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Science Research Reporter 1(3): 143-145, Nov.


ISSN: 2249-7846 (Online)

Impact of changed temperature variations on free amino acid in muscle of fresh water fish Channa striatus
Tantarpale V T, Tantarpale S A and K M Kulkarni Dept. of Zoology, Vidyabharti Mahavidyalaya, Camp, Amravati 444602 (MS) ABSTRACT The effect of changed temperature variations on muscle free amino acid were studied in freshwater fish Channa striatus. Fishes were exposed to different temperature ranges that is, above o o room temperature (30-50 C) and below room temperature (10-20 C) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The level of free amino acid in muscle of fishes Channa striatus showed a significant increase at both o o (30-50 C) and (10-20 C) temperature ranges at different exposure period. KEYWORDS: Free amino acid, Muscle, Protein, Temperature.

INTRODUCTION The ecosystem is any spatial or organizational unit, which includes living and nonliving substances. The non-living part of the ecosystem includes different kinds of habitat such as air, water and variety of abiotic factors. Among main abiotic factors of ecosystem are climatic and chemical factor. Climatic factor such as radiation, temperature, wind etc can alter growth and survival of an organism. Temperature is one of the major environmental factors, which play a critical role in growth, reproduction, immigration, succession and metabolism and health of ecosystem (Das et al. 2004, Zargan and Ghosh 2005). A rise in temperature changes the physical and chemical properties of water. High water temperature shows increased metabolic rate resulting in more demand for food in fishes. Although a fish can generally function in a wide range of temperatures but they do have an optimum range of temperature as well as lower and upper lethal temperature for various activities (Beschtal et al. 1987). In fishes proteins are one of the most important and complete group of biological material. Proteins are the polymers of amino acids. Fish muscle contains a comparatively higher amount of amino acid in comparison to their warm-blooded successors (Love 1980). Free amino acids play an important role in regulating cell

volume in fishes. Free amino acids are nothing but the protein broken down (hydrolyzed) to their constituent amino acid. Vishvanathan et al. (1966) and Mertz (1969), reported that the free amino acid level increase under high protein diet. Amino acids are considered one of the most reliable techniques for detection of changes in protein synthesis in cell and therefore, the protein pattern can be used as a criterion for the differentiation between several organs exposed to some pollutants (Anilkumar et al. 2010). The objective of the present study was to determine the changed temperature condition induced changes on the level of free amino acid in muscle of freshwater fish Channa striatus. MATERIAL AND METHODS The freshwater fishes were collected from local Wadali lake and Friday fish market around Amravati region measuring 10 16 cm in length and about 22 34 gm weight. Fishes were washed in 0.1% KMnO4 solution, acclimatized in laboratory condition for 10 days and fed with artificial food. Fishes were divided into two groups control group and experimental group. After every hour of exposure period muscle tissue was isolated for the analysis of biochemical change. The total free amino acids contents were estimated by method of Moore and Stein 1954.


Tantarpale et al.

ISSN: 2249-2321 (Print)

RESULT AND DISCUSSION In the present study when the freshwater fish Channa striatus, exposed to varying temperature ranges 35oC and 15oC observed a

significant enhancement in level of free amino acid in muscle tissue. It was found to be 3.82, 3.60, 3.28, 3.01 and 3.18, 3.46, 3.96, 2.97 respectively as compared to control values (Table 1)

Table No. 1: Change in free amino acid of muscle tissue (wet tissues) in freshwater fish Channa striatus exposed to different temperature. Exposure periods (hrs) Control Mean + SD (mg/lit) 24 48 72 96 2.76 3.13 3.18 2.65 0.018 0.031 0.090 0.016 Temp. 35oC Mean + SD (mg/lit) 3.82 3.60 3.28 3.01 0.03 0.027 0.032 0.026 Temp. 15oC Mean + SD (mg/lit) 3.18 3.46 3.96 2.97 0.039 0.051 0.043 0.025

Temperature fluctuations are much under appreciated stressor of fish. Similar finding that the slight change in water temperature can be due to natural heat loading system or thermal pollution in normal or natural water disrupt aquatic ecosystem resulting stress to fish, ultimately can kill fish Sawane et al (2006). Umminger in 1970 reported that during chronic period of stress protein are also the sources of energy. Since fish have very little amount of carbohydrate, the next alternate source of energy is protein to meet the increase energy demand. Prashnath and David (2006) studied that the increase in free amino acid can also be attributed to the synthesis of amino acid in addition to their elevation by protein hydrolysis. Also Yerragi et al; 2000 found that under extreme condition protein supply energy in metabolic pathway and biochemical reaction. Further more, protein turn over keep a dynamic relationship

between the free amino acid and the protein pool, and may act as a temporary buffer of amino acid imbalance. Amino acid is important source fish Sheffner and Bergeina (1952). Ronnested et al. 2001 stated those amino acids which are not polymerised into proteins due to amino acid imbalance will be catabolised, trans aminated into another amino acid, used in gluconeogenesis or lipogenesis. Thus, the increase in amino acid levels is due to enhanced proteolysis activity and also inverse relationship between protein and amino acid. In the present study, Channa striatus fish showed increased level of free amino acid in its muscle tissue might be due to intensive proteolysis in the respective tissue, which have lead to increased deamination and oxidation of amino acids.

LITERATURE CITED Anilkumar V, Janaiah C and Venkateshwarlu P. 2010. Impact of thiamethoxan on proteases, aminases and glutamated dehydrogenase in some tissue of fresh water fish Channa punctatus (Bloch). An .Int. J. Life. Sci. 5 (1): 135-137. Beschta RL, Bibly RE, Brown GW, Hollby LB and Hofstra TD. 1987. Stream temperature and aquatic habitat in Salo EO and Cundy TW. (Eds. Streamside management forestry and fisheries interaction, University of Washington, Institute of Forestry Resource Contribution No. 57 pp: 191-232. Das T, Pal AK, Chakraborty SK, Manush SM, Chatterjee N and Mukherjee SC. 2004. Thermal tolerance and oxygen consumption of Indian major corps acclimated to your temperatures. J. Therm. Biol., 29: 157-163. Love RM. 1980. The chemical biology of fishes, 2. Academic Press, London 943.

Science Research Reporter 1(3): 143-145, Nov. 2011

ISSN: 2249-7846 (Online)

Mertz ET. 1969. Fish in research Nevhans, O. W. and Halvert J. E. Amino acid protein requirement of fish. Acad. Press, New york, pp. 233-244. Moore S. and Stein WH. 1954. A modified ninhydrin reagent for the photomeric realted compounds. J.Biol.Chem. 211: 813-907. Ronnestad I, Conceicao LEC, Aragao C and Dinis MT. 2001. Assimilation and catabolism of dispensable and indispensable in post larval senegal sole. (Solea senegalesis). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 130: 461-466. Sawane AP ,Puranik and Bhate AM .2006.Impact 0f industrial pollution on river Irai,District chandrapur ,with reference to fluctuation in Co2 and pH. J. Aqua.Biol. 21(1): 105-110. Sheffner AL and Bergeina O. 1952. The effect of peptone and amino acid ingestion upon the concentration of tissues amino acid. J.Natru 48:139-148. Vishvanathan R, Bhat YM, Shreekumaran G, Doshi GR, Gogate SS ,Bhagat AM and Unni LK. 1966. Mineral content of aquatic foods. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 64(B): 301-313. Yerragi SG, Kali VA and Yeraj S. 2000. Effect of pesticides Malathion on protein metabolism of the marine crab (Uca marionis). J. Exotoxicol. Environ. Monit., 10(1): 59-62. Zargar S and Gosh 2005. Thermal and biocidal effects on freshwater T. K. Zooplankton. J. Aqua. Biol., 20(1): 19-95.