflicts are composed using poetic imagery. since it is he who forces the clouds to part with their all-important wealth. I. the so-called conflicts and wars mentioned in the Rigveda can be categorized mainly in the following three types: A. However.yielded the total of some 37 skeletons. as the slaying of vrtra. as the black abodes of the demons who retain the celestial waters of the heavens (i.a city of three miles in circuit . but they also called themselves Dahas and Dahyus (Vedic Dasas. B. and expand the geographical boundaries of the existing kingdoms. is represented in the Iranian texts by a demon Indra. or as the black demons themselves. This is in no way be construed as the war between white Aryans and black Dravidians.10-11) This verse is a beautiful poetic and metamorphical description of snow-clad dark mountains where the life-sustaining water to feed the rivers flowing in the Aryavarta is held by the hardened ice caps (vrtra demon) and Indra. In this task he is pitted against all sorts of demons and spirits whose main activity is the prevention of rainfall and sunshine. It is argued that in the excavations at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro the human skeletons found do prove that a massacre had taken place at these townships by invading armies of Aryan nomads. Conflict between Vedic and Iranian people: Another category of conflicts in the Rigveda represents the genuine conflict between the Vedic people and the Iranians. such as cows or soma. Mastered by the enemy. water. The oldest Iranian texts.32. Indra. Well. USA) in his "The Mythical Massacre at Mohenjo-daro. the Thunder-God of the Rig Veda. the rain. The invasionists interpret this verse literally on human plane. Indra crushed the vrtra and broke open the withholding outlet of the river. that can be attributed with some certainty to the period of the Indus civilizations. the rains). The waters press against the secret opening of the Vrtra (the coverer) who lay in deep darkness whose enemy is Indra. (Rig Veda.
in itself suggest that the writers of these hymns were nomads. strongholds and citadels." M. simple cause: certainly there are no grounds for blaming its demise upon invading hordes. for thy desire hath been gratified by my praise. are very beautiful pieces of poetry. This seems instead to have been a system collapse. makes the following comments about the real meaning and interpretation of Rig Vedic hymns: "Many scholars have pointed out that an enemy quite frequently smitten in these hymns is the Dasyu. he has no warranty at all. in his famous work. Colin Renfrew.. and Italy and yet leave Chaldea. of Archeology at Cambridge. Syria and Arabia untouched? And. Greece. History of India. there is nothing in any of them that to me which implies an invasion: the land of the Seven Rivers is the land of the Rigveda. Cambridge Univ.. the scene of the action. Elphinstone's final verdict: There is no reason whatever for thinking that the Hindus ever inhabitated any country but their present one. the Gods have joyed at feast...S. . Elphinstone (1841): (first governor of Bombay Presidency. . the smashed chariots and bodies of in the invaders and defenders? Despite the extensive excavations at the largest Harappan sites. To thee the Mighty One I bring this mighty Hymn. emigration and civilization have not spread in a circle. writes: Hindu scripture. He further questions: Where are the burned fortresses.found within the area of the fortified citadel where one could reasonably expect the final defence of this thriving capital city to have been made. The Dasyus have been thought by some commentators to represent the original. nor in any book that is certainly older than the code. The Sun and Moon in change alternate run their course that we. As far as I can see there is nothing in the Hymns of the Rigveda which demonstrates that the Vedic-speaking population were intrusive to the area: this comes rather from a historical assumption about the 'coming' of the Indo-Europeans. for. the arrow heads. Press. This was clearly a heroic society. and local movements of people may have followed it.. Nothing implies that the Aryas were strangers there. and they are not by any means all warlike. provided by horses (who were clearly used primarily for pulling chariots). indeed. O Indra. from which a language could spread over India. Nor does the fleetness in battle. pieces of armour. Where. "It is opposed to their (Hindus) foreign origin. though repetitive. is there any allusion to a prior residence or to a knowledge of more than the name of any country out of India. In Indra. in which is fixed the habitation of the gods. are very general ones such as the beginning of the Hymn to Indra (Hymn 102 of Book 9). but this does not in itself establish that the Aryas had no forts themselves. and as little for denying that they may have done so before the earliest trace of their records or tradition. . and even to analogy. Indeed the chariot is not a vehicle especially associated with nomads. that neither in the Code (of Manu) nor. could the central point be. Some of these hymns. so far as I can see. If one checks the dozen references in the Rigveda to the Seven Rivers. I believe. nonVedic-speaking population of the area. . may behold and may have faith . the Punjab'. Even mythology goes no further than the Himalayan chain. also. yea in him victorious through his strength.To say that it spread from a central point is an unwarranted assumption. Prof. but from east to west. and when the Soma flowed. in the Vedas. glorifying in battle. 1819-27) in his magnum opus.. expelled by the incursion of the war like Aryas in their warchariots. It is certainly true that the gods invoked do aid the Aryas by over-throwing forts. "Archeology and Language : The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins". and heaven and sky and earth display his comely form. 1988.When Wheeler speaks of the Aryan invasion of the Land of the Seven Rivers. The Rigveda gives no grounds for believing that the Aryas themselves lacked for forts. Most of the references. The Seven Rivers bear his glory far and wide. Recent work on the decline of the Indus Valley civilization shows that it did not have a single.. Nor is it implied that the inhabitants of the walled cities (including the Dasyus) were any more aboriginal than the Aryas themselves. weapons... . there is not a single bit of evidence that can be brought forth as unconditional proof of an armed conquest and the destruction on the supposed scale of the Aryan invasion.
SR Rao. Many other scholars since then have also unearthed numerous bones of horses: both domesticated and combat types. therefore the habitants of Indus valley were Dravidians. Krishna is also known as RANCHHOR (one who runs away from the battle-field). and since no signs of horse was found at the sites of Harappa and Mohanjo-daro. . benevolent. now a dry river. but once a mighty flowing river all the way from the Himalayas to the ocean across the Rajasthan desert. Aryans were indigenous people. Dr. but as the weight measurements. helpful. Monier-Williams). but upon Saraswati. to become angry) and cembu (copper. Saraswati River Discovered It is well known that in the Rig Veda. but from the Sanskrit roots si (therefore meaning "auspicious. Their weights have been found in perfect integral ratios. Well. this was the case in the 1930-40 when the excavation of many sites were not completed.So what these eminent scholars have concluded based on the archaeological and literary evidence that there was no invasion by the so-called Aryans. there was no massacre at Harappan and Mohanjo-dara sites. The latest satellite data combined with field archaeological studies have shown that the Rig Vedic Saraswati had stopped being a perennial river long before 3000 BC. SR Rao and his team in 1984-88 (Marine Archaeology Unit) undertook an extensive search of this city along the coast of Gujarat where the Dwarikadeesh temple stands now. implying the Shiva cult was prevalent among the Indus valley people. 8:93:3). Now numerous excavated sites along Indus valley and along the dried Saraswati river have produced bones of domesticated horses. Wakankar has shown that the Saraswati changed her course several times. gracious. Discovery of the Submerged city of Krishna's Dwaraka The discovery of this city is very significant and a kind of clinching evidence in discarding the Aryan invasion as well as its proposed date of 1500BC. Dr. benevolent. So Siva is not a Dravidian god only. and finally they succeeded in unearthing the ruins of this submerged city off the Gujarat coast. kind"). and the words are used in this sense only. the habitants of Indus valley cannot be Aryans. but clinches the traditional antiquity of Mahabharat and Ramayana periods. But the remains of this submerged city along the coast of Gujarat were dated 3000BC to 1500BC.English Dictionary by Sir M. For this reason. the Dwarka is mentioned as being gradually swallowed by the ocean. informs us that horse bones have been found both from the 'Mature Harappan' and 'Late Harappan' levels. Krishna had forewarned the residents of Dwaraka to vacate the city before the sea submerged it. The words Siva and Shambhu are not derived from the Tamil words civa (to redden. most important symbols of Shaivites are located in North India: Kashi is the most revered and auspicious seat of Shaivism which is in the north. going completely dry around 1900 BC. Extensive research by the late Dr. helpful kind") and sam (therefore meaning "being or existing for happiness or welfare. used chariots for transport. Its discovery not only establishes the authenticity of Mahabharat war and the main events described in the epic. there are passages in Rigvada which mention Siva and Rudra and consider him an important deity. But Shiva worship is not alien to Vedic culture. 2 gms. Presence of Horse at Indus-Saraswati sites It is argued that the Aryans were horse riding. So far the AIT advocates used to either dismiss the Mahabharat epic as a fictional work of a highly talented poet or would place it around 1000 BC. 10 gms etc. Indra himself is called Shiva several times in Rig Veda (2:20:3. and by no means a nonVedic god. But these terra-cotta lumps have been proved to be the measures for weighing the commodities by the shopkeepers and merchants. and not confined to South India only. the traditional holy abode of Shiva is Kailash mountain which is in the far-north. In Mahabharat's Musal Parva. (Sanskrit. Origin of Siva-worship The advocates of AIT argue that the inhabitants of Indus valley were Siva worshippers and since Siva cult is more prevalent among the South Indian Dravidians. the honor of the greatest and the holiest of rivers was not bestowed upon the Ganga. Moreover. the world renowned scholar of archeology. The Sabha Parva gives a detailed account of Krishna's flight from Mathura with his followers to Dwaraka to escape continuous attacks of Jarasandh's on Mathura and save the lives of its subjects. The proponents of AIT also present terra-cotta lumps found in the fire-alters at the Harappan and other sites as an evidence of Shiva linga. They were not used as the Shiva lingas for worship. granting or causing happiness. The Ganga is mentioned only once while the Saraswati is mentioned at least 60 times. the red metal). 5 gms. in the manner like 1 gm. right from their very first occurrence. 6:45:17. and the decline of the Indus valley civilization is due to some natural calamity. This simply debunks the non-Aryan nature of the habitants of the Indus valley and also identifies the Vedic culture with the Indus valley civilization.
Mohenjo-Daro. dasa. etc.18) (Splendor is the king. . SR Rao.23. no large river had flowed there for a long time. pure in her course from the mountains to the sea: sucir yati girbhya a samudrat (VII. It is not only the most sacred river but the Goddess of wisdom. Kasyapa. has been studying archeology since 1948 and has discovered and excavated numerous Indus sites. Decipherment of Indus Script Dr. all others are princes. Kasu. Daksa. This also indicates that the Vedas are much older than Mahabharat period which mentions Saraswati as a dying river. But satellite 'photos show that a great prehistoric river that was over 7 kilometers wide did indeed flow through the area at one time. Like the Rain God extending with rain he grants a thousand times ten thousand cattle) Saraswati like a bronze city: ayasi puh. A few Rig Vedic hymns which mention Saraswati river are presented below: ambitame naditame devitame sarasvati (II. The language that emerged turned out to be an "Aryan" one belonging to Sanskrit family. dyau (heaven). and were inspired by its beauty and its vasteness that they composed several hymns in her praise and glorification. trika. she rules all inspirations) ni tva dadhe vara a prthivya ilayspade sudinatve ahnam: drsadvatyam manuse apayayam sarasvatyam revad agne didhi (III. 10.4) (We set you down. he proceeded to try to read the inscriptions on the Indus seals. who dwell along the Saraswati river.. da.As Paul-Henri Francfort of CNRS. surpassing all other rivers and waters: visva apo mahina sindhur anyah. a renowned Marine archaeologist. chatus. On the Drishadvati. panta. The Harappa culture was a part of a continuing evolution of the Vedic culture which had developed on the banks of Saraswati river. anna (food). gatha.S. (Aryan Invasion of India: The Myth and the Truth By N. oh sacred fire. dvadasa and sata (1. Saraswati) maho arnah saraswati pra cetayati ketuna dhiyo visva virajati (I.5.. in the land of Ila. And it should be rightly termed as VedicSaraswati civilization. maha. She is said to be the Mother of the Veda. dashada. shine out brilliantly for men) citra id raja rajaka id anyake sarasvatim anu. the best Goddess. and many common Sanskrit words like. ".95. happta/sapta. is an ex-head of Archaeological Survey of India.7.1-2) All this indicates that the composers of the Vedic literature were quite familiar with the Saraswati river. moks. para (supreme). Sara. apa (water). Rao's decipherment are the numerals aeka. thanks to the field work of the Indo-French expedition that when the proto-historic people settled in this area. This means that the Rig Veda describes the geography of North India long before 3000 BC.3.12) (Saraswati like a great ocean appears with her ray. Numerous archaeological sites have also been located along the course of this great prehistoric river thereby confirming Vedic accounts. Paris recently observed. To summarize his method of decipherment of Indus script. He has authored several monumental works on Harappan civilization and Indus script. and other sites were culturally Aryan is thus confirmed by the decipherment of the Harappan script and its identity with Sanskrit family. All this shows that the Rig Veda must have been in existence no later than 3500 BC.16) (The best mother. parjanya iva tatanadhi vrstya sahasram ayuta dadat (VIII. The great Saraswati that flowed "from the mountain to the sea" is now seen to belong to a date long an terior to 3000 BC.41.3. he assigned to each Indus basic letter the same sound-value as the West Asian letter which closely resembled it.4.100) and the names of Vedic personalities like Atri.21." The proto-historic people he refers to are the early Harappans of 3000 BC. who has deciphered the Indus script. The people who resided at Harappa. tar (savior). at the most holy place on Earth. the best river. in the clear brightness of the days. pa(protector). This was the Saraswati described in the Rig Veda. After assigning these values to the Indus letters. Among the many words yielded by Dr. Manu. The image of this 'great goddess stream' dominates the text. tra. Druhu. mahat.we now know. Trita. the Apaya and the Saraswati rivers. Rajaram) River Saraswati IN RIGVEDA The river called Saraswati is the most important of the rivers mentioned in the Rig Veda. Gara.
They propose the period of 1400-1300 BC as the beginning of the Vedic age when the Vedas were composed and Aryans began to impose their culture and religion on the indigenous population of the northern India.3750 BC End of Ramayana . dating 1000 BC. went into Iran. which have bridged the gap between the two. and most importantly defies the commonsense and scientific method. There was no destruction of an existing civilization or invasion by any racial nomads of any kind to cause the destruction or abandonment of these settlements. Buddha's birth etc. have to be dated. scriptural testimonies. Now it is evident that the Brahmi script evolved directly from the Indus script. numerous other settlements. and so on. There is also no plausible explanation from these invasion advocates for a gap of 400 years between the end of the Indus Valley civilization (IVC) and the appearance of Aryans on the Indian scene if Aryans were responsible for the destruction of the IVC.2200-1900 BC Period of Complete chaos and migration . And.250 BC -------------------------------------------------------------------------------David Frawley's Paradox The Harappans of the Indus Valley have left profuse archaeological records over a vast region from the borders of Iran and beyond Afghanistan to eastern UP and Tapti valley. Puranic references. And only after 1000BC. and invasion of Aryans around 1500BC. all by S. For the next thousand years and more.2000-1500 BC Period of evolution of syncretic Hindu culture . Sounds incredible! The Vedic Aryans and their successors on the other hand have left us a literature that is probably the largest and most profound in the world.While the direct connection between the late Indus script (1600 BC) and the Brahmi script could not be definitely established earlier. This chronology first proposed by Max Muller was primarily based on his firm belief in the Biblical date of the creation of the world. more and more inscriptions have been found all over the country in the last few years. Rao) New Archaeological findings Since the first discovery of buried townships of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro on the Ravi and Sindhu rivers in 1922. Some of them moved to south east.and not any invasion was what led to the disruption and abandonment of the settlements along Saraswati river by the people who lived a Vedic life. which led to a massive outflow of people. the fact which was not known 70 years ago. now number over 2500 stretching from Baluchistan to the Ganga and beyond and down to Tapti valley. if considered as real events. but archaeologists now know. They place the end of this civilization around 1900BC. covering nearly a million and half square kilometers. October 23. dynasties and rulers with Indian names appear and disappear all over the West Asia confirming the migration of people from East towards West. the Indian civilization or the Indus Valley civilization is only 40005000 years old. and hence a slow but continuous migration of these highly civilized and prosperous Vedic people took place. Such chronology contradicts all the archaeological evidences. 700 BC. traditional beliefs. The drying up of the Saraswati river was a catastrophe of the vast magnitude. and all the accounts presented here above. is that about 75% of these settlements are concentrated not along the Sindhu or even the Ganga. Therefore. but along the now dried up Saraswati river. But according to the AIT there is absolutely no archaeological record that . i.arily be dated in the period 1200-1000BC. Lothal and the Indus Civilization. Dawn and Development of Indus Civilization. (Sources: Decipherment of the Indus Script. archaeological evidences. have been unearthed by various archaeologists. The Ramayana and Mahabharat. based on Vedic testimonies. and some to north west. R. and must have supported over 30 million people and believed to be living an advanced civilization.1400 . must be according to them arbitr.Mahabharat Period . the most realistic and accurate chronological events of the pre-historic period of India should be fixed as follows: Vedic Age . Chronology of the pre-historic period of India According to the invasionists. and even towards European regions.7000-4000 BC End of Rig Vedic Age .3000 BC Development of Saraswati-Indus Civilization . especially the elite. there were constant floods or/and prolonged draughts along the Sindhu river and its tributaries which forced the inhabitants of the Indus valley to move to other safer and greener locations. Around the same time (2000-1900 BC). And yet these people have left absolutely no literary records. respectively.3000-2000 BC Decline of Indus and Saraswati Civilization . the historic accounts of empire building. 4004 BC. This calamity .the drying up of the Saraswati .e. Mesopotamia and other neighboring regions.
The situation gets more absurd when we consider that there is profuse archaeological and literary records indicating a substantial movement of Indian Aryans out of India into Iran and West Asia around 2000 BC. As a corollary. especially the Greek culture: An absurd proposition. The argument goes that they were doing only what Aryan ancestors of the Hindus had previously done millennia ago to the indigenous population. and destroying large number of cities? ahm bhumimdadamaryam (Rgveda) Creater declares: I have bestowed this land to Aryas. And no invasion by nomadic hordes from outside India ever occurred and the civilization was not destroyed but the population simply moved to other areas. the propaganda by the Macaulayists was made that there was nothing great in the Hindu culture and their ancestors and sages. Mata Bhumih putro ham prithvyah (Atharv veda) Earth is my mother. Buddha etc. It gave an easy excuse to the Britishers to justify their conquest over India as well as validating the various conquests and mayhems of invading armies of religious fanatics from Arab lands and central Asia. the theory makes Vedic culture later than and possibly derived from Middle Eastern cultures. and all the kings mentioned in these scriptures including Lord Krishna. and harmonious principles for a peaceful coexistence of various communities. Saraswati and other rivers of the vast northern region of the Indian subcontinent. Since the identification of Christianity and the Middle Eastern cultures. Vasudeva kutumbubakam The entire universe is one family. and a huge literature by the Vedic Aryans who left no history and no archaeological records. The Mahabharat. So we have concrete history and archeology of a vast civilization of 'Dravidians' lasting thousands of years that left no literature. instead of being a civil war of global proportion in which all the main kings of India participated as is described in the epic. Kirnvanto Vishwaryam (Rgbeda) Make the entire world noble. Rama. So.they ever existed. Either on the Indian soil or outside its boundaries. It allows the science of India to be given a Greek basis. and I am her son. as any Vedic basis was largely disqualified by the primitive nature of the Vedic culture: In fact the opposite is true. this discredited not only the Vedas but the genealogies of the Puranas. the Aryan Invasion Theory invalidates and discredits the most Hindu traditions and almost all its vast and rich literary and civilizational heritage. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Consequences of the Aryan Invasion Theory in Context of India It serves to divide artificially India into a northern Aryan and southern Dravidian culture which were made hostile to each other by various interested parties: A major source of social tension in south Indian states. and developed a new syncretic civilization and culture by mutual interaction and exchange of ideas. would be dismissed as a local skirmish among petty princes that was later exaggerated by poets. On the basis of this theory. If the theory of Aryan invasion and its proposed period were true. How can such people be accused of annihilater of a civilization. how can all these obvious anomalies and serious flaws be reconciled? By accepting the truth that the so-called Aryans were the original people habitants of the townships along the Indus. the Hindu religion and Indian civilization are considered as a sidelight to the development of religion and civilization in the west: A deliberate and dishonest undermining of the antiquity and the greatness of the ancient Indian culture. And most Hindus fell for this devious . In other words. It turns its scriptures and sages into fantasies and exaggerations. Aa na bhadra katavo yanto vishwatah (Rgveda) Let noble thoughts come from all sides. would become as fictional characters with no historical basis: Which simply means disowning and discarding the very basis and raison de'etre of the Hindu civilization. The Vedic seers in Vedic literature have proclaimed and practiced the following all-embracing. murderer of innocent people. Ravi. catholic.
the Vedas were the work of nomadic shepherds and not the divine revelations or eternal truth perceived by the rishis during their spiritual journey. The hymns of Rigveda had been composed and completed by 3700BC.plan. There is no evidence in any of the literature which indicate any Aryan-Dravidian or North-South divide. Others. and that is the only true and rational explanation that has been given. the Brahmins. The only explanation is to be found in the Mahabharat. not one. think that they were all black-haired. Some say now that they lived at the North Pole. nothing to be proud of being Hindu. served (and still serving) the purpose: 'divide and conquer the Hindus'. theory and all. If the writer happens to be a black-haired man. The Indus valley civilization should be aptly called as Saraswati Vedic civilization. and hence there is nothing to feel proud about India's past. Vol. It made Hindus feel ashamed of their culture . The language of the Indus script is related to Sanskrit. There are patriotic Englishmen who think that the Aryans were all red haired.that its basis was neither historical nor scientific. there was an attempt made to prove that the Aryans lived on Swiss lake.. And in the coming Satya Yuga all other castes will have to go back to the same condition. There it ends. made chutney of them in five minutes. Lord bless the Aryans and their habitations! As for as the truth of these theories." (The Complete Work of Swami Vivekananda. The slaves would have eaten them up. There was no destruction of the civilization in the Indus valley due to any invasion of any barbaric hordes. In short such a view and this concocted Aryan Invasion theory by a few European historians in order to prove the supremacy of Christianity and Western civilization.the Lord knows where. there is notone word in our scriptures. as the new evidences and right interpretation of the archaeological findings indicate.. according to their idea. The Vedic literature has no mention of any invasion or destruction of a civilization. they came from Central Tibet. which says that in the beginning of the Satya Yoga there was only one caste. and then by differences of occupations they went on dividing themselves into different castes. the Aryans were all black-haired. to prove that the Aryans came from anywhere outside of India. The population living in the Indus valley and surrounding the dried up Saraswati river practiced the Vedic culture and religion. and the bright Aryans came from . This had caused a massive emigration of the habitants to safer and interior areas of the Indian subcontinent and even towards the west. There is now strong evidence that the movement of the ancient Aryan people was from east to west. is equally illogical and irrational. and this is how the European languages have strong association and origin in the Vedic Sanskrit language. based on what has been presented above." "And the theory that the Shudra caste were all non-Aryans and they were a multitude. the language of Vedas. I should not be sorry if they had been all drowned there. others will have it that they came from Central Asia. It could not have been possible in those days that a few Aryans settled and lived there with a hundred thousand slaves at their command. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Swami Vivekananda on Aryan Invasion Theory "Our archaeologists' dreams of India being full of dark-eyed aborigines. What are the facts? Now. and in ancient India was included Afghanistan. According to some. they were never culturally hostile to each other. this can be scientifically proved. following facts about an ancient and glorious period of India clearly emerge: The Aryan Invasion and Racial theories. Of late. The ending of Indus Valley and the Saraswati civilization was due to the constant floods and drought in the Indus area and the drying up of the Saraswati river.) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------So. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------References . and Aryan-Dravidian conflicts are a 19th century fabrication by some European scholar.III Page 293. They are being exploited even now for political reasons.
Rajaram and David Frawley (World Heritage Press) 4. The Astronomical Code of India (1992) By Subhash Kak 3. Aryan Invasion of India: The Myth and the Truth By N. 1994 (Journal of Deendayal Research Institute) . 1.Most of the material presented above has been taken from the following books.S. New Light on The Aryan Problem: Manthan Oct.S. The Aryan Invasion Theory and Indian Nationalism (1993) By Shrikant G. Rajaram (Voice of India Publication) 5. Vedic Aryans and the Origins of Civilization (1995) By N. Talageri (Voice of India) 2. Indigenous Indians: Agastya to Ambedkar (1993) By Koenraad Elst 6.
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