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1996 Institute ofTechnology in any form by any or information means (including photocopying, recording No part of this book may be reproduced
14 Massachusetts ,hts reserved. onic or mechanical
of Bernard Tschumi's produced exhibition at
~e and retrieval) without permission cook has been prepared luseum
in writing from the publisher.
on the occasion
of Modern Art in New York from April 21 to July 5, 1994.
It is an
ided version of Praxis: Villes-Evenements,
in French in November
(Le Fresnoy and Massimo Riposati Editeur, Paris.)
Design and Production: lI1assimo Riposati
Bernard Tschumi, Yannis Aesopos, for the American
Henning Ehrhardt edition of Stephen
with the assistance
lIa, Lois Nesbitt and Keena Suh.
-y of Congress Catalog Card Number 94-75566 Massachusetts/London, England
lilT Press, Cambridge, , Segrete, Rome, Italy
sd and bound in Italy The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts
1991-: Strategy of the In-Between The Hague. Mark Haukos. 1989: Transprogramming Logic of Fragments 302 326 364 Karlsruhe. Glass Video Gallery. Business Park. 1992: Cities of Pleasure Chartres. Le Fresnoy. 1989: Unstable Images Tourcoing. new president of the Etablisse'arc de la Villette. Yannis Aesopos and Marie-Line Le Squer equally important role in the elaboration of various projects. "BTA" Exhibition. 1986: Old and New-The Paris. patience and nitted some of these projects (and others not presented here) to be arly Fran~ois Barre and Serge Goldberg for the Pare de la Villette. Railway Tunnel Site. The late Alvin . Fran~ois Gillet. Fondation Nestle /ashi Corporation. 1991-: Edge City Rotterdam. Architectural Urbanism Kansai. 1988-: Typological Displacements-Crossprogramming Kyoto. Michael lrge Rupp at Columbia University in New York deserve acknowllir tacit support and encouragement. Center and Railway Station. Ko Yasuda. ked are the public representatives whose support. is a context for many contemporary debates. de possible in part by the generous support of the Office Federal 'ro Helvetia Fondation Suisse pour la Culture. YKK and the Ministere de la Culture de la Dissociations 266 \ Strasbourg. Bridge-City. Architectural Association in London. Jean-Francois Erhel for the Pare de la Villette and Le rca Merlini. 1990: Immaterial Representation Paris.Contents Introduction A. Pierre Keller. Terry Riley and (last but not least) Kate Linker have I of their valuable advice. 1992-: Domesti-City 390 524 'j I D. Villa. harneres. 'or Le Fresnoy and Marcel Linet. Transient Events Groningen. Jonathan Cole. Robert Young. Urban Architecture Tokyo. 1986: A Mode of Notation-Programmatic Lines 11 16 38 86 102 154 220 Iments Ii would like to thank all whose assistance and collaboration have specifically. Pompidou Center. Fireworks. 1993: Mediation If Project Teams Project List Bibliography Biographical Notes 610 612 620 . "Art et Publicite Exhibition Design. Library of France. Le Fresnoy. Tom Kowalski. their structural engineering suggestions. 1990: Mediation I ft 556 576 594 608 Tourcoing. Center for Art and Media (ZKM). County Hall. Intemational Airport. Opera. 1991: Disprogramming C. Planning Strategies Parc de la Villette. associated architect for the Tokyo Opera and the ~-Cityprojects. Peter Dutton have also contributed to the overall concepts of several . 1988: Linear Cities Lausanne. 1988: Continuous/Discontinuous B.
This book starts in thp.it is about "praxls" insofar as it documents - .it is about ·events" insofar as it constantly action or without program. Their relation to the immediate concepts. computer images. While in the past treatment. they also reality of users and con- tractors makes them different from the theoretical projects developed in The Manhattan Transcripts1 or from the positions argued in Architecture and DisjUnction. but only the sense of something that is realizable: every praxis is an action towards a result. of architectural tion of any architectural details are necessary to inform the making of buildings. in the section including the Le Fresnoy construction may irritate those for whom architecture should be first a "media bite. and reading one would like to make. A praxis is constantly it has to render an account: to those who. The argument of the elaboration of a conceptual is inextricably process that linked to our is three-fold: from the actual making of architecture. will create the event. to those who will finance and support the work. in which projects receive only a cursory treatment. micicilp. these projects are.ni. .. . precisely because In Event-Cities. space. we have tried to show that a "prolect" discourse of a number of recent projects. a praxis can only project itself towards the conresponsible to othstructed. Because these documents resent an inevitable stage in the final materialization need to be scrupulously exact. If theory is only responsible ers. by their use of the spaces. have received to textual discourse. The dryness of the system of notation used in Event-Cities construction negligible (whatever drawings of projects is voluntary. accelerate society's transformation urban condition and that each of the projects featured here is first and foremost a conaffirms that there is no architecture importance resides without and that architecture's in its ability to through a careful agencing of spaces and events. Praxis Event-Cities accumulating aims to be a ·different" kind of book about architecture. to theory. on the contrary.it is about "cltles" insofar _!is it argues that all architecture stituent element of our global system of cities. The result is a presome of which are built or under some of which are competition entries or feasibility studies. a series of conceptual strategies aimed at establishina conditions for new urban events.2 in which the logic of concepts was my primary concem.Introduction The works presented Event-Cities is inseparable in Event-Cities are a selection of recent projects. . potentially can be as accurate and extensive as important theoretical texts of recent years. realism is what counts. Indeed. to be elevations and rep- instantly and uncritically. These pages attempt to indicate the patient elaboraproject: often several hundred plans. indifferent to they account for. whether as an identifiable political and economic body or society as a whole.. Using different modes of notation from rough models to sophisticated have attempted accumulation documents) consumed to show the complexities of the architectural and using different means of inscribing the unfolding of events in architectural process. in general. These pages are nothing but accounts: they render an account of. With Event-Cities cise documentation construction. going from ideograms to The notions of form and style playa role. the projects and few years theoretical texts on architecture have generally proper in-depth into a body of serious contributions the spaces of architecture been the object of glossy picture books. social. sections. we The relentless of plans (for example. of this str::lt". the goal of these projects is neither abstract theory nor design the notion of style) but. economic and political reality.
potentially. the Paris Library of France as well as Le Fresnoy). that the importance the detournement for a new urban act." the "skyframe" changes taking place in archiarchitects will be including the new computerized 'transproqrammlnq. becomes the relevant point of reference. stable coordinates amusement arcades. These imbrications tions. of any specific program. Kyoto and Lausanne). of a theoretical nearly obscene. these prosubstitutes for a homoge- jects cannot be conceived that extend in time. from the The project for an urban villa at The Hague brings the notion of the in-between public realm to the smaller scale of the private. the "city: as a complex and interactive web of events. it is in the montage of attractions." are some of the concepts Event-Cities seeks to explore. in which the If we have of that the static notions of form and function long favored by architectural the movement by modernism. artifacts: cut apart equally by media images and by suspension the dense interiority of a city space expands to the dimension of an urban event. dimension.1981 2Architecture Transcripts.process. the autonomous 1 The Manhattan Press. the circuits of the Library of France and the elec- tronic roof of Le Fresnov propose. in which the terms intermingle. but also lively and luminous. like a text that would start in the middle of a phrase. It is a "work-in-progress: in transition. as their object. Art and Media. detail. to aspirations. favor of promiscuous Moreover. however. collisions of programs and spaces. Through ambition. we are confronted defined in space and time. to activities. Sometimes In opposition to the absolute what this of to In the fourth and final type reading of events is discussed. We have also included some detail drawings. is the materialization correspond concepts. spatial definition At the exhibitions detail calls things by their names. churches. reconfigure. the construction The construction makes. The city. From the organizational strategies without the for the project of here as synonymous common uses. of institutions and accelerating of the project resides. "Architecture is I for the city of Chartres to those established Le Fresnoy. in this world in cinemas. In the third type (the Tokyo Opera. If the linear Kansai Airport is literally a city created ex-nihilo. (The Park would also require a book in itself. in which the "disprogramming" notion of multiple and heterogeneous architectural neous and unitary one. the Karlsruhe Center for their cultural and political density of the new center-station In our contemporary which airports world in which railway stations become museums and churches are the old. simultaneously. one ordinarily books is the object of abbreviation is documented here in and event. Urban operations other than as constructions programs inevitably in large scale. for the Centre Pompidou or for Le Fresnoy. the city in space and time. project. technology. London and New York: Academy Editions/St. the urbanism of Kyoto or Lausanne is confronted with the historic city. endless "disprogramming" inhabited each organizes bridges of Lausanne. They disrupt and disfigure but. the linear Bemarel Tschumi 25 January 1994 in them is as important project. or displacement and so on. in what makes up a city. of bodies. Cambridge and London: The MIT Press. Chartres organization and Rotterdam) of the territory precedes the definition becomes as much a part of their architecture as much about the events that take place in spaces as about the spaces themselves. What distinguishes dimension these projects. a new relation between space and Disjunction. to different degrees. appears At the Glass Video Gallery. the scale and unprecedented sion. If architecture following the unstable images of video displays.) In the second type (the architectural tried to demonstrate the hypothesis urbanism of Kansai. We can distingUish four types of projects in Event-Cities. with its jOints. to new social relathe process of providevent-cities. What concerns Lausanne in particular is of a typology (the bridge) that provides the conditions change on the way. The fragstrips of the Tokyo Opera. or "crossprogramming. On one of Kyoto is enough collior programmatic level. already altering building and design. it is in order to emphasize the "evenf the dimension action. as I have done so at length elsewhere. event that happens core of the Karlsruhe County Hall. Martin's Media Center. space is activated by electronic. with architecture. "Orossproqrarnrnlnq. constantly the transient architectures of the city - one particular changes designed cables. the of Kyoto - in short. in which the notion of the as that of a street or a square. the Strasbourg with specific programs. is the manner in which their programmatic as of their use. we have of urban generators." However. business centers turned into night-clubs. 1994 . or architectural independent systems that of the form they of Kansai. La Villette. the subject is always the urban effect: there is no architecture city. may take. in which the "in-between" or programmatic interstice plays an essential role. What in most architectural minuteness. are actual catalysts for every kind of activity or function. involves projects of urban planning. as much as by architectonic. no city without architecture." functions and programs combine and intersect in an The linear airport-city or programmatic extractor of construction. But it is also through a new attitude to that architecture will find its role. the cause-and-effect shown in these pages the fireworks realized at La Villette in the summer of 1992 instead of the Park itself. Rather than questioning involved increasingly processes programs in the construction the technology of technology. cease to apply. screws and bolts. detail is part of the conditions the most advanced construction of the city-event." The first type (exemplified by will elaborate this little. then the most absolute part of such concepts may occasionally Events Each of the projects described in Event-Cities begins with some form of a program. discourse need Here it suffices to say to to be replaced by attention to the actions that occur inside and around buildings political dimension of architecture. these urban architectures ments of the Strasbourg suggest a new type of city. combine and implicate one another in the production of a new architectural This point should be placed in the context of considerable tecture today. that redefine urban actuality: city-events. In such city-generators. it describes prosaic and dirty. altering the once stable contours ing a rich texture of experiences of elements lead. And. from enclosure for the most organizing large metropolitan territories to providing a functional Cities Each of the projects developed is presented of the territory developed in this book is a history of a city. incorporate to create an "event. to the properly social and relationship sanctified in by which form follows function (or vice versa) needs to be abandoned reality.
howevel becomes as much a part of theil this little. as I have done so organizing large metropolitan territories to I common uses.mhrirlnA" . to as political dimension of architecture. They disrupt and disfi... in which the ·ogram.. these pro- that the static notions of form and function to be replaced by attention to the actions 1 the movement of bodies. altering the once stable contours ing a rich texture of experiences change on the way. The fragJ Opera.hit""'. by architectonic. These imbrications tions.tinn r... favor of promiscuous Moreove by which form follows functi collisions of programs of combine and implicate one another in the pi This point should be placed in the context 0 tecture today. appears : it describes I In the fourth and final type reading of events is discussed. as their object. the linear ance and the elec__ L_ . On one of Kyoto is enough Jrogrammatic collimne in particular is ides the conditions "disprogramming" In our contemporary turned into night-clubs. the dimension n itself." and event. the "city. London anc Press. by modemism. the :ractor of Kyoto 3 scale.." as a complex and inte point of reference. _ Bamarel Tschuml 25 January 1994 1 The Manhattan Transcripts. that redefir arlsruhe Center for we are confronted Jllural and political :h the notion of the square. the istoric city..'work-in-progress. :mrl ni~i"nr.. to activities. in which the les for a homogesated ex-nihilo. If we have ier of 1992 instead . as much about the events that take place il will elaborate Ining. which airports incorporate and so on.1981 2Ar. Rather than questioning involved increasingly processes programs in the construction the of already altering building and de that architecture will find its role are some of the concepts world in which railway the old. in which the "in-between" or pro The project for an urban villa at The Hague public realm to the smaller scale of the priva scurnented here in Ion to the absolute and bolts. artifacts: cut apart equally the dense interiority of a city space expands and luminous.r .ally correspond to Evants Each of the projects described in Event-em :Ity. stable coor amusement arc of e of time. this materialization . the transier At the Gla what of constantly following the unstable images 01 for the Centre Pompidou or for Le Fresnoy..) susanne). we have :tural systems that . izational strategies d for the project of tecture without the What distinguishes dimension pe (exemplified by these projects.t of the form they and intersect in an ·city of Kansai.
these urban architectures become centers of attraction suggesting a new type of city. II . ·the Paris Library of France and Le Fresnoy. the Karlsruhe Center for Art and Media. defined in space and time.c. Urban Architecture In the urban architectures of the Tokyo Operg. we confronted specific programs. 1986 A Mode of Notation- Programmatic Dissociations . i Tokyo. Through their cultural and political ambition. the Strasbourg County Hall. in which the notion of the event is as important as that of the street or the square. Opera.
the !and Le Fresnoy. AMode. we con- their cultural and political on suggesting a new type ·f the street or the square. Programme .sbourg I County Hall.
The auditoriums accommodates either end. etc. which also VIP rooms. complex. bars.fit frnm " riir . information. This strip. recep- police station and exhibition between the glass avenue and the opera's garden. Wherever possible. rehearsal spaces and scenery workshops. while its ground floor A restaurant is located offices. coatrooms.r. and so forth). 2. .. 3. allows for small. 5. parking lot and buses.t ViAW nf thA nnArR nardan. The final strip serves spaces-organized the anonymous along the balconies of a four-story repetition of corridors)-as artists' concourse well as the administrative . 4. The sequence of strips is as follows: Its 1. as opposed to fixed histori- into a composition of symbolic into a score of programmatic strips.Hypothesis How to deconstruct point of view? opera and architecture so as to think their concepts in the most preto observe them from an extemal. It contains dressing rooms and related (which avotds offices. artists and staff. functional units but are extrapolated constraints are not translated of indeterminate the stage. lavatories. replacing components them with a of the themode of organization based not on "form follows function. simultaneously. shops. cultural meanings. How to quesof cise manner possible and. busy mezzanines (theater lobbies) provide a vertical spectacle spaces. The border between the glass avenue and the vertical foyers is articulated by lighting for the avenue (handrails. the grand staircase. each of which contains the main activities and related spaces. the latter two are provided with daylight. and suspended gardens. gathers crowds employing public services-box tion areas. detached and irreducible configuration of concepts. The glass avenue provides direct access from the subway. which benacting as a central artery servicing the whole act as an acoustical strip accommodating each audience in a mini- mum volume (for acoustical quality) with maximum visual access. the foyer. The strip coincides with the proscenium. localized future programs at 7. the parallel juxtaposition cist practices. press office. assembly hall." "form follows form" or even No more artful articulations a new pleasure lies in "form follows fiction" but rather on breaking apart the traditional ater and opera house to develop a new "tonality" or "sound.. The stages provide maximum flexibility and technical potential. The vertical foyers overlook the glass avenue and encompass bars or buffets.. 6. stairs." among the auditorium. box offices. In our project. This strip contains the backstage area. How to devise a systematic such that each concept intervenes at some decisive moment in the work? tion the unity of a building or a monument articulated and formalized matic fragments? elements or to a random accumulation without recourse either to a composition of isolated programTo relate to To play on limits without being enclosed within limits? other operas while referring only to one's own? Juxtaposition We abandoned traditional rules of composition and harmony.
on parallel. neutral. concert spaces where the crowd sits. The Logic of Differences This organization reflects the dissociation between langue and parole. that leads to a system of difference: tinguish between the logic of stages. listens and observes. halls and auditoriums. whose flexibility as an electronic allows for the viewing of an The stage opera or of the Elizabethan becomes hypermetropolitan or neon spectacle. However. others are urban All are interchangeSome are technical spaces. . however. to the lines of a music partition that can accept any kind of or administrative spaces. the others and lies in a different space from the adjacent ones. the events (the crowd. or rhythm. exist by itself. and suggests a new spatial model for the arts of spectacle. a working instrument. for example. no one must depend on the others in order to exist. independent rails. one can disEach logic is different from None of the bands can They slide message. the spectacles) A Hypermetropolitan Stage This project offers a simple tool open to a great variety of theatrical demands. without a preconceived theater form. the code and the in our project.Notation The bands are analogous melody able. cut across them and establish ephemeral relations between them.
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