Week 1 – Introduction to Metal Forming  Processes

Unit of study code Unit of study name Teaching Term/Semester & Year Contact Hours (hrs/wk) or total contact hours Prerequisites Corequisites Credit Points

HES3281 Materials and Manufacturing 2 Semester 1 / 2012 5 Hours / Week HES2281 Materials and Manufacturing 1 Nil 12.5

Aims The unit aims to provide students the understanding of a variety of metal and polymeric manufacturing processes and the importance of fatigue failure and failure of materials Learning Objectives After successfully completing this unit, you should be able to: 1.To demonstrate an understanding in the manufacturing of plastic components by recognising the processes and calculating the forces required to produce such components 2.To develop an understanding in fatigue and failure by calculating the stress and strain involved 3.To demonstrate an understanding in the manufacturing of metal components by recognising the processes and calculating the forces required to produce such components

Metal Forming Processes: • Extrusion, wire drawing, strip forming, forging, rolling, sheet metal forming – mathematical modelling and process parameters. Polymers and composite: manufacture and processes: • Crystalline and amorphous microstructures, physical properties, Mechanical properties of polymers and composites. Forming and moulding techniques, extrusion and injection moulding: effect of process parameters. Blow moulding: output die requirements, parisons dimensions, swelling considerations. Fatigue Failure and Failure of Materials: • Static failure of materials, Fatigue failure, fatigue/fracture, life estimation. Analysis and prediction of failure, Non‐ destructive testing. Advanced Manufacturing Processes: • Materials selection, powder metallurgy. Laboratory experiments: Cold rolling, stress concentration and polymer processing.

Assessment This subject contains the following assessments:  Examination (50%) ‐ 3 hrs.  Tutorial Participation (10%) – Attendance is compulsory. at the end of the semester  Tests (2 written test) (10%) – 5% each  Case study (Oral Presentation ) (10%) Practical laboratory work (20%) – attendance (5%) and  lab reports (15%). .

If you do not achieve at least 35% of the possible final marks for each Major Assessment Component you will receive a maximum of 44% as your mark for the subject concerned. The Major Assessment Components carries a weighting of at least 15% of the total mark available. .Minimum requirements to pass this unit of study: In order to achieve a pass in this unit of study. you must: (a) at least 35% of the possible final marks for each Assessment Component plus (b) an aggregate mark for the subject of 50% or more.

 M. S.J. Schey. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. S. Plastic Engineering..A.. London.. Processes and Design for Manufacturing. Maxwell Macmillan.Resources and Reference Material TEXT  There is no specific text for this subject.) is also used in the subject HES2281 Materials and  Manufacturing 1 REFERENCES Groover. Volume 1. 2000. M. 2007 Tlusty..  M. Prentice Hall.  Prentice Hall Inc. McGrawHill. J. most notes are obtained from Groover.. Elsevier. Engineering Materials. S. 2006 Jones. Manufacturing Processes and Equipment. Fundament…. This text (Groover.. El‐Wakil. Ashby..R.... 1997 Kalpakjian. H. Processes and  Systems. Prentice Hall 2000. PWS Pub.. 3rd Edn. D. M. However. 2007. R. 2005 . J.P. Introduction to Manufacturing Processes.. 1998 Crawford. Processes and Systems. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing Methods‐ Materials. Prentice Hall Inc. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing Methods‐ Materials..P... 2nd Edn. and other references listed below. R. 3rd Edn. 3rd Edn. and Schmid. Company.  5th Edition.P.D.


Solidification processes ‐ starting material is a  heated liquid or semifluid 2. Material removal processes ‐ starting material is a  ductile or brittle solid  . Deformation processes ‐ starting material is a  ductile solid (commonly metal) 4.1. Particulate processing ‐ starting material consists of  powders 3.


 applies stresses that  exceed the yield strength of the metal  » The metal takes a shape determined by the  geometry of the die . » The tool.Large group of manufacturing processes in which plastic deformation is used to change the shape of metal work pieces. usually called a die.

. With the application of suitable pressures.Deformation processes exploit a remarkable property of metals. which is their ability to flow plastically in the solid state without deterioration of their properties. the material is moved to obtain the desired shape with almost no wastage.

Forming Processes Forming processes tend systems consisting to be complex Independent variables. . Dependent variables. and Independent-dependent interrelations.

 some forming processes  ˃ Stretch the metal (tensile stresses) ˃ Others bend the metal (tensile and compressive) ˃ Still others apply shear stresses .» Stresses to plastically deform the metal are  usually compressive ˃ Examples: rolling. extrusion » However. forging.



Starting geometry of the workpiece This may be dictated by previous processing or it may be selected by the engineer from a variety of available shapes. Economics often influence this decision. .Independent Variables Starting material The engineer is often free to specify the chemistry and condition. These may also be chosen for ease in fabrication or they may be restricted by the final properties desired for the product.

This are has many aspects such as the diameter of . success or failure of a process often depends on tool geometry. Since tooling will produce and control the metal flow. the die angle in wire drawing and the cavity details when forging.Independent Variables Tool or die geometry a rolling mill roll.

Independent Variables Lubrication Since lubricants also acts as coolants. . Specification includes type of lubricant amount to be applied and the method of application. and parting compounds. corrosion inhibitors. thermal barriers. their selection is an aspect of great importance.

It is obvious that its selection would be significant in a forming operation. Speed of operation Since speed can directly influence the lubricant effectiveness. .Independent Variables Starting temperature Many material properties vary greatly with temperature. the forces required for deformation and the time available for heat transfer. so its selection and control may well dictate the success or failure of an operation.

others. such as rolling permits its selection at the discretion of the engineer. .Independent Variables Amount of deformation while some processes control this variable through die design.

Dependent Variables Force or power requirements Engineers cannot directly specify the force or power. they can only specify the independent variables and then experience the consequences of the selection. The ability to predict the forces or powers however is extremely important for only by having this knowledge will the engineer be able to specify or select the equipment for the process. .

Dependent Variables Material properties of the product The customer is not interested in the starting properties but is concerned with our ability to produce the desired final shape with the desired final properties Exit temperature Engineering properties can be altered by both the mechanical and thermal history of the material thus it is important to know and control the temperature of the material throughout the process .

. control here is vital the customer is satisfied only if the desired geometric shape is produced with the right set of companion properties and without surface or internal defects.Dependent Variables Surface finish and precision Both are characteristics of the resultant product that are dependent on the specific details of the process. Nature of the material flow since properties depend on deformation history.

Independent-Dependent Interrelations Experience This requires long time exposure to the process and is generally limited to the specific materials. equipment and products encountered in the realm of past contact. . Experiment While possibly the least likely in error direct experiment is both time consuming and costly.

Independent-Dependent Interrelations Process modeling Here one approaches the problem with a high speed computer and one or more mathematical models of the process numerical values are provided for the various independent variables and the models are used to compute predictions for the dependent variables .





» Desirable material properties:  ˃ Low yield strength  ˃ High ductility » These properties are affected by temperature:  ˃ Ductility increases and yield strength decreases  when work temperature is raised » Other factors:  ˃ Strain rate and friction .

Sheet metalworking . Bulk deformation ˃ ˃ ˃ ˃ ˃ ˃ ˃ ˃ Rolling Forging Extrusion Wire and bar drawing Bending Deep drawing Cutting Miscellaneous processes 2.1.

» Characterized by significant deformations and  massive shape changes » "Bulk" refers to workparts with relatively low  surface area‐to‐volume ratios » Starting work shapes include cylindrical billets  and rectangular bars .


2 Basic bulk deformation processes: (a) rolling .Rolling Figure 18.

Forging Figure 18.2 Basic bulk deformation processes: (b) forging .

Extrusion Figure 18.2 Basic bulk deformation processes: (c) extrusion .

2 Basic bulk deformation processes: (d) drawing .Wire and Bar Drawing Figure 18.

 strips. and coils » High surface area‐to‐volume ratio of starting  metal. which distinguishes these from bulk  deformation  » Often called pressworking because presses  perform these operations ˃ Parts are called stampings ˃ Usual tooling: punch and die .» Forming and related operations performed on  metal sheets.

3 Basic sheet metalworking operations: (a) bending .Sheet Metal Bending Figure 18.

3 Basic sheet metalworking operations: (b) drawing .Deep Drawing Figure 18.

3 Basic sheet metalworking operations: (c) shearing .Shearing of Sheet Metal Figure 18.







» Plastic region of stress‐strain curve is primary  interest because material is plastically  deformed  » In plastic region. metal's behavior is expressed  by the flow curve:    K n where K = strength coefficient. and n = strain hardening exponent  Flow curve based on true stress and true strain .

that is. strength  increases when deformed due to strain  hardening » Flow stress = instantaneous value of stress  required to continue deforming the material Yf  K n where Yf = flow stress. the yield strength as a function of strain .» For most metals at room temperature.

» Determined by integrating the flow curve  equation between zero and the final strain  value defining the range of interest  K n Yf  1 n _ _ where       = average flow stress. and  =  Yf maximum strain during deformation process .

» For any metal, K and n in the flow curve depend  on temperature
˃ Both strength (K) and strain hardening (n) are  reduced at higher temperatures ˃ In addition, ductility is increased at higher  temperatures




» Any deformation operation can be  accomplished with lower forces and power at  elevated temperature  » Three temperature ranges in metal forming:  ˃ Cold working ˃ Warm working ˃ Hot working .


» Performed at room temperature or slightly  above  » Many cold forming processes are important  mass production operations » Minimum or no machining usually required ˃ These operations are near net shape or net shape processes  .

 closer tolerances » Better surface finish » Strain hardening increases strength and  hardness » Grain flow during deformation can cause  desirable directional properties in product » No heating of work required .» Better accuracy.

 metal is simply not ductile enough to  be cold worked .» Higher forces and power required in the  deformation operation » Surfaces of starting workpiece must be free of  scale and dirt » Ductility and strain hardening limit the amount  of forming that can be done ˃ In some cases. metal must be annealed to allow  further deformation ˃ In other cases.

 where Tm = melting point (absolute  temperature) for metal .3Tm.» Performed at temperatures above room  temperature but below recrystallization  temperature » Dividing line between cold working and warm  working often expressed in terms of melting  point:  ˃ 0.

» Lower forces and power than in cold working » More intricate work geometries possible » Need for annealing may be reduced or  eliminated  .

 hot working usually performed  somewhat above 0.5Tm ˃ Metal continues to soften as temperature increases  above 0.» Deformation at temperatures above the recrystallization temperature » Recrystallization temperature = about one‐half  of melting point on absolute scale  ˃ In practice.5Tm. enhancing advantage of hot working  above this level  .

Capability for substantial plastic deformation of  the metal ‐ far more than possible with cold  working or warm working » Why? ˃ Strength coefficient (K) is substantially less than at  room temperature ˃ Strain hardening exponent (n) is zero (theoretically) ˃ Ductility is significantly increased  .

» Workpart shape can be significantly altered » Lower forces and power required » Metals that usually fracture in cold working can  be hot formed » Strength properties of product are generally  isotropic » No strengthening of part occurs from work  hardening  ˃ Advantageous in cases when part is to be  subsequently processed by cold forming .

» Lower dimensional accuracy » Higher total energy required (due to the  thermal energy to heat the workpiece) » Work surface oxidation (scale). poorer surface  finish » Shorter tool life  .

 once that stress is reached ˃ However. a metal in hot working behaves  like a perfectly plastic material. especially at elevated temperatures:  Strain rate sensitivity .» Theoretically. with strain  hardening exponent n = 0 ˃ The metal should continue to flow at the same flow  stress. an additional phenomenon occurs during  deformation.

v  where  = true strain rate.» Strain rate in forming is directly related to  speed of deformation v » Deformation speed v = velocity of the ram  or other movement of the equipment » Strain rate is defined: . h . and h = instantaneous height of workpiece being deformed .

» In most practical operations. valuation of strain  rate is complicated by  ˃ Workpart geometry ˃ Variations in strain rate in different regions of the  part » Strain rate can reach 1000 s‐1 or more for some  metal forming operations .

 resistance to deformation  increases  ˃ This effect is known as strain‐rate sensitivity .» Flow stress is a function of temperature » At hot working temperatures. flow stress also  depends on strain rate ˃ As strain rate increases.

5 (a) Effect of strain rate on flow stress at an elevated work temperature.Strain Rate Sensitivity Figure 18. (b) Same relationship plotted on log-log coordinates. .

 and m =  strain‐rate sensitivity exponent . Yf = Cε m where C = strength constant (similar  but not equal to strength coefficient  in flow curve equation).

6 Effect of temperature on flow stress for a typical metal. decreases. as indicated by the intersection of each plot with the vertical dashed line at strain rate = 1. .0.Effect of Temperature on Flow Stress Figure 18. and m (slope of each plot) increases with increasing temperature. The constant C.

 effect of strain rate is almost  negligible + Flow curve is a good representation of material  behavior ˃ As temperature increases. strain rate becomes  increasingly important in determining flow stress .» Increasing temperature decreases C and  increases m ˃ At room temperature.

» In most metal forming processes. friction is  undesirable:  ˃ Metal flow is retarded  ˃ Forces and power are increased ˃ Tooling wears faster » Friction and tool wear are more severe in hot  working .

» Metalworking lubricants are applied to  tool‐work interface in many forming operations  to reduce harmful effects of friction  » Benefits:  ˃ Reduced sticking. forces. power. tool wear ˃ Better surface finish ˃ Removes heat from the tooling .

 etc.) » Hot working or cold working » Work material » Chemical reactivity with tool and work metals  » Ease of application » Cost  . forging.» Type of forming process (rolling. sheet  metal drawing.

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