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Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide
Semester 1 (Calc AB whole year)

Limits Note: for this review sheet π’π’Šπ’Žπ’™β†’π’‚ 𝒇(𝒙) is the same as π’π’Šπ’Ž 𝒙→𝒂
Introduction ο‚· limβˆ’ 𝑓 π‘₯ : the limit as x approaches β€œa” from the left ο‚· ο‚· π‘₯
β†’π‘Ž π‘₯β†’π‘Ž + 𝒇


ο‚· ο‚·

lim 𝑓 π‘₯ : the limit as x approaches β€œa” from the right

β€œThe big limit” – If the limit equals the limit from the left, and the value is a real, finite number, then the limit exists

Limit exists if the function is continuous or has a hole at β€œa” Limit does not exist (DNE) if the function has a V.A., a jump, or an endpoint o If either of the limits from the left or right are ∞ then the limit DNE

Laws of Limits
Suppose: limπ‘₯β†’π‘Ž 𝑓(π‘₯) π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ limπ‘₯β†’π‘Ž 𝑔(π‘₯) then: lim 𝑓 π‘₯ Β± 𝑔 π‘₯ = lim 𝑓 π‘₯ Β± lim 𝑔 π‘₯
x→a x→a x→a x→a

lim 𝑐 βˆ— 𝑓 π‘₯ = 𝑐 βˆ— lim 𝑓 π‘₯
x→a x→a

lim 𝑓 π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑔 π‘₯

= lim 𝑓 π‘₯ βˆ— lim 𝑔 π‘₯

lim 𝑓 π‘₯
xβ†’a 𝑛

= lim 𝑓 π‘₯
xβ†’a 𝑛 𝑓

π‘₯ lim xβ†’a 𝑔 π‘₯

lim 𝑓 π‘₯ =

lim 𝑔 π‘₯

Steps to solving limits (stop when limit is found)
1. Evaluate function at π‘₯ = π‘Ž if real finite number then the limit is found (make sure to check that limit is same from left π‘Žβˆ’ as it is from the right π‘Ž+) 0 a. If you get 0 then it is a hole 2. See if the function reduces by adding fractions or factoring etc. then re-evaluate (go to step 1) 3. If there is a radical, multiply by the conjugate to rationalize numerator/denominator then evaluate (go to step 1) ο‚· Determine horizontal asymptote for lim⁑ π‘₯β†’βˆž 𝑓 π‘₯ o No limit for slant asymptote (top heavy), approaches ∞ o If powers equal then use coefficients  Make sure to expand first o If bottom heavy then limπ‘₯β†’βˆž 𝑓 π‘₯ = 0 ο‚· Be specific when you write the graphical significance, for example Odd V.A. at π‘₯ = 2 ο‚· If the limit approaches ∞ (π‘₯ β†’ ∞) you can say that the limit is ∞ even though it DNE

ο‚· ο‚· Continuity – a function has no jumps, holes (removable discontinuities), etc. o 𝑓(π‘₯) is continuous at π‘₯ = 𝑐 if limπ‘₯→𝑐 βˆ’ 𝑓(π‘₯) = limπ‘₯→𝑐 + 𝑓(π‘₯) = 𝑓(𝑐) note: 𝑓(𝑐) must exist Removable discontinuity (hole) – a point in the function where x is undefined o Zero on top and bottom

Force a Function to be Continuous
Example: Find (𝐴, 𝐡) so 𝑔 is continuous at π‘₯ = 1. π‘₯ > 1 π‘₯ 2 + 𝐡π‘₯ + 2𝐴 𝑔 π‘₯ = 𝑖𝑓 π‘₯ = 1 4 π‘₯ < 1 6𝐴π‘₯ + 𝐡 βˆ’ 1 π‘₯

lim 6𝐴π‘₯ + 𝐡 βˆ’ 1 = 4 π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ lim π‘₯ 2 + 𝐡π‘₯ + 2𝐴 = 4 + π‘₯

6𝐴 + 𝐡 βˆ’ 1 = 4 𝐴 = 1 2 1 + 𝐡π‘₯ + 2𝐴 = 4 𝐡 = 2
\.Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide.docx

1. Show limits from right & left sides 2. Setup system of eq. and substitute x value

3. 4. To find the root set 𝑓(π‘₯) equal to 0 and solve Tangent Lines/Derivatives with Limits Approximate slope of tangent line: 𝑆𝐷𝑄 π‘ π‘’π‘šπ‘’π‘‘π‘Ÿπ‘–π‘ 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓.T. 𝑓 β€² (π‘₯) Graphs Derivatives ο‚· ο‚· ο‚· \.π‘žπ‘’π‘œπ‘‘π‘–π‘’π‘›π‘‘ +𝑅𝐷𝑄 π‘Ÿπ‘–π‘” 𝑕𝑑 𝑑𝑖𝑓 . 2. ο‚· 1. & 𝑆𝐷𝑄 must exist and be defined ο‚· If 𝑅𝐷𝑄 = 𝐿𝐷𝑄 then 𝑓 is smooth Definition 1 (RDQ): 𝑓 β€² π‘₯ = lim𝑕→0 Definition 2: 𝑓 π‘₯ = limπ‘₯β†’π‘Ž ο‚· ο‚· ο‚· 1. 𝑏] and β€œπ‘˜β€ is any number between 𝑓(π‘Ž) and 𝑓(𝑏) then there exists an π‘₯ between π‘Ž and 𝑏 such that 𝑓(π‘₯) = π‘˜. then f is increasing If 𝑓 is decreasing then 𝑓’ ≀ 0 o If 𝑓’ is negative.π‘žπ‘’π‘œπ‘‘π‘–π‘’π‘›π‘‘ Definition 1 (LDQ): 𝑓 β€² π‘₯ = lim𝑕→0 𝑓 π‘Ž βˆ’π‘“(π‘₯) π‘Žβˆ’π‘₯ 𝑓 π‘₯ βˆ’π‘“ π‘₯βˆ’π‘• 𝑕 𝑓 π‘₯ βˆ’π‘“(π‘Ž) = limπ‘₯β†’π‘Ž 𝑓 (π‘₯) is the slope of the line tangent to 𝑓 at π‘₯ 𝑓 β€² (3) is the slope of the tangent line to 𝑓at π‘₯ = 3 RDQ Find derivative function using definition 1 or 2 Substitute the π‘₯ value into function 𝑓 β€² π‘₯ Find 𝑦 = 𝑓(π‘₯) and substitute in π‘₯ Fill in 𝑦 βˆ’ 𝑦1 = π‘š(π‘₯ βˆ’ π‘₯1 ) If 𝑓 is increasing then 𝑓’ β‰₯ 0 o If 𝑓 is positive. 3. and find the root guaranteed by it… Set k = 0 if finding root (root is where y value is 0) Find 𝑓(π‘Ž) and 𝑓(𝑏) Since at π‘₯ = π‘Ž f is ___ and at π‘₯ = 𝑏 𝑓 is ___ and 𝑓 is continuous then 𝑓 must be zero between ___ and ___ at the root.1) o If 𝑓 π‘₯ = 𝑒 π‘₯ then 𝑓 0 = 1 Write tangent eq. ο‚· ο‚· β€² β€² π‘₯βˆ’π‘Ž 𝑓 π‘₯+𝑕 βˆ’π‘“ π‘₯ 𝑕 𝐿𝐷𝑄 𝑙𝑒𝑓𝑑 𝑑𝑖𝑓 . then 𝑓 is decreasing General Power Rule: if 𝑓 π‘₯ = π‘Žπ‘₯ 𝑛 then 𝑓 β€² π‘₯ = π‘Žπ‘›π‘₯ π‘›βˆ’1 o Multiply coefficient by exponent.docx . 𝑅𝐷𝑄.Page 2 of 3 Intermediate Value Theorem If f is continuous on [π‘Ž. ο‚· To verify the I. treat all other variables except π‘₯ as constants Definition of 𝑒: the number whose base for which the curve 𝑦 = π‘Ž π‘₯ passes through (0. π‘žπ‘’π‘œπ‘‘π‘–π‘’π‘›π‘‘ = 2 Derivatives – function that finds the slope of tangent lines ο‚· Differentiable (adj) – derivative exists ο‚· Differentiate (verb) – to find derivative ο‚· For a derivative to exist o Continuity at π‘₯ = π‘Ž o 𝑓′ is continuous o Secant line must approach from both sides to the tangent line  𝐿𝐷𝑄.V.Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide. subtract 1 from exponent 𝑑 (… ) means take the derivative in respect to the variable π‘₯ 𝑑π‘₯ o Find the derivative. 2.

product.Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide. velocity is a secant line to the 𝑠(𝑑) graph NOT the 𝑣 𝑑 𝑑 sec π‘₯ = tan π‘₯ sec π‘₯ 𝑑π‘₯ 𝑑 csc π‘₯ = βˆ’ cot π‘₯ csc π‘₯ 𝑑π‘₯ Trig Derivatives sin πœƒ 𝑑 =1 cos π‘₯ = βˆ’ sin π‘₯ πœƒβ†’0 πœƒ 𝑑π‘₯ cos πœƒ βˆ’ 1 𝑑 lim =0 tan π‘₯ = sec 2 π‘₯ πœƒβ†’0 πœƒ 𝑑π‘₯ 𝑑 𝑑 sin π‘₯ = cos π‘₯ cot π‘₯ = βˆ’ csc 2 π‘₯ 𝑑π‘₯ 𝑑π‘₯ Note: all co.docx . chain rules) 𝑑𝑦 Make sure to add 𝑑π‘₯ to the y-variable derivatives Solve for 𝑑π‘₯ 𝑑𝑦 L’Hopitals’ Rule o If limits at a point or ±∞ are in the form 0 π‘œπ‘Ÿ ±∞ (indeterminate form) then o Take derivative of numerator & denominator separately & try again 0 ±∞ \.functions have negative derivatives lim Inverse Trig Derivatives 𝑑 1 sinβˆ’1 π‘₯ = 𝑑π‘₯ 1 βˆ’ π‘₯ 2 𝑑 βˆ’1 cosβˆ’1 π‘₯ = 𝑑π‘₯ 1 βˆ’ π‘₯ 2 𝑑 1 tanβˆ’1 π‘₯ = 𝑑π‘₯ 1 + π‘₯ 2 𝑑 βˆ’1 cot βˆ’1 π‘₯ = 𝑑π‘₯ 1 + π‘₯ 2 𝑑 1 sec βˆ’1 π‘₯ = 𝑑π‘₯ π‘₯ π‘₯ 2 βˆ’ 1 𝑑 βˆ’1 csc βˆ’1 π‘₯ = 𝑑π‘₯ π‘₯ π‘₯ 2 βˆ’ 1 Chain Rule ο‚· Work from outside β†’ in taking derivatives & multiply them together Parametric Composite Function π‘₯ = 𝑓 𝑑 𝑦 = 𝑓 𝑔 π‘₯ β€² 𝑦 = 𝑦 𝑑 𝑦 = 𝑓 β€² 𝑔 π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑔′ (π‘₯) 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑑 𝑧 = 𝑓 𝑔 𝑕 π‘₯ = = βˆ— 𝑑π‘₯ 𝑑π‘₯ 𝑑𝑑 𝑑π‘₯ 𝑧 β€² = 𝑓 β€² 𝑔 𝑕 π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑔′ 𝑕 π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑕′ (π‘₯) 𝑑𝑑 Implicit Relationship ο‚· ο‚· ο‚· Find the derivatives of all parts (using quotient.Page 3 of 3 o o ο‚· 𝑑 𝑑π‘₯ 𝑑 𝑑π‘₯ 𝑒 π‘₯ = 𝑒 π‘₯ 1 o o 𝑑 𝑑π‘₯ 𝑑 𝑑π‘₯ π‘Ž π‘₯ = π‘Ž βˆ— ln π‘Ž 1 1 ln π‘₯ π‘₯ (ln π‘₯) = π‘₯ log π‘Ž π‘₯ = ln π‘Ž βˆ— π‘₯ hint: convert log π‘Ž π‘₯ β†’ ln π‘Ž ο‚· Quotient Rule o 𝑓 π‘₯ = 𝑣 o 𝑓 π‘₯ = β€² 𝑒 π‘₯ π‘₯ 𝑒 β€² π‘₯ βˆ™π‘£ π‘₯ βˆ’π‘’ π‘₯ βˆ™π‘£ β€² π‘₯ 𝑣 π‘₯ 2 Product Rule o 𝑓 π‘₯ = 𝑒 π‘₯ βˆ™ 𝑣 π‘₯ o 𝑓 β€² π‘₯ = 𝑒′ π‘₯ βˆ™ 𝑣 π‘₯ + 𝑒 π‘₯ βˆ™ 𝑣 β€² π‘₯ β€² β€²β€² β€² ο‚· ο‚· Motion: 𝑠 𝑑 = 𝑣(𝑑) 𝑠 𝑑 = 𝑣 𝑑 = π‘Ž(𝑑) 𝑑𝑦 means the change in y with respect to x 𝑑π‘₯ o Rate β‡’ change in something with respect to time o Note: avg.

1 βˆ’ 𝑓 13 β‰ˆ .Page 4 of 7 𝐼𝑓 0 ±∞ π‘œπ‘Ÿ 0 ±∞ 𝑑𝑕𝑒𝑛 𝑓 π‘₯ 𝑓 = lim β€² π‘₯β†’π‘Ž 𝑔 π‘₯ π‘₯β†’π‘Ž 𝑔 lim β€² π‘₯ π‘₯ Linear Approximations Unknown (π‘₯2 . then 𝑓(𝑐) is a min o If 𝑓′ changes sign from – to + at π‘₯ = 𝑐.0074 2 βˆ— 𝟏𝟎 = 30 βˆ— 3 3 27 2 βˆ— πŸπŸ‘ + 1 3 If we were to approximate 𝑓(13.docx . Differentiate the function solving for dy (don’t forget the chain rule). if concave up then underestimate Example (font size is small because this takes up too much room otherwise) 𝑓 π‘₯ = Find Ξ”y and as x changes from 13 β†’ 13.1 β‰ˆ 𝑓 13 + 𝑑𝑦 = 27 + 135 1 3 2π‘₯ + 1 Derivative Graphs ο‚· ο‚· ο‚· ο‚· ο‚· Finding maxes and mins based on 𝑓′ info (given 𝑓′ is zero or undefined) o If 𝑓′ changes sign from + to – at π‘₯ = 𝑐. 𝑏] (note: must be closed interval!) A graph is concave down if its tangents are above the graph o Frownie-face  (down = unhappy) o 𝑓 β€²β€² < 0 o 𝑓′ is decreasing \. 𝑏] then 𝑓 has an absolute maxmima 𝑓(𝑐) and a absolute minimum 𝑓(𝑑) at values 𝑐 and 𝑑 in [π‘Ž. 𝑦2 ) Δ𝑦 = 𝑦2 βˆ’ 𝑦1 Known (π‘₯1 .1) without a calculator: 1 3 𝑓 13.1 First we find Ξ”y using a calculator: Δ𝑦 = 𝑓 13. 𝑦1 ) 𝑑𝑦 ο‚· ο‚· Dy is used to approximate Ξ”y Error = |𝑑𝑦 βˆ’ Δ𝑦| o If curve is concave down then overestimate (see picture). then 𝑓(𝑐) is a max Critical Points: c is a critical number o 𝑓 β€² 𝑐 is undefined o 𝑐 is an endpoint o 𝑓 β€² 𝑐 = 0 Fermat’s Theorem o If 𝑓 is differentiable and has a local maxima or minima at π‘₯ = 𝑐. 𝑦 = 2π‘₯ + 1 3 2 𝑑𝑦 1 = 2π‘₯ + 1 βˆ’3 βˆ— 2 𝑑π‘₯ 3 2 1 𝑑𝑦 = βˆ— 2 𝑑π‘₯ 3 2π‘₯ + 1 3 1 Since we know π‘₯ = 13 and 𝑑π‘₯ = .1 = we can substitute into the above equation and solve for dy 10 2 1 𝟏 2 1 2 1 2 1 𝑑𝑦 = βˆ— 2 = 30 βˆ— 9 = 270 = 135 β‰ˆ .Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide. then 𝑓 β€² 𝑐 = 0 Extreme Value Theorem o If 𝑓 is continuous on [π‘Ž.0074 Then we find dy.

docx .Page 5 of 7 ο‚· ο‚· ο‚· A graph is concave up if its tangents are below the graph o Smiley-face  (up=happy) o 𝑓 β€²β€² > 0 o 𝑓′ is increasing Points of Inflection: where concavity changes o There are points of inflection where 𝑓 β€²β€² = 0 because it changes sign Mean Value Theorem (MVT) o If 𝑓 is continuous over [π‘Ž.b] then 𝑏 𝑓 β€² π‘₯ 𝑑𝑣 = 𝑓 𝑏 βˆ’ 𝑓 π‘Ž ο‚· π‘Ž Now possible to evaluate definite integrals \. 𝑏] and differentable over (π‘Ž. 𝑏) then there exists at least one 𝑐 in (π‘Ž.Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide. 𝑏) such that it is equal to the slope between π‘Ž and 𝑏. there’s a derivative value (𝑐) somewhere on the graph that equals the slope between π‘Ž and 𝑏 if its continuous and differentiable Integrals and Anti-derivatives Field lines ο‚· ο‚· ο‚· ο‚· ο‚· Draw slope of the tangent line at each point (value of derivative) 𝑑 𝑑π‘₯ Basics π‘₯ 2 βˆ’ 4π‘₯ + 𝑐 = 2π‘₯ βˆ’ 4 ← finding derivative ∫ 2π‘₯ βˆ’ 4 𝑑π‘₯ = π‘₯ 2 βˆ’ 4π‘₯ + 𝑐 ← finding anti-derivative/ integral (integrating) Memorized derivatives apply in reverse π‘Ž General power rule: ∫ π‘Žπ‘₯ 𝑛 𝑑π‘₯ = π‘₯ 𝑛+1 + 𝑐 𝑛+1 Trig Anti-Derivatives ∫ cos π‘₯ = sin π‘₯ + 𝐢 ∫ π’”π’Šπ’ 𝒙 = βˆ’π’„π’π’” 𝒙 + π‘ͺ ∫ (csc π‘₯) = ln csc π‘₯ βˆ’ cot π‘₯ + 𝑐 ∫ tan π‘₯ = ln sec π‘₯ + 𝑐 ∫ sec 2 π‘₯ = tan π‘₯ + 𝐢 ∫ csc 2 π‘₯ = βˆ’ cot π‘₯ + 𝐢 ∫ sec π‘₯ = ln sec π‘₯ + tan π‘₯ + 𝑐 ∫ tan π‘₯ sec π‘₯ = sec π‘₯ + 𝐢 ∫ 𝒄𝒐𝒕 𝒙 𝒄𝒔𝒄 𝒙 = 𝒄𝒔𝒄 𝒙 + π‘ͺ ∫ cot π‘₯ = ln sin π‘₯ + 𝑐 Inverse Trig Anti-Derivatives ∫ ∫ 1 1 βˆ’ π‘₯ 2 βˆ’1 1 βˆ’ π‘₯ 2 = arcsin π‘₯ + 𝐢 = arccos π‘₯ + 𝐢 ∫ ∫ 1 = arctan π‘₯ + 𝐢 1 + π‘₯ 2 βˆ’1 = arccot π‘₯ + 𝐢 1 + π‘₯ 2 ∫ ∫ 1 π‘₯ π‘₯ π‘₯ 2 βˆ’ 1 βˆ’1 π‘₯ 2 βˆ’ 1 = arcsec π‘₯ + 𝐢 = arccsc π‘₯ + 𝐢 Other Anti-Derivatives ∫ π‘Ž π‘₯ 𝑑π‘₯ = π‘Ž π‘₯ + 𝑐 ln π‘Ž 1st Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC) ο‚· If f is continuous over [a. o Basically.

Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide.Page 6 of 7 Approximation of Area Rectangles Right sums area β‰ˆ 𝑀 𝑓 π‘₯1 + 𝑓 π‘₯2 + β‹― 𝑓 π‘₯π‘›βˆ’1 + 𝑓 𝑏 Left sums area β‰ˆ 𝑀[𝑓 π‘Ž + 𝑓 π‘₯1 + 𝑓 π‘₯2 + β‹― 𝑓 π‘₯π‘›βˆ’1 ] Midpoint sums area β‰ˆ 𝑀 𝑓 Trapezoids π‘₯ 0 +π‘₯ 1 2 note: this uses the right side of the partitions + 𝑓 π‘₯ 1 +π‘₯ 2 2 + β‹― 𝑓 π‘₯ 𝑛 βˆ’1 +π‘₯ 𝑛 2 𝑛 partitions 𝑏 βˆ’ π‘Ž 𝑕 = 𝑛 𝑕 π‘Ž = 𝑏1 + 𝑏2 2 Trap area β‰ˆ 2 [𝑓 π‘Ž + 2(𝑓 π‘₯1 + 2(𝑓 π‘₯2 + β‹― 2 𝑓 π‘₯π‘›βˆ’1 + 𝑓 𝑏 𝑕 \.docx .

docx .Page 7 of 7 Volume by Integration Disk Method 𝑏 Washer Method 𝑏 Shell Method 𝑏 2 𝑉 = πœ‹ π‘Ž π‘Ÿ 2 𝑕 𝑉 = πœ‹ π‘Ž π‘Ÿπ‘œπ‘’π‘‘ βˆ’ π‘Ÿπ‘–π‘› 2 𝑕 𝑉 = 2πœ‹ π‘Ž π‘Ÿ βˆ— 𝑕 βˆ— 𝑑𝑕 Where 𝑑𝑕 = 𝑑𝑦 or 𝑑 and rectangles βˆ₯ to axis of rotation Solids with known cross sections 𝑏 Watch for the radius doesn’t go to an axis: π‘Ÿ = 4 βˆ’ π‘₯ dy π‘₯ = 4 𝑉 = π‘Ž π‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘’π‘Ž π‘œπ‘“ π‘π‘Ÿπ‘œπ‘ π‘  π‘ π‘’π‘π‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘›π‘Žπ‘™ π‘π‘Žπ‘ π‘’ βˆ— 𝑕 Where 𝑕 = 𝑑𝑦 or 𝑑π‘₯ Arc Length 𝑏 𝐿 = π‘Ž 𝑑π‘₯ 𝑑𝑦 2 𝑑𝑦 + 𝑑π‘₯ 2 𝑏 𝑑𝑑 𝐿 = π‘Ž 𝑑𝑦 1+ 𝑑π‘₯ 2 𝑏 𝑑π‘₯ 𝐿 = π‘Ž 𝑑π‘₯ 𝑑𝑦 2 + 1 𝑑𝑦 Average Value (height) of a Function 𝑏 𝑓 π‘₯ 𝑑π‘₯ = π‘Žπ‘£π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘”π‘’ 𝑕𝑒𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑑 (𝑏 βˆ’ π‘Ž) π‘Ž ∫ 𝑓 π‘₯ 𝑑π‘₯ π‘Ž = π‘Žπ‘£π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘”π‘’ π‘£π‘Žπ‘™π‘’π‘’ 𝑏 βˆ’ π‘Ž Hooke’s law: 𝐹 = π‘˜π‘₯ where x is the displacement from the natural length of the spring 𝑏 𝑏 Engineering Applications π‘€π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘˜ = π‘“π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘π‘’ βˆ— π‘‘π‘–π‘ π‘‘π‘Žπ‘›π‘π‘’ 𝐹 = 𝑀𝑒𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑑 βˆ— 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑑𝑕 𝑀 = π‘Ž 𝐹 π‘₯ 𝑑π‘₯ Were 𝐹 π‘₯ is the force and 𝑑π‘₯ is the distance \.Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide.