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Intended application

This courseware has been developed and manufactured exclusively for vocational and continuing training in process automation and control engineering. The training company and / or trainers have the duty to ensure that trainees observe all safety precautions described in the accompanying manuals and data sheets. Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. and ADIRO Automatisierungstechnik GmbH will not be liable for any damage or injury to trainees, the training company and / or other third parties resulting from use of the equipment for any other purpose than training, unless Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. or ADIRO Automatisierungstechnik GmbH has caused such damage or injury willfully or through negligence.

BE.TW.0006 Workbook Solutions for MPS-PA Compact Workstation 09/2009 Jrgen Helmich, Stefan Knoblauch, Andreas Wierer (ADIRO) Williams Technical Communication Pty Ltd, Brisbane Jrgen Helmich, Stefan Knoblauch (ADIRO) Jrgen Helmich (ADIRO)

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, 05/2008 Internet: www.festo.com/didactic http://www.festo.com/didactic/de/ProcessAutomation e-mail: did@festo.com

The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the communication of its contents to others without expressed authorization is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages. All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out patent, utility model or ornamental design registration.

Contents

Solutions for 2 Project planning................................................................................. 5 Solution for 2.2 Equipment list............................................................................... 5 Solution for Exercise 2.3.1..................................................................................... 9 Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 ................................................................................... 13 Solution for Exercise 2.3.3 ................................................................................... 17 Solutions for 3 Analysis ........................................................................................... 21 Solution for Worksheet 3.1.1 ............................................................................... 21 Solution for Worksheet 3.2.1 ............................................................................... 22 Solution for Worksheet 3.2.2 ............................................................................... 23 Solution for Worksheet 3.2.3 ............................................................................... 24 Solution for Worksheet 3.3.1 ............................................................................... 27 Solution for Worksheet 3.3.2 ............................................................................... 28 Solution for Worksheet 3.4.1 ............................................................................... 30 Solution for Worksheet 3.4.2 ............................................................................... 32 Solution for Worksheet 3.4.3 ............................................................................... 33 Solution for Worksheet 3.5.1 ............................................................................... 34 Solution for Worksheet 3.6.1 ............................................................................... 35 Solution for Worksheet 3.7.2 ............................................................................... 36 Solution for Worksheet 3.8.1 ............................................................................... 37 Solution for Worksheet 3.8.2 ............................................................................... 38 Solution for Worksheet 3.8.2 ............................................................................... 39 Solution for Worksheet 3.9.1 ............................................................................... 39 Solution for Worksheet3.9.2 ................................................................................ 40 Solution for Worksheet 3.10 ................................................................................ 41 Solutions for 4 Commissioning ................................................................................ 49 Solution for Worksheet 4.1.1 ............................................................................... 49 Solution for Worksheet 4.1.2 ............................................................................... 50 Solution for Worksheet 4.1.3 ............................................................................... 51 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.1 ............................................................................... 53 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.2 ............................................................................... 53 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.3 ............................................................................... 55 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.4 .............................................................................. 56 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.5 ............................................................................... 58 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.1 ............................................................................... 59 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.2 ............................................................................... 59 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.3 .............................................................................. 61 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.4 .............................................................................. 62 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.5 .............................................................................. 64 Solutions for 5 Control engineering ......................................................................... 65 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ............................................................................... 65 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ............................................................................... 67 Solution for Worksheet5.1.1 ................................................................................ 68 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ............................................................................... 69 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ............................................................................... 70

Contents

Solution for Worksheet 5.2.6 ............................................................................... 71 Solution for Worksheet 5.3.1 ............................................................................... 73

Solution for 2.2 Equipment list Which components are necessary for the chosen close-loop control system?

Components PLC / controller Tank pressure gauge pump ultrasonic sensor pressure sensor flow rate sensor temperature sensor proportional valve industrial controller proximity switch float switch, overflow float switch for raising level pressure tank SCADA piping and hand valves heating X X X X X X

Components PLC / controller Tank pressure gauge pump ultrasonic sensor pressure sensor flow rate sensor temperature sensor proportional valve industrial controller proximity switch float switch, overflow float switch for raising level pressure tank SCADA piping and hand valves heating X X X X X X

Components PLC / controller Tank pressure gauge pump ultrasonic sensor pressure sensor flow rate sensor temperature sensor proportional valve industrial controller proximity switch float switch, overflow float switch for raising level pressure tank SCADA piping and hand valves heating X X X X X X X

Components PLC / controller Tank pressure gauge pump ultrasonic sensor pressure sensor flow rate sensor temperature sensor proportional valve industrial controller proximity switch float switch, overflow float switch for raising level pressure tank SCADA piping and hand valves heating X X X X X X X

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

The task is to calculate the volume of the container and to establish the relationship between volume and level. To calculate the container volume, refer to the data sheet. Here you will find the internal dimensions of the container. If this data is used to calculate the maximum volume, the result is:

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

The pump is a normally primed centrifugal pump. This type of pump requires an absolutely tight suction pipe that should always be inclined up away from the pump in order to prevent the formation of air pockets. The pump and suction pipe must be filled with medium. The following points must be taken into account during operation: Before operation, the pump must be filled with medium. The pumps must not run dry but a dry-running period of less than 30 minutes will not damage the pump. The pump must always run in the prescribed direction. The pump is suitable for continuous operation. The medium to be pumped should not contain large particles of contaminant.

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

To determine the delivery rate of the pump, water is pumped from the lower container to the upper container until the level reads 150 mm on the scale. This allows the average flowrate per unit time (volumetric flow) to be determined. The pump capacity is to be calculated with the aid of the volumetric flow and the delivery head. Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Commission the system: fill and vent. Switch on power supply. Close the outlet of the upper container of the level-controlled system. Switch pump ON (with Process Lab, SPS or controller) and start timer. When level of 150 mm on the scale is reached, stop timer. Read off actual scale value (if not exactly 150 mm). Determine and document pumping time and delivery head. Determine average flowrate. Determine pump capacity.

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

Measured values from diagram: Pumping time t F = 61,5s Delivery head hF = 135mm Container width w = 190mm Container depth l = 175mm

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

Explanation of the result No general solution for the capacity of the pump can be given as the value varies from system to system. Component tolerances in the pump, the setting of the motor regulator operating characteristic as well as differences in the piping system (curves, pumping head) can result in different delivery rates.

26

What does the term proportional valve mean? The solenoid valves are closed by a spring at zero current. Any current through the solenoid coil results in a state of equilibrium between the spring and the magnetic force. The strength of the solenoid current or the magnetic force determines the stroke of the armature or degree to which the valve is opened. Ideally, dependency between current and opening of the valve should be linear. In other words, the valve opens and closes to a degree proportional to an analog voltage in the range 0 to 10 V.

What electrical signals do you need to use a proportional valve? The electronics of the proportional valve require a supply voltage of 24 VDC.

27

What is the maximum rate at which you can pump the medium used through the proportional valve? The throughput capacity of a control valve is to be determined. The maximum flowrate is calculated from the KV value and the pressure drop across the valve: Where: KVS value data sheet Delivery pressure

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Item. Process drive equipment list 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ball cock Reducing sleeve Mounting bracket with cheese-head screws Semi-rotary drive Namur solenoid valve Exhaust-air flow control valve with integrated silencer Quick push-pull elbow Solenoid valve Socket with connecting cable Sensor box with connecting cable

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

A coil is energized by an electrical signal. This operates the Namur valve magnetically. The semi-rotary drive moves through 90 as the result of the compressed air switched by the valve. This opens or closes the ball cock.

31

What function does the sensor box fulfill? Name the signals you receive from the sensor box and, where appropriate, how you can record these signals. The sensor box delivers three signals 1) a visual signal, red and yellow. Red means Ball clock closed and yellow means Ball cock open.

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

What type of drive is it? How does it work? It is a semi-rotary drive with a scotch yoke. When the process valve is opened, the pistons move to the end caps. When the process valve is closed, the piston moves toward the shaft. The torque is generated by the scotch yoke. In contrast to rack and pinion drives is not constant throughout the angle of rotation. Benefit: The high breakaway torque of the valve is overcome. The range of motion of the drive is limited to 90 for use with equipment such as ball cocks and butterfly valves.

Function diagram

33

What are all the things you have to take into account when using the heating element?? The heating element may only be switched on if it is entirely immersed in fluid.

Caution!

Calculate the rated current of the heating element. The following values are to be taken from the data sheet:

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

The sensor characteristic of the ultrasound sensor was recorded with FluidLab-PA. The relationship between the sensor signal and the container level can be derived from the characteristic.

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

The analog pressure sensor is a piezoresistive relative pressure sensor with integrated amplifier and built-in temperature compensation in an aluminum housing. The pressure to be measured acts on the piezoresistive element. The resulting signal change is emitted via an integrated amplifier as a voltage at the connector. The maximum output voltage is 10V DC. The output signal can be measured with a voltmeter. The temperature of the medium to be measured must be within a certain range, namely between 25C und 100C. The measuring range is between 0 and 100 mbar or 0 and 400 mbar, depending on the sensor type (see data sheets).

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Increase the voltage at the pump until the desired pressure value is shown on the manometer.

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

This exercise involves examining the temperature sensor. Pt stands for the material out of which the measuring resistor is made.

39

Pt: Platinum, Ni: Nickel. 100 stands for the resistance in Ohms, when the measuring resistor has a temperature of 0C. There are also Pt1000 Sensors. Logically, these have a resistance of 1000 Ohm at a reference temperature of 0C. The temperature coefficient of the sensors is uniform at 3850 ppm/K. That means the internal resistance of the sensor changes by 0.385% for each degree change in temperature. Based on these values, the resistance of the Pt100 at 100C can be calculated as follows: Temperature change from

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 0 5 10 15 20 25 31 38 44 50 56 63 69 75 81

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Level [mm] 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 ----0 8 19 30 44 60 77 100 131 168 212 280

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

Findings from Measurement 1 The outlet valve V102/V112 is closed. As a result inflow via the inlet valve V101, the increase in the level (h) in the container is steady and linear over time. The greater the inflow, the more quickly the level in the container increases per unit time. If the quantity of water in container B101 were not limited, the amount of water would continue to increase until the container overflowed. There is not self-stabilization here. For this reason, the closed container B102 is an uncompensated controlled system. These uncompensated controlled systems are also termed integral systems (I systems), because the feed quantities add up. The level is thus the sum of all water that flows into the system. The time from empty to full is therefore also called the integration time Ti. Typical integral systems in machine-building are hydraulic cylinders and threaded spindles.

47

Findings from Measurement 2 The hydrostatic pressure in the water column ensures a reduction of flowrate at the outlet. The lower the water column, the lower the hydrostatic pressure and thus the lower the amount of water outflow. This results in a non-linear characteristic. Example: Electrical engineering: discharge of a capacitor Finding from Measurement 3 Controlled systems with compensation are controlled systems whose characteristic reaches equilibrium after a time. In level-controlled systems, the compensation takes the following physical form. When filling with a constant flowrate (inflow), the pressure of the water column at the bottom of the container is proportional to the level. The pressure at the bottom increases with level. This results in an increase in outflow until equilibrium with the inflow is reached. This results in a constant level that is, it no longer increases. This is called a steady-state end value. Outflow flowrate of water = inflow flowrate Controlled systems with equilibrium are also called PT controlled systems: P because the steady-state value is proportional to the input vale T because the steady-state value is only reached after time T If only container (controlled system) is present, the controlled system is called a PT1 = 1st order controlled system. A controlled system of the 0th order would be a pure P system, for example, a lever: the force is transmitted immediately without any delay.

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

The mean measured value can be taken as the operating point for the dynamic response of the control. The operating point should always be in the linear part of the sensor characteristic. The relationship between the input variable and the output variable that is the actual value and the manipulated variable is determined for the static response of the control when stationary. The manipulated variable should also be in the linear part of the actuator (pump).

50

A functioning control always comprises at least two elements: a controller and a controlled system. For control tasks it is essential to know which variable in the system is to be controlled. In a level-controlled system, the controlled variable is the level its current status (actual value) is interrogated by a sensor. How does the system respond with the outlet valve closed? The level (actual value) slowly approaches the setpoint. Once the setpoint is reached, the controller ensures that the speed of the pump is reduced as required to maintain the desired level. How does the system respond with the outlet valve open? Opening the outlet valve acts as a disturbance variable. Water is suddenly removed from the container. The level of the container is maintained, however. The pump runs faster (higher RPM) than with the outlet valve closed. Background The controller has the task of controlling the system in such a way that the controlled variable (that is, the level), remains as constant as possible. In the event of a disturbance (sudden removal of water), the controller increases the speed of the pump to pump more water into the container and thus compensate the loss. The controller is informed of a change in level by the signal from the sensor. This signal is termed the actual value.

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Solution for Worksheet 4.2.2 Determining the measuring chain of the flow-controlled system with a pump as final control element

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean value of the operating range of the control system with a pump as the final control element

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

Convert the measured value into a dimensionless value in the range [0-0 1.0]. This means that the maximum measurable pressure of 400 mbar would have the value 1.0.

System response for a flow-controlled system with pump at operating point, input voltage jump of 6.0V

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Determining the operating range of a flow-controlled system with a proportional valve as final control element

Sensor Transducer

Flow-controlled system Proportional value operating range Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Output signal f [Hz]

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the proportional valve (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

56

Mean value of the operating range of the control system with a proportional valve as the final control element

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

System response for a flow-controlled system with proportional valve at operating point, input voltage jump of 5.0 V.

57

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a proportional valve and a PI controller

58

Solution for Worksheet 4.3.2 Determining the measuring chain of a pressure-controlled system with a pump as final control element

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

Determining the pressure characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = container pressure)

59

Mean value of the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a pump as the final control element

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

Convert the measured value into a dimensionless value in the range [0-0 1.0]. This means that the maximum measurable pressure of 400 mbar would have the value 1.0.

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump at operating point, input voltage jump of 8.0 V

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Determining the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve as final control element

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

Determining the pressure characteristic of the proportional valve (light blue = pump voltage, green = container pressure)

62

Mean value of the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve as the final control element

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

System response for pressure-controlled system with proportional valve at operating point, input voltage jump 1.3 V

63

System response for a setpoint jump of a pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve and PID controller

64

The order of the controlled system can be determined from the transient response curve of the controlled system:

Once the order of the controlled system has been established, the time constant T of the controlled system can be determined graphically. For controlled systems of the 1st order, the time constant is determined as follows:

Determining the time constant

65

Bildtexte: The irrational number e the characteristic value for a steadily decreasing rate of increase calculated? The number e is the final value of the series: Final value Time steps e = 2.71832 (bitte Dezimalpunkt statt komma verwenden) How is the number e, the In the language of mathematics, the time constant is also termed a subtangent. PT1 elements smooth fast-changing signals (high frequencies) but let low frequencies pass. For this reason, they are also known as low-pass filters of the first order. They also generate a phase shift between the input signal and the output signal. The determination of time constants for higher-order controlled systems is described in detail in the workbook Control of temperature, flowrate and level), Chapter 2.3.3, Process analysis and modelling . The controlled system is in steady state after 5T. A controller for the controlled system should always be 8 10 times faster than the time constant to allow correct control.

66

Transient response of the level-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the level-controlled system is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances .The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation level-controlled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

Transient response of the flow-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the flow-controlled system with a pump as final control element is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances. The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation levelcontrolled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

68

Transient response of the pressure-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the pressure-controlled system with pump as final control element is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances. The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation levelcontrolled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

69

Transient response of the temperature-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the temperature-controlled system is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances .The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation level-controlled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

Note:

The jump is only shown for a temperature change of 5K compared to the start temperature, then the heater is switched off again.

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

Controller type P Unsuitable because of dead time PD Unsuitable PI Usable, but I controller normally sufficient Suitable if control deviation acceptable Control deviation normally too large for required Xp Worse than PID Well suited Well suited PID Has little advantage over PI

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable if control deviation acceptable Control deviation normally too large for required Xp Unsuitable Suitable

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Vary the amplification factor Kr until the controlled system approaches the limit of stability. (Until it just starts to oscillate.)

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

This courseware has been developed and manufactured exclusively for vocational and continuing training in process automation and control engineering. The training company and / or trainers have the duty to ensure that trainees observe all safety precautions described in the accompanying manuals and data sheets. Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. and ADIRO Automatisierungstechnik GmbH will not be liable for any damage or injury to trainees, the training company and / or other third parties resulting from use of the equipment for any other purpose than training, unless Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. or ADIRO Automatisierungstechnik GmbH has caused such damage or injury willfully or through negligence.

BE.TW.0006 Workbook Solutions for MPS-PA Compact Workstation 09/2009 Jrgen Helmich, Stefan Knoblauch, Andreas Wierer (ADIRO) Williams Technical Communication Pty Ltd, Brisbane Jrgen Helmich, Stefan Knoblauch (ADIRO) Jrgen Helmich (ADIRO)

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, 05/2008 Internet: www.festo.com/didactic http://www.festo.com/didactic/de/ProcessAutomation e-mail: did@festo.com

The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the communication of its contents to others without expressed authorization is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages. All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out patent, utility model or ornamental design registration.

Contents

Solutions for 2 Project planning................................................................................. 5 Solution for 2.2 Equipment list............................................................................... 5 Solution for Exercise 2.3.1..................................................................................... 9 Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 ................................................................................... 13 Solution for Exercise 2.3.3 ................................................................................... 17 Solutions for 3 Analysis ........................................................................................... 21 Solution for Worksheet 3.1.1 ............................................................................... 21 Solution for Worksheet 3.2.1 ............................................................................... 22 Solution for Worksheet 3.2.2 ............................................................................... 23 Solution for Worksheet 3.2.3 ............................................................................... 24 Solution for Worksheet 3.3.1 ............................................................................... 27 Solution for Worksheet 3.3.2 ............................................................................... 28 Solution for Worksheet 3.4.1 ............................................................................... 30 Solution for Worksheet 3.4.2 ............................................................................... 32 Solution for Worksheet 3.4.3 ............................................................................... 33 Solution for Worksheet 3.5.1 ............................................................................... 34 Solution for Worksheet 3.6.1 ............................................................................... 35 Solution for Worksheet 3.7.2 ............................................................................... 36 Solution for Worksheet 3.8.1 ............................................................................... 37 Solution for Worksheet 3.8.2 ............................................................................... 38 Solution for Worksheet 3.8.2 ............................................................................... 39 Solution for Worksheet 3.9.1 ............................................................................... 39 Solution for Worksheet3.9.2 ................................................................................ 40 Solution for Worksheet 3.10 ................................................................................ 41 Solutions for 4 Commissioning ................................................................................ 49 Solution for Worksheet 4.1.1 ............................................................................... 49 Solution for Worksheet 4.1.2 ............................................................................... 50 Solution for Worksheet 4.1.3 ............................................................................... 51 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.1 ............................................................................... 53 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.2 ............................................................................... 53 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.3 ............................................................................... 55 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.4 .............................................................................. 56 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.5 ............................................................................... 58 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.1 ............................................................................... 59 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.2 ............................................................................... 59 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.3 .............................................................................. 61 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.4 .............................................................................. 62 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.5 .............................................................................. 64 Solutions for 5 Control engineering ......................................................................... 65 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ............................................................................... 65 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ............................................................................... 67 Solution for Worksheet5.1.1 ................................................................................ 68 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ............................................................................... 69 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ............................................................................... 70

Contents

Solution for Worksheet 5.2.6 ............................................................................... 71 Solution for Worksheet 5.3.1 ............................................................................... 73

Solution for 2.2 Equipment list Which components are necessary for the chosen close-loop control system?

Components PLC / controller Tank pressure gauge pump ultrasonic sensor pressure sensor flow rate sensor temperature sensor proportional valve industrial controller proximity switch float switch, overflow float switch for raising level pressure tank SCADA piping and hand valves heating X X X X X X

Components PLC / controller Tank pressure gauge pump ultrasonic sensor pressure sensor flow rate sensor temperature sensor proportional valve industrial controller proximity switch float switch, overflow float switch for raising level pressure tank SCADA piping and hand valves heating X X X X X X X

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

The task is to calculate the volume of the container and to establish the relationship between volume and level. To calculate the container volume, refer to the data sheet. Here you will find the internal dimensions of the container. If this data is used to calculate the maximum volume, the result is:

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

The pump is a normally primed centrifugal pump. This type of pump requires an absolutely tight suction pipe that should always be inclined up away from the pump in order to prevent the formation of air pockets. The pump and suction pipe must be filled with medium. The following points must be taken into account during operation: Before operation, the pump must be filled with medium. The pumps must not run dry but a dry-running period of less than 30 minutes will not damage the pump. The pump must always run in the prescribed direction. The pump is suitable for continuous operation. The medium to be pumped should not contain large particles of contaminant.

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

To determine the delivery rate of the pump, water is pumped from the lower container to the upper container until the level reads 150 mm on the scale. This allows the average flowrate per unit time (volumetric flow) to be determined. The pump capacity is to be calculated with the aid of the volumetric flow and the delivery head. Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Commission the system: fill and vent. Switch on power supply. Close the outlet of the upper container of the level-controlled system. Switch pump ON (with Process Lab, SPS or controller) and start timer. When level of 150 mm on the scale is reached, stop timer. Read off actual scale value (if not exactly 150 mm). Determine and document pumping time and delivery head. Determine average flowrate. Determine pump capacity.

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

Measured values from diagram: Pumping time t F = 61,5s Delivery head hF = 135mm Container width w = 190mm Container depth l = 175mm

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

Explanation of the result No general solution for the capacity of the pump can be given as the value varies from system to system. Component tolerances in the pump, the setting of the motor regulator operating characteristic as well as differences in the piping system (curves, pumping head) can result in different delivery rates.

26

What does the term proportional valve mean? The solenoid valves are closed by a spring at zero current. Any current through the solenoid coil results in a state of equilibrium between the spring and the magnetic force. The strength of the solenoid current or the magnetic force determines the stroke of the armature or degree to which the valve is opened. Ideally, dependency between current and opening of the valve should be linear. In other words, the valve opens and closes to a degree proportional to an analog voltage in the range 0 to 10 V.

What electrical signals do you need to use a proportional valve? The electronics of the proportional valve require a supply voltage of 24 VDC.

27

What is the maximum rate at which you can pump the medium used through the proportional valve? The throughput capacity of a control valve is to be determined. The maximum flowrate is calculated from the KV value and the pressure drop across the valve: Where: KVS value data sheet Delivery pressure

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Item. Process drive equipment list 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ball cock Reducing sleeve Mounting bracket with cheese-head screws Semi-rotary drive Namur solenoid valve Exhaust-air flow control valve with integrated silencer Quick push-pull elbow Solenoid valve Socket with connecting cable Sensor box with connecting cable

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

A coil is energized by an electrical signal. This operates the Namur valve magnetically. The semi-rotary drive moves through 90 as the result of the compressed air switched by the valve. This opens or closes the ball cock.

31

What function does the sensor box fulfill? Name the signals you receive from the sensor box and, where appropriate, how you can record these signals. The sensor box delivers three signals 1) a visual signal, red and yellow. Red means Ball clock closed and yellow means Ball cock open.

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

What type of drive is it? How does it work? It is a semi-rotary drive with a scotch yoke. When the process valve is opened, the pistons move to the end caps. When the process valve is closed, the piston moves toward the shaft. The torque is generated by the scotch yoke. In contrast to rack and pinion drives is not constant throughout the angle of rotation. Benefit: The high breakaway torque of the valve is overcome. The range of motion of the drive is limited to 90 for use with equipment such as ball cocks and butterfly valves.

Function diagram

33

What are all the things you have to take into account when using the heating element?? The heating element may only be switched on if it is entirely immersed in fluid.

Caution!

Calculate the rated current of the heating element. The following values are to be taken from the data sheet:

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

The sensor characteristic of the ultrasound sensor was recorded with FluidLab-PA. The relationship between the sensor signal and the container level can be derived from the characteristic.

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

The analog pressure sensor is a piezoresistive relative pressure sensor with integrated amplifier and built-in temperature compensation in an aluminum housing. The pressure to be measured acts on the piezoresistive element. The resulting signal change is emitted via an integrated amplifier as a voltage at the connector. The maximum output voltage is 10V DC. The output signal can be measured with a voltmeter. The temperature of the medium to be measured must be within a certain range, namely between 25C und 100C. The measuring range is between 0 and 100 mbar or 0 and 400 mbar, depending on the sensor type (see data sheets).

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Increase the voltage at the pump until the desired pressure value is shown on the manometer.

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

This exercise involves examining the temperature sensor. Pt stands for the material out of which the measuring resistor is made.

39

Pt: Platinum, Ni: Nickel. 100 stands for the resistance in Ohms, when the measuring resistor has a temperature of 0C. There are also Pt1000 Sensors. Logically, these have a resistance of 1000 Ohm at a reference temperature of 0C. The temperature coefficient of the sensors is uniform at 3850 ppm/K. That means the internal resistance of the sensor changes by 0.385% for each degree change in temperature. Based on these values, the resistance of the Pt100 at 100C can be calculated as follows: Temperature change from

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 0 5 10 15 20 25 31 38 44 50 56 63 69 75 81

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Level [mm] 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 ----0 8 19 30 44 60 77 100 131 168 212 280

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

Findings from Measurement 1 The outlet valve V102/V112 is closed. As a result inflow via the inlet valve V101, the increase in the level (h) in the container is steady and linear over time. The greater the inflow, the more quickly the level in the container increases per unit time. If the quantity of water in container B101 were not limited, the amount of water would continue to increase until the container overflowed. There is not self-stabilization here. For this reason, the closed container B102 is an uncompensated controlled system. These uncompensated controlled systems are also termed integral systems (I systems), because the feed quantities add up. The level is thus the sum of all water that flows into the system. The time from empty to full is therefore also called the integration time Ti. Typical integral systems in machine-building are hydraulic cylinders and threaded spindles.

47

Findings from Measurement 2 The hydrostatic pressure in the water column ensures a reduction of flowrate at the outlet. The lower the water column, the lower the hydrostatic pressure and thus the lower the amount of water outflow. This results in a non-linear characteristic. Example: Electrical engineering: discharge of a capacitor Finding from Measurement 3 Controlled systems with compensation are controlled systems whose characteristic reaches equilibrium after a time. In level-controlled systems, the compensation takes the following physical form. When filling with a constant flowrate (inflow), the pressure of the water column at the bottom of the container is proportional to the level. The pressure at the bottom increases with level. This results in an increase in outflow until equilibrium with the inflow is reached. This results in a constant level that is, it no longer increases. This is called a steady-state end value. Outflow flowrate of water = inflow flowrate Controlled systems with equilibrium are also called PT controlled systems: P because the steady-state value is proportional to the input vale T because the steady-state value is only reached after time T If only container (controlled system) is present, the controlled system is called a PT1 = 1st order controlled system. A controlled system of the 0th order would be a pure P system, for example, a lever: the force is transmitted immediately without any delay.

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

The mean measured value can be taken as the operating point for the dynamic response of the control. The operating point should always be in the linear part of the sensor characteristic. The relationship between the input variable and the output variable that is the actual value and the manipulated variable is determined for the static response of the control when stationary. The manipulated variable should also be in the linear part of the actuator (pump).

50

A functioning control always comprises at least two elements: a controller and a controlled system. For control tasks it is essential to know which variable in the system is to be controlled. In a level-controlled system, the controlled variable is the level its current status (actual value) is interrogated by a sensor. How does the system respond with the outlet valve closed? The level (actual value) slowly approaches the setpoint. Once the setpoint is reached, the controller ensures that the speed of the pump is reduced as required to maintain the desired level. How does the system respond with the outlet valve open? Opening the outlet valve acts as a disturbance variable. Water is suddenly removed from the container. The level of the container is maintained, however. The pump runs faster (higher RPM) than with the outlet valve closed. Background The controller has the task of controlling the system in such a way that the controlled variable (that is, the level), remains as constant as possible. In the event of a disturbance (sudden removal of water), the controller increases the speed of the pump to pump more water into the container and thus compensate the loss. The controller is informed of a change in level by the signal from the sensor. This signal is termed the actual value.

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Solution for Worksheet 4.2.2 Determining the measuring chain of the flow-controlled system with a pump as final control element

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean value of the operating range of the control system with a pump as the final control element

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

Convert the measured value into a dimensionless value in the range [0-0 1.0]. This means that the maximum measurable pressure of 400 mbar would have the value 1.0.

System response for a flow-controlled system with pump at operating point, input voltage jump of 6.0V

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Determining the operating range of a flow-controlled system with a proportional valve as final control element

Sensor Transducer

Flow-controlled system Proportional value operating range Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Output signal f [Hz]

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the proportional valve (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

56

Mean value of the operating range of the control system with a proportional valve as the final control element

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

System response for a flow-controlled system with proportional valve at operating point, input voltage jump of 5.0 V.

57

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a proportional valve and a PI controller

58

Solution for Worksheet 4.3.2 Determining the measuring chain of a pressure-controlled system with a pump as final control element

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

Determining the pressure characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = container pressure)

59

Mean value of the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a pump as the final control element

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump at operating point, input voltage jump of 8.0 V

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Determining the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve as final control element

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

Determining the pressure characteristic of the proportional valve (light blue = pump voltage, green = container pressure)

62

Mean value of the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve as the final control element

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

System response for pressure-controlled system with proportional valve at operating point, input voltage jump 1.3 V

63

System response for a setpoint jump of a pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve and PID controller

64

The order of the controlled system can be determined from the transient response curve of the controlled system:

Once the order of the controlled system has been established, the time constant T of the controlled system can be determined graphically. For controlled systems of the 1st order, the time constant is determined as follows:

Determining the time constant

65

Bildtexte: The irrational number e the characteristic value for a steadily decreasing rate of increase calculated? The number e is the final value of the series: Final value Time steps e = 2.71832 (bitte Dezimalpunkt statt komma verwenden) How is the number e, the In the language of mathematics, the time constant is also termed a subtangent. PT1 elements smooth fast-changing signals (high frequencies) but let low frequencies pass. For this reason, they are also known as low-pass filters of the first order. They also generate a phase shift between the input signal and the output signal. The determination of time constants for higher-order controlled systems is described in detail in the workbook Control of temperature, flowrate and level), Chapter 2.3.3, Process analysis and modelling . The controlled system is in steady state after 5T. A controller for the controlled system should always be 8 10 times faster than the time constant to allow correct control.

66

Transient response of the level-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the level-controlled system is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances .The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation level-controlled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

Transient response of the flow-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the flow-controlled system with a pump as final control element is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances. The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation levelcontrolled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

68

Transient response of the pressure-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the pressure-controlled system with pump as final control element is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances. The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation levelcontrolled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

69

Transient response of the temperature-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the temperature-controlled system is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances .The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation level-controlled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

Note:

The jump is only shown for a temperature change of 5K compared to the start temperature, then the heater is switched off again.

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

Controller type P Unsuitable because of dead time PD Unsuitable PI Usable, but I controller normally sufficient Suitable if control deviation acceptable Control deviation normally too large for required Xp Worse than PID Well suited Well suited PID Has little advantage over PI

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable if control deviation acceptable Control deviation normally too large for required Xp Unsuitable Suitable

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Vary the amplification factor Kr until the controlled system approaches the limit of stability. (Until it just starts to oscillate.)

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

This courseware has been developed and manufactured exclusively for vocational and continuing training in process automation and control engineering. The training company and / or trainers have the duty to ensure that trainees observe all safety precautions described in the accompanying manuals and data sheets. Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. and ADIRO Automatisierungstechnik GmbH will not be liable for any damage or injury to trainees, the training company and / or other third parties resulting from use of the equipment for any other purpose than training, unless Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. or ADIRO Automatisierungstechnik GmbH has caused such damage or injury willfully or through negligence.

BE.TW.0006 Workbook Solutions for MPS-PA Compact Workstation 09/2009 Jrgen Helmich, Stefan Knoblauch, Andreas Wierer (ADIRO) Williams Technical Communication Pty Ltd, Brisbane Jrgen Helmich, Stefan Knoblauch (ADIRO) Jrgen Helmich (ADIRO)

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, 05/2008 Internet: www.festo.com/didactic http://www.festo.com/didactic/de/ProcessAutomation e-mail: did@festo.com

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Contents

Solutions for 2 Project planning................................................................................. 5 Solution for 2.2 Equipment list............................................................................... 5 Solution for Exercise 2.3.1..................................................................................... 9 Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 ................................................................................... 13 Solution for Exercise 2.3.3 ................................................................................... 17 Solutions for 3 Analysis ........................................................................................... 21 Solution for Worksheet 3.1.1 ............................................................................... 21 Solution for Worksheet 3.2.1 ............................................................................... 22 Solution for Worksheet 3.2.2 ............................................................................... 23 Solution for Worksheet 3.2.3 ............................................................................... 24 Solution for Worksheet 3.3.1 ............................................................................... 27 Solution for Worksheet 3.3.2 ............................................................................... 28 Solution for Worksheet 3.4.1 ............................................................................... 30 Solution for Worksheet 3.4.2 ............................................................................... 32 Solution for Worksheet 3.4.3 ............................................................................... 33 Solution for Worksheet 3.5.1 ............................................................................... 34 Solution for Worksheet 3.6.1 ............................................................................... 35 Solution for Worksheet 3.7.2 ............................................................................... 36 Solution for Worksheet 3.8.1 ............................................................................... 37 Solution for Worksheet 3.8.2 ............................................................................... 38 Solution for Worksheet 3.8.2 ............................................................................... 39 Solution for Worksheet 3.9.1 ............................................................................... 39 Solution for Worksheet3.9.2 ................................................................................ 40 Solution for Worksheet 3.10 ................................................................................ 41 Solutions for 4 Commissioning ................................................................................ 49 Solution for Worksheet 4.1.1 ............................................................................... 49 Solution for Worksheet 4.1.2 ............................................................................... 50 Solution for Worksheet 4.1.3 ............................................................................... 51 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.1 ............................................................................... 53 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.2 ............................................................................... 53 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.3 ............................................................................... 55 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.4 .............................................................................. 56 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.5 ............................................................................... 58 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.1 ............................................................................... 59 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.2 ............................................................................... 59 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.3 .............................................................................. 61 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.4 .............................................................................. 62 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.5 .............................................................................. 64 Solutions for 5 Control engineering ......................................................................... 65 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ............................................................................... 65 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ............................................................................... 67 Solution for Worksheet5.1.1 ................................................................................ 68 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ............................................................................... 69 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ............................................................................... 70

Contents

Solution for Worksheet 5.2.6 ............................................................................... 71 Solution for Worksheet 5.3.1 ............................................................................... 73

Solution for 2.2 Equipment list Which components are necessary for the chosen close-loop control system?

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

The task is to calculate the volume of the container and to establish the relationship between volume and level. To calculate the container volume, refer to the data sheet. Here you will find the internal dimensions of the container. If this data is used to calculate the maximum volume, the result is:

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

The pump is a normally primed centrifugal pump. This type of pump requires an absolutely tight suction pipe that should always be inclined up away from the pump in order to prevent the formation of air pockets. The pump and suction pipe must be filled with medium. The following points must be taken into account during operation: Before operation, the pump must be filled with medium. The pumps must not run dry but a dry-running period of less than 30 minutes will not damage the pump. The pump must always run in the prescribed direction. The pump is suitable for continuous operation. The medium to be pumped should not contain large particles of contaminant.

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

To determine the delivery rate of the pump, water is pumped from the lower container to the upper container until the level reads 150 mm on the scale. This allows the average flowrate per unit time (volumetric flow) to be determined. The pump capacity is to be calculated with the aid of the volumetric flow and the delivery head. Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Commission the system: fill and vent. Switch on power supply. Close the outlet of the upper container of the level-controlled system. Switch pump ON (with Process Lab, SPS or controller) and start timer. When level of 150 mm on the scale is reached, stop timer. Read off actual scale value (if not exactly 150 mm). Determine and document pumping time and delivery head. Determine average flowrate. Determine pump capacity.

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

Measured values from diagram: Pumping time t F = 61,5s Delivery head hF = 135mm Container width w = 190mm Container depth l = 175mm

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

Explanation of the result No general solution for the capacity of the pump can be given as the value varies from system to system. Component tolerances in the pump, the setting of the motor regulator operating characteristic as well as differences in the piping system (curves, pumping head) can result in different delivery rates.

26

What does the term proportional valve mean? The solenoid valves are closed by a spring at zero current. Any current through the solenoid coil results in a state of equilibrium between the spring and the magnetic force. The strength of the solenoid current or the magnetic force determines the stroke of the armature or degree to which the valve is opened. Ideally, dependency between current and opening of the valve should be linear. In other words, the valve opens and closes to a degree proportional to an analog voltage in the range 0 to 10 V.

What electrical signals do you need to use a proportional valve? The electronics of the proportional valve require a supply voltage of 24 VDC.

27

What is the maximum rate at which you can pump the medium used through the proportional valve? The throughput capacity of a control valve is to be determined. The maximum flowrate is calculated from the KV value and the pressure drop across the valve: Where: KVS value data sheet Delivery pressure

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Item. Process drive equipment list 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ball cock Reducing sleeve Mounting bracket with cheese-head screws Semi-rotary drive Namur solenoid valve Exhaust-air flow control valve with integrated silencer Quick push-pull elbow Solenoid valve Socket with connecting cable Sensor box with connecting cable

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

A coil is energized by an electrical signal. This operates the Namur valve magnetically. The semi-rotary drive moves through 90 as the result of the compressed air switched by the valve. This opens or closes the ball cock.

31

What function does the sensor box fulfill? Name the signals you receive from the sensor box and, where appropriate, how you can record these signals. The sensor box delivers three signals 1) a visual signal, red and yellow. Red means Ball clock closed and yellow means Ball cock open.

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

What type of drive is it? How does it work? It is a semi-rotary drive with a scotch yoke. When the process valve is opened, the pistons move to the end caps. When the process valve is closed, the piston moves toward the shaft. The torque is generated by the scotch yoke. In contrast to rack and pinion drives is not constant throughout the angle of rotation. Benefit: The high breakaway torque of the valve is overcome. The range of motion of the drive is limited to 90 for use with equipment such as ball cocks and butterfly valves.

Function diagram

33

What are all the things you have to take into account when using the heating element?? The heating element may only be switched on if it is entirely immersed in fluid.

Caution!

Calculate the rated current of the heating element. The following values are to be taken from the data sheet:

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

The sensor characteristic of the ultrasound sensor was recorded with FluidLab-PA. The relationship between the sensor signal and the container level can be derived from the characteristic.

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

The analog pressure sensor is a piezoresistive relative pressure sensor with integrated amplifier and built-in temperature compensation in an aluminum housing. The pressure to be measured acts on the piezoresistive element. The resulting signal change is emitted via an integrated amplifier as a voltage at the connector. The maximum output voltage is 10V DC. The output signal can be measured with a voltmeter. The temperature of the medium to be measured must be within a certain range, namely between 25C und 100C. The measuring range is between 0 and 100 mbar or 0 and 400 mbar, depending on the sensor type (see data sheets).

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Increase the voltage at the pump until the desired pressure value is shown on the manometer.

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

This exercise involves examining the temperature sensor. Pt stands for the material out of which the measuring resistor is made.

39

Pt: Platinum, Ni: Nickel. 100 stands for the resistance in Ohms, when the measuring resistor has a temperature of 0C. There are also Pt1000 Sensors. Logically, these have a resistance of 1000 Ohm at a reference temperature of 0C. The temperature coefficient of the sensors is uniform at 3850 ppm/K. That means the internal resistance of the sensor changes by 0.385% for each degree change in temperature. Based on these values, the resistance of the Pt100 at 100C can be calculated as follows: Temperature change from

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 0 5 10 15 20 25 31 38 44 50 56 63 69 75 81

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Level [mm] 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 ----0 8 19 30 44 60 77 100 131 168 212 280

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

Findings from Measurement 1 The outlet valve V102/V112 is closed. As a result inflow via the inlet valve V101, the increase in the level (h) in the container is steady and linear over time. The greater the inflow, the more quickly the level in the container increases per unit time. If the quantity of water in container B101 were not limited, the amount of water would continue to increase until the container overflowed. There is not self-stabilization here. For this reason, the closed container B102 is an uncompensated controlled system. These uncompensated controlled systems are also termed integral systems (I systems), because the feed quantities add up. The level is thus the sum of all water that flows into the system. The time from empty to full is therefore also called the integration time Ti. Typical integral systems in machine-building are hydraulic cylinders and threaded spindles.

47

Findings from Measurement 2 The hydrostatic pressure in the water column ensures a reduction of flowrate at the outlet. The lower the water column, the lower the hydrostatic pressure and thus the lower the amount of water outflow. This results in a non-linear characteristic. Example: Electrical engineering: discharge of a capacitor Finding from Measurement 3 Controlled systems with compensation are controlled systems whose characteristic reaches equilibrium after a time. In level-controlled systems, the compensation takes the following physical form. When filling with a constant flowrate (inflow), the pressure of the water column at the bottom of the container is proportional to the level. The pressure at the bottom increases with level. This results in an increase in outflow until equilibrium with the inflow is reached. This results in a constant level that is, it no longer increases. This is called a steady-state end value. Outflow flowrate of water = inflow flowrate Controlled systems with equilibrium are also called PT controlled systems: P because the steady-state value is proportional to the input vale T because the steady-state value is only reached after time T If only container (controlled system) is present, the controlled system is called a PT1 = 1st order controlled system. A controlled system of the 0th order would be a pure P system, for example, a lever: the force is transmitted immediately without any delay.

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

The mean measured value can be taken as the operating point for the dynamic response of the control. The operating point should always be in the linear part of the sensor characteristic. The relationship between the input variable and the output variable that is the actual value and the manipulated variable is determined for the static response of the control when stationary. The manipulated variable should also be in the linear part of the actuator (pump).

50

A functioning control always comprises at least two elements: a controller and a controlled system. For control tasks it is essential to know which variable in the system is to be controlled. In a level-controlled system, the controlled variable is the level its current status (actual value) is interrogated by a sensor. How does the system respond with the outlet valve closed? The level (actual value) slowly approaches the setpoint. Once the setpoint is reached, the controller ensures that the speed of the pump is reduced as required to maintain the desired level. How does the system respond with the outlet valve open? Opening the outlet valve acts as a disturbance variable. Water is suddenly removed from the container. The level of the container is maintained, however. The pump runs faster (higher RPM) than with the outlet valve closed. Background The controller has the task of controlling the system in such a way that the controlled variable (that is, the level), remains as constant as possible. In the event of a disturbance (sudden removal of water), the controller increases the speed of the pump to pump more water into the container and thus compensate the loss. The controller is informed of a change in level by the signal from the sensor. This signal is termed the actual value.

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Solution for Worksheet 4.2.2 Determining the measuring chain of the flow-controlled system with a pump as final control element

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean value of the operating range of the control system with a pump as the final control element

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

System response for a flow-controlled system with pump at operating point, input voltage jump of 6.0V

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Determining the operating range of a flow-controlled system with a proportional valve as final control element

Sensor Transducer

Flow-controlled system Proportional value operating range Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Output signal f [Hz]

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the proportional valve (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

56

Mean value of the operating range of the control system with a proportional valve as the final control element

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

System response for a flow-controlled system with proportional valve at operating point, input voltage jump of 5.0 V.

57

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a proportional valve and a PI controller

58

Solution for Worksheet 4.3.2 Determining the measuring chain of a pressure-controlled system with a pump as final control element

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

Determining the pressure characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = container pressure)

59

Mean value of the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a pump as the final control element

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump at operating point, input voltage jump of 8.0 V

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Determining the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve as final control element

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

Determining the pressure characteristic of the proportional valve (light blue = pump voltage, green = container pressure)

62

Mean value of the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve as the final control element

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

System response for pressure-controlled system with proportional valve at operating point, input voltage jump 1.3 V

63

System response for a setpoint jump of a pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve and PID controller

64

The order of the controlled system can be determined from the transient response curve of the controlled system:

Once the order of the controlled system has been established, the time constant T of the controlled system can be determined graphically. For controlled systems of the 1st order, the time constant is determined as follows:

Determining the time constant

65

Bildtexte: The irrational number e the characteristic value for a steadily decreasing rate of increase calculated? The number e is the final value of the series: Final value Time steps e = 2.71832 (bitte Dezimalpunkt statt komma verwenden) How is the number e, the In the language of mathematics, the time constant is also termed a subtangent. PT1 elements smooth fast-changing signals (high frequencies) but let low frequencies pass. For this reason, they are also known as low-pass filters of the first order. They also generate a phase shift between the input signal and the output signal. The determination of time constants for higher-order controlled systems is described in detail in the workbook Control of temperature, flowrate and level), Chapter 2.3.3, Process analysis and modelling . The controlled system is in steady state after 5T. A controller for the controlled system should always be 8 10 times faster than the time constant to allow correct control.

66

Transient response of the level-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the level-controlled system is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances .The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation level-controlled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

Transient response of the flow-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the flow-controlled system with a pump as final control element is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances. The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation levelcontrolled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

68

Transient response of the pressure-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the pressure-controlled system with pump as final control element is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances. The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation levelcontrolled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

69

Transient response of the temperature-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the temperature-controlled system is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances .The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation level-controlled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

Note:

The jump is only shown for a temperature change of 5K compared to the start temperature, then the heater is switched off again.

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

Controller type P Unsuitable because of dead time PD Unsuitable PI Usable, but I controller normally sufficient Suitable if control deviation acceptable Control deviation normally too large for required Xp Worse than PID Well suited Well suited PID Has little advantage over PI

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable if control deviation acceptable Control deviation normally too large for required Xp Unsuitable Suitable

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Vary the amplification factor Kr until the controlled system approaches the limit of stability. (Until it just starts to oscillate.)

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

32

Function diagram

33

Caution!

Where:

230V 1000 W

Find:

Solution:

34

35

1.1.2 K factor:

8000 pulses 0 .3 9 .0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3 For

Calculation

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec 0 .3 l min

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

36

37

10 V 6

U 4

2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P

Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

38

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

39

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

40

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

41

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

42

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

43

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

44

What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

45

Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

46

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

47

48

The level is close-loop controlled..

It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Mean measured value [mm]

49

Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

25

150

300

10

50

51

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

52

Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

53

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

54

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

55

Sensor Transducer

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

56

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

0,15

6,0

57

58

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

59

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

60

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

61

Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

62

Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

63

64

Determining the time constant

65

66

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

67

68

69

Note:

70

Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Unsuitable because of dead time Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Flow

Unsuitable

Unsuitable

Suitable

Transport

Unsuitable

71

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

72

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

73

74

Intended application

Contents

Contents

10

11

12

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 Instrument loop list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

transform signal

proportional controller

preselect pump

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

13

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

FIC101.1

transform signal

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

14

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

PIC103

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

15

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

TIC104

Measure temperature

-50...+150 C

transform signal

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

16

N1

X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

K1

5 6 0...10V U 23 11 22 0...10V I 4...20 mA U

A1 A4

U 2 4

0...24 V

14

13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

L

M1

P101

17

N1

X2.7 (UE2) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

5 (Out)

6 (0V) 0...10V U 23

K1

11 22 0...10V

A2

f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

18

N1

X2.15 (UE3) PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2 (UA1)

12

14

K1

11 23 22 0...10V U

A4

U 0...24 V

14

13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103 P

M1

P101

19

N1

X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3

T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

230V PE L N

2 1 14 -50...+150 C

B104 T E104

13

20

Where:

Find:

Solution:

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l

1mm a 33ml

When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

21

V = 24V

P = 26W

P =V I

I=

22

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

23

Result

61,5 s

135 mm

24

& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:

Minimum suction height:

The maximum delivery head hmax is:

The density of water is

= 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

25

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

26

27

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar

Volume flowrate

l & V = 9 .0 min

kg m3

0 .3 m 3 1000 h

The flowrate determined with Process Lab:

l & V = 2 .3 min

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

28

29

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

30

31