Presco AG

Zürcherstrasse 70 -CH 8104 Weiningen Tel. + 41 44 750 63 63 Fax + 41 44 750 63 66
P.O. Box 155 Switzerland Email : info@prescoag.com
Internet : www.prescoag.com
PD_Marketing.doc page 1 of 17
Partial Discharge Measuring Systems
Description – Technical Data – Features – Accessories - Options
www.prescoag.com
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 2 of 17
1. General Features
- Suitable for any kind of test object
- Diagnosis of high voltage insulations according IEC 60270
- Real analogue processing – no hiding
- Selectable broadband filters
- Tuneable narrow band filter
- Interference gating; 6 individually adjustable windows
- Combined analogue and/or digital display
- Direct measurement of HV
- Oscilloscope outputs for direct observation of PD activities
- Auto and manual calibration
- Auto and manual ranging
- Remote control and data transfer trough built in RS 232 interface
- Phase Resolved Pattern / Finger Print (type PD-4)
- Complete system incl. detector, Calibrator, Coupling Device and cable
- Different options
- Incl. Test Certificate granting full traceability to international standards
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 3 of 17
2. Theory
The instrument detects and quantifies partial discharges (PD) in a high voltage test object.
The detection technology fulfils the current and forthcoming international standard IEC
270 [1]or IEC 60270 [2].
Fig. 1 shows the principle of the measurement.
In the insulation of the test object (C
t
), under high voltage stress, localised electrical
discharges can be generated. These discharges, which appear in general as individual
events of very short duration, are called partial discharges. They do not immediately result
in breakdown of the insulation but with time they can slowly damage the insulation and
finally lead to a breakdown. The partial discharges generate short duration current pulses
at the terminals of the test object and in the PD test circuit. A so called „coupling
capacitor“ (C
k
) is connected parallel to the test object. Through C
k
also the PD current
pulses will flow. The integral of the individual current pulses is the so called „apparent
charge“ of a PD event. According to IEC 60270, the capacitance of C
k
shall be higher than
the capacitance of the test object (C
t
). The apparent charge is the basic quantity of the
partial discharges in the test object. From this quantity, many other quantities related to
PD pulses can be derived, as e.g. the „average discharge current I“ or „discharge power
P“ (see [2]).
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 4 of 17
The coupling device has the purpose to separate the PD current pulses from the power
frequency test voltage circuit. The coupling device, used in the measuring system, has
more purposes:
- At on higher frequencies (20 kHz ... 2 MHz) it shows an input impedance of
200O (or 500 O).
- For test-voltage frequencies (45 Hz .. 450 Hz) it works as a voltage divider. The divider-
capacitance is called C
div
and it has normally a value of 1 µF.
Therefore, this device separates first the low frequency voltage and the high frequency
current, then transforms the partial-discharge proportional current to voltage and mixes the
low frequency and high frequency voltages in a cable with 50 O impedance characteristic.
The partial discharge detector „separates“ the low and high frequency voltages. The
voltage proportional to the partial discharge current pulses will be amplified and a low-
pass filter makes the so called „quasi-integration“ [3]. The peak value of the output
impulse-voltage of the filter is proportional to the charge delivered by an individual PD
current pulse.
A peak-detector generates a voltage proportional to the repetitive peak values and this
signal is then digitally filtered and displayed on a LED display. The displayed value is
proportional to the „largest repeatedly - occurring PD-magnitude“ of the apparent charge q
as specified within the standards, as the peak-detector fulfils the pulse-train response of
the newest standard IEC 60270.
The low frequency path of the detector processes the high voltage on the test object. The
separated low frequency voltage is fed to an A/D converter, located in the microcontroller
of the detector and it will be there sampled and processed. The processed value is sent to
a LCD screen.
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 5 of 17
According to all relevant standard, the PD test and measuring circuit must be calibrated
before all measurements. This calibration is performed by means of a calibrator:
The calibrator is made basically from a voltage step-generator (U
s
) and a capacitor (C
c
) as
shown in Fig.2.:
If C
c
<< C
t
, the injected charge on the terminal of C
t
is:
q U C
s c
= .
The rise time (10%) of the step voltage must be lower than 60 ns (IEC 60270).
Since the injected charge is known, the whole circuit can be calibrated, this means that, the
deflection of the recording instrument can be related to the calibration charge.
Summary
The PD detector measures the partial discharges by a direct analogue amplifier, quasi-
integration filter and analogue peak-detector channel, without any interrupt. Nevertheless, all
functions of the instrument are controlled by a local processor.
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 6 of 17
3. Technical Specifications
3.1 Professional Partial Discharge Measuring System Type PD-4
Detector
supplied with calibration certificate
PD ranges 10 - 100 - 1000 - 10’000 - 100’000 pC
PD input impedance 50 O
PD readout LCD graphics digital, analogue or phase
resolved pattern
PD uncertainty ± 3% of range
PD output ± 1V, 50 O
High pass of broadband filter selectable 20 kHz or 100 kHz / 6 dB
Low pass of broadband filter selectable 200 kHz or 400 kHz / 6 dB
Middle frequency of narrow band filter selectable 60... 250 kHz
Bandwidth of narrow band filter 9 KHz
Gating up to 6 individual adjustable gates (hardware
gating)
Auto calibration 10 pC – 10 000 pC
Auto ranging PD and voltage measurement
Oscilloscope output Voltage proportional sine and PD proportional
signal
Voltage measurement 100 V... 1 MV
Frequency range of voltage measurement 45 ... 150 Hz
Voltage scale factor 1 ... 10' 000
Uncertainty of voltage measurement ± 1 % of reading
Display analogue, digital, PD activities as y(t) plot as
lines or dots, persistent or cumulated, PD
pattern
Interface RS232 (for data transfer and remote control)
Dimensions 455 × 130 × 350 (w × h × d in mm) (19")
Weight approx. 6 kg, 20 lb.
Power mains 230/115 V / 50/60 Hz / 25 VA (other voltages
on request)
Coupling device
PD and AC signal are mixed in a single 50 O coax cable
input impedance of PD-channel 200 O (or 500 O for cable measurements)
AC channel input impedance 1 MO
Bandwidth of PD-channel 20 kHz ... 2 MHz / 6 dB
Bandwidth of AC-channel 45 Hz ... 450 Hz
Max. AC input voltage 100 Vpeak/
AC divider capacitance standard 1 µF (optional up to 40 µF)
Output impedance 50 O / 20 kHz ... 2 MHz
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 7 of 17
Specifications PD-4 cont.
Battery Calibrator
Supplied with calibration certificate
Charge values 5 - 10 - 100 - 1000 pC
Output capacitance < 150 pF
Rise time < 60 ns
Power supply 9 V battery type 6LR61
Battery life > 20 hours of continuous operation
Synchronisation optical pick-up of power frequency from
nearby lamps
Uncertainty ± 3%
Measuring Cable
Coaxial 50 O / 20 m BNC- BNC
Type PD-4 Partial Discharge Detector
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 8 of 17
3.2 Industry Partial Discharge Measuring System Type PD-5
Detector
supplied with calibration certificate
PD ranges 10 - 100 - 1000 - 10’000 - 100’000 pC
PD input impedance 50 O
PD readout LCD graphics analogue
PD uncertainty ± 3% of range
PD output ± 1V, 50 O
High pass of broadband filter selectable 20 kHz or 100 kHz / 6 dB
Low pass of broadband filter selectable 200 kHz or 400 kHz / 6 dB
Auto calibration 10 pC – 10 000 pC
Auto ranging PD and voltage measurement
Oscilloscope output Voltage proportional sine and PD proportional
signal
Voltage measurement 100 V... 1 MV
Frequency range of voltage measurement 45 ... 150 Hz
Voltage scale factor 1 ... 10' 000
Uncertainty of voltage measurement ± 1 % of reading
Display analogue and digital
Interface RS232 (for data transfer and remote control)
Dimensions 455 × 130 × 350 (w × h × d in mm) (19")
Weight approx. 6 kg, 20 lb.
Power mains 230/115 V / 50/60 Hz / 25 VA (other voltages
on request)
Pos. 1.2 Coupling device
PD and AC signal are mixed in a single 50 Ohm coax cable
input impedance of PD-channel 200 O (or 500 O for cable measurements)
AC channel input impedance 1 MO
Bandwidth of PD-channel 20 kHz ... 2 MHz / 6 dB
Bandwidth of AC-channel 45 Hz ... 450 Hz
Max. AC input voltage 100 Vpeak/
AC divider capacitance standard 1 µF (optional up to 40 µF)
Output impedance 50 O / 20 kHz ... 2 MHz
Pos. 1.3 Battery Calibrator
Supplied with calibration certificate
Charge values 5 - 10 - 100 - 1000 pC
Output capacitance < 150 pF
Rise time < 60 ns
Power supply 9 V battery type 6LR61
Battery life > 20 hours of continuous operation
Synchronisation optical pick-up of power frequency from
nearby lamps
Uncertainty ± 3%
Pos. 1.4 Measuring Cable
Coaxial 50 O / 20 m BNC- BNC
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 9 of 17
Type PD-5 Partial Discharge Detector
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 10 of 17
4. Applicable Standards
4.1. For Power and distribution transformers
- Electra(CIGRE) Publication 19:Measurement of partial discharges in transformers.
(copy)
- IEC 6007676 Power transformers Part3. Insulation levels and dielectric tests.
- CEGB-HVS5 (1985): Specification for partial discharge testing of bushings,
capacitors, instrument transformers and switchgears of rated voltage 7.2 kV to 420
kV inclusive.
- ANSI/IEE C57.12.14: IEEE trial-use standard for dielectric test requirements for
power transformers for operation at system voltages from 115 kV through 230 kV.
- ANSI/IEEE C57.113 (1988): Guide for partial discharge measurement in liquid-filled
power transformers and shunt reactors. (Transparencies)
4.2 For CT (Current Transformer)
- IEC 60044-1 Part 1 : Current Transformers
- IEC 60044-4(1980) Instrument transformer. Part 4 : Measurement of partial
discharges.
- CEGB-HVS5(1985): Specification for partial discharge testing of bushings
capacitors, instrument transformers and switchgears of rated voltage 7.2 kV to 420
kV inclusive.
4.3 For PT (Potential transformer)
IEC 60044-2 Inductive Voltage Transformers
- IEC 60044-4 Instrument transformer. Part 4: Measurement of partial discharges.
- CEGB-HVS5(1985): Specification for partial discharge testing of bushings
capacitors, instrument transformers and switchgears of rated voltage 7.2 kV t 420
kV inclusive.
4.4 Generator and bars
- ANSI/IEEE Std 56-1977:IEEE Guide for Insulation maintenance of large alternating-
current rotating machinery (10'000 kVA and larger).
4.5 Cables
- IPCEA Pub.No S-68-516, NEMA Pub. No. WC 8-1976. ICEA-NEMA standard
publication ethylene-propylene-rubber insulated wire and cable for the transmission
and distribution of electrical energy.
- IEC 502 (1983): Extruded solid dielectric insulated power cables for rated voltage
from 1 kV to 30 kV.
- IEC 840(1988): Test for power cables with extruded insulation for rated voltages
above 39 kV(Um=36 kV) up to 150 kV (Um=170 kV)
- IEC 885-2 (1987): Electrical test methods for electric cables. Part 2: Partial
discharge test.
- IEC 885-3 (1987): Electrical test methods for electric cables. Part 3: Test methods
for partial discharge measurements on lengths of extruded power cable.
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 11 of 17
4.6 Bushing and switchgear
- IEC 137 (1984): Bushings for alternative voltages above 1000 V.
- CEGB-HVS5(1985): Specification for partial discharge testing of bushings
capacitors, instrument transformers and switchgears of rated voltage 7.2 kV t 420
kV inclusive.
4.7 Power capacitors.
- IEC 70 (1967): Power capacitors.
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 12 of 17
5. Options / Accessories
5.1 Coupling Capacitors
As a rule of thumb, the capacitance of the coupling capacitor is to be equal or higher
than the capacitance of the object to be tested. In many cases a coupling capacitor
with a capacitance of 1 nF (1'000 pF) will be suitable. Except for PD measurement
on long cables one has to use a 10 nF one.
Presco can offer coupling capacitors rated e.g. from 10 kV up to nearly any voltage.
Coupling Capacitor 1 nF / 50 kV Coupling Capacitor 1 nF / 100 kV
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 13 of 17
Coupling Capacitor 1 nF / 200 kV
Presco AG
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5.2 Multiplexers
For applications e.g. on three phase transformer, one has to measure PD on all
three phases. For such an application we offer multiplexers, either manually
controlled or remotely controlled by a PC.
Ask us for an optimal solution according your requirements.
PD measurements on three phase transformers using a 3 channel multiplexer
ALL
1
2
3
4
5 6
7
8
9
10
SELECTOR
Matching
Multiplexer
1
10
Adapter
PD-3
10 channel PD system with multiplexer
Coupling Device
and Multiplexer
3 Phase generator
Oil Oil Oil
Oi l Oi l Oi l
Motor
Three-Phase regulating Transformer
pd3PhaseTrafo1.cdr
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Three-Phase
Filter
Power for Instrument
Power from company line input
PD-4
Coupling Capacitors
Layout
P
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HV Area
Grid+ Door
Power In
Power Out
D:\Eigene Dateien\corwork\Solutions/pd3PhaseTrafoSol1.cdr
Preco AG
Test Object
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 15 of 17
5.3 Digital Signal Processing
With our type PD-4 detector the PD activities can be recorded in order to get more
information for to analyse possible problems with specific test objects. With this data
recording statistics are provided which contains the information how many
discharges occurred with which level and at which phase. Then this information is
displayed either with two or with three dimensional graph as the so called "Phase
Resolved Pattern or Finger Print".
Phase Resolved Pattern as 2 D graph
Phase Resolved Pattern as 2 D graph
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 16 of 17
5.4 Partial Discharge measurements with PD bridge
A method to suppress noise / interference by 10 dB ... max. 20 dB is to use the PD
bridge. With it two identical objects, one which is known as good and one as test
object. Small differences between the two objects are balanced with the bridge and
with it, common mode noise / interference is cancelled.
HV Source
To PD Detector
Two identical test objects
(Power Capacitor)
Principle Diagram for PD Measurements with Bridge
Current
Transformer
Current
Transformer
Matching
Transformer
Presco AG
PD_Marketing.doc page 17 of 17
6 Noise / Interference / Back Ground Noise Level
As it is well known, the purpose of PD measurement is to measure small insulation
defects. PD is expressed in pC (pico Coulomb) which is a very small quantity (pico is
equal to a factor 10
-12
). A PD impulse is an very fast transient of some nano seconds
up to some micro seconds. Such an impulse has a spectra beginning at some KHz
up to max. 1 MHz. A PD detector according to IEC60270 has a frequency band from
20 kHz up to e.g. 200 kHz (or 400 kHz). As one can imagine, all signals inside this
frequency band might be picked up by the PD detector / system as
noise/interference. Because one cannot distinguish between impulses / signals of
interference and real PD impulses, the noise / interference is interpreted as PD and
this leads to the problem that PD of a specific object cannot be detected because
noise / interference is higher that the real PD signal. In this case we are talking about
a too high back ground noise level.
Facts to be considered :
- Back ground noise level has NOTHING to do with a specific PD detector.
Todays PD detectors have an internal noise of approx. 0.3 pC only (far lower
for cable PD systems).
- In an industrial environment there are always some interference sources.
- Most important is a correct test set-up and a good grounding system.
- A coupling capacitor with a too low capacitance will lead to low sensitivity and
a high back ground noise level.
To overcome the noise / interference problem, there are two possibilities :
a) To use a PD detector with noise reduction features, such as different filters or a
tuneable narrow band filter, gating, PD bridge. Maybe this helps but please be
aware that with such a system, the noise / interference is "playing" with the
operator every day. Although maybe the initial costs for the PD system are low,
this is something expensive over the years if the time which is lost every day is
considered
or
b) To be aware of noise / interference and to consider some initial costs to set-up the
PD test system in order to have a suitable low back ground noise level. This way
the operator has newer to take care on interference any more and this will safe
costs over the years.
In case the PD system is purchased from Presco, our customers can count on our
know how to get a PD system as per the specific requirements. Our proposal is :
- Specify the required back ground noise level considering the standards. E.g.
for voltage transformers one has to verify a PD level of < 5 pC and with it the
back ground noise should not exceed 2.5 pC.
- Set-up the system as per our advises
- Analyse the situation according our advises
- Get the needed measures from us against the specific interference sources

doc page 2 of 17 . Test Certificate granting full traceability to international standards AG PD_Marketing. detector.Presco 1. Coupling Device and cable  Different options  Incl. 6 individually adjustable windows  Combined analogue and/or digital display  Direct measurement of HV  Oscilloscope outputs for direct observation of PD activities  Auto and manual calibration  Auto and manual ranging  Remote control and data transfer trough built in RS 232 interface  Phase Resolved Pattern / Finger Print (type PD-4)  Complete system incl. General Features  Suitable for any kind of test object  Diagnosis of high voltage insulations according IEC 60270  Real analogue processing –no hiding  Selectable broadband filters  Tuneable narrow band filter  Interference gating. Calibrator.

In the insulation of the test object (Ct). many other quantities related to P p l s a b d r e . The apparent charge is the basic quantity of the partial discharges in the test object. They do not immediately result in breakdown of the insulation but with time they can slowly damage the insulation and finally lead to a breakdown. Fig.Presco 2. which appear in general as individual events of very short duration. o ae c u lg a e r t l i c p co“C ) is connected parallel to the test object. PD_Marketing. under high voltage stress.h a a i n e f k n t the capacitance of the test object (Ct). These discharges. From this quantity.h „v rg d c ag c r n Io „i h rep w r D u e c n e ei d a eg te a ea e i h re ur t“ rd c ag o e s v s e s P (e [] “s e 2) . The detection technology fulfils the current and forthcoming international standard IEC 270 [1]or IEC 60270 [2]. cod g o E 0 7 .. localised electrical discharges can be generated. Through Ck also the PD current a a i r( k t p l s if w T ei e rl fh i id a c r n p l ss h s c ld„p ae t u e wll . s . Theory AG The instrument detects and quantifies partial discharges (PD) in a high voltage test object. 1 shows the principle of the measurement. The partial discharges generate short duration current pulses a tetr n lo tets o j t n i teP ts c c i As c ld„o pn th emi s fh e t b c a d n h D e t i u .doc page 3 of 17 . are called partial discharges. h n ga o te n v u lur t u e ite o ae a p rn s lo t di e s l c ag “ f P e e tA c ri t IC6 2 0 tec p ca c o C shall be higher than h re o a D v n.

A peak-detector generates a voltage proportional to the repetitive peak values and this signal is then digitally filtered and displayed on a LED display. The separated low frequency voltage is fed to an A/D converter. The coupling device. located in the microcontroller of the detector and it will be there sampled and processed. The processed value is sent to a LCD screen.Presco AG The coupling device has the purpose to separate the PD current pulses from the power frequency test voltage circuit. The low frequency path of the detector processes the high voltage on the test object. used in the measuring system.For test-voltage frequencies (45 Hz . then transforms the partial-discharge proportional current to voltage and mixes the low frequency and high frequency voltages in a cable with 50 impedance characteristic. has more purposes: . h e k a e fh up t l t l -i o u impulse-voltage of the filter is proportional to the charge delivered by an individual PD current pulse. or  . PD_Marketing.doc page 4 of 17 .At on higher frequencies (20 kHz . this device separates first the low frequency voltage and the high frequency current.. 2 MHz) it shows an input impedance of 200      .occurring PD-ma n u e o tea p rn c ag q a t h l g s rp ae l o a y g i d “ fh p ae t h re t as specified within the standards. as the peak-detector fulfils the pulse-train response of the newest standard IEC 60270. Therefore. 450 Hz) it works as a voltage divider.. T ep ra d c ag d tc rs p rts tel a dh hf q e c v l g s T e h at l i h re ee t „e aae “h o n i r u n y o a e . The displayed value is proportion l te„ re te e td .. The dividercapacitance is called Cdiv and it has normally a value of 1  F. h i s o w g e t voltage proportional to the partial discharge current pulses will be amplified and a lowp s fe ma e tes c ld„u s ne rt n []T ep a v l o teo tu a s i r k s h o ae q a i tgai “3.

Since the injected charge is known.2. the PD test and measuring circuit must be calibrated before all measurements. Cc U The rise time (10%) of the step voltage must be lower than 60 ns (IEC 60270). the whole circuit can be calibrated. this means that. without any interrupt. all functions of the instrument are controlled by a local processor. the injected charge on the terminal of Ct is: q  s . Summary The PD detector measures the partial discharges by a direct analogue amplifier. Nevertheless. PD_Marketing.Presco AG According to all relevant standard. the deflection of the recording instrument can be related to the calibration charge. This calibration is performed by means of a calibrator: The calibrator is made basically from a voltage step-generator (Us) and a capacitor (Cc) as shown in Fig.: If Cc << Ct. quasiintegration filter and analogue peak-detector channel.doc page 5 of 17 .

20 lb. PD pattern Interface RS232 (for data transfer and remote control) Dimensions 455 130 350 (w h d in mm) (19") Weight approx.1 Technical Specifications Professional Partial Discharge Measuring System Detector supplied with calibration certificate PD ranges PD input impedance PD readout resolved pattern PD uncertainty PD output High pass of broadband filter Low pass of broadband filter Middle frequency of narrow band filter Bandwidth of narrow band filter Gating AG Type PD-4 10 . 2 MHz / 6 dB 45 Hz .doc page 6 of 17 .. 450 Hz 100 Vpeak/ 2 standard 1  (optional up to 40  F F) 50 / 20 kHz .1 0 0 p 00 0 0’ 0 C 0 50  LCD graphics digital.. 250 kHz 9 KHz up to 6 individual adjustable gates (hardware gating) Auto calibration 10 pC –10 000 pC Auto ranging PD and voltage measurement Oscilloscope output Voltage proportional sine and PD proportional signal Voltage measurement 100 V. 10' 000 Uncertainty of voltage measurement 1 % of reading Display analogue. 50  selectable 20 kHz or 100 kHz / 6 dB selectable 200 kHz or 400 kHz / 6 dB selectable 60.. AC input voltage AC divider capacitance Output impedance 200 (or 500  for cable measurements  1 M  20 kHz .1 ’ 0...100 .. 6 kg. 1 MV Frequency range of voltage measurement 45 .Presco 3...1000 . 150 Hz Voltage scale factor 1 .... PD activities as y(t) plot as lines or dots. 2 MHz PD_Marketing. Power mains 230/115 V / 50/60 Hz / 25 VA (other voltages on request) Coupling device PD and AC signal are mixed in a single 50 coax cable input impedance of PD-channel AC channel input impedance Bandwidth of PD-channel Bandwidth of AC-channel Max. persistent or cumulated. digital.. analogue or phase ± 3% of range ± 1V.. 3..

doc page 7 of 17 .100 .1000 pC < 150 pF < 60 ns 9 V battery type 6LR61 > 20 hours of continuous operation optical pick-up of power frequency from nearby lamps ± 3% Type PD-4 Partial Discharge Detector PD_Marketing.10 .BNC AG 5 .Presco Specifications PD-4 cont. Battery Calibrator Supplied with calibration certificate Charge values Output capacitance Rise time Power supply Battery life Synchronisation Uncertainty Measuring Cable Coaxial 50 / 20 m BNC.

1000 .Presco 3.BNC page 8 of 17 .. 150 Hz Voltage scale factor 1 .doc 50 / 20 m BNC.. 1. 50  selectable 20 kHz or 100 kHz / 6 dB selectable 200 kHz or 400 kHz / 6 dB 10 pC –10 000 pC PD and voltage measurement Voltage proportional sine and PD proportional signal Voltage measurement 100 V. 1.. 20 lb. Power mains 230/115 V / 50/60 Hz / 25 VA (other voltages on request) Pos... 1 MV Frequency range of voltage measurement 45 ..10 . 1. 2 MHz / 6 dB Bandwidth of AC-channel 45 Hz .100 .1 0 0 p 00 0 0’ 0 C 0 50  LCD graphics analogue ± 3% of range ± 1V.3 Battery Calibrator Supplied with calibration certificate Charge values 5 . 6 kg.. 2 MHz Pos..2 Industry Partial Discharge Measuring System Detector supplied with calibration certificate PD ranges PD input impedance PD readout PD uncertainty PD output High pass of broadband filter Low pass of broadband filter Auto calibration Auto ranging Oscilloscope output AG Type PD-5 10 ..100 .1000 pC Output capacitance < 150 pF Rise time < 60 ns Power supply 9 V battery type 6LR61 Battery life > 20 hours of continuous operation Synchronisation optical pick-up of power frequency from nearby lamps Uncertainty ± 3% Pos. 450 Hz Max.. 10' 000 Uncertainty of voltage measurement 1 % of reading Display analogue and digital Interface RS232 (for data transfer and remote control) Dimensions 455 130 350 (w h d in mm) (19") Weight approx.2 Coupling device PD and AC signal are mixed in a single 50 Ohm coax cable input impedance of PD-channel 200 (or 500  for cable measurements  AC channel input impedance 1 M  Bandwidth of PD-channel 20 kHz .1 ’ 0. AC input voltage 100 Vpeak/ 2 AC divider capacitance standard 1  (optional up to 40  F F) Output impedance 50 / 20 kHz ...4 Measuring Cable Coaxial PD_Marketing.

Presco AG Type PD-5 Partial Discharge Detector PD_Marketing.doc page 9 of 17 .

3 For PT (Potential transformer) IEC 60044-2 Inductive Voltage Transformers .2 kV t 420 kV inclusive.IEC 60044-1 Part 1 : Current Transformers . .113 (1988): Guide for partial discharge measurement in liquid-filled power transformers and shunt reactors. Applicable Standards For Power and distribution transformers AG . ICEA-NEMA standard publication ethylene-propylene-rubber insulated wire and cable for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy.ANSI/IEEE C57.ANSI/IEE C57.2 kV to 420 kV inclusive.12.IEC 885-2 (1987): Electrical test methods for electric cables. PD_Marketing. Insulation levels and dielectric tests. Part 4: Measurement of partial discharges.Presco 4.4 Generator and bars . Part 2: Partial discharge test.doc page 10 of 17 . .14: IEEE trial-use standard for dielectric test requirements for power transformers for operation at system voltages from 115 kV through 230 kV. .ANSI/IEEE Std 56-1977:IEEE Guide for Insulation maintenance of large alternatingcurrent rotating machinery (10'000 kVA and larger). WC 8-1976.IEC 60044-4 Instrument transformer. 4. Part 3: Test methods for partial discharge measurements on lengths of extruded power cable. instrument transformers and switchgears of rated voltage 7.IEC 885-3 (1987): Electrical test methods for electric cables.IEC 840(1988): Test for power cables with extruded insulation for rated voltages above 39 kV(Um=36 kV) up to 150 kV (Um=170 kV) .No S-68-516.Electra(CIGRE) Publication 19:Measurement of partial discharges in transformers. instrument transformers and switchgears of rated voltage 7.CEGB-HVS5(1985): Specification for partial discharge testing of bushings capacitors. . (copy) .CEGB-HVS5 (1985): Specification for partial discharge testing of bushings. NEMA Pub. . instrument transformers and switchgears of rated voltage 7. . Part 4 : Measurement of partial discharges.2 For CT (Current Transformer) .5 Cables . 4.IEC 60044-4(1980) Instrument transformer. No. . capacitors.1.IEC 6007676 Power transformers Part3.IEC 502 (1983): Extruded solid dielectric insulated power cables for rated voltage from 1 kV to 30 kV. . 4.2 kV to 420 kV inclusive. (Transparencies) 4. 4.CEGB-HVS5(1985): Specification for partial discharge testing of bushings capacitors.IPCEA Pub.

7 Power capacitors.Presco 4.2 kV t 420 kV inclusive. 4.CEGB-HVS5(1985): Specification for partial discharge testing of bushings capacitors.doc page 11 of 17 . AG .IEC 137 (1984): Bushings for alternative voltages above 1000 V. . instrument transformers and switchgears of rated voltage 7.6 Bushing and switchgear . PD_Marketing.IEC 70 (1967): Power capacitors.

Coupling Capacitor 1 nF / 50 kV Coupling Capacitor 1 nF / 100 kV PD_Marketing.1 Options / Accessories Coupling Capacitors AG As a rule of thumb. Presco can offer coupling capacitors rated e. from 10 kV up to nearly any voltage.doc page 12 of 17 .g. In many cases a coupling capacitor with a capacitance of 1 nF (1'000 pF) will be suitable. Except for PD measurement on long cables one has to use a 10 nF one. 5. the capacitance of the coupling capacitor is to be equal or higher than the capacitance of the object to be tested.Presco 5.

doc page 13 of 17 .Presco AG Coupling Capacitor 1 nF / 200 kV PD_Marketing.

For such an application we offer multiplexers.g.cdr Motor Three-Phase Filter Power from company line input 3 Phase generator D:\Eigene Dateien\corwork\Solutions/pd3PhaseTrafoSol1. on three phase transformer.doc page 14 of 17 .cdr PD measurements on three phase transformers using a 3 channel multiplexer 1 10 SELECTOR 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ALL Matching 3 2 1 Multiplexer PD-3 Adapter 10 channel PD system with multiplexer PD_Marketing. one has to measure PD on all three phases.2 Multiplexers AG For applications e. Power In Power Out Preco AG Pult HV Area Grid+ Door Layout Coupling Capacitors Oil Oi l Oi l Oi l Oil Oil PD-4 Coupling Device and Multiplexer Filter Filter Filter Test Object Three-Phase regulating Transformer Power for Instrument pd3PhaseTrafo1. Ask us for an optimal solution according your requirements. either manually controlled or remotely controlled by a PC.Presco 5.

doc page 15 of 17 . With this data recording statistics are provided which contains the information how many discharges occurred with which level and at which phase. Phase Resolved Pattern as 2 D graph Phase Resolved Pattern as 2 D graph PD_Marketing.Presco 5.3 Digital Signal Processing AG With our type PD-4 detector the PD activities can be recorded in order to get more information for to analyse possible problems with specific test objects. Then this information is displayed either with two or with three dimensional graph as the so called "Phase Resolved Pattern or Finger Print".

Principle Diagram for PD Measurements with Bridge HV Source Two identical test objects (Power Capacitor) Current Transformer Current Transformer Matching Transformer To PD Detector PD_Marketing.4 Partial Discharge measurements with PD bridge AG A method to suppress noise / interference by 10 dB . 20 dB is to use the PD bridge. common mode noise / interference is cancelled. one which is known as good and one as test object.. Small differences between the two objects are balanced with the bridge and with it. With it two identical objects.doc page 16 of 17 .. max.Presco 5.

In case the PD system is purchased from Presco.  coupling capacitor with a too low capacitance will lead to low sensitivity and A a high back ground noise level.doc page 17 of 17 . A PD detector according to IEC60270 has a frequency band from 20 kHz up to e. E. the noise / interference is interpreted as PD and this leads to the problem that PD of a specific object cannot be detected because noise / interference is higher that the real PD signal. there are two possibilities : a) To use a PD detector with noise reduction features. gating. 200 kHz (or 400 kHz). the noise / interference is "playing" with the operator every day. Such an impulse has a spectra beginning at some KHz up to max. PD is expressed in pC (pico Coulomb) which is a very small quantity (pico is equal to a factor 10-12). Maybe this helps but please be aware that with such a system. for voltage transformers one has to verify a PD level of < 5 pC and with it the back ground noise should not exceed 2. our customers can count on our know how to get a PD system as per the specific requirements. such as different filters or a tuneable narrow band filter. Our proposal is :  Specify the required back ground noise level considering the standards.  In an industrial environment there are always some interference sources. Because one cannot distinguish between impulses / signals of interference and real PD impulses. In this case we are talking about a too high back ground noise level. all signals inside this frequency band might be picked up by the PD detector / system as noise/interference. This way the operator has newer to take care on interference any more and this will safe costs over the years. A PD impulse is an very fast transient of some nano seconds up to some micro seconds.g.Presco 6 Noise / Interference / Back Ground Noise Level AG As it is well known. Facts to be considered :  Back ground noise level has NOTHING to do with a specific PD detector. As one can imagine. PD bridge. Todays PD detectors have an internal noise of approx. 1 MHz. To overcome the noise / interference problem.g. this is something expensive over the years if the time which is lost every day is considered or b) To be aware of noise / interference and to consider some initial costs to set-up the PD test system in order to have a suitable low back ground noise level.  Most important is a correct test set-up and a good grounding system. 0.5 pC. Although maybe the initial costs for the PD system are low.  Set-up the system as per our advises  Analyse the situation according our advises  Get the needed measures from us against the specific interference sources PD_Marketing.3 pC only (far lower for cable PD systems). the purpose of PD measurement is to measure small insulation defects.