Industrial Microbiology

LAB Physical Agents of Control – Electromagnetic Radiation Objectives To study the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on microorganism Introduction Certain forms of electromagnetic radiation are capable of producing a lethal effect on cells and therefore can be used for microbial control. Electromagnetic radiations that possess sufficient energy to be microbicidal are the short-wavelength radiation, that is, below 300nm. These include UV, gamma rays, and x-rays. The high wavelength radiations, those above 300nm, have insufficient energy to destroy cells. Materials, Culture, and Media 24 to 48 hours nutrient broth cultures of E. coli; inoculating loop, ultraviolet radiation source, parafilm, 6 nutrient agar plates for each group. Methodology 1. All plates were inoculated in a sterile manner, by means of streak inoculation. 2. Cover of each inoculated plate was labeled according to the exposure time to ultraviolet radiation: 0 (control), 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 3 minutes, 5 minutes, and 5 minutes (irradiated covered control) 3. All inoculated plates were irradiated for the designated period of time by placed at 12 inches below the ultraviolet light sources. All petri dish covers was removed except that of the 5-minutes irradiated control plate. 4. All plates were incubated in an inverted position for 4 to 5 days at 30°C. Result 1. All nutrient agar plate cultures were observed for the amount of growth of microbe. 2. Observation was recorded as: 0 = no growth; 1+ = slight growth; 2+ = moderate growth; 3+ = abundant growth. Microbial Species E. coli. Time of Irradiation 0 3+ Seconds 15 3+ Minutes 30 3+ 1 2+ 3 2+ 5 0 5* 0

* irradiated, covered plate Discussion Control of microbial growth chemotherapeutic agents. is accomplished through chemical, physical and

Physical agents of control include heat, freeze-drying, ultraviolet radiation and filtration. Except for photosynthetic bacteria, most bacteria are harmed by ultraviolet radiation. Although sunlight contains the complete spectrum of short to long wavelengths of light, it is only the short invisible ultraviolet wavelengths that are injurious to these bacteria. Ultraviolet radiation is strongly absorbed by proteins and nucleic acids in cells; hence, the indications are that cellular damage involves changes in DNA. Depending on the dosage, ultraviolet radiation may cause enzyme inactivation, genetic mutation or death of the cell. The longer the exposure, the more microbes will kill.

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Industrial Microbiology

Examples: when microbes were treated with ultraviolet radiation, the radiation affects DNA in their cell. (a) A normal DNA was converted into (b) an abnormal DNA molecule as the UV light binds adjacent thymine molecules within the DNA to form (c) a thymine dimer. With its thymine molecules bound in dimers, the DNA molecules cannot function properly and cannot replicate. The microbe quickly dies. Other kinds of radiation, includes gamma rays and X-rays which are highly penetrating to cells and tissues and have potent antimicrobial effects (they are 10000 times more energetic than UV light). After colliding with a target, ionizing radiation generates ions and other reactive species from molecules including hydroxyl (free) OH- radicals. These free radicals can cause irreversible breaks in DNA, proteins and enzymes. Conclusion Through this experiment, I am understood and aware of the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on microorganism. References Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual Seventh Edition (International Edition). Cappucino and Sherman. Pearson. Benjamin Cummings http://scienceprofonline.googlepages.com/LabExerciseandReport5.doc. (251008) Microbes and Society: An Introduction to Microbiology. I. Edward Alcamo. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2002. Boston, Massachusetts.

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Industrial Microbiology

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