BAB III KOMPONEN MULTIMEDIA

1. Multimedia Building Blocks • Komponen aplikasi multimedia terdiri dari : a. Graphics b. Text c. Video d. Sound e. Animasi Path animation (mengubah posisi, gerak) Animasi 2,5 D (bayangan, higklight, perspektif) Animasi 3D Page 1 of 30 Sound effect Naration Audio tracks Background music Background / ambient sounds Digitized video Video window Video window menampilkan output dari video player menampilkan siaran TV Tittles Buttons Bullets Paragraphs Scrolling Text Background Photographs Grafik 3 dimensi Chart Flowchart - Organizational chart - Line Art - Clip Art - Buttons

A. Graphics • • Komponen grafis merupakan unsur yang mendominasi sebuah presentasi multimedia “a picture is worth a thousand words”

Kegunaan grafis dalam aplikasi multimedia : a. Sebagai ilustrasi untuk menjelaskan kosep-konsep b. Chart untuk ilustrasi dan meringkas data-data numerik

c. Warna, bakground dan icon untuk menyediakan keseragaman dan keberlanjutan dalam aplikasi d. Integrasi dari text, photo, dan grafik untuk mengekspresikan konsep, informasi atau suasana hati e. Menunjukkan image dan budaya perusahaan f. Simulasi dari lingkungan yang ada g. Menjelaskan proses h. Menjelaskan struktur organisasi i. Ilustrasi dari lokasi • Jenis-jenis graphics : a. Backgrounds b. Photos c. Grafik 3-dimensi d. Charts (graphs) e. Flow chart f. Organizational charts g. Buttons

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Alur manipulasi graphics dalam pengembangan aplikasi multimedia Graphic Artist Multimedia Authoring Specialist

Content Specialist

Photos and Images

Scan

Image editing

Authoring

Logos, graphics, etc Graphic development Colors, backgrounds, textures

Clipart and photo CD collection

1. Backgrounds • • • Merupakan tema dari aplikasi yang dibuat Juga menunjukkan kompleksitas produksi khususnya dalam penggunaan grafik 3-dimensi Pemilihan disain background bergantung pada : a. Tema aplikasi b. Kapasitas resolusi warna proyektor atau monito yang digunakan untuk menampilkan aplikasi c. Kapasitas media penyimpan yang digunakan dalam distribusi d. Jumlah text yang akan ditempatkan di depan background, contoh : Jika banyak text yang harus ditampilkan background

harus sederhana agar text dapat terbaca dengan jelas

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1 bit (1 color.000 dots per square inch. 8 bit (256 colors) 5. LCD panel. Bit / color resolution Merupakan ukuran jumlah bit yang disimpan per pixel yang menunjukkan jumlah warna yang dapat ditampilkan dalam waktu bersamaan di layar Ukuran yang ada : 1. 2 bit (4 colors) 3. 1 black) 2. Device / output resolution - Menunjukkan jumlah dots per inch (dpi) yang dapat dihasilkan oleh piranti keluaran seperti monitor.536 colors) hi-color true color 6.- Jika aplikasi akan ditampilkan di internet. 4 bit (16 colors) 4. atau video proyektor - Contoh : 300-dpi (dots per inch) printer is one that is capable of printing 300 distinct dots in a line 1 inch long. This means it can print 90. Parameter dalam pemilihan gambar digital : a. - Resolusi monitor biasanya 72 dpi c. Image resolution Menunjukkan jumlah informasi yang tersimpan untuk sebuah warna.7 million colors) b. Screen resolution Menunjukkan jumlah dpi dalam halftone yang digunakan oleh layar untuk menampilkan gambar abu-abu atau separasi warna Resolusi layar diukur dalam satuan lines per inch (lpi) d. maka semakin banyak graphics akan memperlambat waktu download 2. 24 bit (16. diukur dalam satuan pixels per inc (ppi) Page 4 of 30 . 16 bit (65.

pilihlah ukuran standar 640 x 480 pixel c. banyak dipakai di internet GEM File . Pada saat men-scan gambar / photo pilih resolusi antara 300 dpi s.gif Vector Vector Bitmap Graphics Interchange Intended puspose Format. Pada saat meng-export gambar ke aplikasi multimedia turunkan resolusi menjadi 72 dpi (menyesuaikan dengan resolusi layar) 3.dxp . Format file • Pada umumnya format file ditentukan oleh pengembang software.d 600 dpi b. 1024 x 768 a.- Semakin tinggi resolusi gambar file semakin lama di-load semakin besar ukuran semakin lama di-print • TIPS : Contoh ukuran : 640 x 480.img Bitmap Page 5 of 30 .bmp Type of image file Bitmap Format paling efisien dalam windows Drawing Exchange File Encapsulated Post Script GIF . Bitmaps Adalah gambar yang disimpan sebagai sekumpulan pixel yang bersesuaian dengan grid dari titik-titik pada layar monitor Format name File Extension Windows Bitmap . . 800 x 600.epsf . Misalnya Apple macintosh menggunakan format PICT sebagai format standar • Pengelompokan format gambar : a.eps. Ukuran gambar tidak boleh melebihi resolusi layar.

pict . . untuk Zsoft under mengganti disetujui World Wide Web Concortium (W3C) b. DOS PC paint graphics format Portable Network Graphics .img.pic . merupakan platform yang independen MPEG Auto CAD Photo CD PICT / PICT2 Targa . .Initial Graphic Exchange JPEG .dib Bitmap Digunakan untuk transfer bitmap dari satu device ke device lain Paintbrush graphics format . Vector image Page 6 of 30 .wpg Bitmap Bitmap Format graphics dari WordPerfect TIFF .mpg. .pcd .pcx Bitmap Dikeluarkan Paintbrush.pct.tif Bitmap Tagged Image File Format (TIFF).wmf .jpeg Vector Bitmap Joint Photographic Experts Group.jpg.plt .mpeg . telah dipatenkan format untuk GIF.png Bitmap Bitmap Dikeluarkan oleh PC Paint Portable Network Graphics. . hasil capture dari video MS Word Meta File Word Perfect Graphics .tga Bitmap Vector Bitmap Bitmap Bitmap Dikeluarkan Kodak Standar format Macintosh True Vision Targa format.iges . terlalu banyak subformat Device-independent bitmap .

garis. dan perasaan mereka Teks merupakan alat komunikasi yang utama. pengetahuan. Jumlah teks yang digunakan c. Authoring Software (AS) • Teks dibuat menggunakan fasilitas text editor yang terdapat dalam program seperti Macromedia Director Hal-hal yang harus diperhatikan dalam menggunakan teks dalam aplikasi multimedia : a.- Adalah gambar yang terimpan sebagai persamaan matematik (disebut algoritma) yang menunjukkan kurva. teks dapat dikombinasikan dengan media lain dengan cara yang lebih powerful dan bermakna untuk menyajikan informasi dan mengekspresikan perasaan • Teks dapat dirancang dengan menggunakan : a. Pahami kegunaan aplikasi yang dibuat b. jauh sebelum Gutenberg menemukan mesin cetak Dengan perkembangan teknologi Multimedia. manusia telah menggunakan gambargambar • • dan tulisan untuk menceritakan tentang pengalaman. Text • Pada awal sejarah peradaban. Jenis / type font yang dipakai Page 7 of 30 . dan bentuk-bentuk lain Mudah untuk diperbesar / diperkecil tanpa menurunkan kualita gambar. Word Processor (WP) Teks dibuat menggunakan WP kemudian di import dari Multimedia Authoring Program seperti Macromedia Director atau Macromedia Authorware dalam format Rich Text Format (RTF) b. ukuran file lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan bitmaps B.

1. . resizing. and shadows Page 8 of 30 . Ukuran dan warna font • Bedakan penggunaan teks untuk : a. Format Text • Format teks dapat dibagi menjadi 2 bentuk : a. dll Ukuran font minimal 24 points b. strecthing. Group presentations Gunakan teks seminimal mungkin. centered.d. a. justified Untuk paragraf yang panjang gunakan scrolling text maka text Apabila teks di export / ditampilkan sebagai elemen grafis dapat dimanipulasi / ditambahkan efek-efek khusus seperti : blending. Individual user Untuk aplikasi multimedia yang digunakan oleh seorang pemakai dengan menggunakan komputer extensive text dengan ukuran yang gunakan lebih kecil dibandingkan untuk group presentation b. rightaligned. Teks hanya sebagai panduan saja Batasi penggunaan teks hanya pada bullet text atau paragraf pendek 1. Paragraf text Merupakan sekumpulan teks. biasanya terdiri lebih dari 1 kalimat • • Ada 4 bentuk format paragraf. changing color. karena yang berbicara adalah presenter / penyaji. adding fills. diawal dengan simbol-simbol tertentu Digunakan untuk menjelaskan konsep atau menjelaskan suatu maksud Contoh simbol yang digunakan : . yaitu : left-aligned. Bullet text Berisi teks pendek.

Caps / Small caps c. Font type • Pada umumnya ada 2 type font yang dikenal komputer : a. yaitu : a. Point sizes (pts) • • Point adalah pengukuran tipografi yang kurang lebih setara dengan 1/72 inci Contoh : 4 point 1/72 x 4 = 0.05 inci 4.2. Format karakter • Ada beberapa format karakter. Outline fonts (truetype fonts dan multiple master) Terdiri dari outlines yang terisi suatu warna / objek yang terbentuk setiap kali digunakan • Selalu kelihatan halus dan bentuknya rata berapapun ukurannya Agar font yang digunakan dapat tampil di setiap platform (cross-platform application) maka font harus di convert ke bitmap font 3. Outline e. Shadow h. Condensed f. Bold Bold Caps / SMALL CAPS b. Superscript g. Bitmap fonts Tersimpan sebagai karakter tunggal. Emboss Underline Condensed Superscript Shadow Emboss Emboss Page 9 of 30 . yang terdiri dari kumpulan titik-titik yang nampak di layar ketika diperlukan Apabila ukuran font tidak terinstall di komputer maka font akan disesuaikan ukurannya secara matematis sehingga hasilnya kurang bagus b. Underline d.

Double underline Double underline Untuk hal-hal tertentu.i. awal abad 20 Font : bodoni c. Experience (pengalaman) c. Defaultnya adalah 1 pts 4. gunakan gabungan dari beberapa format karakter Untuk penulisan judul presentasi gunakan spasi antar karakter yang berbeda dengan kalimat lain. Character spacing o. Font Moods • Font moods adalah perasaan yang terkait dengan font style yang dipilih. Cultural backgrounds (latar belakang budaya) • Font moods yang sering dipakai : a. Strikethrough Strikethrough Character spacing n. Trendy Representasi dari hal-hal yang populer pada saat itu Font : impact b. Engrave j. Italic l. All caps k. Engrrave Eng ave ALL CAPS Italic Subscript Subscript m. Color • • Color p. Personal taste (citra diri) b. Nostalgic Melambangkan masa-masa kuno. yang dipengaruhi oleh kondisi sosial dan teknologi yang berpengaruh pada disain • • Digunakan untuk memperjelas pesan yang digunakan Perasaan (moods) dipengaruhi oleh : a. Traditional Menunjukkan perasaan pemakai yang menyenangkan Font : Bookman Page 10 of 30 . Educations (pendidikan) d.

Informative Menunjukkan bahwa penyampaian informasi merupakan tugas yang paling penting Font : Times Roman i. Namun hubungan antara video (televisi) dan komputer merupakan hal yang relatif masih baru.d. Video • • • Suara dan video memegang peranan yang sangat penting dalam presentasi multimedia Sound merupakan dimensi aural yang menentukan mood dan tercapainya tujuan presentasi Video telah diperkenalkan kurang lebih 50 tahun yang lalu. Friendly Nyaman. Classic e. • Orang akan lebih tertarik dengan aplikasi / presentasi yang menampilkan tayang dalam bentuk video Page 11 of 30 . pendekatan secara personal Font : Arial Font : Helvetica h. sedangkan digital video merupakan teknologi yang lebih baru lagi. Agresive Mengharap perhatian dan tanggapan dari pemakai atau audience g. mudah dibaca. Sophisticated Sesuatu yang cantik dan atraktif Font : Wide Latin C. Playfull Menghibur dan santai Font : Mistral Menunjukkan keseimbangan yang alami / klasik Font : New York f.

Penyusunan storyboard. Proses capturing memerlukan alat yang berupa video capture board atau frame grabber yang dipasang dalam komputer. MPG. dll • Proses mengubah dari analog ke format digital disebut dengan Capturing atau sampling. Sebagai ilustrasi : 1 frame digital video dengan kualitas 24 bits membutuhkan sekitar 1 Mb. • Semakin lama durasi video analog semakin beasr RAM dan harddisk yang dibutuhkan untuk menyimpannya dalam format digital. Editing and Adding Special effects d. Analog : NTSC dan PAL b. AVI. Digital : MOV. Analog video acquisition Pembuatan script. mampu melakukan kompresi hingga 200 : 1 namun mengalami penurunan kualitas gambar DVI • Rasio kompresi 80 : 1 hingga 160 : 1 Hal-hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam mengolah video : o Data transfer rate dari media penyimpan Page 12 of 30 . yang berfungsi untuk merubah sinyal analog menjadi sinyal digital. 10 detik digital video – full screen – full motion memerlukan 300 Mb • Video digital mengalami kompresi antara 1/50 hingga 1/200 dari ukuran aslinya JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group Rasio kompresi 20 : 1 Merupakan algoritma kompresi yang paling banyak dipakai MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group Rasio kompresi 50 : 1.• Proses digital video : a. Capturing and Storing c. pemilihan peraltan untuk pengambilan gambar b. ASF. Delivery and Display Format Video • Video dibedakan dalam dua format. yaitu : a.

261 H. 3. tapi proses transfer semakin cepat. 240x180. 8.263 Intel Indeo 3 Intel Interactive 7. paling banyak dipakai Low-quality video conferencing Medium-quality video conferencing Medium-quality CDROM video Indeo High-quality CDROM video Page 13 of 30 . Hemat media penyimpan. 1. 4. Ukuran standard : 160x120. Format standard 24 fps dan 30 fps o Kualitas gambar dan resolusi Merupakan kedalaman bit dari format digital yang akan dicapture oleh encoder (codec). Ukuran yang normal : 240x180. 6. Motion JPEG Photo JPEG General purpose Menghasilkan file yang kecil Kualitas CDROM. Nilai standarnya 8 hingga 24 bits. 15 hingga 24 fps. Semakin endah frame rate maka semakin cepat data dapat diproses dan semakin kecil ukuran file video.o Ukuran jendela Merupakan jumlah pixel yang ditampilkan secara horisontal dan vertikal. 320x240 o Frame rate Menunjukkan jumlah frame per seconds (fps) selama video dimainkan. Codec Apple Kegunaan Animation. tidak efisien Apple None 2. Semakin rendah angkanya maka jumlah warna yang bisa ditampilkan semakin sedikit. Ukuran jendela mempengaruhi kualitas video dan kapasitas media penyimpan. 5. Cinepak H. CDROM sbg distribusi o Kapasitas media penyimpan Video Compression Codecs (Compression decompressions device) No.

• For example. or frames. or is animation a better solution.” which means to bring to life. a spinning globe is it better to film the motion on video. it continues to change. an a length.9. 12. animation is used. Page 14 of 30 . There are four kinds of animation 1. a direction. Vector Animation o Vector is a line that has a beginning. • Today the process used to create animated objects has had to change. a series of frames moves through the film projector at about 24 fps. MPEG-1 MPEG-2 MPEG-4 Sorenson High-quality CDROM video. • In fact. called frames. • Animation is the use of computer to create movement on the screen • Thus when a multimedia developer wants to bring an image to life. butuh alat khusus High-quality DVDROM video. Why 24 fps ? because that is the threshold beneath which you would notice flicker or jerkiness on the screen 2. What is Animation? • 50 years ago Walt Disney created animated objects such as Mickey Mouse. Frame Animation o Makes object by displaying a series of predrawn pictures. Definition • The word “animation” is a form of “animate. 11. Animasi A simulation of movement created by displaying a series of pictures. butuh alat khusus High-quality web-based video High-quality video untuk publikasi di internet & CDROM D. 10. in which the objects appear in different locations on the screen o In a movie. Cartoons on television is one example of animation.

which was assembled by overlaying the sheets • in animation. Unlead’s MorphStudio Models 1. Morphing o Morphing means to transition one shape into another by displaying a series of frames that creates a smooth movement as the first shape transform itself into the other shape o Software: Avid’s Elastic Reality. Cel models • early animators drew on transparent celluloid sheets or cels. cels are digital images with a transparency channel • scenes are rendered by drawing the cels back to front.o Vector animation makes objects move by varying these three parameters for the line segments that define the object o Software : macromedia flash 3. Event-based models • expresses the difference between successive scenes as events that transform one scene to the next Page 15 of 30 . Black Belt’s WinImages. MorphWizard. Gryphon Software’s Morph. and their relative position and orientation in each frame 2. Human Software’s Squizz. 4. different sheets contained different parts of the scene. with movement being added by changing the position of cels from one frame to the next • a cel model is therefore a set of images. their back to front order. Computational Animation o You move objects across the screen simply by varying their x (horizontal position) and y (vertical position) coordinates. Scene-based models • simply a sequence of graphics models. each representing a complete scene • highly redundant and do not support continuity of activities 3.

but permits the management of scenes by input devices (i. jointed assemblies where the configuration and movement of subparts are constrained • ensures proper relative positioning and constraint maintenance during interpolation (will not allow solid objects to pass through other solid objects) 6. etc. the animator models the beginning and end frames of a sequence and lets the computer calculate the others by interpolation 5. numerically or through simulation. Physically-based models & empirical models • this approach is used to produce sequences depicting evolving physical systems • a mathematical model of the system is derived from physical principles or empirical data and the model is then solved. Key frames • in essence. tablet. each one resulting in a single frame for the sequence Animation Operation • Graphics operations Page 16 of 30 . mouse.• still discrete rather than continuous. preview sequences in real time and control the interpolation of model parameters • an additional feature in many such systems are scripting languages • scripting languages offer the animator the opportunity to express sequences in concise form. Scripting and procedural models • current state-of-the-art animation modelling systems have tools allowing the animator to specify key frames. at a sequence of time points. Articulated objects & hierarchical models • attempt to overcome the problems of key frames by developing articulated objects. particularly useful for repetitive and structured motion and also provide high-level operations intended specifically for animation 7.) rather than each scene having to be entered manually 4.e.

all the graphics operations we have already covered are applicable here • Motion and parameter control since the essential difference between graphics and animation operations is the addition of the temporal dimension.Finally fill in the in-between frames Page 17 of 30 . • Combined with the human mind’s need to conceptually complete a perceived action. Approaches to animation • Straight ahead Draw/animate one frame at a time Can lead to spontaneity. graphics objects become animations through the assignment of complex trajectories or behaviours over time commercial 3D animation systems provide modelling tools and animation tools.Plan key poses first -. but is hard to get exactly what you want • Pose-to-pose Top-down process: Plan shots using storyboards -. the modelling tools produce 3D graphic models and the animation tools add temporal transformations to these objects Principles of Animation • Animation is possible because of a biological phenomenon known as persistence of vision And The psychological phenomenon called phi . • This makes it possible for a series of images that are changed very slightly and very rapidly.since animation models are graphics models extended in time. • An object seen by the human eye remains chemically mapped on the eye’s retina for a brief time after viewing. one after the other. seem like continuous motion .

Keyframe animation • Keyframing is the technique used for pose-to-pose animation o Head animator draws key poses—just enough to indicate what the motion is supposed to be o Assistants do “in-betweening” and draws the rest of the frames o In computer animation substitute “user” and “animation software” o Interpolation is the principal operation Kinematics • Kinematics is the study of the movement and motion of structures that have joints. such as a walking man. o Forward o Inverse • Software: Fractal Design’s Poser • Sample : robotics Page 18 of 30 .

and Shrek have utilized the power of the computers. Beauty and the Beast. Motion Capture • A method for creating complex motion quickly: measure it from the real world Page 19 of 30 . Toy Story. • And commercial films such as Jurassic Park.Animation Principles • Timing • Ease in/Out • Moving in arcs • Anticipation • Follow through • Staging • Weight Animation Techniques • Computers have taken a great deal of handwork out of the animation and rendering process.

• Types : Page 20 of 30 .

find offsets to markers o Use a short sequence that exercises all DOFs (degrees of freedom) of the subject o A nonlinear minimization problem • Computing joint angles: explain data using skeleton DOFs o A inverse kinematics problem per frame! Basic surface deformation methods • Mesh skinning: deform a mesh based on an underlying skeleton • Blend shapes: make a mesh by combining several meshes Both use simple linear algebra • Easy to implement—first thing to try • Fast to run—used in games Page 21 of 30 .Motion capture data processing • Marker identification: which marker is which o Start with standard rest pose o Track forward through time (but watch for markers dropping out due to occlusion!) • Calibration: match skeleton.

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• The background remain fixed as the images changes. and then actually takes.440 separate frames. and rendering o Modeling – the process of creating objects and scenes Page 23 of 30 . • Cel stands for celluloid which is a clear sheet with images drawn on them. Cel animation • Made famous by Disney • 24 frames per second therefore a minute may require as many as 1. • The celluloid images are place on a background that is usually stationary. 2. • The series of frames in between the keyframes are drawn in a process called tweening. Path animation • Moves an object along a predetermined path on the screen • The path can be a straight line or have a number of curves. • Tweening requires calculating the number of frames between keyframes and the path the action takes.2-D Animation 1. • Starts with keyframes (the first and last frame of an action). animation. Computer Animation • Typically employees the same logic and procedural concepts as cel animation • You can usually set your own frame rate • At 15 frames a second the animation may appear jerky and slow • 2-D animation can be an acceptable alternative to the expense of creating video 3-D Animation • 3-D Animation involves three steps: modeling. • Cel animation: is based on changes that occur from one frame to the next. and then sketches a series of progressively different outlines.

10+ frames per second are required to avoid jerkiness.o Animation – the process of defining the object’s motion o Rendering – the final step in creating 3-D animation.model is rendered as frames are displayed. 2 basic forms: real-time . so only appropriate for simple models or with special hardware non-real-time -frames are pre-rendered. provides higher visual quality and consistency of frame-rate Page 24 of 30 . taking as long as necessary to do so.

mpeg .dcr . involves a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) Sampling • Sampling frequency (rate) o sampling theory shows that a signal can be reproduced without error from a set of samples. providing the sampling frequency is at least twice the highest frequency present in the original signal o telephone networks allocate a 3.Animation File Formats Software Director Animator Pro Studio Max SuperCard and Director Windows Audio Video Interleaved Macintosh Motion Video CompuServe Flash Shockwave File Format .swf .fli .4kHz bandwidth to voice-grade lines. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) takes as input an electrical signal corresponding to the sound and converts it into a digital data stream.avi . The reverse process.qt & .pics . Digital audio • Digital Audio Representation 2 main areas : o telecommunications o entertainment (audio CD) • Produced by sampling a continuous signal generated by a sound source.max .mov .gif . so to digitise any perceivable sound a sampling rate of over 40kHz is required • Sample size and quantisation Page 25 of 30 . to generate the sound through an amplifier and speakers.dcr E. thus a sampling rate of 8kHz is used for digital telecommunications o the human ear is sensitive to frequencies of up to about 20kHz.dir & .

32 or more Digital audio format • Interleaving Page 26 of 30 . as allowing more bits per sample will improve the accuracy of the approximation Quantisation • Quantisation refers to breaking the continuous range of the analog signal into a number of unique digital intervals.625 units of signal amplitude o nonlinear quantisation (especially logarithmic quantisation) . based on one of a number of schemes: o linear quantisation . this introduces a quantisation error.uses equally spaced intervals.0 then the quantisation interval would be 0.uses nonequally spaced intervals. results in greater sensitivity to lower amplitude sound where the human ear is most sensitive • Number of channels (tracks) o speech quality audio is mono (1 track) o stereo audio requires 2 tracks o some consumer audio equipment use 4 tracks (quadrophonic) o professional audio equipment uses 16. lower amplitude intervals are more closely spaced than higher amplitude. a loss in audio quality o quantisation error can be reduced by increasing the sample size. the continuously varying amplitude of the analog signal is approximated by digital values. being the difference between the actual amplitude and the digital approximation o quantisation error is apparent when the signal is reconverted to analog form as distortion.o during sampling. so if the sample size is 3 bits and the maximum signal variation is 5.

and compressed audio also provides better quality when compared to uncompressed audio at the same data rate • 2 commonly-used methods: o PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) . such as CCITT G.reduces PCM data rate by encoding the differences between samples. PCM values are simply sequences of uncompressed samples. and it also offers some benefits in storage and transmission o the disadvantages of interleaving are that it can be wasteful of space or bandwidth if not all channels are needed. on general purpose magnetic storage Page 27 of 30 . and it may not allow variation in the number of channels • Negative samples o the voltages found in analog audio signals alternate between positive and negative values o negative values can be encoded successfully for processing in twos complement. so they provide a reference format for comparison with more complex coding methods o ADPCM (Adaptive Delta Pulse Code Modulation) . ones complement or sign-magnitude representation Encoding • Encoding audio data reduces storage and transmission costs.uses the fact that a digital signal can be formed from a series of pulses (see diagram).o a multi-channel audio value can be encoded by interleaving channel samples or by providing separate streams for each channel o the advantage of interleaving is in synchronisation.721 Digital Audio Operations • Storage o it is possible to record digital audio. even at the data rates of the high quality formats. it freezes the synchronisation between channels thus preventing temporal shifts. ADPCM is widely used and is associated with some encoding standards.

tertiary storage in the form of DAT tapes. an index of segments must be separately maintained o continuous flow of data is easy to maintain with a dedicated storage system. 2 types : o tape-based o disk-based • to avoid audible clicks when inserting one sample into another. which Page 28 of 30 . with the information being mounted onto the system manually or through a jukebox Retrieval • Need to support random access and ensure continuous flow of data to DAC • portions of audio sequences. at the CD data rate. requires over half a Gigabyte of storage. where the amplitudes of the original segment and the inserted segment are added and scaled about the insertion point • digital audio also supports non-destructive editing. where the segments of data are accessed through a data structure known as a play-list. which the file system then maps to a physical address on disk o where there is no direct mapping to enable segment location by time code.o theoretically. these can be located is by mapping the starting time to a segment address. a magnetic disk with a sustainable transfer rate of 5 Mbytes per second could playback 50 channels of CD-quality digital audio. In practice this would not be possible without a highly optimised layout. but one or two channels are easily within the reach of small computer systems o since an hour of stereo digital audio. are identified by their starting time and duration. CD discs or optical disks is normally adopted. cross-fades are used. but requires careful control where storage is scheduled for a number of such tasks Editing • as with digital video. segments.

essentially contains a set of pointers to the data and details on ordering and other forms of edit to be performed on the data when it is joined Effects • Effects and filtering o digital filtering techniques permit a number of effects on audio : • Conversion o one format to another (uncompressing ADPCM PCM) Delay Equalisation & Normalisation Noise reduction & Time compression and expansion Pitch shifting Stereoisation Acoustic environments o altering encoding parameters (i.e. devices can be set to respond to all channels or only to specific channels o Key number . resampling at lower frequency) MIDI • the Musical Instrument Digital Interface was developed in the early ‘80s by musical equipment makers Devices : o electronic keyboards and synthesisers o drum machines o sequencers (to record and play back MIDI messages) o music<->film and music<->video synchronisation equipment • MIDI Concepts: o Channel .notes are identified by key number.a MIDI connection has 16 message channels. 128 compared with a standard keyboard of 88 Page 29 of 30 .

allows 500 notes per second which may not be enough for complex pieces o limited number of channels.the ability of a synthesiser to play many notes at a time o Song . measured in beats per minute (BPM) where we assume that one beat is equal to a quarter note. 96 and 480 PPQ. lack of device addressing and other flaws make configuring large MIDI networks difficult o device dependence of MIDI data Page 30 of 30 .MIDI devices can be set to internal synch or external synch. used to trigger sound effects or musical sequences • Limitations of MIDI : o operates at 31250bps. Thus if we have a tempo of 180 BPM.47ms o MIDI synchronisation . when set to internal synch a device is known as a master and produces a timing clock message on its MIDI OUT at 24PPQ which slave devices use for external synch o MTC . a time base of 96PPQ = 1/3 x 1/96 = 3.an audio palette is called a program or patch.MIDI Time Code is used to synchronise MIDI with film or video. a synthesiser capable of having a number of patches active at the same time is called multi-timbral o Polyphony . changing the value of a controller typically alters sound production o Patch/program . Typical timebase values are 24.a MIDI sequencer timestamps messages using a timebase measured in parts per quarter note (PPQ).a recorded or preprogrammed MIDI sequence o Timing clock .o Controller . To convert the timebase into actual time you use the tempo. though not all are currently defined.128 different controllers are available under the MIDI protocol.