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Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide
Semester 1 (Calc AB whole year)

Limits Note: for this review sheet ππππβπ π(π) is the same as πππ πβπ
Introduction ο· limβ π π₯ : the limit as x approaches βaβ from the left ο· ο· π₯
βπ π₯βπ + π

π

ο· ο·

lim π π₯ : the limit as x approaches βaβ from the right

βThe big limitβ β If the limit equals the limit from the left, and the value is a real, finite number, then the limit exists

Limit exists if the function is continuous or has a hole at βaβ Limit does not exist (DNE) if the function has a V.A., a jump, or an endpoint o If either of the limits from the left or right are β then the limit DNE

Laws of Limits
Suppose: limπ₯βπ π(π₯) πππ limπ₯βπ π(π₯) then: lim π π₯ Β± π π₯ = lim π π₯ Β± lim π π₯
xβa xβa xβa xβa

lim π β π π₯ = π β lim π π₯
xβa xβa

lim π π₯ β π π₯
xβa

= lim π π₯ β lim π π₯
xβa

lim π π₯
xβa π

= lim π π₯
xβa π π

π₯ lim xβa π π₯

lim π π₯ =
xβa

lim π π₯
xβa

Steps to solving limits (stop when limit is found)
1. Evaluate function at π₯ = π if real finite number then the limit is found (make sure to check that limit is same from left πβ as it is from the right π+) 0 a. If you get 0 then it is a hole 2. See if the function reduces by adding fractions or factoring etc. then re-evaluate (go to step 1) 3. If there is a radical, multiply by the conjugate to rationalize numerator/denominator then evaluate (go to step 1) ο· Determine horizontal asymptote for limβ‘ π₯ββ π π₯ o No limit for slant asymptote (top heavy), approaches β o If powers equal then use coefficients ο§ Make sure to expand first o If bottom heavy then limπ₯ββ π π₯ = 0 ο· Be specific when you write the graphical significance, for example Odd V.A. at π₯ = 2 ο· If the limit approaches β (π₯ β β) you can say that the limit is β even though it DNE

Definitions
ο· ο· Continuity β a function has no jumps, holes (removable discontinuities), etc. o π(π₯) is continuous at π₯ = π if limπ₯βπ β π(π₯) = limπ₯βπ + π(π₯) = π(π) note: π(π) must exist Removable discontinuity (hole) β a point in the function where x is undefined o Zero on top and bottom

Force a Function to be Continuous
Example: Find (π΄, π΅) so π is continuous at π₯ = 1. π₯ > 1 π₯ 2 + π΅π₯ + 2π΄ π π₯ = ππ π₯ = 1 4 π₯ < 1 6π΄π₯ + π΅ β 1 π₯
β1β

lim 6π΄π₯ + π΅ β 1 = 4 πππ lim π₯ 2 + π΅π₯ + 2π΄ = 4 + π₯
β1

6π΄ + π΅ β 1 = 4 π΄ = 1 2 1 + π΅π₯ + 2π΄ = 4 π΅ = 2
\.Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide.docx

1. Show limits from right & left sides 2. Setup system of eq. and substitute x value

3. 4. To find the root set π(π₯) equal to 0 and solve Tangent Lines/Derivatives with Limits Approximate slope of tangent line: ππ·π π ππππ‘πππ ππππ.T. π β² (π₯) Graphs Derivatives ο· ο· ο· \.ππ’ππ‘ππππ‘ +ππ·π πππ ππ‘ πππ . 2. ο· 1. & ππ·π must exist and be defined ο· If ππ·π = πΏπ·π then π is smooth Definition 1 (RDQ): π β² π₯ = limπβ0 Definition 2: π π₯ = limπ₯βπ ο· ο· ο· 1. π] and βπβ is any number between π(π) and π(π) then there exists an π₯ between π and π such that π(π₯) = π. then f is increasing If π is decreasing then πβ β€ 0 o If πβ is negative.ππ’ππ‘ππππ‘ Definition 1 (LDQ): π β² π₯ = limπβ0 π π βπ(π₯) πβπ₯ π π₯ βπ π₯βπ π π π₯ βπ(π) = limπ₯βπ π (π₯) is the slope of the line tangent to π at π₯ π β² (3) is the slope of the tangent line to πat π₯ = 3 RDQ Find derivative function using definition 1 or 2 Substitute the π₯ value into function π β² π₯ Find π¦ = π(π₯) and substitute in π₯ Fill in π¦ β π¦1 = π(π₯ β π₯1 ) If π is increasing then πβ β₯ 0 o If π is positive. 3. and find the root guaranteed by itβ¦ Set k = 0 if finding root (root is where y value is 0) Find π(π) and π(π) Since at π₯ = π f is ___ and at π₯ = π π is ___ and π is continuous then π must be zero between ___ and ___ at the root.1) o If π π₯ = π π₯ then π 0 = 1 Write tangent eq. ο· ο· β² β² π₯βπ π π₯+π βπ π₯ π πΏπ·π ππππ‘ πππ . then π is decreasing General Power Rule: if π π₯ = ππ₯ π then π β² π₯ = πππ₯ πβ1 o Multiply coefficient by exponent.docx . ππ·π.Page 2 of 3 Intermediate Value Theorem If f is continuous on [π. ο· To verify the I. treat all other variables except π₯ as constants Definition of π: the number whose base for which the curve π¦ = π π₯ passes through (0. ππ’ππ‘ππππ‘ = 2 Derivatives β function that finds the slope of tangent lines ο· Differentiable (adj) β derivative exists ο· Differentiate (verb) β to find derivative ο· For a derivative to exist o Continuity at π₯ = π o πβ² is continuous o Secant line must approach from both sides to the tangent line ο§ πΏπ·π.V.Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide. subtract 1 from exponent π (β¦ ) means take the derivative in respect to the variable π₯ ππ₯ o Find the derivative. 2.

product.Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide. velocity is a secant line to the π (π‘) graph NOT the π£ π‘ π sec π₯ = tan π₯ sec π₯ ππ₯ π csc π₯ = β cot π₯ csc π₯ ππ₯ Trig Derivatives sin π π =1 cos π₯ = β sin π₯ πβ0 π ππ₯ cos π β 1 π lim =0 tan π₯ = sec 2 π₯ πβ0 π ππ₯ π π sin π₯ = cos π₯ cot π₯ = β csc 2 π₯ ππ₯ ππ₯ Note: all co.docx . chain rules) ππ¦ Make sure to add ππ₯ to the y-variable derivatives Solve for ππ₯ ππ¦ LβHopitalsβ Rule o If limits at a point or Β±β are in the form 0 ππ Β±β (indeterminate form) then o Take derivative of numerator & denominator separately & try again 0 Β±β \.functions have negative derivatives lim Inverse Trig Derivatives π 1 sinβ1 π₯ = ππ₯ 1 β π₯ 2 π β1 cosβ1 π₯ = ππ₯ 1 β π₯ 2 π 1 tanβ1 π₯ = ππ₯ 1 + π₯ 2 π β1 cot β1 π₯ = ππ₯ 1 + π₯ 2 π 1 sec β1 π₯ = ππ₯ π₯ π₯ 2 β 1 π β1 csc β1 π₯ = ππ₯ π₯ π₯ 2 β 1 Chain Rule ο· Work from outside β in taking derivatives & multiply them together Parametric Composite Function π₯ = π π‘ π¦ = π π π₯ β² π¦ = π¦ π‘ π¦ = π β² π π₯ β πβ² (π₯) ππ¦ ππ¦ ππ‘ ππ¦ ππ‘ π§ = π π π π₯ = = β ππ₯ ππ₯ ππ‘ ππ₯ π§ β² = π β² π π π₯ β πβ² π π₯ β πβ² (π₯) ππ‘ Implicit Relationship ο· ο· ο· Find the derivatives of all parts (using quotient.Page 3 of 3 o o ο· π ππ₯ π ππ₯ π π₯ = π π₯ 1 o o π ππ₯ π ππ₯ π π₯ = π β ln π 1 1 ln π₯ π₯ (ln π₯) = π₯ log π π₯ = ln π β π₯ hint: convert log π π₯ β ln π ο· Quotient Rule o π π₯ = π£ o π π₯ = β² π’ π₯ π₯ π’ β² π₯ βπ£ π₯ βπ’ π₯ βπ£ β² π₯ π£ π₯ 2 Product Rule o π π₯ = π’ π₯ β π£ π₯ o π β² π₯ = π’β² π₯ β π£ π₯ + π’ π₯ β π£ β² π₯ β² β²β² β² ο· ο· Motion: π  π‘ = π£(π‘) π  π‘ = π£ π‘ = π(π‘) ππ¦ means the change in y with respect to x ππ₯ o Rate β change in something with respect to time o Note: avg.

1 β π 13 β .Page 4 of 7 πΌπ 0 Β±β ππ 0 Β±β π‘πππ π π₯ π = lim β² π₯βπ π π₯ π₯βπ π lim β² π₯ π₯ Linear Approximations Unknown (π₯2 . then π(π) is a min o If πβ² changes sign from β to + at π₯ = π.0074 2 β ππ = 30 β 3 3 27 2 β ππ + 1 3 If we were to approximate π(13.docx . Differentiate the function solving for dy (donβt forget the chain rule). if concave up then underestimate Example (font size is small because this takes up too much room otherwise) π π₯ = Find Ξy and as x changes from 13 β 13.1 β π 13 + ππ¦ = 27 + 135 1 3 2π₯ + 1 Derivative Graphs ο· ο· ο· ο· ο· Finding maxes and mins based on πβ² info (given πβ² is zero or undefined) o If πβ² changes sign from + to β at π₯ = π. π] (note: must be closed interval!) A graph is concave down if its tangents are above the graph o Frownie-face ο (down = unhappy) o π β²β² < 0 o πβ² is decreasing \. π] then π has an absolute maxmima π(π) and a absolute minimum π(π) at values π and π in [π. π¦2 ) Ξπ¦ = π¦2 β π¦1 Known (π₯1 .1) without a calculator: 1 3 π 13.1 First we find Ξy using a calculator: Ξπ¦ = π 13. π¦1 ) ππ¦ ο· ο· Dy is used to approximate Ξy Error = |ππ¦ β Ξπ¦| o If curve is concave down then overestimate (see picture). then π(π) is a max Critical Points: c is a critical number o π β² π is undefined o π is an endpoint o π β² π = 0 Fermatβs Theorem o If π is differentiable and has a local maxima or minima at π₯ = π. π¦ = 2π₯ + 1 3 2 ππ¦ 1 = 2π₯ + 1 β3 β 2 ππ₯ 3 2 1 ππ¦ = β 2 ππ₯ 3 2π₯ + 1 3 1 Since we know π₯ = 13 and ππ₯ = .1 = we can substitute into the above equation and solve for dy 10 2 1 π 2 1 2 1 2 1 ππ¦ = β 2 = 30 β 9 = 270 = 135 β .Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide. then π β² π = 0 Extreme Value Theorem o If π is continuous on [π.0074 Then we find dy.

docx .Page 5 of 7 ο· ο· ο· A graph is concave up if its tangents are below the graph o Smiley-face ο (up=happy) o π β²β² > 0 o πβ² is increasing Points of Inflection: where concavity changes o There are points of inflection where π β²β² = 0 because it changes sign Mean Value Theorem (MVT) o If π is continuous over [π.b] then π π β² π₯ ππ£ = π π β π π ο· π Now possible to evaluate definite integrals \. π] and differentable over (π. π) then there exists at least one π in (π.Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide. π) such that it is equal to the slope between π and π. thereβs a derivative value (π) somewhere on the graph that equals the slope between π and π if its continuous and differentiable Integrals and Anti-derivatives Field lines ο· ο· ο· ο· ο· Draw slope of the tangent line at each point (value of derivative) π ππ₯ Basics π₯ 2 β 4π₯ + π = 2π₯ β 4 β finding derivative β« 2π₯ β 4 ππ₯ = π₯ 2 β 4π₯ + π β finding anti-derivative/ integral (integrating) Memorized derivatives apply in reverse π General power rule: β« ππ₯ π ππ₯ = π₯ π+1 + π π+1 Trig Anti-Derivatives β« cos π₯ = sin π₯ + πΆ β« πππ π = βπππ π + πͺ β« (csc π₯) = ln csc π₯ β cot π₯ + π β« tan π₯ = ln sec π₯ + π β« sec 2 π₯ = tan π₯ + πΆ β« csc 2 π₯ = β cot π₯ + πΆ β« sec π₯ = ln sec π₯ + tan π₯ + π β« tan π₯ sec π₯ = sec π₯ + πΆ β« πππ π πππ π = πππ π + πͺ β« cot π₯ = ln sin π₯ + π Inverse Trig Anti-Derivatives β« β« 1 1 β π₯ 2 β1 1 β π₯ 2 = arcsin π₯ + πΆ = arccos π₯ + πΆ β« β« 1 = arctan π₯ + πΆ 1 + π₯ 2 β1 = arccot π₯ + πΆ 1 + π₯ 2 β« β« 1 π₯ π₯ π₯ 2 β 1 β1 π₯ 2 β 1 = arcsec π₯ + πΆ = arccsc π₯ + πΆ Other Anti-Derivatives β« π π₯ ππ₯ = π π₯ + π ln π 1st Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC) ο· If f is continuous over [a. o Basically.

Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide.Page 6 of 7 Approximation of Area Rectangles Right sums area β π€ π π₯1 + π π₯2 + β― π π₯πβ1 + π π Left sums area β π€[π π + π π₯1 + π π₯2 + β― π π₯πβ1 ] Midpoint sums area β π€ π Trapezoids π₯ 0 +π₯ 1 2 note: this uses the right side of the partitions + π π₯ 1 +π₯ 2 2 + β― π π₯ π β1 +π₯ π 2 π partitions π β π π = π π π = π1 + π2 2 Trap area β 2 [π π + 2(π π₯1 + 2(π π₯2 + β― 2 π π₯πβ1 + π π π \.docx .

docx .Page 7 of 7 Volume by Integration Disk Method π Washer Method π Shell Method π 2 π = π π π 2 π π = π π πππ’π‘ β πππ 2 π π = 2π π π β π β π‘π Where π‘π = ππ¦ or π and rectangles β₯ to axis of rotation Solids with known cross sections π Watch for the radius doesnβt go to an axis: π = 4 β π₯ dy π₯ = 4 π = π ππππ ππ ππππ π  π πππ‘πππππ πππ π β π Where π = ππ¦ or ππ₯ Arc Length π πΏ = π ππ₯ ππ¦ 2 ππ¦ + ππ₯ 2 π ππ‘ πΏ = π ππ¦ 1+ ππ₯ 2 π ππ₯ πΏ = π ππ₯ ππ¦ 2 + 1 ππ¦ Average Value (height) of a Function π π π₯ ππ₯ = ππ£πππππ ππππππ‘ (π β π) π β« π π₯ ππ₯ π = ππ£πππππ π£πππ’π π β π Hookeβs law: πΉ = ππ₯ where x is the displacement from the natural length of the spring π π Engineering Applications π€πππ = πππππ β πππ π‘ππππ πΉ = π€πππππ‘ β πππππ‘π π€ = π πΉ π₯ ππ₯ Were πΉ π₯ is the force and ππ₯ is the distance \.Host\Shared Folders\jeff\Desktop\BC Calc Study Guides\Calculus BC Final Exam Study Guide.