BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus

BITS ZG659: Technical Communication

BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Lecture 1: Basics of Technical Communication

• Communication Process • Language: as a means of communication • Essentials of Effective Communication • General Vs. Technical Communication • Different Levels of Communication • Flow of Communication

• Communication Networks • Types of Communication • Importance of Technical Communication

• Communication: Latin word
‘Communicare’ meaning ‘to share information, knowledge, thoughts’

•Language • Verbal Language • Non-verbal Language • Sign Language

COMMUNICATION PROCESS
• Communication Cycle:
Communication environment

Sender

message encoded

Sent message

receiver

channel

received message

message decoded

Response

Feedback

Message

Perceived Meaning & Internal Response

Encoding

Decoding

Sender idea

Channel

Receiver

Decoding of feedback

Encoding of response

Feedback

• Essentials of Effective
Communication:
• • • • •
A common communication environment Cooperation between the Sender and the Receiver Selection of an appropriate Channel Correct Encoding and Decoding of the Message Receipt of the desired Response and Feedback

• Noise: • Any unplanned interference in the
communication environment which causes hindrance in the transmission of the message

• Types: • 1.Channel Noise • 2. Semantic Noise

• General communication
• • • • • •
contains general message informal in style and approach no set pattern of communication mostly oral not always for a specific audience doesn’t involve the use of

• Technical communication
• • • • • •
contains a technical message mostly formal follows a set pattern both oral and written always for a specific audience frequently involves jargon, graphics, etc.

• Levels of Communication: • Extrapersonal • Intrapersonal • Interpersonal • • • • Organisational Internal-operational External-operational Personal • Mass .

Flow of Communication:

• Downward Communication • Upward Communication • Lateral or Horizontal Communication • Diagonal or Cross-wise Communication

• Formal Network Models • Chain network • Y-network • Wheel network • Circle network • All-channel network

• Informal Network
• •

Models(Grapevine) Single strand network Gossip network

Chain network

Y-network

Wheel network

Circle network

All-channel network

Y E D D C B B A F G H I J K

C

A Single strand Gossip

E G K I F B A D Probability H J C

J

B C D F A

I

Cluster


• • • • • • •

Advantages of informal network models: rapid multidirectional if carefully cultivated, is capable of resolving conflicts a measure of public opinion serves as an outlet for anxieties, worries, frustration promotes unity, solidarity voluntary and unforced


• • • • •

Disadvantages
If information from grapevine is blindly accepted it may reveal some degree of error may be harmful in case it is baseless or imaginary may lead to misunderstanding because of incomplete information may not be reliable, as nobody takes the responsibility for it may cause damage to the organization because of its excessive swiftness at times

• • • •

Importance of Technical Communication: Communication serves as an instrument to measure the success or growth of an organization. Success of an organization is recognized by the quality and quantity of information flowing through its personnel. Higher the position, greater is the need to communicate.

• Oral: •Face to face conversations •Telephone conversations •Meetings •Seminars •Conferences •Dictation •Instructions •Presentations •Group discussions •Interviews(employment. press) •Video conferencing •Voice conferences .

• Written •Memos •Letters •E-mails •Faxes •Notices •Circulars •Newsletters •Reports •Proposals •Research papers •Bulletins •Brochures •Manuals •In-house journals .

.• to be continued...

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus BITS ZG659: Technical Communication .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Lecture 2: Communication Barriers .

types nature/ mode comm. general comm.Recap...         language and communication communication process professional comm. vs. flow comm. networks oral and written ways to communicate 3 .

.. 4 .have a look.

5 .

6 .

7 .

8 .

 semantic gap noise attitudes channels filters  poor listening  lack of concentration     Unjust assumptions ????? ambiguity .

Types of communication barriers:    Based on the Nature of Barriers Barriers of Psychological Nature  Barriers arising due to Emotional Reactions. Negative Attitudes and the Wrong Timing of Messages   Barriers originating from the Communication Networks established by organizations .

Types :   Based on Types of Communication Intrapersonal Barriers Interpersonal Barriers Organizational Barriers   .

INTRAPERSONAL BARRIERS  Wrong assumptions Varied perceptions Differing background Wrong inferences    .

blindering Categorical thinking   13 . Impervious categories. habits & attitudes Rigid categories.information that doesn’t conform to our views. polarization.frozen evaluation.

INTERPERSONAL BARRIERS  Incongruity of verbal and nonverbal messages Emotional reactions/ outbursts Communication selectivity Cultural variations    .

 Poor listening skills Limited vocabulary Noise in the channel Inappropriate timing    15 .

ORGANIZATIONAL BARRIERS  Size/ structure of the organization Too many transfer stations Fear of superiors   .

 Negative tendencies  Use of inappropriate media  Information overload 17 .

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TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION  Creating an open communication environment Keeping the receiver in mind Avoiding too many transfer stations Avoiding comm. when emotionally disturbed    .

 Being aware of diversity in culture. etc. Using appropriate non-verbal cues Selecting the most suitable medium Analyzing the feedback    23 . language.

Measures to rectify:   Identify the problem     -Find the cause -Work on alternative solutions -Opt for the best solution -Follow up religiously .

 non-judgemental empathetic focusing on the subject at hand listening not making premature assumptions 25     .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus BITS ZG659: Technical Communication .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Lecture 1: Basics of Technical Communication .

Communicate or Flounder .

ORAL COMMUNICATION Advantages ♦ Adjustable ♦ Imm. Clarification ♦ Time ♦ Persuasion & control ♦ Formality ♦ Cost ♦ Convenient/reliable for Groups Limitations ♦ Future ref not possible ♦ Not-effective if poor speaker ♦ Not suitable for lengthy details ♦ Distortion ♦ Poor retention .

time consuming ♦ Formal ♦ Delayed feedback .Written Communication Advantages ♦ Most wanted ♦ Permanent ♦ Legal evidence ♦ Accurate ♦ Suitable for lengthy & complicated Limitations ♦ Limited only to Literates ♦ Costly.

industrial technical ♦ Rigid ♦ Only to specific ♦ Mostly objective .Communication General Purpose ♦ Structure flexible ♦ Content (any) ♦ Layout (flexible) ♦ Audience (not always specific) ♦ Nature (not always objective) Business ♦ Rigid ♦ Business.

characteristics of appearance. voice and use of space and distancing. .Non – verbal Communication ♦ Exchange of information through nonlinguistic signs or symbols ♦ All external stimuli other than spoken or written words and including body motion.

♦ More Impact ♦ 7% verbal 38% vocal 55% nonverbal .Non – verbal Communication ♦ No substitute for verbal ♦ Only supplements/reinforces ♦ Efficiency is non-verbal makes up the deficiency in verbal.

Distancing • Touch Non verbal cues or Visible codes .BODY LANGUAGE KINESICS – Branch of Learning Aspects • Personal Appearance • Facial Expression • Posture • Gesture • Eye Contact • Space.

Personal Appearance +Ve or _Ve impact ♦The Person ♦The Attire ♦The Accessories .1.

cleanliness & attractiveness. abnormality or deformity . handicaps. colour of skin.Person : hair. age. beard.grooming. ugliness.

behavioural preferences.Attire – dress (clothing) Speaks loudly about our general attitude. confidence. occupation. power. status & values . personality.

. cosmetics etc. rings. buttons.Appendages . false eye lashes/nails.a. . or detract from the p.bangles.Either enhance the p.a. tatoos.Accessories . ties.Spectacles.Other than garments. .

establishing dominance . FACIAL EXPRESSION ♦Major visible signs which betray our feelings ♦Emotional Expressions ♦To interpret accurately is difficult.2. ♦Purposes: indicating attention.regulating interaction.influencing others.

FACIAL TYPES ♦ Inhibited ♦ Uninhibited ♦ Unwitting ♦ Blank ♦ Substitute ♦ Frozen – effect comm’n 2000 ( Bobby D. C. Huebseh . Sorrells) J.

sits or walks ♦Movement of the body. POSTURE ♦The way one stands.3. position of hands/legs & other parts ♦Measure of personality. success of communication ♦Vary according to situations .

4. descriptive. Gestures ♦ Any action that sends a visual signal to an onlooker (An observed action) ♦ What signals are being received is important ♦ Well.timed drive home your ideas ♦ Enhance impact. emphatic . add a greater value ♦ Types – enumerative. locative symbolic.

Eye Contact ♦ Leads to more effective comm’n ♦ Shows whether speaker is sincere & listener is interested ♦ Enables to alter/adjust/reframe ♦ Establishes rapport ♦ Keep shifting .5.

Informal. Public ♦Formal – 4-12 feet Public – 12-30 feet .6. Space Distancing ♦Concept – Important for nonverbal comm’n ♦Formal.

interpretation.sexual ♦Culture specific .context. Touch ♦Body contact ♦Intention. intimacy. friendship.7. relationship ♦Functional/professional.social.

We prefer to join our hands to express our greetings and respect.Examples ♦ In Indian context people do not touch each other during introduction. (Unless the relation is really intimate and warm) ♦ In Western culture they shake hands even with strangers. .

C..c. ♦V.Summing up ♦Visible code is as important as verbal codes ♦Training in the use of v.is as essential as . are culture specific .

Non .Verbal Kinesics Oculesics Proxemics Haptics Chronemics Paralingual ( Body Movement) ( Eye Contact) ( Personal Space) (Body Contact) ( temporal) ( vocal cues) .

social status.. personalities revealed .Sign Language .Object Language (Gestures) (Posture) (Material Things) intentions. views. emotions.Action Language .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus BITS ZG659: Technical Communication .

6. Informal. Space Distancing • Concept – Important for nonverbal comm’n • Formal. Public • Formal – 4-12 feet Public – 12-30 feet .

friendship. intimacy. Touch ♦Body contact ♦Intention. relationship ♦Functional/professional.interpretation.context.social.sexual ♦Culture specific .7.

(Unless the relation is really intimate and warm) • In Western culture they shake hands even with strangers. We prefer to join our hands to express our greetings and respect. .Examples • In Indian context people do not touch each other during introduction.

c. • V.C. are culture specific .is as essential as ..Summing up • Visible code is as important as verbal codes • Training in the use of v.

Verbal Kinesics Movement) Oculesics Proxemics Space) Haptics Contact) Chronemics Paralingual ( Body ( Eye Contact) ( Personal (Body ( temporal) ( vocal cues) .Non .

personalities revealed (Posture) (Material . views.. emotions.Object Language Things) intentions. social status.Action Language .Sign Language (Gestures) .

Objective of the Chapter • Understanding the process of listening • Learning to differentiate between hearing and listening • Understanding different types and traits of listening • Knowing how to differentiate between active and passive listening Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Lecture 4: Active Listening .

The Listening Process The Listener hears sounds and does focus on them The Listener Decodes or interprets the message The Listener evaluates the message The Listener Responds Sensing Decoding Evaluation Response Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 .

” James Nathan Miller • Listening is a process of receiving and interpreting the spoken word. message decoding or interpretation. provided you know what to listen for. Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 . and response. You hear sounds and concentrate on them in order to receive the message. evaluation.The Listening Process • “There is no such thing as a worthless conversation. • Sensing is the first step of the listening process. • The four stages of listening are sensing.

• Decoding in listening refers to the process of changing the coded message into information. and intellectual frames of reference. professional. educational. you can not decode a message encoded in French. • Interpretation of a verbal message may be influenced by social.Decoding of the message • Once you are able to recognize the sound patterns. you have to decode and interpret the message. if you do not understand French. • Verbal message use a common language code. cultural. Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 . • For example.

relevant information from irrelevant information. facts have to be separated from opinions. and explicit information from implicit information. • In order to evaluate a verbal message correctly. its significance is evaluated and appropriate conclusions are drawn from it. Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 . examples from ideas.Evaluation • After the message has been decoded and interpreted.

and evaluated correctly.Response • Response is the action or reaction of the listener to the message. It is the last stage of listening. • If the message has been analyzed. interpreted. Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 . the response will be appropriate. • The response helps the speaker to know whether the message has been understood or not.

• When we listen. Suddenly there is an announcement on the public speaker and we listen to it.Hearing and Listening • “ Nature gave us one Tongue and two ears so we could hear twice as much as we speak. Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 . you hear several voices. You do not listen to them. It does not require the conscious involvement of the listener. we pay conscious attention to what is being said. • For example. when you move on a railway platform.” Epictetus • Hearing happens automatically as it is an involuntary physical act.

Difference between Listening and Hearing Listening Voluntary Requires conscious efforts Active process Hearing Involuntary Happens automatically Passive process The listener plays a very The listener plays a active part passive part A two.way interactive A one – way process process engaging the Communication Technical Course No:BITS ZG 659 speaker and the listener .

a. c.Progress Check • Study the following statements about active listening and tick true or false against each of them. Listening requires no special effort by the listener. Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 . Response is the action or reaction of the listener to the message. Encoding in listening refers to the process of changing the coded message into information. b.

Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 . as we do when we listen to a comedian.Types of Listening • “To listen closely and reply well is the highest perfection we are able to attain in the art of conversation. we provide emotional and moral support in the form of empathic listening.’ Francois De La • Appreciative Listening – This is listening for deriving aesthetic pleasure. or entertainer. • Empathetic Listening • When we listen to a distressed friend who wants to vent his feelings. musician.

Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 . • Critical listening • When the purpose is to accept or reject the message or to evaluate it critically.Conti. • Comprehensive Listening • This type of listening is needed in the class room when students have to listen to the lecturer to understand and comprehend the message.. one requires this type of listening.

making any judgment of right or wrong. good or bad. suitable or unsuitable.Traits of a Good Listener • Being Non. you can simply paraphrase what the speaker has said and enquire from the speaker whether you have heard it accurately.evaluative • Your behavior should convey the impression that you accept the person without . • Paraphrasing • If you wish to clarify a point. Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 .

• Reflecting Implications • To reflect this you have to go a bit beyond the contents of the speaker indicating him your appreciations for his ideas and where they are leading. or values that may be influencing the speaker’s words. beliefs. It may take the speaker to the further extension of ideas.. • Reflecting Hidden Feelings • Sometimes. intentions. you have to go beyond the explicit feeling and contents of what is being said to unravel the underlying feeling.Conti. Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 .

.. • Inviting Further Contributions • In a situation where you haven’t heard or understood enough yet to respond with empathy and understanding.. Phrases such as the following can be used: • “ Can you throw more light on. prompt the speaker to give you more information.Conti.?” Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 .” • “ How did you react when.

Conti. Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 . head nods and a slightly titled head.verbally • You can show that you are an active listener by adopting certain postures and sending non-verbal signals which communicate your interest in what the speaker is saying. • Responding Non. body leaning slightly towards the speaker.. • These include regular eye contact .

sometimes even the fragrance of perfume. • Dealing with Distractions • An attractive face in the room. if any. in the speech. • A sincere listener always puts in a conscious effort by listening with a positive attitude. can be the reason for distraction. supporting ideas. Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 .Active Versus Passive Listening • Paying Attention • You can improve your skills in this area by listening to commentaries on Television or radio. Concentrate on the theme. and also the digressions.

Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 . • On the other hand. lack of proper listening can lead to embarrassing situations because of a gap in coordination and understanding.Implications of Effective Listening • Effective listening improve working conditions and nurture harmony and cohesion in the organization if both management and employees listen to each other’s messages patiently. • Listening patiently to employees enables the mangers to feel the pulse of the organization.

a. What are the different steps involved in the process of listening? c. How is active listening different from passive listening? e.Progress Check • Answer the following questions briefly. what is listening? b. How is hearing different from listening? d. What are the different types of listening? Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 .

OUP.366-392. • Raman Meenakshi. India.References • Raman Meenakshi. Tata McGraw-Hill.New Delhi. Effective Technical Communication.1-4. Sangeeta Sharma. Prakash Singh Business Communication. Technical Communication.New Delhi.1-8.OUP. India. • Rizivi M Ashraf.New Delhi. India. Technical Communication Course No:BITS ZG 659 .

Geetha.B BITS.BITS ZG659: Technical Communication BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Dr. Pilani .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Elements of Effective Writing .

w ho gives the reader the m ost inform ation and takes from him the least tim e. The best style is one that seem effortless rather than laborious. “Have som ething to say and say it as clearly as you can .‘The w riter does the m ost.” Matthew Arnold BITS Pilani. That is the only secret of style . Pilani Campus .’ Charles C. Cotton Effective writing requires constant practice.

Objectives… various elements of effective writing strategies of paragraph development BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Essentials Plainness Precision Conciseness BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .At the level of words… • Use familiar words/Do not try to show unnecessary erudition • Avoid redundancy • Avoid circumlocution • Avoid surplus words • Be careful about coherence • Use shorter sentences instead of longer sentences.

ExamplesAntiquated Outdated Writer should keep in mind target audience. Old machines were used for the test.Use familiar words An important element in the use of words is the selection of familiar words. Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani. ExamplesAntiquated machinery was utilized for experimentation.

Using familiar words Unfamiliar words Accentuate Ameliorate Envisage Ramification Verbose Plain words stress improve forsee branch wordy BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

• An electronic cupboard with a series of drawers to put your food in to make it cold Refrigerator BITS Pilani.Avoid repetitions • At the present time we are conducting two clinics. Pilani Campus . • We should plan in advance for the future. We should plan. We are conducting two clinics.

Pilani Campus . Improve… BITS Pilani.The reason why the technicians were so upset was because their boss seemed so angry with them.

Pilani Campus .Avoid jargons Jargons: avoid them: they are unfamiliar to many BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus . but the ionic residues are incompatible with metallic permanence (reply on question asked Whether hcl is used to clean clogged drains ???) Don’t use HCL . it corrodes pipes BITS Pilani. The responsibility of a person involved in pedagogical pursuits is to impart knowledge to those sent to him for instruction The teachers job is to instruct students  The biota exhibited a one hundred percent mortality response All the plants and animals died  The efficacy of hydrochloric acid is indisputable.

Examples: Bona fide Éclat Tête-à-tête raison d’etre in good faith renown personal interview reason for existence BITS Pilani.Avoid foreign words and phrases words from foreign languages if you have the required word in your vocabulary of the language you are writing in. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus . we would carefully consider them POMPOUS/ WORDY We are cognizant that you are experiencing difficulties during this period of reorganization of your central office We know that you are having difficulty in reorganization of your central office BITS Pilani.CIRCUMLOCUTION We solicit any recommendation that you wish to make and you may rest assured that any such recommendations will be given will be given our careful considerations as to the utilization thereof . Please give us your suggestions .

We must explore every avenue to remove this evil and use the iron hand of the law to achieve this sacred purpose . Pilani Campus .CLICHÉ Our university has today become hot bed of politics which has become part and parcel to their functioning . BITS Pilani. We should take help of the law to remove politics from universities which has become part of it .

Redundancy Example: Freedom of speech is the privilege and birthright the constitution gives us. by avoiding repetition.Conciseness It is achieved by the process of sifting essential from unessential information. and by omitting ornamental phrases and the like. BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

 The decision was predicated on the assumption that an abundance of monetary funds was forthcoming.  During the preceding year the company operated at a financial deficit. The decision was based on the belief that there would be more money. Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani. Last year the company lost money.

Paragraph tell the reader where the topics begin and end. In other words. There is no fixed rule about the length of a paragraph. Pilani Campus . it is a group of related sentences which express a single idea. thus helping them assimilate the contents in an organized manner.Paragraph Development Developing well –structured paragraph is essential for effective technical communication. A paragraph is a group of sentences that forms a unit. BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .Fpr the paragraph development we need the following components: • Topic Sentence • Coherence • Unity • Adequate Development BITS Pilani.

Pronoun Reference Repetition of Key words or phrase Use of transitional tags Use of parallel grammatical structure.Topic Sentence A topic sentence is a sentence that express the main idea of a paragraph. Coherence can be achieved by following four basic mechanical consideration. Coherence Coherence refers to the clear and logical linking of ideas in a paragraph. Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus . Adequate Development A paragraph is adequately developed when it describes. and supports the topic sentence.Unity Unity refers to the extent to which all of the ideas contained within a given paragraph ‘hang together’ in a way that is easy for the reader to understand. BITS Pilani. explains.

• Formulation of controlling idea • Explanation of controlling idea • By example • By explanation • Completion of paragraph's idea and transition into next paragraph BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .There are five steps involved in developing a paragraph.

Techniques for paragraph development Illustration-providing examples to explain the main idea. Pilani Campus . Comparison and contrast.Breaking the main idea into specific categories.discussing the solutions to the problem posed. Classification.explaining the reasons for the end result. Problem and solution.Bringing out similarities and differences to develop the idea. Cause and effect. BITS Pilani.

They desire high grades because these are indicative of scholastic success. They should bear in mind (or they forget) that the actual reward for their efforts is nothing but acquiring knowledge and skills. φ Unfortunately. they are unaware that they have attained the pinnacle of success if they have acquired a skill. BITS Pilani. However.Improve the following… φ Unfortunately. students feel that only high grades indicate their success in the academic performances. students seek inappropriate rewards for their endeavours in the pursuit of academic knowledge. They are unaware that the reward is the knowledge itself and not the academic evaluation. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus . φ The deputy factory-planning engineer is supposed to assist.φ It is the official function of the deputy factory- planning engineer to assist in all possible ways the implementation of the instructions and reports and requests of the factory-planning engineer. BITS Pilani. and also to advise him in all matters relevant to the efficient operation of his department. follow and advise the factory-planning engineer in relevant matters for the efficient operation of his department.

φ BITS Pilani. complexity and adequate coverage. a shortening of the reports themselves. If we shorten the reports keeping in mind the context. it can easily be seen that the reduction of the time spent in writing and reading them. would represent an appreciable gain in reducing our general operating expenses. By doing so. although the matter of the length of the report should naturally be considered in relation to the complexity of the material and its adequate coverage keeping in mind the requirements of the specific situation. we can reduce the operating expenses. we can reduce the time spent on reading and writing them. Pilani Campus .φ Due to the fact that the production of reports involves considerable cost to our organization. The production of reports involves a large sum to sour organization.

which may be seen on the company internet.Regardless of their seniority or union affiliation. 1. *Regardless of their seniority or union affiliation. or by taking approved online courses selected from a list. all employees who hope to be promoted are expected to continue their education either by enrolling in the special course to be offered by the company. Pilani Campus . They may take approved online courses selected from the list in the company intranet. which are scheduled to be given after working hours beginning next Wednesday. They may enroll in special courses to be given by the company. 2. BITS Pilani. all employees who hope to be promoted are expected to continue their education in either of two ways.

much as I regretted having to make the forecast.After a period of rapid expansion and record sales which gave so much pleasure to share holders in the past. In the last annual statement I issued. Unhappily. as it turns out from the figures before me this prediction is not only true but something of an understatement in that there has been a sharper decline in profitability during the last six months than anyone could have foreseen at the time when I have my announcement of the interim dividend. I indicated that sales had leveled off and at the time of the interim dividend announcement I also predicted that. profits for the year were likely to be lower than could reasonably be expected. BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus . I have the difficult and unenviable task of setting before you a considerable setback in the company’s fortunes for the year under review.

BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .BITS Pilani.

BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .Improving ones writing       Avoid cliches Avoid excessive use of jargons Avoid redundancy Avoid circumlocution Avoid foreign words and phrases Prefer active to passive voice to avoid wordiness BITS Pilani.

B BITS. Pilani . Geetha.BITS ZG659: Technical Communication BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Dr.

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Elements of Effective Writing .

Topics Reading Comprehension Precis Writing BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .Reading Comprehension Objective Getting familiar with different reading skills Understanding the tone. structure and nature of a given passage Detecting the central idea of a given passage BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .Different Reading Skills Skimming Used to understand the gist of the passage Scanning Used to find a particular piece of information Intensive Used for pleasure and general understanding Extensive Accurate reading for comprehensive understanding BITS Pilani.

• point of view based—Here the author has a message. BITS Pilani. animal or anything under the sun. conclusion to convey or arrive at. incident. structure and nature of a passage The passage can be of • information-based –Here ere the reader is provided with a pool of information about any phenomenon. Pilani Campus .Understanding the tone. opinion.

It would be a jumble of information. To identify the central idea. structure and nature of a passage contd… The first type of passage is easy to identify. In order to reverse the trend. Here the author has an opinion to convey. BITS Pilani. action must start even before the trend itself is firmly established. Pilani Campus .Understanding the tone. these things are to be considered  Presence of any argument  Connective used in different parts of the passage Example: We cannot afford to just wait for many more years for the signs of global warming to come out more conspicuously.

Pilani Campus .Identifying the central idea of a passage: what to do n’ what not to do Never read a passage with a laid-back manner Carefully read the beginning of each paragraph Carefully follow the ending of each paragraph Pay attention to the linkers BITS Pilani.

the plants of the world extract 150 billion tons of carbon for use in their food.Example: Passage 1 Few people think of the air as a source of food. Plants need food substances called carbohydrates which are essential for the energy needed by living things. The process by which plants make carbohydrates is called photosynthesis. Pilani Campus . Each year. BITS Pilani. Plants make carbohydrates from carbon and water. Carbon is the basis of food of all plants. But air contains a gas called carbon dioxide which consists of carbon and oxygen.

Pilani Campus .Passage 1 We know that – plants manufacture most of their food from substances in the air and in the water. – plants need photosynthesis and oxygen for making carbon. – air and water are the only things that give plants nourishment. BITS Pilani. – photosynthesis is a substance in the air which is used by plants.

Pilani Campus .Passage 1 contd… The main source of plant food are a) chlorophyll and sunlight b) carbon dioxide and water c) proteins and carbohydrates d) proteins and carbon dioxide BITS Pilani.

Another fungus must be included here. Before men could manufacture drugs. and the Suth American Indians chewing coca leaves as painkillers long before the appearance of drugs called heroin and cocaine. castor beans and cloves give oils with medicinal uses. the Pencillium fungus. but the drug digitalis is extracted from the plants. The Deadly Nightshade gives belladonna which is used as a sedative and Nux vomica tree supplies strychnine. Quinine is extracted from the bark od the cinchona tree. plants were their only source.Pssage 2 Many of the plants that are poisonous in large quantities are useful medicinally if taken in small quantities. Camphor. Foxgloves are poisonous if eaten. and this is used to treat people with heart diseases. which can increase appetite. The Chinese were using opium. Pilani Campus . which grows in South America. which gives pencillin. from poppies. BITS Pilani.

South Americans use Cocoa as painkillers. Foxgloves extract is used to treat people with heart diseases. Belladonna increases appetite if taken in large quantities.Passage 2 contd… True or False All medicinal plants are poisonous. Castor beans supply strychnine. BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus . Extract from the bark of the cinchona tree helps bring down fever.

Pilani Campus .Précis :Defined and Explained • Condensed representation of a text • Précis writing is an art to present the material in a simplified and compressed manner without omitting essential information BITS Pilani.

Qualities of a Good Précis • Completeness The précis must have the essential contents of the original passage without omitting any important fact or idea. Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani. • Compactness All the ideas reproduced from the original document should form a compact whole.

Conciseness It is achieved by the process of sifting essential from unessential information. BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus . by avoiding repetition. and by omitting ornamental phrases and the like.

Pilani Campus . It should be intelligible to even those readers who have not gone through the original document.Clarity The précis should have clarity of expression. BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus . but a well. The précis should not look like a collection of disjointed sentences.connected whole. BITS Pilani.Coherence All sentences and ideas in a précis should follow one after the other in an unbreakable chain.

Steps to effective précis writing Identify the reader and purpose This determines how much details should be included and how formal the précis needs to be. BITS Pilani. Read the original document skim.read the document to get an overview. then read it again slowly to identify the main theme and to distinguish the key ideas and concepts from the unimportant ones. Pilani Campus .

BITS Pilani.Importance of the title Write down a title The title or heading is the précis of a précis and indicates what is to follow. Pilani Campus .

The body of the précis Write a note. Use the third person and indirect speech while writing the précis. BITS Pilani.form summary of each paragraph It is better to sum up the passage in the form of points Write the précis Paraphrase to express the summarized points. Do not add your comments. Pilani Campus .

Review and edit Compare your précis with the original document and make sure that it emphasis the same points BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

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1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.BITS Pilani.

 BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

B BITS. Pilani . Geetha.BITS ZG659: Technical Communication BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Dr.

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Effective Presentation Strategies .

and conclusion of an oral presentation. BITS Pilani. Reviewing techniques for effective delivery. body. Pilani Campus . Identifying the important steps in preparing an effective presentation. Understanding the major elements in the introduction.Objectives Understanding the nature and importance of presentation skills.

when your purpose is to provide information interaction will be less. Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani. When your purpose is to persuade people the interaction would be more.Fundamentals of Professional Presentations Defining Purpose The purpose of your presentation not only decides the content and style but also affects the amount of audience interaction. For instance.

Analyzing Audience and Locale The nature of your audience has a direct impact on the strategy you devise for your presentation. It is necessary to have some prior knowledge of the audience’s characteristics. Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani.

BITS Pilani. then say what you've already said. say it. and conclusions. say what you want to say.Organizing Content Arrange the content of your presentation into three major arts namely. Pilani Campus . In other words. introduction. main body.

Pilani Campus . and the layout. a sincere greeting. The porch can be a question. the aim. A good introduction is a vehicle to lead the audience into the main body of the speech.Introduction The introduction comprises the porch or the opening statement. BITS Pilani. After the porch's state clearly the purpose of your presentation. or a starting statement.

you can choose from any of the following patterns to organize the main body of your speech. BITS Pilani. Chronological This method is useful for topics like’ the profile of our institute’. Pilani Campus . and your introduction.Main Body The major point you highlighted in your opening will be expanded upon here. Depending upon your topic.

internal summaries. ‘environment protection’. because.Conti. ‘population explosion’ Use transitional expression like therefore. in addition etc. Pilani Campus . Give Internal preview. This can be used for topics like' the role of advertising’. BITS Pilani. Categorical In this pattern the entire presentation can be divided into various topics and sub-topics arranged on the basis of subordination and coordination.. For example. Cause and Effect Example ‘impact of cinema on children Problem –solution Here you divide the presentation into two parts.

to conclude.Conclusions You can conclude your presentation by reviewing the main points. Give a signal such as to sum up. Avoid the temptation to wrap up in haste or add something new in this part of your speech. Pilani Campus . to review. Remind the audience briefly the purpose of your presentation. BITS Pilani.

BITS Pilani. Suppose you are the project leader of a team. or sentences. You can prepare the outline in this manner with the help of words. phrases. Pilani Campus .Preparing an Outline An outline is a mechanical framework in which are fitted the bits and pieces of your presentation material. Introduction Product Appearance Various parts Functioning Facilities Conclusions You may have to work out the sub.headings under each or some of these main topics. which has taken up a project on developing a new product for the company.

Blackboard or whiteboard. as soon as they come out of our mouth they evaporate into the air. There is a list of visual aids which you may use commonly in your presentation. speeches often need strong visual support-hangouts. Power Point Presentations. Because of this limitation. Overhead Transparencies. flip chart. Flip Charts BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .Visual Aids Spoken words are temporary. overheads etc. chalk boards.

Pilani Campus .Nuances of Delivery The four modes of delivery which can be used for making presentation. Extemporaneous Manuscript Impromptu Memorization BITS Pilani.

Disadvantages If preparation is inadequate. Advantages Enough time to prepare for the presentation Supporting material helps to present your points clearly.Extemporaneous When speaking extempore you must prepare the notes beforehand and rehearse your presentation. Pilani Campus . Your delivery sounds natural and spontaneous. It enables you to move freely. BITS Pilani. you can get lost and find your self uncomfortable.

BITS Pilani. you fumble over words. Disadvantages You get less time for making proper eye contact. The material is organized systematically. In the absence of effective reading skill.Manuscript In manuscript presentation . There is no chance of tampering with the facts and figures. Advantages It’s a permanent record of whatever you have to say. material is written out and you are supposed to read it out aloud . Pilani Campus .

no statistics. Pilani Campus .Impromptu The impromptu mode. no illustrations. calmly state your topic. For example. Disadvantages The presentation lacks organized development of ideas. is what you use when you have to deliver an informal speech without preparation. Don’t panic instead. Chances of rambling are very high. no figures) to support our speech. You are spontaneous as you say what you feel. Frequent use of vocalized pauses. Advantages You should sound very natural because you do not get enough time to make preparation. at a formal dinner party you may be invited to deliver a vote of thanks. There is no supplementary material ( no data. BITS Pilani. as the word suggests.

then committed to memory. Extemporaneous is the best because of its flexible nature and its effectiveness.Memorization This type of delivery stands somewhere between extemporaneous and manuscript presentation. Pilani Campus . Speaker can make use of appropriate non –verbal communication Disadvantages Memorization requires too much of time. BITS Pilani. Speech is written out beforehand. No flexibility or adoption is possible during the speech. and finally delivered from memory. Advantages Easy to maintain eye contact. The speaker gets flusters if he forgets a word or sentence.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus . Facial expressions. BITS Pilani. it is the way the body communicate through various movements of its parts. Gestures. In other words . Eye contact.Kinesics.Definition We can define kinesics as the study of body’s physical movements. Postures. Personal appearance.

BITS Pilani. 1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

Posture Important part of body language and generally refers to the way one stand and walks. Posture indicates -confident. vibrant or nervous.joy. Gestures are use to clarify . state of health etc.Kinesics Personal appearance Plays very important role in non-verbal communication. BITS Pilani. surprise. Under appearance we will study clothes accessories etc. love. self assured. Eye contact Eyes can convey a large varieties of message intended as well as unintended. Gestures Movements made by head. hands . arms and shoulders. Pilani Campus . anger. emphasize and accentuate a verbal message.

Proxemics BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

e. Pilani Campus . What time means to us. BITS Pilani. It can provide useful information about people. how we communicate to others.Chronemics Refers to the meaning we give to time i. The way a person uses his own or another’s time speak volumes of his attitudes.

Paralanguage Paralanguage is the how in language. Pilani Campus . Para lingual characteristics Articulation Pronunciation Volume Pitch Rate Voice modulations Pause Quality BITS Pilani. How people say things is often as important as the words they use.

1956 . regulate or vary the tone. Volume. Pauses. It varies from person to person.(80 to 250 words per minute).Quality.Where you can adjust . low of your voice (trade mark pf a person.High. Voice modulation.Characteristic that distinguishes one voice from another Pace/ Rate – It is the speed of words per minute. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. pitch and volume of your sound.Gaps in between words or sentences. inherent in us) BITS Pilani.

Thank you is such a phrase. 1956 . Pitch. Articulation-To speak the sounds distinctly and crisply.R.rise and fall in the tone is known as intonation. Best way is to follow B.the rise and fall in the voice is essential to convey the varieties of emotion.P BITS Pilani.Intonation-Intonation. Pronunciation -To speak the sounds according to accepted norms. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Attention Curve BITS Pilani. 1956 .

1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.internal previews internal summaries signposts Anecdotes Questions Humour Rightly timed pauses activity BITS Pilani.

BITS Pilani. a. Posture is the movement made by hands. arms. d. b. shoulders etc. In manuscript presentation. material is written out and you are supposed to read it out aloud. c.Progress Check Study the following statements about effective presentation and tick true or false against each of them. The main body of presentation comprises the porch or opening statement. Kinesics is the name given to the study of the body’s physical movements. Pilani Campus .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus BITS ZG659: Technical Communication Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Review Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .

and images to convey what you want to say. gestures. the sender and the receiver must share common understanding.Overview of communication Q. c.2 Study the following statements about the concept of communication and tick true or false against each of them.1 Define communication and explain its most critical factors. Communication is always a one –way process of passing information and ideas to someone else. d. In order to achieve desired objectives . Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . a. Q. You may use a specific set of words. Communication involves only words. b.

Q.4Define feedback in the communication process? Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .2 Describe the five steps in the process of communication. Q.3 What are the elements of communication process? Q.1Who are involved in the communication process.Conti… Q.

Decoding relates to the sender of a message. a.1 Study the following statements about the process of communication and tick true or false against each of them. Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . The process of communication begins when the sender converts the idea into words or gestures. The sender is the person initiating the communication. The response of the receiver create feedback. b.Conti… Q. d. c.

• How will the message be encoded? • What assumptions must you make about your audience? • How should you announce the new policy? • How can you encourage feedback? what barriers should you expect? • How can you overcome them? Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .1 Imagine that you are the boss in an organization where you have worked and you wish to announce a new policy aimed at improving customer service. Give answer to the following questions.Conti… Q. Examine the entire communication process from sender to feedback.

Review • Communication is a word of Latin origin Communico or communicare. • Elements of communication Process • • • • • Sender Receiver Message Channel Feedback • Semantic gap Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . which means to share.

Conti… • Types of Communication • Intrapersonal • Interpersonal • Extra personal • Organizational • Mass/Media communication Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .

Conti.network Wheel Network Circle Network All-channel network Informal Network Model Single Strand Gossip Probability Cluster Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .. Communication Network • • • • • • • • • • • Formal Network Model Chain network Y.

and the like) Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . How do the personal opinions and prejudice of various individual act as barriers to effective communication? Illustrate your answer with suitable examples. Q. educational background. What is the importance of this statement that “ people will create their own meaning to cues they receive from others”?( general discussion on different perceptions. cultures.Communication Barriers Q.

Is your professor having effective form of communication with your class? If no. where does it break down? Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . Q.Conti. Describe the common barriers to effective interpersonal communication? • How does culture affect communication? • Emotions and communication • How does poor listening skills act as a serious barrier to effective communication? • Observe your classroom..

Q.Conti. Discuss Q. Explain how the wrong choice of the media of communication act as a barrier to communication? Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . “In reality there is no such thing as perfect communication”..

Review • A barrier to communication refers to any obstacle which comes in the way of smooth flow of information between the sender and the receiver. Classification of Barriers • Intrapersonal • Interpersonal • organizational Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .

Intrapersonal Barriers • Wrong Assumptions • Varied perceptions • Differing background • Wrong inferences • Impervious categories • Categorical thinking Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 ..Conti.

Conti… Interpersonal Barriers • Limited vocabulary • Incongruity of verbal and nonverbal messages • Emotional outbursts • Communication selectivity • Cultural variations • Poor listening skills • Noise in the channel Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .

Conti… Organizational Barriers • Too many Transfer stations • Fear of Superiors/Hierarchical Barriers • Negative Tendencies • Use of Inappropriate Media • Information Overload Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .

a. shoulders etc. Kinesics is the name given to the study of the body’s physical movements. Study the following statements about nonverbal Communication and tick true or false against each of them. arms. Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .Non-verbal Communication Q. b. Posture is the movement made by hands.

Review • Non verbal communication refers to all external stimuli other than spoken or written words and including body characteristics. • Types of non-verbal communication • Kinesics (body language) • Proxemics • Chronemics • Paralanguage Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . voice and use of space and distancing . E.g.

Kinesics • • • • • • Definition Personal appearance Facial expressions Eye contact Gestures postures Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .

sentence stress.individual sounds. intonation. words stress. • Volume • pitch • Rate • Voice modulations • Pause Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .Para lingual characteristics • Articulation • Pronunciation.

Encoding in listening refers to the process of changing the coded message into information Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . Study the following statements about active listening and tick true or false against each of them. a.Listening Q. c. Response is the action or reaction of the listener to the message. Listening requires no special effort by the listener. b.

a. Answer the following questions briefly. How is hearing different from listening? d. What are the different steps involved in the process of listening? c.Conti… Q. What are the different types of listening? Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . How is active listening different from passive listening? e. what is listening? b.

Review • Listening is a process of receiving and interpreting the spoken word. and response. message decoding or interpretation. Types of Listening • Appreciative Listening • Empathetic Listening • Comprehensive Listening • Critical listening Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . evaluation. • The four stages of listening are sensing.

verbally Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .evaluative • Paraphrasing • Reflecting Implications • Reflecting Hidden Feelings • Inviting Further Contributions • Responding Non.Conti… Traits of a Good Listener • Being Non.

• Enables the mangers to feel the pulse of the organization • Lack of proper listening can lead to embarrassing situations Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .. Active versus passive listening • Paying Attention • Dealing with Distractions Implications of Effective Listening • Effective listening improve working conditions and nurture harmony and cohesion in the organization.Conti.

Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . • Antiquated machinery was utilized for experimentation. Rewrite the following sentences keeping in mind the principles of effective writing. • The company suffered a tremendous loss in the second quarter of last year. • I take this opportunity to tell you that you are an excellent leader. • The report discusses the problem of Air Pollution in India in detail.Fundamentals of Effective Writing Q.

Conti… • I was born in summer. the month of July. Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . • My first visit to your organization will always be remembered.

The three key definitions of motivation then overboard are effort. which are shaped by our encounter with different and varied experience. organizational goals and needs. Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . Group goals fail to motivate you. People indulge in the process of de-motivation. the buzzword in the modern day organization.Conti… • • Q1 Rewrite the following passages so as to make them more simple. Motivation. as many theorists propose is first and foremost the willingness to exert high levels of efforts to reach organizational goals conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need. concise and effective. me and us because of many reasons. Another problem that repeatedly seems to surface again and again is. the chief being the absence of ‘I’ factor. that it is guided by individual and personal perceptions. The malady of our times as regards motivation is that there cannot be any definite definition of motivation since one definition of motivation gets demotivated the moment there is another innovative experience waiting to motivate many and de-motivate some. Although general motivation refers to effort toward any goal. here it refers to organizational goals because our focus is on work related behaviour. Finally. as the moment I sense my absence at the centre. motivation works well with those whom boss considers being his/her pet and scorn seems to favour those who are neck deep in motivation but blissfully deprived of approval.

Review Qualities of Effective Writing • Adaptability • Clarity • Economy Principles of effective writing • Use familiar words • Use concert and specific words • Avoid Excessive use of jargons • Avoid Clichés Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .

Conti… Effective Sentence Construction • Prefer Short Sentences • Avoid cluttering phrases • Avoid Needless Repetition • Prefer active to passive voice • Prefer Right Ordering and Proper Emphasis Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .

Conti… Central Components of a Paragraph • Topic sentence • Coherence Use of pronouns Repetitions of key words or phrases Use of transitional tags Pronoun reference Parallelism • Unity • Adequate development • Formulation of the controlling idea Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .

Conti.. Steps to effective précis writing • Identify the reader and purpose of the précis • Read the original document • Underline the key ideas and concepts • Write a note form summery of each paragraph • Write the précis • Review and edit Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .

Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . material is written out and you are supposed to read it out aloud. b. In manuscript presentation. The main body of presentation comprises the porch or opening statement.Effective Presentation Strategies • Study the following statements about effective presentation and tick true or false against each of them. a.

and conclusions. • Preparing an Outline • • • • • Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 . main body.Review Fundamentals of Professional Presentations Defining Purpose Analyzing Audience and Locale Organizing Content Arrange the content of your presentation into three major arts namely. introduction.

Conti… Nuances of Delivery • Extemporaneous • Manuscript • Impromptu • memorization Technical Communication: BITS ZG 659 .

Pilani .BITS ZG659: Technical Communication BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Piyush Gupta BITS.

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus TECHNICAL REPORT .

if required. their significance. Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani. it includes a description of procedures followed for collection and analysis of data.What Is A Report ? A report is a formal communication written for a specific purpose. the conclusions drawn from them and recommendations.

Pilani Campus . plain Specific structure BITS Pilani.Differences Literary Writing Subjective Driven by feelings Vague objectives Imaginary world Urged by inner feelings No criterion Style(abstract) No structure Report Writing Objective By facts Specific purpose Real world By circumstances Data based Objective.

Why reports? To monitor/ control operations To help implement policies & procedures To comply with legal/ regulatory requirements To document the work performed To guide decisions. BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Types Reports Oral (informal) Formal Informational Interpretive Progress Laboratory Inspection Routine Written Inventory Annual BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

proof-read and evaluate BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .How To Write Reports Steps involved • Define your problem & purpose • Determine your audience • Collect the material • Organize the material • Make an outline • Compose the first draft • Revise.

Contd. seek clarification before making a start BITS Pilani. • It gives you clear instructions • Recognize the problem • Spend time in working out the scope of your report • In case instructions are not clear. • Define your purpose with the help of Terms of Reference. Pilani Campus .

Determine your audience • • • • • • Superior officers Colleagues / counterparts Subordinate employees Other Organizations Share holders Customers and Members of public BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .Data Collection Methods Personal observation Telephone Interview Personal Interview Mail Questionnaire Sources Library Internal Records BITS Pilani.

BITS Pilani. Recognizing & Recording information. slow. sensory perception. Chief source of 1st hand information.Personal observation Observing with a purpose. Pilani Campus . Expensive. Memory. Forming Mental Impression -Controlled /Uncontrolled (create an environment or view things as they are). can’t be used for all.

Telephone Interview Information is of routine nature Only brief answer is required Small no. Pilani Campus . of people/ subjects Saves time on traveling Some feed back possible (not effective) Information may not be representative Misinformation hard to defect BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .Personal Interview Conversation with a purpose To obtain qualitative data To supplement the information collected through other methods To get exact details To have a feel of the answers so as to draw better inferences BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus . of people can’t be contacted Time consuming Analysis difficult BITS Pilani.Personal Interview  Can control the situation  Can simplify and interpret the question  Can get most accurate reply  Proper observation of NVC Disadvantages Large no.

Personal Interview Preparation Be clear with purpose Get an appointment Pen. tape etc. Get prior permission for recording  Prepare a list of questions (open end)  Last question Dress appropriately Reach on time BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Conducting Personal Interview  Briefly explain the purpose  Be alert & listen  Be accurate in recording  Don’t enter into an argument  Assume a subordinate position  Avoid too many interruptions  Avoid embarrassing questions  Keep the interaction on track BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .Conducting Personal Interview        Be tactful Be flexible Don’t get unnerved Finish in time Assure confidentiality Thank Keep the lines of communication open BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus . to cover large geographical area  Mail a questionnaire to all members  Saves time  Seeking clarifications.tough BITS Pilani.Questionnaires  To survey large number of people.

Pilani Campus .Advantages Convenient for the respondent Chance to deliberate and look up information Bias of interviewer is eliminated Reach a specific segment of population. BITS Pilani. Respondent need not be identified Questions can be standardized.

Disadvantages  Difficulty in securing replies in the nature of questions. Pilani Campus .  In case the response is small.  Uncertainty in getting the filled in questionnaire BITS Pilani. data may not give a true picture.

but cost effective BITS Pilani. given  Complex and confidential information not readily  Cost per mailing and per return quite high. Pilani Campus .Disadvantages  Inadequate answer  Answers of some questions meaningless or some left unanswered.

Pilani Campus .easy to follow Not many open ended questions No nice to know questions.ask necessary ones Avoid ambiguous questions BITS Pilani.Framing Questions Positive framing One aspect of an issue at one time No leading question Ask follow up questions Easily remembered data Sequencing.

Convenience: sample is selected because it is convenient BITS Pilani.each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected Systematic: every nth member of the sampling population Stratified: first identify the relevant strata (subsets) and their actual representation in the population. Then random sample. Pilani Campus .Sampling Methods Random.

eg.a special nonprobability method when the desired characteristic is rare BITS Pilani.Judgment: very much like convenience sampling. 1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. deciding one representative city/ campus Snowball sampling: Relies on referrals from initial subjects.

Pilani Campus .Question type Open-ended – How would you describe the flavor of this ice cream? Either-or – Do you think this ice cream is too rich? ----Yes -----No BITS Pilani.

Cont… Multiple choice – Which description best fits the taste of this ice cream? (choose only one) a) b) c) d) e) Delicious Too fruity Too sweet Too intensely flavored Stale BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Cont… Scale – Please mark an X on the scale to indicate how you perceive the texture of this ice cream. Pilani Campus . Too light Light Too Creamy Creamy BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .Cont… Checklist – Which flavours of ice cream have you had in the past 12 months? -----Vanilla -----chocolate ------Strawberry ------Chocolate chip ------Juicy BITS Pilani.

Cont… Ranking – Rank these flavours in order of your preference from 1(most preferred )to 5(most preferred (least preferred). -----Vanilla -----chocolate ------Strawberry ------Chocolate chip ------Juicy BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .Cont… Short-answer – In the past two months how many times did you buy ice cream in the supermarket?________________________ – In the past two months how many times did you buy ice cream in the ice cream shops?________________________ BITS Pilani.

Organize your materials Principles of Organization Logical ordering Coordinating Subordinating Numbering Phrasing BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .Structure and Layout of Report Elements of reports divided in three parts: 1. 3. Front Matter Main Body Back Matter BITS Pilani. 2.

Front Matter Cover Frontispiece Title page Copyright Notice Letter of Authorization and Letter of Acceptance Letter of Transmittal Acknowledgements Table of contents List of illustrations Abstract or summary BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .Main Body 1.Introduction Major components of Introduction Background Problem/Purpose Scope Authorization Source and methods Limitations Significance Report organization BITS Pilani.

when & whom 2 Problem/Purpose: Reason? 3 Scope: what is what not to be covered. Pilani Campus . size & complexity BITS Pilani.Introduction 1 Authorization: who.

Contd. Pilani Campus . Questionnaires Definitions Limitations: factors beyond control BITS Pilani. Background Historical factors Development of the problem Existing conditions Sources and Methods Samples.

costs and benefits of a particular course of action BITS Pilani. disadvantages. statistical evidences and trends Results of studies or investigations Discussion and analyses of potential courses of action • Advantages . 1956 . Discussion or Description • • • • Explanations of a problem or opportunity Facts.2. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

1956 .Continued • Procedures and steps for a process • Methods and approaches • Criteria for evaluating alternatives and options • Contains all illustrations BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

1956 . • Logical inference from the analysis • All conclusions must be supported by your past arguments BITS Pilani. Conclusions • This important section tells what the finding mean. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. particularly in terms of solving the original problem.3.

1956 . Interpret and summarize the findings. BITS Pilani. do not introduce new material. tell what they mean. Limit the conclusions to the data presented. Relate the conclusions to the report problem. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Tips for Writing Conclusions 1. 3. 2.

Be objective. 6. To improve comprehension you may present the conclusions in a numbered or bulleted list. 5. 4. avoid exaggerating or manipulating the data. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. Use consistent criteria in evaluating options.Contd. BITS Pilani. 1956 .

4. conclusions and recommendations are treated same • Recommendations are most helpful when they are practical and reasonable • Never recommend until you are asked • Put recommendations in descending order • Recommendations require an appropriate introductory sentence. such as The findings and conclusions support the following recommendations BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 . Recommendations • In short reports.

• Prepare practical recommendations that will be agreeable to the audience.Tips for Writing Recommendations • Make specific suggestions for actions to solve the report problem. • Avoid conditional word such as maybe and perhaps. • Present each suggestion separately as a command beginning with a verb. 1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. BITS Pilani.

1956 . arrange the recommendations in an announced order. BITS Pilani. • When possible.Continued • Number the recommendations for improved readability. • If requested. describe how the recommendations may be implemented. such as most important to least important. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

Back Matter 1. samples. financial statements. statistical data. formulas. 1956 . tables of data. It is relevant to some readers but not to all • It documents material that sustains the theme of report • It ensures no interruption in reader’s thought • It includes questionnaire. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. Appendixes • Incidental or supporting materials are documented in appendixes. BITS Pilani. a glossary may be put in an appendix or may stand as a separate supplementary part.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. date of publication. • A Bibliography is a list secondary sources consulted when preparing the report. • Regardless of the format. 1956 . publication. BITS Pilani.2. title. page number. you must include the author. • Your report documentation determines how this section is developed.List of References • You have an ethical and a legal obligation to give other people credit for their work. and other significant information for all ideas or quotations used in your report.

2. Foresman and Company. Frank. Grammar. England: Penguin Books Limited. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. Second Edition. BITS Pilani. 1988. Charlene. Book with one author Palmer. and A. Glenview: Scott. Strategies: A Rhetoric and Reader. Tibbets. Middlesex.Sample Bibliographical Entries 1. 1956 . 1972. A book with two or three authors Tibbets.M.

Central. Judith. A book with four or more authors Nadell. and Status and Financial Trends. Kansas City: U. et al. The Macmillan Writer. 1997. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 1956 . 1986. BITS Pilani.3. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 4.S. A book with a corporate authorship Corporate Credit Union Network. A Review of the Credit Union Financial System: History Structure.

1972. Trans. The odyssey. 1996. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. New York. Robert Fagles. 13-36. Once Upon A Time: The Fairy Tale World of Arthur Rackham. Viking.5 An entry in a collection or anthology Irving. Ed. BITS Pilani. 6 A translation Homer. New York: Viking . Margery Darrel. “Rip Van Winkle”. 1956 .Washington.

” The Kansas City Star 24 Oct. “Bank Consigned to Vault of Gloom. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1988.” New Republic 6. An article in a newspaper Hoffman. “Exploding Myths. Donald. 1956 . 8. An article in a magazine Mehta. Pratap Bhanu.7. June 1988: 17-19. BITS Pilani.

New York Times 10 Oct.” ZDNet 30 Jan. “Berst Alert. 1998.html> BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. Nadine. :C25. <http://www.com/anchordesk/stor y/story_1716.1991. late ed.9 An Interview Gordimer.zdnet. Jesse. 1956 . Interview. 10 Internet Source Berst.

BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .A report must explain: What we did? Why we did it? What was discovered? What is the significance of your report/findings? How you did it? Must clearly establish/identify what is new about your work. And how it is related to prior work/knowledge.

Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani.Use of Illustrations PURPOSE: Can present a large number of details in less space Will help in giving an integrated picture of the results arrived at through data analysis Catches the reader’s attention.

PRACTICAL HINTS Refer to all illustrations in the text Place them after the first citation in the text Keep the design simple Number them consecutively and classify them into two categories-tables and figures Each illustration must be complete in itself Give each illustration a title and write it against or below the number Center the title and ensure that it is not longer than the width of the table BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

TYPES OF GRAPHICS Tables : Tables permit systematic presentation of large amounts of data in small spaces. Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani.

and understand how parts relate to a whole. BITS Pilani.Bar charts It enables the readers to compare related items. Pilani Campus . see changes over time.

Line Charts The major advantage of line charts is that they show changes over time. BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus . thus indicating trends.

BITS Pilani.Pie Charts It is most useful in showing the proportion of parts to a whole. Pilani Campus .

BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .Flow Charts Procedures are simplified and clarified by diagramming them in a flow chart.

BITS Pilani. 3. Pilani Campus . Illustrations and diagrams are useful in indicating how an object looks or operates. and Illustrations : 1. Maps. Pictures add authenticity and provide a visual record.Photographs. 2. such as dots indicating sales reps in states across the country. Maps enable the report writers to depict activities or concentrations geographically.

More. Simple bar graphs Multiple bar graphs Segmented bar graph Pie graphs  Comparison over time/ geographic areas  To show 2 or more kinds of quantities  To compare differences in the division of the whole  How wholes are divided BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus ...

Line graphs Statistical map pictograph  Changes over time  Quantitative difference by geographic areas  Quantitative difference in pictorial form BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .More….

Pilani .BITS ZG659: Technical Communication BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Piyush Gupta BITS.

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus TECHNICAL REPORT .

BITS Pilani.Why reports? To monitor/ control operations To help implement policies & procedures To comply with legal/ regulatory requirements To document the work performed To guide decisions. Pilani Campus .

Types Reports Oral (informal) Formal Informational Interpretive Progress Laboratory Inspection Routine Written Inventory Annual BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus . proof-read and evaluate BITS Pilani.How To Write Reports Steps involved • Define your problem & purpose • Determine your audience • Collect the material • Organize the material • Make an outline • Compose the first draft • Revise.

Contd. • Define your purpose with the help of Terms of Reference. • It gives you clear instructions • Recognize the problem • Spend time in working out the scope of your report • In case instructions are not clear. Pilani Campus . seek clarification before making a start BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .Determine your audience • • • • • • Superior officers Colleagues / counterparts Subordinate employees Other Organizations Share holders Customers and Members of public BITS Pilani.

Data Collection Methods Personal observation Telephone Interview Personal Interview Mail Questionnaire Sources Library Internal Records BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Chief source of 1st hand information. Memory. Pilani Campus . Expensive. Forming Mental Impression -Controlled /Uncontrolled (create an environment or view things as they are).Personal observation Observing with a purpose. Recognizing & Recording information. slow. can’t be used for all. BITS Pilani. sensory perception.

Pilani Campus . of people/ subjects Saves time on traveling Some feed back possible (not effective) Information may not be representative Misinformation hard to defect BITS Pilani.Telephone Interview Information is of routine nature Only brief answer is required Small no.

Personal Interview Conversation with a purpose To obtain qualitative data To supplement the information collected through other methods To get exact details To have a feel of the answers so as to draw better inferences BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .Personal Interview  Can control the situation  Can simplify and interpret the question  Can get most accurate reply  Proper observation of NVC Disadvantages Large no. of people can’t be contacted Time consuming Analysis difficult BITS Pilani.

Get prior permission for recording  Prepare a list of questions (open end)  Last question Dress appropriately Reach on time BITS Pilani.Personal Interview Preparation Be clear with purpose Get an appointment Pen. Pilani Campus . tape etc.

Pilani Campus .Conducting Personal Interview  Briefly explain the purpose  Be alert & listen  Be accurate in recording  Don’t enter into an argument  Assume a subordinate position  Avoid too many interruptions  Avoid embarrassing questions  Keep the interaction on track BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .Conducting Personal Interview        Be tactful Be flexible Don’t get unnerved Finish in time Assure confidentiality Thank Keep the lines of communication open BITS Pilani.

tough BITS Pilani.Questionnaires  To survey large number of people. Pilani Campus . to cover large geographical area  Mail a questionnaire to all members  Saves time  Seeking clarifications.

Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani. Respondent need not be identified Questions can be standardized.Advantages Convenient for the respondent Chance to deliberate and look up information Bias of interviewer is eliminated Reach a specific segment of population.

 In case the response is small.Disadvantages  Difficulty in securing replies in the nature of questions. data may not give a true picture. Pilani Campus .  Uncertainty in getting the filled in questionnaire BITS Pilani.

given  Complex and confidential information not readily  Cost per mailing and per return quite high.but cost effective BITS Pilani.Disadvantages  Inadequate answer  Answers of some questions meaningless or some left unanswered. Pilani Campus .

easy to follow Not many open ended questions No nice to know questions.ask necessary ones Avoid ambiguous questions BITS Pilani.Framing Questions Positive framing One aspect of an issue at one time No leading question Ask follow up questions Easily remembered data Sequencing. Pilani Campus .

Sampling Methods Random. Then random sample. Convenience: sample is selected because it is convenient BITS Pilani.each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected Systematic: every nth member of the sampling population Stratified: first identify the relevant strata (subsets) and their actual representation in the population. Pilani Campus .

Judgment: very much like convenience sampling. 1956 . deciding one representative city/ campus Snowball sampling: Relies on referrals from initial subjects. eg.a special nonprobability method when the desired characteristic is rare BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

Question type Open-ended – How would you describe the flavor of this ice cream? Either-or – Do you think this ice cream is too rich? ----Yes -----No BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Cont… Multiple choice – Which description best fits the taste of this ice cream? (choose only one) a) b) c) d) e) Delicious Too fruity Too sweet Too intensely flavored Stale BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Cont… Scale – Please mark an X on the scale to indicate how you perceive the texture of this ice cream. Pilani Campus . Too light Light Too Creamy Creamy BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .Cont… Checklist – Which flavours of ice cream have you had in the past 12 months? -----Vanilla -----chocolate ------Strawberry ------Chocolate chip ------Juicy BITS Pilani.

Cont… Ranking – Rank these flavours in order of your preference from 1(most preferred )to 5(most preferred (least preferred). -----Vanilla -----chocolate ------Strawberry ------Chocolate chip ------Juicy BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Cont… Short-answer – In the past two months how many times did you buy ice cream in the supermarket?________________________ – In the past two months how many times did you buy ice cream in the ice cream shops?________________________ BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .Organize your materials Principles of Organization Logical ordering Coordinating Subordinating Numbering Phrasing BITS Pilani.

Front Matter Main Body Back Matter BITS Pilani.Structure and Layout of Report Elements of reports divided in three parts: 1. Pilani Campus . 3. 2.

Front Matter Cover Frontispiece Title page Copyright Notice Letter of Authorization and Letter of Acceptance Letter of Transmittal Acknowledgements Table of contents List of illustrations Abstract or summary BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Introduction Major components of Introduction Background Problem/Purpose Scope Authorization Source and methods Limitations Significance Report organization BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .Main Body 1.

Introduction 1 Authorization: who. Pilani Campus . size & complexity BITS Pilani. when & whom 2 Problem/Purpose: Reason? 3 Scope: what is what not to be covered.

Pilani Campus . Questionnaires Definitions Limitations: factors beyond control BITS Pilani.Contd. Background Historical factors Development of the problem Existing conditions Sources and Methods Samples.

statistical evidences and trends Results of studies or investigations Discussion and analyses of potential courses of action • Advantages . 1956 . costs and benefits of a particular course of action BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. disadvantages.2. Discussion or Description • • • • Explanations of a problem or opportunity Facts.

1956 .Continued • Procedures and steps for a process • Methods and approaches • Criteria for evaluating alternatives and options • Contains all illustrations BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. particularly in terms of solving the original problem. 1956 . • Logical inference from the analysis • All conclusions must be supported by your past arguments BITS Pilani. Conclusions • This important section tells what the finding mean.3.

2. tell what they mean.Tips for Writing Conclusions 1. Relate the conclusions to the report problem. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. Interpret and summarize the findings. 3. do not introduce new material. Limit the conclusions to the data presented. 1956 . BITS Pilani.

Contd. avoid exaggerating or manipulating the data. 1956 . Be objective. Use consistent criteria in evaluating options. BITS Pilani. To improve comprehension you may present the conclusions in a numbered or bulleted list. 5. 4. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 6.

conclusions and recommendations are treated same • Recommendations are most helpful when they are practical and reasonable • Never recommend until you are asked • Put recommendations in descending order • Recommendations require an appropriate introductory sentence. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. such as The findings and conclusions support the following recommendations BITS Pilani. Recommendations • In short reports. 1956 .4.

BITS Pilani. • Avoid conditional word such as maybe and perhaps. • Present each suggestion separately as a command beginning with a verb. • Prepare practical recommendations that will be agreeable to the audience.Tips for Writing Recommendations • Make specific suggestions for actions to solve the report problem. 1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

Continued • Number the recommendations for improved readability. such as most important to least important. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 . BITS Pilani. • If requested. arrange the recommendations in an announced order. describe how the recommendations may be implemented. • When possible.

Appendixes • Incidental or supporting materials are documented in appendixes. financial statements. samples.Back Matter 1. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. formulas. BITS Pilani. statistical data. tables of data. It is relevant to some readers but not to all • It documents material that sustains the theme of report • It ensures no interruption in reader’s thought • It includes questionnaire. a glossary may be put in an appendix or may stand as a separate supplementary part. 1956 .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus BITS ZG659: Technical Communication .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Letter and Memo .

Objectives • Knowing the significance and Purpose of letter writing • Understanding the form and structure of letters. • Understanding the principles of letter writing • To understand the concept and importance of memorandums. Communication Skill . • To learn the way to write efficient memorandums.

the traditional business letters still retain their importance in the business world for the following reasons.Significance of Business Letters • Though there are many modern communication methods available these days. Communication Skill . • Help you in keeping personal relational ship • Serve as permanent records of information • Help in reaching a large and geographically diverse audience.

Purpose • The ultimate purpose of writing any business letter is to sustain the existing business relationship or to create and establish a new business relationship. • Purpose • To inform • To enquire • To order • To make an adjustment • To sell a product • To complain • To collect dues Communication Skill .

Structure • Business letters are different from personal letters as they have a distinct structure and layout. • Standard Elements • • • • • • • Heading Date Inside address Salutation Message Complementary Close Signature Block Communication Skill .

Additional Elements
• • • • • • • • Addressee notation Attention line Subject line Reference initials Enclosure notation Copy notation Mailing notation Postscript
Communication Skill

Standard Elements
• Heading

This element is also known as the letterhead, which shows the organization’s name , full address, and also telephone numbers. If the letterhead is not used, the heading includes the sender’s address. • Date • This refers to the date the letter was written. It includes the date, the month, and the year. You can represent this in either of the following two ways. • 3 June2003 or June 3, 2003
Communication Skill

Conti..
• Inside Address • This part of the letter identifies the recipient of the letter and is separated from the date by at least one blank line. • A courtesy title should precede the recipient's name. It is always best to address your letter to a specific person. If you do not know the name of a specific person , it is acceptable to address the letter to the department or to a job title.
Communication Skill

Conti…
• Salutation • Always try to address your letter to a person by name rather than title. If you can not find a specific name, you may choose a salutation such as: • Dear students • Dear colleagues
Communication Skill

Conti..
• Message • This part of your letter will usually occupy the greatest amount of space. It should be single – spaced, with a blank line separating it from the preceding and the following parts of your letter. • Complimentary close • This element is a single word or phrase, separated from the message by a blank line. • Example-sincerely • Truly • Faithfully respectfully
Communication Skill

Conti..
• Signature Block • The complimentary closing line is followed by the signature block, which includes your signature, name and title. • Place the signature block four lines below the complimentary close. Include your name and the title.

Communication Skill

Additional Elements
• The following elements may be used in any combination , depending upon the requirements of the particular letter, but generally in the order shown below. • Addressee notation • Attention line • Subject line • Reference initials • Enclosure notation • Copy notation • Mailing notation • Postscript
Communication Skill

Additional Elements
• Addressee notation • This sort of notation generally appears a double space above the inside address, in all capital letters. Personal, confidential, or please forward are examples of such notations. • Attention Line • An attention line can be used to draw the attention of a particular person or a particular department in an organization. • Place the attention line two spaces below the inside address. the line is included in the following manner. • Attention : Dr. Satish Yadav
Communication Skill

Cont..
• Subject Line • This element lets the recipient know at a glance what the letter is about. • It usually appears below the salutation. But sometimes it is placed above the salutation and below the attention line. • Reference Initials • Often, one person may dictate or write the letter and another may produce it. On such occasions, reference initials are included to show who helped prepare the letter. • The first set of initials is the writer's and the second set is the helper’s.
Communication Skill

Conti..
• Enclosure Notation • This appears at the bottom of the latter, one or two lines below the reference initials. Some common forms are: • Enclosure: Draft of proposal • Copy Notation • This indicates who is receiving a courtesy copy (CC). Recipients are listed in the order of rank.
Communication Skill

Conti..
• Mailing Notation • This is placed either at the bottom of the letter after reference initials or enclosure notations, or at the top of the letter above the inside address on the left hand side. • Mailing notation such as By Registered Post, By Courier etc. will generally appear in capital letters to catch the attention.
Communication Skill

Conti..
• letters may also bear postscripts, i.e. afterthoughts to the letter, to the messages that require emphasis, or personal notes. • The postscript is usually the last item on any letter. • As far as possible try to avoid using postscript as they convey an impression of poor planning.
Communication Skill

Principles of letter writing
• Business letters are written mainly to create , establish, or sustain our relationship with others. A good relationship is based on respect and courtesy. So, when trying to establish good relationships in your business messages, remember to follow the principles of business letter writing mentioned below:
Communication Skill

Use the ‘You’ attitude
• Focus on the recipient's needs, purposes, or interests instead of your own. • You attitude is an extension of the audience – centered approach. • For instance, when someone makes a mistake, you may want to minimize ill feeling by referring to the mistake impersonally rather than pointing out directly. You might say,’ we have a problem’ instead of ‘you caused a problem’.
Communication Skill

Clarity and Conciseness
• Conciseness means saying what you need to say in as few words as possible. • By being unambiguous, you can not only be concise but also be clear. • Lack of clarity and conciseness is mainly because of the following reasons: • Long involved sentences • Verbosity or wordiness • Redundancy
Communication Skill

Conti..
• Example: Original • I strongly believe that Mr. Ram’s employment record seems to show that he may be absolutely capable of handling even extremely difficult situations( overemphasis) • Revised • Mr. Ram’s employment record shows that he may be able to handle any difficult situation.

Communication Skill

Correctness and completeness
• The term correctness refers to concreteness or precision, and the term completeness refers to thoroughness or giving all the required details. • You can achieve these qualities by using unambiguous words and by proofreading your message for accuracy. • Example :Original • We need a large office space. • A number of customers filed their returns today. • Revised • We need at least 10,000 square feet. • Ten customers filed their returns today.
Communication Skill

Positive Approach
• Emphasize the positive side of your message rather than the negative side. • Stress what is or what will be rather than what is not and what will not be. • Example: Negative • We never exchanged damaged goods. • Positive • You may exchange the purchased goods provided they are in good condition.
Communication Skill

Courtesy and Consideration
• Courtesy is oil; it reduces friction. Being polite to your readers is another way of earning their respect and sustaining your relationship with them. • Example: original • Your indifferent attitude has caused a great loss. • Revised • Had you been a bit more careful, we could have avoided this 20% loss.
Communication Skill

Everyone gets the same fair treatment at Gordon’s. Communication Skill . we are willing to accept return of the lampshade.Progress Check • Change these negative introduction to make them affirmative: • You don’t want to waste your money when you buy tyres. • It is simply impossible for us to grant your request. • Revise these statements granting or refusing adjustments: • Although we are not at fault.

” Also called “interoffice memorandum.Memorandum “Memorandum is a short piece of writing generally used by the officers of an organization for communicating among themselves. TAZ C312 Technical Report Writing .” E-mail messages and interoffice memorandums are favourites for internal communication.

and provide directions. • Effective memos contain guide-word headings.Characteristics • Routine memos inform employees. confirm decisions. give responses. are concise and conversational and use graphic highlighting. request data. • Purpose of a memorandum To record information • To convey information • To convey decisions • To make short requests TAZ C312 Technical Report Writing . focus on a single topic.

• Revise for clarity • Proofread for correctness • Plan for feedback TAZ C312 Technical Report Writing . Make an outline of the points you wish to cover. • Analyzing the purpose of a message helps determine whether a permanent record is required.Writing process • A systematic plan helps you write faster and more effectively. How will the reader react? • You gather information and prepare your message. Why I am writing? 3. 1.Do I really need to write this memo or e-mail? 2.

It helps build good business relationships Helps to establish accountability TAZ C312 Technical Report Writing .LANGUAGE  Language is easy to understand  Objective  Concrete and concise  No emotional appeals  Plain and direct statements  Benefits of using Memorandums Memorandum ensures quick and smooth flow of information in an organization.

Contents of a Memo • • • • • Designation of the receiver Designation of the sender Reference Date Subject TAZ C312 Technical Report Writing .

TAZ C312 Technical Report Writing Sender .c.Memorandums : an example Tose Steel Company Limited Interoffice Memorandum Reference: Date: Subject: ____________________________ ____________________________ ______________ To: From: c.

TAZ C312 Technical Report Writing . • The purpose of a memo is to record information. • In memo there is no need to give the designation of the sender. • Language of a memo should be subjective.Questions for discussion • Study the following statements and tick true or false against each of them. • There should not be any emotional appeal while writing the memo.

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus BITS ZG659: Technical Communication .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Group Communication .

Understanding the characteristics of successful group discussions.Objectives Knowing the nature and importance of group communication. conference. Learning about meetings. etc 3 . Knowing how to participate in group discussions. Learning to identify areas of evaluation in group discussion.

? Traits Group behavior Approach Dos & Don’ts .D.Group Discussion What is a G.

Face to face Free oral interaction Exchange information Make decisions Forum for the participants to resolve an issue . solve a problem to exchange information on a given topic.Definition Gathering of people where discussions occur with varied purposes . .

Evaluation • • • • Personality Knowledge Communication Skills Leadership .

Personality • • • • • Appearance Temperament Posture and gesture Mental state Overall impression .

Knowledge • • • • • Depth Range Analytical ability Organization of ideas Overall impression .

Communication Skills •Listening skills •Fluency •Language •Phonetic ability •Overall impression 9 .

depth. originality. good delivery • Listening – have to react to what others say • Body language.apposite signals sent out by body lang. relevance • Articulation – clarity.Individual Traits • Ideas – generation. • Initiative – get/give an opportunity to speak . fluency. modulation.

Leadership • • • • • Initiative Team spirit Endurance Decision Making Overall Impact .

Leadership Qualities • • • • • • Constructive participation Rational arguments Convincing others Building support Logically weakening opponents Point of view .

tries to control . avoid conflicts) Democrat (includes everyone. evaluates. blocks) Amiable (eagerly supports.Leadership styles Driver (imposes.

Orderly conduct Dominate without bullying Listen and react Be a gate opener not classer Turbulence Restore order Activate inert participants .

Approach •Pay attention to topic. develop & prioritize them •Listen – exchange of ideas healthy •Not consensus but conclusion •Interpret correctly. explore adequately •Case studies 15 .no ambiguity •Generate ideas.

helps others getting in GD • Handling Bulldozers – raise voice level. active/passive change • Leadership – Driver-impose views. who keeps the ball rolling. share time & views. no conflict. Democrat-involves one &all. passes judgment. blocks undesired action. shift. Amiablesupports others.Group Behavior • Participation – high/low participator. expresses himself. by physically gesturing . tries to solve the problem & conflict • Time sharing & orderly conduct – no domination. find a real flaw. does not evaluate other.

Group Development Different stages: • Forming • Storming .

• Norming • Performing .

• Adjourning.‘unforming’ the group and move on .

.

Participation High Low Shifting Silent (how treated) Consistent Who talks to whom .

Bulldozers Make them silent Vocally Physically Rationality Activate inert participants .

Environment •Topic •Time •Candidates •Seating arrangements •Unstructured/ Structured 23 .

Seating Arrangement 24 .

Do’s        Seat yourself comfortably Listen to topic carefully Always note the topic Organize your ideas before speaking Speak at the earliest opportunity Be polite Identify your supporters & opponents        Allow your supporters augment your ideas Keep track of time Share time fairly Listen to others’ point Maintain eye contact Take a paper to note points Head for conclusion not consensus 25 .

Don’t        Be in a hurry to start the topic Be silent Dominate – physically. verbally Assume the role of a chairman Take extreme stance Enter into an argument Pass value judgement          Look at the faculty Shout down inert ones Move excessively in chair Throw all ideas in one shot Speak fast Digress from topic Use slang Get emotional Pay attention to bulldozers 26 .

1) During group discussion you should monopolize the discussion.Progress Check Study the following statements about group discussion and tick true or false against each of them. 2) Initiate the proceedings of the group discussion. 27 . 3) Group discussion is an interactive oral process. 4) There is always an elected leader in a GD and the leadership functions are performed by the elected leader.

Close on a positive note Even if the group hasn’t reached an agreement. or met some other objective the leader can acknowledge any progress that has been made. 28 . This sets a positive tone for future discussions and helps to impart a feeling of control. solved a problem.

New Delhi. 29 . New Delhi.1-8.OUP. India. OUP. Tata McGraw-Hill. New Delhi Rizivi M Ashraf. Raman Meenakshi. India. Technical Communication. Effective Technical Communication.Books Raman Meenakshi. Sangeeta Sharma. Prakash Singh Business Communication.

Thank You 30 .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus BITS ZG659: Technical Communication .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus INTERVIEWS .

Technical Communication Course No.BITS ZG659 .

Interview Interview – sight between Purposeful interpersonal communication A meeting of persons face – to – face Technical Communication Course No.BITS ZG659 .

Technical Communication Course No.In short an interview is a two party conversation in which at least one party has a specific serious purpose.BITS ZG659 . Such interviews need a lot of preparation.

Objectives To exchange information To provide information To advise To counsel To select a person for specific task To monitor performance Technical Communication Course No.BITS ZG659 .

Types Job Information Persuasive Exit Evaluation Counseling Disciplinary Conflict-resolution Termination Technical Communication Course No.BITS ZG659 .

The job candidate wants to learn about the position and the organization the employer wants to learn about the applicant’s abilities and experience. Both hope to make a good impression and to establish rapport Technical Communication Course No.BITS ZG659 .Job interviews.

Job Interviews Job Interviews can be either face-to-face or telephonic Technical Communication Course No.BITS ZG659 .

calculator copies of CV.How to Prepare Knowledge. testimonials.BITS ZG659   . skill. certificates etc. pen. attitude     Match yours with requirements Collect necessary information. Prepare if you want to ask Carry note pad. Check your brief case Go in formal dress Technical Communication Course No. past performance.

BITS ZG659 . 90% 5% 5% Technical Communication Course No.Attitude …Skill… Knowledge.How to prepare (contd…..) Memorize your resume Be punctual Relax Go through a mock interview ASK….

BITS ZG659 .Employer’s Expectations Disposition Career Objective Subject Knowledge General Knowledge Communication Skills Mental Agility Consistency Self-confidence Technical Communication Course No.

the way you present yourself.BITS ZG659 . manners. the impression you leave on the employee Technical Communication Course No. facial expressions. gestures.Disposition Appearance. clothes.

Career objective The interview panel will be trying to gauge what you want to pursue in your life.BITS ZG659 . You may also be asked where you want to see yourself after 10 years. Technical Communication Course No.

BITS ZG659 . Technical Communication Course No.Subject knowledge Every employer expects that his prospective employees are well versed with the subjects they had pursued in the past or were currently pursuing.

The employer tries to assess your curiosity about what’s happening all around you. Technical Communication Course No. your mental level and your potential for coherent perception of multiple happenings.BITS ZG659 .General Knowledge A good general awareness is the primary requisite of a candidate aspiring for a job today. your analytical ability.

Technical Communication Course No.Communication Skill Communicating effectively is vital for both personal and organizational growth.BITS ZG659 .

presence of mind and quick response. This quality implies quick thinking.Mental Agility The ability to quickly grasp the question and reply appropriately is a sign of mental alertness. Technical Communication Course No.BITS ZG659 .

He will not be moved by emotions and external impressions. definite and well-developed approach to life.Consistency A good candidate has a positive. Technical Communication Course No.BITS ZG659 . He will stick to his opinion and make judicious decisions.

Technical Communication Course No.Self-confidence This is the most essential requirement of a good candidate.BITS ZG659 . By possessing will power. having positive approach and acting as a leader you can boost your self-confidence. socializing. This generates self-esteem and self-respect. Self-confidence means trust in yourself. fighting fear and nervousness. identifying your shortcomings.

Ten critical success factors •Positive attitude toward work •Proficiency in the field of study •Communication skills (Oral and Written) •Interpersonal Skills •Critical thinking and problem solving skills •Confidence •Flexibility •Self-motivation •Leadership •Teamwork Technical Communication Course No.BITS ZG659 .

Ten most common reasons for rejection • • • • • • • • • • Arrogance Apathy Uninhibited nervousness Equivocation Lack of concentration Lack of crispness Lack of Social skills Lack of firmness Inadequate quantitative skills Technical Communication Unsuitable personality ZG659 Course No.BITS .

Process (3 basic steps) • Establishing Rapport • Information Gathering • Closing Technical Communication Course No.BITS ZG659 .

Types of Questions Closed/Open Experience Credential Situation Related Probing Dumb Behavioral Link Leading Discriminatory Technical Communication Course No.BITS ZG659 .

Some Standard Questions 1. What’s your greatest weakness? 5. If you have to live your life again.BITS ZG659 . Why should we hire you ? 3. Tell me about yourself 2. what would you change? Technical Communication Course No. What do you want to be 10 or 15 years from now? 4. What qualities do you feel a successful manager should have? 6.

Answering Techniques Behavioral Answering Technique Compelling Story Technique Personality Matching Technique Parroting Technique Reframing Technique Technical Communication Course No.BITS ZG659 .

Conduct During Interview 1. Listen attentively 4.BITS ZG659 . Be relaxed & sit contestably 3. Open Technical Communication Course No. 12. Ask relevant ques. Greet with a smile & firm handshake 2. Seek permission to present material 11. Take care of excessive body gestures 9. Don’t express lack of interest 5. Be true to yourself 8. Thank & keep lines of commn. Speak clearly & softly 6. Avoid only Yes/No 7. Focus on strengths 10.

BITS ZG659 Presence of mind Maturity Open mind Good understanding of fundamentals .Qualities to be reflected Clarity of thought Balanced Point of view Logical thinking Sincerity Capacity to conceptualize Technical Communication Course No.

BITS ZG659 .End Recap • Why you feel you are the best can did ate • Your interest in the position by asking for the job Technical Communication Course No.

BITS ZG659 .Follow up • Call the interviewer to thank him for his time. • Write to them Technical Communication Course No.

and well groomed • Carry a briefcase or neat folder containing all relevant papers • Show up 10-15 minutes early. perfume/aftershave and jewelry • Be smart.Tips for Success • • • • • Be well prepared Brush up your subject and general knowledge Memorize your resume Know about the company Dress appropriately. call up and inform No. Limit make up.BITS ZG659 . Unless advised otherwise wear business attire. clean. In case you feel Technical Communication Course you may get delayed.

positive attitude. Communication excellence. striving No.• When you meet your interviewer/s shake their hand confidently • Stay calm. etc. enthusiastic. ask for clarification first • Speak clearly using positive words/phrases such as enjoy.BITS ZG659 Course . don’t fidget or twiddle your thumb • Be polite • Never chew gum or smoke during the interview • Be yourself. be honest • Show a real interest in the job • Be aware of all the answering techniques • Don’t answer a question you didn’t understand. Technical to be my best.

take all of them seriously. DO NOT ask any personal questions Technical Communication Course No.instead of trying to sell the product or your present company's capabilities to him. If the interviewer appears to be asking trivial or irrelevant questions .Avoid repeating yourself. When talking about your project . explain how you went about doing it and sell your capabilities to him.BITS ZG659 . Maybe he is trying to check your communication skills. DO NOT interrupt the interviewer while he is talking. DO NOT raise your voice during the interview.

Technical Communication Course No.BITS ZG659 .At the end of the interview .always thank the interviewer for his time.

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus BITS ZG659: Technical Communication .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Technical Proposal .

Objectives
To discuss the types and structure of Technical Proposal.

Technical Communication BITSZG659

Course NO

Types
Solicited Unsolicited

SALES

RESEARCH

Prefatory Main body Supplementary parts
Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO

Structure

Prefatory
Title page Draft contract Executive summary Table of contents List of illustrations
Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO

Main body
Introduction Technical section Management section Cost estimate Conclusion
Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO

Supplementary
Appendix Sources and References

Technical Communication BITSZG659

Course NO

Draft contract
Quick summary Topic Proposal's details Duration Cost 1st year/ subsequent years
Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO

Back ground Purpose Scope

Executive summary

infrastructure facilities Technical details Significance Reemphasis
Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO

Introduction
Problem statement (clear understanding) Purpose, scope Technical overview Methodology Significance Structure

Technical Communication BITSZG659

Course NO

Technical section
System overview (Technical description) Analysis of existing situation Possible design solutions Proposed solution Sources of information Methodology
Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO

Chains of command (org. charts) Corporate / employee credentials Schedules (work, implementation, reporting, maintenance, delivery, completion, payment, forecast) Team organization Company profile
Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO

Management section

Cost Estimate
Important funding (if internal) Break up (equipment details man power expenses miscellaneous / consumables) Match with draft contract
Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO

Conclusion Reemphasize strengths Assure the reader Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO .

Appendix Credentials details Supporting technical documents Illustrations Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO .

DOCUMENTATION STYLES MLA (Modern Language Association) APA (American Psychological Association) Chicago style IEEE style Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO .

Details for Documentation Author/s ( whether editor/s) Year Title of the book/article . Place of Publication Name of Publishers Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO . Edition if any Name of Journal/Newspaper/Magazine. Volume No. Page no.

html> Corporate Credit Union Network.Central. Kroll Jack. 1979 ed.com/anchordesk/story_1716.zdnet.Strategies:A Rhetoric and Reader.1998. <http://www.S. A Review of the Credit Union Financial System.Rex Redux.M.WORKS CITED/REFERENCES Berst. “T. Kansas City: U. Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO . 1998.Jesse.Tibbets.” Newsweek 26 May 1997:74-75 “Rocket. Charlene and A. “ Berst Alert. Tibbets.Chicago:World Book.”The World Book Encyclopedia.1988.Glenview:Scott and Company.” ZD Net 30 Jan.

al.101) Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO .it represents man’s ability to meld action with objective-the fusion of physicality with spirituality..Citation within the text “Baseball isn’t just a sport.”(Norwood et.

are optional in proposal also. Bibliography gives the list of sources which are used or quoted in the proposal. Sales proposals are known as business proposals. Appendices.Progress Check Study the following statements about Technical Proposal and tick true or false against each of them. Letter of Transmittal is cover letter that accompanies or is bound along with the proposal. Budget or cost estimate is not mandatory for all proposals. as in formal report. Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO .

1-8.New Delhi. Prakash Singh Business Communication. Sangeeta Sharma. Tata McGraw-Hill.New Delhi.New Delhi. • Rizivi M Ashraf.OUP. India.366392. Technical Communication BITSZG659 Course NO .1-4.OUP. India. • Raman Meenakshi. Effective Technical Communication. India.References • Raman Meenakshi. Technical Communication.

BITS. Pilani .BITS ZG659: Technical Communication BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Dr. Geetha B.

Dissertation and Thesis ..BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Research Paper ………………….

. Pilani Campus .Objectives To discuss the characteristics. dissertation and thesis BITS Pilani.structure and various components of research paper.

Pilani Campus .RESEARCH PAPER Definition Importance Characteristics Components BITS Pilani.

DEFINITION Organized analysis of a subject Documented prose work incorporating the findings scientific paper/investigative paper/ library paper/term paper BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .Importance To assess observations To repeat experiments To evaluate intellectual processes To provide a permanent value BITS Pilani.

Characteristics Expository discourse Highly stylized Objective Most of the formal elements of a report Requires use of illustrations Unified composition Documented BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .Reports Vs Research papers Reports Decision making and problem solving Meant for specific audience Arise out of specific need Research Papers Disseminate knowledge Need not necessarily be read Arise out of desire for professional achievement BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .COMPONENTS Title Authors & addresses Abstract Introduction Materials & Methods Results Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgements List of symbols References or Bibliography BITS Pilani.

specific notation and ref.Title Neither too short nor too long Adequately describes the contents Contains specific terms Chosen with great care Avoids use of common abbreviations. Pilani Campus . no. Helps indexing/abstracting services BITS Pilani.

TITLE Poor: Cloud Computing and understanding it Better: Understanding Cloud Computing Vulnerabilities BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

12 Regent Park. address : Sample Chemical Characterization of Khimp Fibre (Leptadenia pyrotechnica) P. Mojumder. India Received:05 February 2001. Accepted: 21 May 2001 BITS Pilani. Kolkata 700 040. Pilani Campus .Title. S B Mukhopadhya and K K Sen National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology (ICAR). author.

treatment. apparatus. technique etc. scope (no results. conclusion) BITS Pilani. Indicative/Descriptive Suitable for long descriptive papers Contents.Abstract Informative Purpose of study Newly observed facts Conclusions Significance Essential parts of any new theory. Pilani Campus .

Abstract (sample) The characteristics of Khimp fibre (Leptadenia pyrotechnica) are studied with a view to explore wider uses for it. Pilani Campus . The high alpha-cellulose and low lignin contents of the fibre with favorablelength/breadth ratio of the ultimate cell make it suitable for use in blending with cotton or polyester fibres to produce blended textile yarns and in pulp and paper industries. BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus . scope of the problem review of pertinent literature method of investigation + reasons for the choice of particular method principal results of investigation and principal conclusions BITS Pilani.Introduction Nature.

Materials & Methods Experimental design Experimental technique (describe/defend if needed) If earlier design. physical properties etc. quantities. discuss only modifications Technical specification. Pilani Campus . Subheadings BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani. illustration graphs. tabular. photos.Results Core Text. flow. circuit diagram etc.

Pilani Campus . any sources of error BITS Pilani.Discussion Interpret Data Highlight the significant features of data Possible causes of these features Limitations of data.

Pilani Campus .Conclusions Stem directly from data No extra material If no recommendations. give as points BITS Pilani. this can be omitted If clear cut findings.

Pilani Campus .Acknowledgements Follows the main text Significant technical help Source of special equipment/materials Outside financial assistance BITS Pilani.

page no. to unpublished words. no. vol. year.References Actually consulted Names. To cite papers accepted for publication “in press” No ref. Pilani Campus . initials of all authors title. personal communications BITS Pilani..

DISSERTATAION Longer research paper Critical statement and not a mere exposition In depth discussion of the topic BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .STRUCTURE Title page Acknowledgements Contents Page Abstract Summary Introduction Literature Survey Methodology Results Discussion Conclusion References Appendices BITS Pilani.

objective. Pilani Campus .INTRODUCTION Scope. background Define concepts Explain complex and difficult words Describe how study was conducted—data collection and methods Explain the order of material State major findings State recommendations if any BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .LITEARTURE SURVEY Put your own work into context Move from standard theoretical works to our specific topic Give a wide scope Discuss existing theories BITS Pilani.

etc. samples. choice of variables. Mention limitations BITS Pilani. selection criteria. Pilani Campus .METHODOLOGY Explain the approach—why a particular one is used Describe procedures.

Pilani Campus . graphs. charts.RESULTS Present findings clearly Use illustrations—Tables. diagrams Highlight significant aspects of findings Avoid interpretation and conclusions in this section BITS Pilani.

consistent argument based on findings BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .DISCUSSION Interpret your findings in detail Construct a logical.

CONCLUSIONS Summarize main points and state any conclusions that can be drawn Indicate how firm the conclusions are Make necessary recommendations BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .REFERENCES AND APPENDICES References Document your dissertation Appendices Include materials that are relevant but can’t be included in the main text Questionnaires. BITS Pilani. Illustrations. Detailed calculations. etc. Program code.

Pilani Campus .THESIS Longer Dissertation/ Research report Concerns a problem or series of problems in your area of research and it should describe what was known about it previously. what you did towards solving it. what you think your results mean where and how further progress in the field can be made BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .GUIDELINES Outline Organization Timetable Iteration Style Presentation Structure BITS Pilani.

OUTLINE Chapters: main topics and subtopics Decide what should go into each Shows you the direction Detailed outline Frozen outline is your Table of Contents BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

) BITS Pilani. reports. etc.ORGANIZATION Open a file for each chapter and one for the reference Keep a back-up file Maintain a physical filing system also Take care of all academic requirements also (forms. Pilani Campus .

Work Breakdown Consult your supervisor and come up with a work breakdown structure & a timetable Days on which you have to meet Dates on which you need to give first draft and final draft Check the items you have completed BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .ITERATION Don’t expect everything to be exact in the first attempt itself Revise and rewrite Repeat some procedures Continue till you become correct. complete and clear BITS Pilani.

STYLE Clarity Conciseness Correctness Completeness BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

double space. page numbered. minimum footnotes BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .PRESENTATION Length and quality—there is no strong correlation Illustrations to be clear Don’t focus too much on illustrations Present your arguments clearly A-4 size paper.

Items 1951 Year 1997 13692 28321 596203 70 2424 21854 132730 BITS Pilani. Hospital Dispensaries Beds Beds per lakh population Community Health centres Primary Health centres Sub-centers 2694 5306 117178 32 - . 3. 5.No. 2. 7. 4. 6.Independent Table Table I Medical Facilities 1951-1997 S. Pilani Campus 1.

Pilani Campus .Phrase Table Goods Wires Utensils Durability Long lasting Long lasting Nature/metal Copper Steel Availability Freely Scarce BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .TABLE I FATAL ROAD ACCIDENTS 1991-95 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Pedestrians 2380 2315 2255 2460 2050 Cyclists 830 852 805 750 735 Others 1310 1615 1750 2060 800 BITS Pilani.

TABLE II FATAL ROAD ACCIDENTS 1991-95 (% wise) Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Total Percentage Pedestrians 2380 2315 2255 2460 2050 11460 50% Cyclists 830 850 805 750 735 3970 17% Others 1310 1615 1750 2060 800 7535 33% Total 4520 4780 4810 5270 3585 22965 100% BITS Pilani.7 100 . Pilani Campus % 19.9 15.9 22.7 20.8 20.

GRAPHS • • • • • • • • Rectilinear Multiple line Bar Pie Semi-log Pictorial Scatter Surface BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Line graph BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .1 Growth of Hospitals & Dispensaries 1951-1997 No.Fig. in Thousands Key -Hospital -Dispensaries BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus . in Thousands 25 20 15 10 5 0 Hospital Dispensaries BITS Pilani.2.Fig. Growth of Hospitals & Dispensaries 30 Key -1951 -1997 No.

of fatal accidents BITS Pilani.Fig.2 Bar graph showing the number of Fatal Accidents category-wise during 1991-1995 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 1991 1992 Year 1993 1994 1995 others cyclists pedestrians No. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .Fig. Centers in 1997 BITS Pilani.3.

Pilani Campus . 1 Percentage Graph showing the Fatal Road Accidents during 1991-95 BITS Pilani.Fig.

1. Pilani Campus . Percentage Graph showing the fatal Road accidents year-wise from 1991-95 BITS Pilani.Fig. 1.

Pictorial Graph BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Scatter Graph BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Fig. Pilani Campus .4 Water consummation from Jul – Dec 1993 BITS Pilani.

Thesis Title Page Declaration/ Certificate Acknowledgements Table of Contents Abstract Introduction Literature review Middle chapters Materials and methods Theory Results and discussion Conclusions and suggestions References/ Bibliography Appendices BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus . Method of solving .results and conclusions Self-contained No references BITS Pilani.ABSTRACT Most widely published Written at the end Essence of your thesis Problem.

Pilani Campus .INTRODUCTION Must be interesting Must motivate the readers to read the remaining parts What’s the topic? Why it’s important? How does it fit into the broader area of your discipline? Don’t over estimate the readers Give adequate background. BITS Pilani.

Materials and methods. problems one by one. Pilani Campus .MIDDLE CHAPTERS In some thesis these are published papers These chapters vary Theory. conclusions Materials. methods—similar to research papers/dissertations BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .REFERENCES References/ Bibliography Standard format Already discussed in “Proposals” BITS Pilani.

Study the following statements and tick true or false against each of them. BITS Pilani.Progress Check 1. The structure of a dissertation is more or less similar to that of a report. The objective of writing a research paper is he same as that of a technical report. Pilani Campus . A research paper is written mainly to disseminate knowledge.

no bibliography.Conti… A research paper contains only references . The ‘Introduction’ to the research paper only mentions the earlier relevant work. Thesis and dissertation are the terms used for the same documentation. Pilani Campus . Acknowledgement should find a place at the beginning of a research paper. BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .BITS Pilani.

BITS ZG659: Technical Communication BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Dr.B BITS. Geetha. Pilani .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus References and Bibliography .

and place and date of publication BITS Pilani. the author.How to write a research paper? • Establish your topic • Broad Topic • Narrowing it down • Coming up with more specific focus • Look for Sources • Visit the library • Other sources of information • List all the sources you use: title of the source. Pilani Campus . publisher.

data. and other visual or statistical information ( for more on plagiarism: http://www.put quotation marks • Avoid plagiarism: always give your source for • Quotations • Summarized information • Paraphrased information • Maps. graphs. one idea/ fact per card (source. page number • If quoting. Pilani Campus . charts.com/spot/plagiarism.• Read Sources. vol. number.html) BITS Pilani. take notes • Use a note card ~ 3X 5 index cards.infoplease.without paraphrasing.

Pilani Campus .Organize your ideas: • Write down all the main ideas • List the subordinate ideas below the main ideas • Avoid repetition of ideas BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .Make the first draft: • Introduction • Body • Conclusion Use footnotes or endnotes to document sources BITS Pilani.

newspapers.What Is Bibliography? An alphabetical list of the sources— books. Internet. CDROMs. magazines. BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus . Interviews—that have been consulted in preparing the document.

page number. Pilani Campus . • To avoid the accusation of plagiarism BITS Pilani.Necessity • You have an ethical and a legal obligation to give other people credit for their work • Your report documentation determines how this section is developed. and other significant information for all ideas or quotations used in your report. publication. you must include the author. date of publication. • Regardless of the format. title.

Different styles of making bibliography • MLA (Modern Language Association) • APA (American Psychological Association) • Chicago style • IEEE style BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus . • Place of Publication • Name of Publishers BITS Pilani. Page no. Edition if any Name of Journal/Newspaper/Magazine.Components of a bibliography • • • • Author/s ( whether editor/s) Year Title of the book/article . Volume No.

Style manual for guidance in preparation of papers. Pilani Campus . The ACS style guide: a manual for authors and editors.A quick guide to referencing style Style Name Style features Author organization American Chemical Society General application Chemistry Reference manual or guide Dodd. ACS. Washington DC Hathwell. 3rd edn. 2nd edn. JS (ed) 1997.D & Metzner. NY ACS AIP American Institute of Physics Physics BITS Pilani. AWK 1978.

Physical Sciences . 15th edn. Biological. The University of Chicago Press.A quick guide to referencing style Contd… APA Author and date in text American Psychological Association Psychology. Pilani Campus Chicago Author-date and/or note system University of Chicago Press Humanities. 5th edn. Washington DC. APA. Library citing and referencing website The Chicago Manual of Style 2003. Anthropology. Education. Social. and other social and behavioural Sciences Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 2001. Chicago BITS Pilani.

and Education. Business Simplified version of the Chicago style. Thesis and Assignment Writing. Library citing and referencing website Library citing and referencing Style manual IEEE Institute for Electronics and Electrical Engineers Electronics. Pilani Campus . Social Sciences. as documented in Anderson & Poole.A quick guide to referencing style Contd… Harvard Author and date in text Harvard University Natural Sciences. Electrical Engineering BITS Pilani.

MLA Handbook for writers of research papers. Literature. 2003. 6th edn. J. MLA. editors. 6th edn. New York Style manual for authors. English Literature . Pilani Campus Oxford or footnoting system Number in text. and other fields Gibaldi . Canberra Ausinfo. and printers 2000.A quick guide to referencing style Contd… MLA Author and page number in text Modern Languages Association of America Humanities :Modern Languages. History. details in notes for each entry Arts. Deakin University website BITS Pilani.

in British Medical Journal. vol 296. 1988. Pilani Campus . 6 Feb. pp. 1988 ‘Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals’.401-405 BITS Pilani.A quick guide to referencing style Contd… Vancouver Number in text Developed at a Medicine. Humanities for each source meeting in Vancouver.

Pilani Campus .MLA Format • All the sources used are to be listed alphabetically at the end • Cited within the text of the document BITS Pilani.

first name.MLA style citation with one author Author’s surname. Here ‘Print’ at the end stands for the medium of publication BITS Pilani. Name of the book. Lewiston:Edwin Mellen Press 1988. Ronald E. Place of publication: Publisher company Year of publication. Print Example: Pepin. Print. Literature of Satire in the Twelfth Century. Pilani Campus .

‘In defiance of the Aztec rulers. BITS Pilani. virtually anyone could find himself the object of satirical writing in the twelfth century (18). Pilani Campus .In text citation with one author It follows the author. page method Example: According to Pepin. the macehhvales (the common people) continued to worship fertility and agricultural female deities’ (Anzaldua 33).

. BITS Pilani.W. Year of publication.MLA style citation with multiple authors Authors’ names in alphabetical order (For the 1st author: surname. Print. and C. Place of publication: Publishing company. Example: Jones.E. 1987. first name of the 2nd author. V. UK: Cambridge University Press. Pilani Campus . first name. M. Foerster. Name of the Book. A History of Newspapers. Cambridge. Eakle.…). surname of the same. S. Print.

Pilani Campus . 170) BITS Pilani. what was already known as English Alley also became known as hotbed of Byzantine intrigue (Shields et al.In text citation with multiple authors Authors’ surnames in alphabetical order page number Example: The ph balance is critical in body-fluid crisis control (Metheny and Snively 15) During the late 1990s.

New York: Booster Press. (Corporate author) Keep in Mind: Do not use ‘Anonymous’ or ‘Anon’ to alphabetize publications without a listed author. Use the title. Print. Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani. Hair –Dryer Safety and the Three-Pronged Plug. (Anonymous) National Boosters of Small Appliances. Print. 2000. 2000.Referring a book with an anonymous author or corporate author Toilet Training and the Feral Child. Philadelphia:Franklin.

How to cite an edited book in MLA style citation Name of the author. Martin’s Press. Name of the book. Pilani Campus . 1992. Johanna M. Ed. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Ed. Smith. Year of first publication. Mary. Year. Print. Editor’s name. 1831. Print Example: Shelley. Place of present publication: Publishing company. Frankenstein. BITS Pilani.

Ed. Encyclopedia of Bioethics. ‘Title of the article’. Place of publication: Publishing company.How to list a citation from an article of a journal (MLA style) The author of the article. Name of the journal. Reich. Joe. Editor’s name. Print BITS Pilani. Vol. Example: Feinberg. ‘ Freedom and Behavior Control’. Print. Ed. Pilani Campus . Year. 4 vols. New York: Free Press. Warren T. 1992.

g. for example.How to list an Internet source in MLA citation • Author and/or editor names (if available) • Article name in quotation marks (if applicable) • Title of the Website. Pilani Campus .) • Any version numbers available. project. • Medium of publication. • Publisher information. • URL (if required. . They may. (Remember that some Print publications have Web publications with slightly different names. including revisions. including the publisher name and publishing date. include the additional information or otherwise modified information. or for your own personal reference. like domain names [e. MLA does not require a URL). • Date you accessed the material. volumes.net]. or issue numbers.com or . BITS Pilani. posting dates. • Take note of any page numbers (if available). or book in italics.

2008. BITS Pilani. 13 Sept. Web. Pilani Campus . H. Trans.edu/›. S. Poetics. 2007. ‹http://classics. 4 Nov.Example Aristotle. Butcher. Web Atomic and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Internet Classics Archive.mit.

BITS Pilani.Foot notes and end notes Originally Mount Everest was called Peak XV. who referred to it as Sagarmatha or "Goddess of the Sky. One name came from the north side of the mountain. it is clear from their names for the mountain that the Tibetan and Nepalese people worshiped this special place on earth. or "Goddess. who had named it Joloungma."3 Later the mountain was renamed in honor of Sir George Everest. Pilani Campus .1 As it turned out. from the Tibetans. Mother of the World. from the Nepalese. Although today it is rarely called Sagarmatha or Joloungma."2 The other name came from the south side of the mountain. Peak XV already had two other names.

Vanishing Cultures. 1991). The Vanishing Cultures of the Himalayas (San Diego: Harcourt. 24. 23. 3 Reynolds. Into Thin Air (New York: Villard Books. 10.At the bottom of the page or at the end of the article 1 Jon Krakauer. 1997). 2 Roberta Reynolds. Pilani Campus . p. BITS Pilani. p. p.

Pilani Campus .Annotated bibliography a list of sources on a particular topic that includes a brief summary of what each source is about first part: citation Second part: summary of the evidence being cited BITS Pilani.

Parsons says that the educational program has been effective. Pilani Campus . Navy to educate people in the Navy and their families about some of the things that are potentially dangerous to children about the Internet. BITS Pilani. Matt. “Protecting Children on the Electronic Frontier: A Law Enforcement Challenge.S. This article is about an educational program used by the U.Example (MLA style) Parsons.10 (2000): 22-26.” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 69.

Final stages of writing the research paper • Revise the first draft • Proofread and final draft BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Why? • To keep track of the research material one gathers. Pilani Campus .an excellent way • Keep them brief BITS Pilani.

Thank you. BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

1956 .BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

 BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus BITS ZG659: Technical Communication .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus TECHNOLOGY IN COMMUNICATION .

Technology in Communication .

• The new information technology—Internet and e-mail—have practically eliminated the physical costs of communications. coherence. Peter Drucker Communication Skills .Impact of Technology • Rapid advances in computer technology for communication provide us with plenty of tools to enhance the ability to transmit information with clarity. and precision.

editing and formatting Communication Skills .Advantages of Computer Technology • • • • • Speed and efficiency Professional appearance and flavor Vividness and greater appeal Plenty of resources for data Lot of facilities for revising.

Limitations of Computer Technology • Difficult in effective information selection • System failures • Requirement of certain level of technical literacy • Blurring of official and personal lines in lives Communication Skills .

analyzing. Several computer software packages are available for all these processes. organizing and wring information.Software for Creating Messages • Creating a message for technical communication involves planning. Communication Skills . collecting .

lateral thinking and problem solving tools to your desktop. creative thinking. • Brainstorming is a special computer software that brigs powerful brainstorming. Communication Skills .Planning the content • Brainstorming and outlining software are useful in this regard.

Communication Skills . • In addition search engines too help you gather data.Collection of Data • Online catalogues and database of various libraries across the world can fetch you all types of information.

and spreadsheet tools help you in analyzing and organizing your data too. • For example. Communication Skills . graphics.Analyzing and Organizing • Statistics. you can draw the attention of the reader or audience to increasing tends more easily with the help of a line chart than by raw numbers.

Brainstorming and outlining software are useful for planning the content. a. Communication Skills . c. Online catalogues and databases of various libraries across the world can be used for data collection. graphics. b. Statistics. and spreadsheet tools help in analyzing and organizing your data.Progress Check • Study the following statements about the communication technology and tick true or false against each of them.

and style checkers. • There are electronic thesauruses. and other tools for writing. graphic packages.Software for Writing documents • word processing software is the predominant writing tool. grammar . spelling . electronic references. Communication Skills .

captions. fonts etc. • To save time by enabling the use of speed formatting keys and by allowing tables of contents and indexes. Communication Skills . paragraph spacing.Style and Templates • For getting consistent appearance in terms of heading .

move and copy. Communication Skills . search and replace. delete.Revising and Editing • Some of the most common features for revising and editing include insert. cut and paste.

Communication Skills . • Desktop publishing software are good for layout of long documents that combine text.Software for Presenting Documents • To present your document in print form. you can us desktop publishing software or word processing software. and design elements. • Similarly for electronic publication you can use these programs to generate files in hypertext markup language (HTML) or portable document file (PDF) Format. graphics.

position the cursor at the beginning of text of the slide in front of which you would like a new slide. and presentation management tools.all designed to be easy and user friendly. • Add a Slide • To add before a slide. graphs. outlining. Communication Skills . and press the Enter key.Power Point Basics • Power point offers word processing. drawing.

Communication Skills . • Speaker Notes • To add notes to a slide select the slide on which you wish to insert notes then click in the Notes Pane in the lower right if the Power Point screen and type.Conti..

Background/ color Scheme • Click on the format menu • Select apply design temple. Communication Skills . A window will open asking you to choose a design. • Click on the drop down list to select a color from the ones provided or click on more colors and fill effects to see other choices.

click Header and footer • On the Slide tab.Header/ Footers • On the view menu. you set options that affect what will appear at the bottom of slides: • Date and time • Selecting the Side number • Selecting Footer Communication Skills .

including : importing a picture from an image file. creating Word Art.Graphics • There are various ways to add pictures to your slides. using power point’s drawing tools etc. Communication Skills .

toolbars and then drawing. Communication Skills . click the view menu.Drawing • Power point also provides a set of drawing tools. If they are not already visible on the screen.

• To insert a sound from a file. • On the insert menu. click movie from file.Audio and Video • Select the slide on which you wish to add a link to an audio or video file. click sound from file. Communication Skills . To insert a video from a file. point to movies and sounds.

• On the insert menu. • Use the buttons at the top of the organization chart window to ad text bozs to your chart. point to picture. Communication Skills .Charts • To insert chart first display the slide on which you want the chart to appear. then click organization chart • A separate Microsoft organization chart window appears.

Transitions • On the slide show menu.down list. click the transition you want • Select any options you want (speed/slow/medium/fast. advance on mouse Click or automatically Communication Skills . click slide transition • From the effect drop.

• For example. Communication Skills . and other objects appear on your power point slide. graphics. you can make graphics or text items appear one at a time and add visual or sound effects.Slide Show Animation • You can control how and when text.

• Power point offers word processing. Communication Skills . drawing. and presentation management tools. outlining.Progress Check • Study the following statements about the communication technology and tick true or false against each of them. graphing. • Word processing software is the predominant writing tool. • Power Point has a facility for adding speaker notes to a presentation.

but it can be used for almost any form of publishing.LaTex • LaTex is a document preparation system for high – quality typesetting. It is most often used for medium – to – large typesetting.to.large technical or scientific documents. Communication Skills . It is most often used for medium.

These are produced in LaTex using control sequences. Communication Skills .Characters and Control Sequences • The characters /%#& are used for special purposes within LaTex. • Mathematical documents often contain arrays of number or symbols and other complicated expressions.

Producing a LaTex Input File • If an article is to be produced on A4 paper. 12pt]{article} Communication Skills . and if the main body of the text is to be set with a font whose natural size is 12 point then the appropriate /document class command is: • /document class[ a4paper.

beginning with a / document class command and the /begin {document] command.Producing Ordinary Text Using LaText • To produce a simple document using LaTex one should create a Latex input file. and the text of the document should be sandwiched between two commands. • The input file should end with the /end {document} command. as described. Communication Skills .

also shows on the screen. • This property distinguishes it from typesetting programs like LaTex. It is easy to use. through menus and keystrokes. where you just have to wait and see how the output is formatted. so practically everything that can appear on a print – out. • ChiWriter was designed to work in an MS –DOS environment.Chi Writer • Chi Writer is a scientific multifont word processor. It is to a high extent WYSIWYG ( What You See IS What You Get). Communication Skills .

• Technology also gives you option of adding audio and video to your written messages. Communication Skills . cellular phones and voice messages systems can be used for sending or receiving oral messages where as e-mail and fax can be used for your written messages or documents. • For example .Transmitting Documents • A variety of electronic media is available to transmit your oral and written messages.

Creating. you need to be judicious in your choice of appropriate technology. writing. and transmitting you technical documents. presenting. Communication Skills .Effective Use of Available Technology • Thought technology can help you in Planning.

Communication Skills . In Chi Writer everything that can appear on a print – out. c. LaTex is a document preparation system for high – quality typesetting. a. Chi Writer is a scientific multifont word processor. b.Progress Check • Study the following statements about the communication technology and tick true or false against each of them. also shows on the screen.

INSTRUCTION MANUALS DESCRIPTION Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION .

TOPICS COVERED SO FAR Till EC 1 • Communication (Overview) • Barriers • Use of technology • Listening • Presentations • Writing • Letters After EC 1 • Group communication • Interviews • Reports • Proposals • Research paper. thesis Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 36 . dissertation.

Topics • INSTRUCTION MANUALS • DESCRIPTION Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 37 .

INSTRUCTION MANUALS • • • • • Technical background Theory Equipment and supplies Discussion of steps Supplementary discussion Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 38 .

supplements. section for definition. graphics.) Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 39 . headings – main and sub. lists. section for equipment. etc. description.INSTRUCTION MANUALS • • • • Writing style Illustration Content formatting Checklist ( Introduction.

Warranties. Abbreviations.USER MANUAL • Type of instruction manual • More elaborate • Installation. Precautions.Technical Communication Contact details Course NO: BITS ZG 40 . Introcustion. maintenance. Specifications. troubleshooting procedures • Cover. Operational details. Contents. Accessories.

Illustrating • One complete cycle of operations to be given • Process Description Scope. Concept • Naming. Reagents. sample preparation. analysis. Standard solutions. Process.TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION • Objects. Defining. calculations Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 41 . Describing.

Technical Communication Course No: BITS ZG 659 Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION .

INSTRUCTION MANUALS DESCRIPTION Instructor PIYUSH GUPTA Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION .

dissertation. thesis Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 3 .TOPICS COVERED SO FAR Till EC 1  Communication (Overview)  Barriers  Use of technology  Listening  Presentations  Writing  Letters After EC 1      Group communication Interviews Reports Proposals Research paper.

Topics INSTRUCTION MANUALS DESCRIPTION Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 4 .

INSTRUCTION MANUALS  Technical  Theory  Equipment background and supplies  Discussion of steps  Supplementary discussion Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 5 .

INSTRUCTION MANUALS  Writing style  Illustration  Content formatting  Checklist ( Introduction. headings – main and sub. etc. graphics. lists.) Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 6 . description. supplements. section for definition. section for equipment.

Abbreviations. Warranties. Accessories. troubleshooting procedures  Cover. maintenance. Contact details Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 7 .USER MANUAL  Type of instruction manual  More elaborate  Installation. Introcustion. Precautions. Specifications. Operational details. Contents.

Illustrating  One complete cycle of operations to be given  Process Description Scope. Describing. sample preparation. analysis. Reagents. Standard solutions.TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION  Objects. Process. Concept  Naming. calculations Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 8 . Defining.

REVIEW OF TOPICS 1 TO 15 Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 9 .

Communication: Overview Definition Process Types Network Characteristics Importance Barriers Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 10 .

Intrapersonal Interpersonal Organizational Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 11 .BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION 1. 3. 2.

TECHNOLOGY IN COMMUNICATION Advantages Disadvantages Creating Messages Presenting Messages Transmitting Messages Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 12 .

Mention the 6 Traits of Active Listening  Being non evaluative  Paraphrasing  Reflecting implications  Reflecting hidden feelings  Inviting further contributions  Responding nonverbally Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 13 .

PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATIONS • • • • • • • Defining Purpose Analysing Audience and Locale Organizing Contents Preparing outline Understanding Nuances of Delivery Understanding Kinesics and Paralinguistics Using Appropriate Visual Aids Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 65927/07/07 BITSZG659 Technical 14 .

BUILDING BLOCKS Words and Phrases Sentence structure Paragraph structure Readability Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 15 .

job Reports. concise.Business Letters         External correspondence Reflect your company Inquiry. correct. adjustment. proposals More formal than memoranda Personal (I. cover. sales.) Block format Clear. you etc. complete. we. complaint. courteous Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 16 .

FORMS OF GROUP COMMUNICATION  Meetings  Seminars  Group Discussions  Symposia  Panel Discussions  Conferences  Conventions Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 17 .

MEETINGS Purposes Planning and preparation Procedure Follow up/ Evaluation Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 18 .

Group Discussion  Definition  Traits  Group behavior  Approach  Dos  Don’ts Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 19 .

CONFERENCES Significance Planning and Preparation Procedure Evaluation Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 20 .

INTERVIEWS Definition Purposes Types Job Interview Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 21 .

Ten critical success factors • • • • • • • • • • Positive attitude toward work Proficiency in the field of study Communication skills (Oral and Written) Interpersonal Skills Confidence Critical thinking and problem solving skills Flexibility Self-motivation Leadership Teamwork Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 22 .

TEN MOST COMMON REASONS FOR REJECTION • • • • • • • • • • Arrogance Apathy Uninhibited nervousness Equivocation Lack of concentration Lack of crispness Lack of Social skills Lack of firmness Inadequate quantitative skills Unsuitable personality 23 Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION .

scannable resume  Cover letter + Resume Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 24 .Job Application  Crucial first impression  Appearance. skills & personal qualities  Paper copy. content  Well organized. presented  Free of errors  Purpose is to persuade that you have abilities. written.

RESUME  An accurate summary of your credentials  Technical / Marketing document that present your past and present performance to enable the receiver to assess your future potential  Education. achievements. Hybrid. Electronic ( Ref: Pages 312 – 316 Technical Communication by OUP) Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 25 . goals  Should flow naturally and be easy to read  Should be based on a particular format Chronological. job experience. Functional.

REPORTS  Definition  Objectives  Characteristics  Importance  Types  Preparatory Steps  Format  Structure Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 26 .

FORMATS  Manuscript  Memo  Letter  Printed form Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 27 .

 Define Purpose & Scope  Determine the audience  Collect & select data  Organize the material  Make an outline  Interpret the data  Prepare the first Draft Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 28 .

Illustrations Tables Dependent Phrase Graphs Figures Maps Drawings Charts Photographs Independent Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 29 .

MEMO REPORTS      Routine business matters ( making changes. improving working conditions.) Helps administration in problem solving and decision making Permanent record of internal operations Memo format Printed format Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 30 . etc.

Discussion -Topics. Conclusion . scope. background. context.Body of the memo report Introduction -Purpose.two / three -Plans (next) / expectations dead line -Distribution / cc etc.any additional information ( Please see pages 447-448) Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 31 .

LETTER REPORTS      All characteristics of formal letters are applicable Conciseness. courtesy ‘You’ attitude Longer than memo reports as they are external Can be detailed and include illustrations Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 32 . clarity. correctness. completeness.

date. signature Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 33 . complimentary close. subject. main text containing sub headings and illustrtaions. inside address. recommendations. introductory para. salutation.LETTER REPORTS  Please see the sample in pages 449 and 450  Heading.

Technical Proposals Definition Purposes Types Structure Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 34 .

Structure Prefatory Main body Supplementary parts Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 35 .

Prefatory Title page Letter of transmittal Draft contract Table of contents List of illustrations Executive summary Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 36 .

Main body Introduction Technical section Management section Cost estimate Conclusion Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 37 .

Supplementary Appendix Sources and References Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 38 .

References     Actually consulted Names. To cite papers accepted for publication “in press” No ref. year. initials of all authors title.. page no. personal communications Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 39 . to unpublished words. no. vol.

DISSERTATAION Longer research paper Critical statement and not a mere exposition In depth discussion of the topic Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 40 .

STRUCTURE  Title page  Acknowledgements  Contents Page  Abstract  Summary  Introduction  Literature Survey  Methodology  Results  Discussion  Conclusion  References  Appendices 41 Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION .

THESIS       Longer Dissertation/ Research report Concerns a problem or series of problems in your area of research and it should describe what was known about it previously. what you think your results mean where and how further progress in the field can be made Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 42 . what you did towards solving it.

STRUCTURE        Title Page Declaration/ Certificate Acknowledgements Table of Contents Abstract Introduction Literature review        Middle chapters Materials and methods Theory Results and discussion Conclusions and suggestions References/ Bibliography Appendices 43 Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION .

3.RESEARCH PAPER 2. 2.DISSERTATION 3. Doctoral research Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 44 .Part of assigned work 3.Journal 2.THESIS  OBJECTIVE To present organized analysis of a topic 1.1. 1.

30-50 pages 3. 3 to 10 pages 2. Longest Evaluation: 1.THESIS       Length: 1.1.DISSERTATION 3.By expert examiners Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 45 .RESEARCH PAPER 2.By Guide 3. By editor 2.

DISSERTATION 3.1. No cover and title page Technical Communication Course NO: BITS ZG 659BITSZG659 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 46 .RESEARCH PAPER 2.THESIS Structure  Mostly similar  1.

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