Fish Population Dynamics (Theory) L-3, S-2

Chapter 1: Introduction
Concepts of Fisheries biology: Fisheries biologist contributes to fisheries science in two main areas1. By studying the basic biology and distribution of resource species. 2. By studying the population dynamics of the species. Fish: Fish is an aquatic, poikilothermic (cold blooded: body temperature change with the environmental temperature) vertebrate animal having gills for respiration, paired and unpaired fins for locomotion (movement) and primarily live in water as a medium. Species: A set of animals or plants which have similar characteristics as they can breed with each other (interbreeding) but they are reproductively isolated from such other groups. It is the last step of generic classification. e.g., Catla catla, Labeo rohita. Population: Population may be defined as a collective group of organisms of the same species occupying a particular geographic area at the same time having capacity of self recruitment (species that reproduce sexually, the members of a population interbreed either exclusively with members of their own population or, where populations intergrade, to a greater degree than with members of other populations). For example: the Hilsa population of the Padma. There are two factors responsible for the fluctuation of population size1. Density dependent factors: a) Food b) Space c) Disease d) Predation e) Parasitism etc. 2. Density independent factors: a) Temperature b) pH

c) d) e) f)

Weather Current Storm (environmental stress) Other physical and chemical factors

Dynamics: Is the scientific study of forces that produce movement. Population Dynamics: Population Dynamics is a sub-science of biology, concerned with the fluctuations in population density, resulting from the interactions between the population and environment. In so far as these are reflected as changes in reproduction, mortality and migration. Fish Population Dynamics: Fish population dynamics may be defined as the study of the rate of changes in number of fishes in the population and the factors influencing these changes including the rate of loss and replacement of individuals and any other regulatory forces/process tending to keep the population number steady or at least to prevent any change. Fish population dynamics deals with the rate of reproduction, growth, recruitment, mortality, feeding, migration etc. Growth: Growth may be defined as an increase in size or in weight. Growth is the direct result of chemical, osmotic and other forces by which the materials are introduced into an organism and transform throughout the many parts of the body. Age: Age may be defined as the number of years completed by an individual. It is usually indicated by Roman or Arabic numerals followed by a plus (+) sign. e.g. II+, 2+, V+ 5+ etc. Year class: It refers to the spawn produced or hatched in a given year. It is also called brood generation. Age group: It refers to the group of fish at a given age. It expresses age in years. “O” age group fishes are those fishes which do not complete one year ie. a fish born on 1 st June remains in “O” age group fish until 1st June in the subsequent year, after which it is allocated “1 age group” or “2 age group” etc.

Recruitment: Recruitment may be defined as the addition of the year class to the vulnerable population. Includence offspring into the adult stock is called recruitment. Recruits: Recruits are those fishes which enter the vulnerable population from smaller size categories through growth. Vulnerability (V): The proportion of fish in the path of the net when retained in the cod end, is termed as vulnerability. A guessed value V=0.5 means 50% of the fish in the path of the net escape. Vulnerable population: Vulnerable population is the part of a fish population that are in catchable size and which will be caught in future. Catchability: The fraction of a fish stock which is caught by a defined unit of the fishing effort. The proportion of fish in the stock which is caught by one unit of effort is called catchability. Catchability Co-efficient (q): When the same skills, same kind of fishing gear used, fish being randomly distributed and equally vulnerable to fishing gear then one unit of fishing effort will catch a constant proportion of a total homogenous stock is referred to as Catchability Co-efficient. De-recruitment: The term de-recruitment may be applied to those species where larger fishes leave the fishing area or escape from the fishing gear. Fishery effort: Any initiation in order to catch fish is called Fishery effort. Fishing effort is defined as the number of gear used for fishing with in specific period of time in a particular area. Unit effort: A single effort of fishing is called unit effort. e.g. 10 fish/1 time operation of jatka jal. Catch Per Unit Effort: The catch of fish, in numbers or in weight, taken by a defined unit of fishing effort. Also called: catch per effort, fishing success, availability. Catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE) is the total catch divided by the total amount of effort used to harvest the catch. CPEU= wt. or no. of fish/trap/day

Fishing intensity (f): Fishing intensity is the fishing effort (g) in per unit of area (a). Fishing intensity, f=g/a Where, g= fishing effort Survival rate: The number of fish alive after a specific period of time interval divided by the initial number. Annual growth rate: Annual growth rate may be defined as the increase in eight/length of fish divided by the initial weight/length. Annual total mortality rate: The no. of fish which would die during a year divided by the initial number. It is also called co-efficient of mortality. Equilibrium Yield: The yield in weight taken from a fish stock with a given fishing intensity, and (apart from effects of environmental variation) its biomass is not changing from one year to the next. Also called: sustainable yield, equivalent sustainable yield. Exploited fishery: The water body in which fishing is done is called exploited fishery. E.g., Tilapia fishery in SAU lake. Un exploited fishery: The habitat or water body in which fishing is not done is called un exploited fishery. E.g., Hilsa fishery in SAU lake. Over fishing: Over fishing is that level of fishing pressure which, when operated along with the forces of natural mortality causes such extent of total mortality that can not be replaced through food, gathering, assimilation, growth and recruitment. If there are less number of old fishes in catch then we can say that the stock is over fishing. Here no severe food competition occurred among adults. Under fishing: Under fishing is that level of fishing pressure which, when operated along with the forces of natural mortality causes insufficient of total mortality to prevent excessive survival of young and moderate to severe food competition among them. If there are many old fishes in catch then we can say that the stock is under fishing. Here excessive survival of young and moderate to severe food competition occurred among adults.

Fishery dependent data: The data which are collected from fish catch record book called fishery dependent data. These data may be collected from fishing vessels and fish processor. Advantages: 1. Cheap 2. Easy to collect 3. Sample large 4. Less time consuming 5. Available Disadvantages: 1. Lower variability 2. Give uncorrected estimation Fishery independent data: The data which are collected from particular fishing area for research purpose called fishery independent data. These data may be collected from the activities of fisheries researchers, in some cases working from a fisheries research vessel. Advantages: 1. Data from wide spread geographical area 2. Provide good estimation of abundance 3. Data collected randomly 4. More accurate 5. Higher variability Disadvantages: 1. Expensive 2. Time consuming 3. Less available Carrying capacity: Carrying capacity is the maximum biomass by weight which can be obtained from a given area within a given time interval. The unit of carrying capacity is kg/decimal/year; kg/ha/year. Standing crop: Standing crop is the biomass by weight which can be obtained from a given area at any time. The unit of carrying capacity is kg/decimal or kg/ha.