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Duplex stainless steel
DATASHEET S-1874 - E N G . F e b. 2 0 0 4 .
Sandvik SAF 2205
Sandvik SAF 2205 is a duplex (austenitic-ferritic) stainless steel. Sandvik SAF 2205 is characterised by:
high resistance to stress corrosion cracking in chloride-bearing high mechanical strength – roughly twice the proof strength of
austenitic stainless steels
physical properties that offer design advantages good weldability
environments and in environments containing hydrogen sulphide
high resistance to general corrosion, pitting and crevice
high resistance to erosion corrosion and corrosion fatigue CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (NOMINAL), % C max. 0.030 Si max. 1.0 Mn max. 2.0 P max. 0.030 S max. 0.015 Cr 22 Ni 5 Mo 3.2 N 0.18
STANDARDS Type of steel Sandvik.Grade UNS EN EN.Name W.Nr DIN SS AFNOR SAF 2205 S31803/S32205 1.4462* X 2 CrNiMoN 22-5-3* 1.4462 X 2 CrNiMoN 22 5 3 2377 Z2.CND22.05.03
Other forms of supply • Welded tube and pipe • Fittings and flanges • Wire electrodes and filler wire/rods • Covered electrodes • Strip electrodes and flux for surfacing • Strip, annealed or cold-rolled to different degrees of hardness • Bar • Plate, sheet and wide strip • Forged products • Cast products MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Products standards Seamless tube: Seamless and welded tube: Seamless and welded pipe: Flanges and valves: Fittings: Plate, sheet and strip: Bars and shapes:
NFA 49-217 ASTM A789 ASTM A790 ASTM A182 ASTM A182; A815 ASTM A240, EN 10088-2* ASTM A276, EN 10088-3*
The following values apply to material in the solution annealed condition. Tube and pipe with wall thicknesses above 20 mm (0.787 inch) may have slightly lower values. For seamless tubes with a wall thickness <4 mm we can guarantee proof strength (Rp0.2) values that are 10% higher than those listed below at 20°C (68°F), and than those listed at higher temperatures. More detailed information can be supplied on request.
At 20°C (68°F)
Tube and pipe with a wall thickness max. 20 mm (0.79 inch)
Metric units Proof strength Rp0.2a) Rp1.0a) MPa MPa min. min. 485 500 Tensile strength Elong. Elong. Rm Ab) A2" MPa % % min. min. 680-880 25 25 Hardness HRC max. 28
* According to EN 10088, valid for sheet/plate, strip, semi-finished products, bars, rods and section for general purposes (not for pressure purposes).
Approved by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for use in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, section VIII, div. 1 and section VIII, div. 2, Case 2067-2 VdTÜV-Werkstoffblatt 418 (Ferritisch-austenitischer Walz- und Schmiedestahl) NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 (Petroleum and natural gas industries Materials for use in H2S-containing Environments in oil and gas production - Part 1: General principles for selection of crackingresistant materials Published:2003) NGS 1606 (Nordic rules for application) valid for SAF 2205 made by Sandvik DNV (Approval of Seamless Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubes and Pipes in Quality Sandvik SAF 2205 ) ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping
FORMS OF SUPPLY Seamless tube and pipe – finishes and dimensions
Imperial units Proof strength Rp0.2a) Rp1.0a) ksi ksi min. min. 70 73 Tensile strength Rm ksi 99-128 Elong. Ab) % min. 25 Elong. A2" % min. 25 Hardness HRC max. 28
1 MPa = 1 N/mm2 a) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively. b) Based on L0 = 5.65 √S0 where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-sectional area.
Seamless tube and pipe in Sandvik SAF 2205 is supplied in dimensions up to 260 mm outside diameter. The delivery condition is either solution annealed and white pickled, or solution annealed in a bright annealing process. It can also be delivered cold-worked without subsequent heat treatment.
5 45. Curve showing typical impact strength values (Charpy-V) for SAF 2205. This restores the impact strength of the weld metal to the same level as that of the parent metal. 965 140 Elong. solution annealing is recommended. the microstructure changes which results in a reduction in impact strength.79 inch) Temperature Proof strength °C Rp0. 60. min.9 27.8 g/cm3. This effect does not necessarily alter the behaviour of the material at the operating temperature.0 42.0 30. If very high impact strength demands are made on the weld metal at low temperatures.9 27. is good in both the weld metal and the heat-affected zone down to -50°C (-58°F). Specimen size 10x10 mm (0. Tube and pipe with wall thickness max.5 48. the impact strength is a minimum of 27J (20 ft lb). 0.13 0. Contact Sandvik for advice. At high temperatures If Sandvik SAF 2205 is exposed to temperatures exceeding 280 °C (540 °F) for prolonged periods.5 40. 280 °C (540 °F) is required as a maximum according to VdTÜV-Wb 418 and NGS 1606.39 x 0. °F SAF 2205 AISI 316L 68 200 Btu/(ft h °F) 8 8 9 9 400 10 10 600 11 10 800 12 12 Figure 1. A2” % min. 2 2 . impact strength. Tests have shown that the impact strength of material welded by means of gas-shielded arc welding.12 0. At this temperature. The impact strength of welded Sandvik SAF 2205 is also good.3 the following design values are recommended for UNS S31803 (SAF 2205) Temperature °F °C 100 200 300 400 500 600 38 93 149 204 260 316 Stress ksi 30.11 0.39 x 0. 895 130 Tensile strength Rm MPa ksi min. heat exchanger tubes can be used at higher temperatures without any problems. min.13 0. °C (°F) Temperature. J 300 4158b 120 200 300 400 500 600 According to ASME B31.S E A M L E S S T U B E Sandvik SAF 2205 Seamless tube and pipe in the cold-worked condition – intended for oil and gas production Proof strength Rp0.0 28.2 MPa min.14 100 Thermal conductivity Metric units Temperature.9 MPa 207 207 199 192 188 185 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Density 7.5 53.28 lb/in3 200 Specific heat capacity Temperature. although the impact strength values in the as-welded condition are slightly lower than for weld-free material.2 ksi min. 10 For pressure vessel applications.39 inch). The values apply for standard Charpy-V specimens (10 x 10 mm. °C SAF 2205 AISI 316L 20 100 16 15 200 17 17 300 19 18 400 20 20 W/(m °C) 14 14 0 Imperial units -150 (-238) -100 (-148) -50 (-58) 0 (32) 50 100 (122) (212) Temperature. °F Btu/(lb °F) SAF 2205 20 100 200 300 400 480 500 530 550 590 68 200 400 600 800 0. For example. as is evident from figure 1.2 MPa ksi min. 50 100 150 200 250 300 415 360 335 310 295 280 Temperature °F Proof strength Rp0. 0. 20 mm (0.0 Impact strength Sandvik SAF 2205 possesses good impact strength both at room temperature and at low temperatures. °C J/(kg °C) Temperature.2 26. CVN.39 inch).
figure 4.2 27. AISI 316L and AISI 317L in boiling mixtures of 50% acetic acid and varying proportions of formic acid. figure 3.1 mm/year (4mpy) in natural aerated stagnant test solution.20 (8) AISI 317L 0 5 10 15 (x10–6) Figure 2. weight-% Figrue 4. 3 3 .5 30-200 13.0 9.0 86-400 7.0 18.0 6. °C (°F) 110 (230) Boiling point curve 4161b 30-100 Per °C 13.8 10. Impurities that increase corrosivity are often present in process solutions of acids.05 (2) CORROSION RESISTANCE 0 0 In most media. The improved resistance of Sandvik SAF 2205 is illustrated by the isocorrosion diagram for corrosion in sulphuric acid. the austenitic grades Sandvik 2RK65 or Sandvik Sanicro 28. Thermal expansion per °C (30-100°C).8 86-800 8.15 (6) AISI 316L 0.5 13.0 13. mm/year (mpy) 0. Isocorrosion diagram for SAF 2205.2 0.0 26. e. AISI 316L and AISI 317L in sulphuric acid. Figure 5 shows the isocorrosion diagram for Sandvik SAF 2205 in hydrochloric acid.0 28.5 17.0 17. mean values in temperature ranges (x10-6) Metric units Temperature.5 86-600 7.g. Test time 1+3+3 days.5 16. °F SAF 2205 Carbon steel AISI 316L 86-200 Per °F 7.8 7.0 30-300 14.5 14. °C 20 100 200 300 MPa 200 194 186 180 Temperature. higher alloyed stainless steels should be chosen.S E A M L E S S T U B E Sandvik SAF 2205 Thermal expansion.5 9. weight-% Figure 3.25 (10) 50% acetic acid AISI 316L 6832b 4230b 0. Carbon steel Corrosion rate. °F 68 200 400 600 ksi 29. (x103) Temperature. The curves represent a corrosion rate of 0. therefore.5 7. 5 10 15 25 20 HCOOH. Corrosion rate of SAF 2205.5 30-400 14.0 7. SAF 2205 30 (85) 0 20 40 60 80 100 H2SO4.8 9.0 12. Modulus of elasticity. If there is a risk of active corrosion. offer certain design advantages. °C SAF 2205 Carbon steel AISI 316L Imperial units Temperature.10 (4) SAF 2205 0. and the diagram showing the corrosion rates in mixtures of acetic and formic acid. or the super-duplex grade Sandvik SAF 2507. Sandvik SAF 2205 possesses better resistance to general corrosion than steel of type AISI 316L and 317L.0 90 (195) AISI 317L SAF 2205 70 (160) SAF 2205 AISI 316L Sandvik SAF 2205 has a far lower coefficient of thermal expansion than austenitic stainless steels and can.0 50 (120) AISI 316L Temperature.
pH»6. 300 mV SCE 100 (210) 4159b Boiling point curve 100 (210) 80 (175) SAF 2205 80 (175) SAF 2205 60 (140) AISI 316 60 (140) 40 (105) AISI 316L AISI 304 40 (105) 30 (85) 0 20 (68) 2 3 4 HCl. The chosen testing conditions have yielded results that match well with practical experience. The PRE is defined as.05 0.2 2. Isocorrosion diagram in naturally aerated hydrochioric acid. Thus. Laboratory tests have shown the good resistance to stress corrosion cracking of Sandvik SAF 2205. Critical pitting temperatures (CPT) for SAF 2205. if the partial pressure of hydrogen sulphide does not exceed 0. weight-% Figure 6. are also of vital importance for actual performance in service. °C (°F) 120 (250) 6834b CPT. but also by its nitrogen content and its slag composition and slag content. In aqueous solutions containing hydrogen sulphide and chlorides. is the PRE number (Pitting Resistance Equivalent).0 3. Pitting corrosion 0 (32) 0. The manufacturing and fabrication practices. AISI 304 and AISI 316 at varying concentrations of sodium chloride (potentiostatic determination at +300 mV SCE).02 bar) and its hardness is not greater than HRC 36.18 0. The standard austenitic stainless steels. Sandvik SAF 2205 is. therefore. ferritic stainless steels are more sensitive to this type of stress corrosion cracking.20 PRE >35 >30 29 30 24 a) Sandvik SAF 2205 has a chemical composition which is optimised within the UNS S31803 range in order to provide a high PRE value. Laboratory tests have shown that Sandvik SAF 2205 possesses good resistance to stress corrosion cracking in environments containing hydrogen sulphide. A parameter for comparing the resistance of different steels to pitting. Results from these tests are presented in figure 7.g. UNS S31803 (Sandvik SAF 2205) is acceptable for use at any temperature up to 450 °F (232 °C) in sour environments. test time of 500h. if the partial pressure of hydrogen sulphide does not exceed 1. The results of laboratory tests.1 mm/hyar (4 mpy) in stagnant test solution. Sandvik SAF 2205 can be used at considerably higher temperatures and chloride contents than AISI 304 and AISI 316 without pitting. The curves represent a corrosion rate of 0. The diagram indicates the temperature-chloride range within which Sandvik SAF 2205 and the standard austenitic stainless steels AISI 304L and AISI 316L have low susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking Results of laboratory tests carried out in calcium chloride are shown in figure 8. in weight-%: PRE = % Cr + 3.10 0. Duplex stainless steels are far less prone to this type of corrosion. Because of the high Mo and N contents.02 0.0 21. welding. In the solution annealed condition. 4 4 . This has also been confirmed by available operating experience. In direct contrast to ordinary chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking.3 x % Mo + 16 x % N The PRE number for Sandvik SAF 2205 is compared with other materials in the following table: Alloy SAF 2205a) UNS S31803 Alloy 825 AISI 317L AISI 316L % Cr 22 21. are shown in figure 6.2 %N 0. e.20 0. e. the PRE number for Sandvik SAF 2205 is significantly higher than would be the case with lower Mo and N contents. than austenitic steels. The corrosivity of such solutions is affected by acidity and chloride content.S E A M L E S S T U B E Sandvik SAF 2205 Temperature.50 1. to determine the critical temperature for the initiation of pitting (CPT) at different chloride contents.0 Stress corrosion cracking The pitting resistance of a steel is determined primarily by its chromium and molybdenum contents. The ranking given by the PRE number has been confirmed in laboratory tests.01 0.0 Cl–. The diagram shows that Sandvik SAF 2205 has a much higher resistance to SCC than the standard austenitic steels AISI 304L and AISI 316L.0 2.08-0.g. This ranking can generally be used to predict the performance of an alloy in chloride containing environments.3 psi (0. weight-% Figure 5.5 2. are prone to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in chloride.50-3.0-23.5 18 17 % Mo 3.50 3. stress corrosion cracking can also occur on stainless steels at temperatures below 60 °C (140 °F). °C (°F). In accordance with NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 solution annealed and cold-worked UNS S31803 (Sandvik SAF 2205) is acceptable for use at any temperature up to 450 °F (232 °C) in sour environments. far more serviceable in chloride-bearing environments than standard austenitic steels.1 bar). The tests have been continued to failure or a max. which are still within the limits of UNS S31803. 304L and 316L.5 psi (0.bearing solutions at temperatures above 60 °C (140 °F).
Results of tests according to NACE TM 0177 of SAF 2205 in welded and unwelded condition. laboratory results for SAF 2205 of constant load specimens loaded to the proof strength at the test temperature.2% proof strength. 5 Sandvik SAF 2205 possesses higher strength and better corrosion resistance than ordinary austenitic stainless steels. or to media with very high flow velocities.4 0. Erosion corrosion AISI 304L 300 AISI 316L 200 Steels of the AISI 316 type are attacked by erosion corrosion if exposed to flowing media containing highly abrasive solid particles. weight-% Figure 7. MPa (ksi) Figure 9. Testing according to ASTM A262 PrE (Strauss’ test) presents no problems for welded joints in Sandvik SAF 2205. Temperature. therefore. also possesses better fatigue strength under corrosive conditions than such steels.001 0. The ferritic chromium steel AISI 410 fails at considerably lower stress. Results of stress corrosion cracking tests on Sandvik SAF 2205.0001 0. sand. In rotary bending. Intergranular corrosion 0 (32) 0. The values tabled indicate the stress required to bring about rupture after 2 · 107 cycles. the following results were obtained.0 Stress/Tensile strength 100°C (210°F) Figure 8.01 0. so can the resistance to crevice corrosion. Sandvik SAF 2205 possesses better resistance to crevice corrosion than steels of the AISI 316L type.1 1 10 Cl–. takes place quickly. AISI 304L and AISI 316L in 40% CaCl2 at 100°C (210°F) with aerated test solution.g. h 600 4229b Sandvik SAF 2205 is a member of the family of modern duplex stainless steels. Crevice corrosion 500 SAF 2205 400 In the same way as the resistance to pitting can be related to the chromium. Corrosion fatigue 100 0. Because of its combination of high hardness and good corrosion resistance. This results in a microstructure that gives corrosion properties and toughness roughly equal to that of the parent metal. e.2 0.6 0. Sandvik SAF 2205. 40 °C (104 °F). The resistance of welded joints is slightly lower.S E A M L E S S T U B E Sandvik SAF 2205 Figure 9 shows the results of stress corrosion cracking tests at room temperature in NACE solution with hydrogen sulphide. Sandvik SAF 2205 displays very good resistance under such conditions. 5 .°C (°F) 300 (570) 250 (480) 200 (390) 150 (300) 100 (210) 50 (120) No SCC AISI 304L AISI 316L SAF 2205 6041b Time to fracture. fatigue tests in a 3% NaCl solution (pH = 7. adjacent to the weld. about 1. 6000 rpm).3. molybdenum and nitrogen contents of the steel. The high resistance of Sandvik SAF 2205 is shown in the figure by the fact that very high stresses. whose chemical composition is balanced in such a way that the reformation of austenite in the heat-affected zone. Resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Time to fracture. h 600 6042b 500 Parent metal All weld metal 400 MMA welded joint 22.1 times the 0. are required to induce stress corrosion cracking. which pass without reservations.L All weld metal 300 SCC Parent metal 200 MMA 100 0 400 (58) 500 (72) 600 (87) 700 (101) Stress.9.8 1.
LSi.com. Normal expanding methods can be used.9.3.3. test methods and experience (Lecture) 6 6 . Suitable welding. or Sandvik 22.sandvik. but the expansion requires higher initial force and should be undertaken in one operation. environment with around 100 ppm Cl-. heat treatment may be required after cold deformation in accordance with VdTÜVWb 418 and NGS 1606. where the material temperature is nearly 150 °C (300 °F) in an oxygen-bearing. Built-up edges and chipping are to be expected. the following is recommended. The covered electrode Sandvik 23. Sandvik SAF 2205 is particularly suitable for heat exchangers where chloride-bearing water or brackish water is used as a cooling medium. Sandvik SAF 2205 will present a different wear picture from that of single phase steels of types AISI 304/304L and 316/316L. e. The steel is also suitable for use in dilute sulphuric acid solutions and for handling. For pressure vessel applications in Germany and the Nordic countries. AISI 304L. developed to give improved welding properties by gas metal arc welding (MIG/MAG). Expanding Pipe – tube – hollow bar.8. The cutting speed must. filler metals are recommended in order to obtain a weld metal with optimum corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. For manual metal-arc welding. therefore. The high strength of Sandvik SAF 2205 makes the material an attractive alternative to the austenitic steels in structures subjected to heavy loads.5-2. Preheating. Solution annealing 1020 . Sandvik SAF 2205 can be cold-bent to 25% deformation without requiring. can also be used for this purpose.3. the covered electrode Sandvik 22. If additional heat treatment is needed after further processing. interpass temperature is 250 °C. Summary of data (Lecture) Physical metallurgy and some characteristic properties of the Sandvik duplex stainless steels (Lecture) Mechanical properties S-32-27-ENG Applicability of duplex stainless steels above 300°C (Lecture) S-32-30-ENG Mechanical properties of Sandvik duplex stainless steels (Lecture) Corrosion Compared with austenitic stainless steels. Hot bending is carried out at 1000-950 °C (2010-1740 °F) and should be followed by solution annealing.5MoN) HEAT TREATMENT Being a two-phase (austenitic-ferritic) material. rapid cooling in air or water.8. Max.12.L. The good mechanical and corrosion properties make Sandvik SAF 2205 an economical choice in many applications. heat treatment is recommended even after moderate cold bending for example. e. Under service conditions where the risk of stress corrosion cracking starts to increase. Matching. stainless steels and nickel base alloys. It is recommended that a tougher insert grade is used than when machining austenitic stainless steel. methods are manual metal-arc welding.1100 °C (1870-2010 °F). FURTHER INFORMATION Our data sheets and in-depth technical information about our grades and products are available on the Sandvik Steel web-site www. For gas-shielded arc welding we recommend Sandvik 22. General information S-110-ENG S-120-ENG S-51-51-ENG S-51-52-ENG S-51-53-ENG S-51-54-ENG The starting force needed for bending is slightly higher for Sandvik SAF 2205 than for standard austenitic grades (AISI 304L and 316L). FABRICATION Bending Due to its excellent corrosion properties.3. S-33-43-ENG Chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steel. The material is suitable for use in production tubing and flowlines for the extraction of oil and gas from sour wells. The following printed matter can be ordered via the web or from the nearest Sandvik office. APPLICATIONS Tubes are normally delivered in the heat-treated condition.LR is recommended. Sandvik SAF 2205 also exists in a version with improved machinability. Sandvik SAF 2205 is a highly suitable material for service in environments containing chlorides and hydrogen sulphide.2. seamless standard programme in stainless (Brochure) Duplex stainless steels – fighting corrosion worldwide (Brochure) Duplex stainless steels for demanding applications (Lecture) LCC examples – Sandvik’s stainless steel tubing (Lecture) The Sandvik Duplex Family of stainless steels. Further information is given in brochure S-02909-ENG. is supplied in the form of bar and hollow bar.15. acetic acid and mixtures. Models. This must be borne in mind when expanding tubes into tube-sheets. by reducing the life cycle cost of equipment.LR and the welding wire Sandvik 22.smt. be lower than that recommended for AISI 304/304L and 316/316L.S E A M L E S S T U B E Sandvik SAF 2205 Machining Specimen with notch MPa ksi 230 140 33 20 Steel Stress level Specimen without notch MPa ksi 430 260 62 38 SAF 2205 AISI 316N (17Cr12Ni2. subsequent heat treatment.g. Welding should be undertaken within the heat input range 0. WELDING The weldability of Sandvik SAF 2205 is good. both of type AWS 309 Mo with low carbon content.g.L. in refineries and in process solutions contaminated with chlorides. Heat treatment is carried out in the form of solution annealing (see under this heading) or resistance annealing. These filler metals can also be used for welding Sandvik SAF 2205 to carbon steels. organic acids. with covered electrodes or gas-shielded arc welding.5 kJ/mm. Sandvik SAF 2205 has a higher proof strength and a higher tensile strength. or post-weld heat treatment is normally not necessary. Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205.
References for the oil & gas industry. and the suitability of a material for a specific application can be confirmed only when we know the actual service conditions.S E A M L E S S T U B E Sandvik SAF 2205 Fabrication Oil & gas S-51-39-ENG Fabrication and practical experience of duplex stainless steels (Lecture) Welding S-1252-ENG Your guide to easy welding of duplex stainless steel (Brochure) S-91-45-ENG Influence of different welding conditions on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Sandvik SAF 2205 (UNS S31803) (Lecture) S-91-57-ENG Welding practice for the Sandvik duplex stainless steels SAF 2304. 7 7 . SAF 2205-130 (Brochure) S-13324-ENG Effect of pH on the applicability of Sandvik SAF 2205 (Brochure) S-13325-ENG SCC resistance in H2S / chloride environments of Sandvik SAF 2205 (Brochure) S-133-ENG Stainless steel products for oil and gas production (Brochure) S-252-ENG Wirelines (Brochure) S-33-44-ENG Testing and selection of duplex stainless steels for sour environments (Lecture) S-33-45-ENG Hydrogen embrittlement of duplex stainless steels in connexion with cathodic protection (Lecture) S-58-10-ENG The applicability of duplex stainless steels in sour environments (Lecture) S-58-11-ENG Coated duplex pipes for TOGI project” (Lecture) Reference lists S-12911-ENG Sandvik SAF 2205 – The traditional duplex stainless steel Pulp & paper S-1541-ENG The role of duplex stainless steels in oil refinery heat exchanger applications S-156-ENG The role of duplex stainless steels in petrochemical heat exchanger applications S-52-83-ENG Stainless steels for eliminating chloride-induced corrosion in ammonia/urea plants (Lecture) S-52-85-ENG Duplex stainless steels in the chemical industry (Lecture) S-54-23-ENG High-strength stainless steels and composite tubes for the pulp and paper industry (Lecture) Reference lists S-12911-ENG Sandvik SAF 2205 – The traditional duplex stainless steel S-13334-ENG Sandvik Sanicro 28 and SAF 22Cr. SANMAC Solid and hollow bar (Brochure) S-51-47-ENG Machinability of duplex stainless steel (Lecture) S-51-48-ENG Machining charts for stainless steel (Lecture) Process industry S-13323-ENG Engineering diagram Sanicro 28-110. Recommendations are for guidance only. SAF 2205 and SAF 2507 (Lecture) Machinability S-02909-ENG Product handbook. downhole application Sandvik is a trademark owned by Sandvik AB. Continuous development may necessitate changes in technical data without notice. Sanicro 28-130.
sandvik. 2004.smt. 8 Sandvik Mater ials Technology SE-811 81 Sandviken.com 8 . Phone +46 26 26 30 00 www. Feb. Sweden. Pr inted in Sweden by Sandvikens Tr ycker i AB .S-1874-ENG. Production: Manpower Solutions/CrossMedia.
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