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Hutiu. Curs 1 (14.03.

2012) Relationships between clauses and sentences The term sentence is widely used in different tipes of grammatical units. Three possible types of sentences are distinguished in english: the simple sentence, consisting of one independent close, the compound sentence, consisted of coordinated closes and the complex sentence consisting of coordinated and subordinated closes. Eg. John bought the tickets. John bought the tickets and Mary parcked the car. ( are coordinated clauses. Compound sentence) While John bought the tickets Mary parcked the car.( complex sentence, the second is subordinated clause) Types of relationships between clauses They can be paratactic and hypotactic. The paratactic relations hold between clauses of equal status. The hypotactic are relations between of unequal status. Equality relationships can be sublassified in two: coordinayion and juxtaposition. Coordination is one of the most productive processes of forming sentences by joining clauses of equal rang by coordinating conjunctions. Coordination has as a result either compound sentences or compound phrases. Eg. The queen died and the king dies of greef.( compound sentence, fraza prin coordonare) I often teese my pet dog and my pet cat.( coordination of phrases which are DO) Bill saw Jane and greeted her.( coordinated sentence but the order must to be fixed, logic of the action and the grammatical use of the noun) Grandpa is old and hard of hearing.( coordination of phrases, adjective phrases) John and Mary are a happy couple. (coordination of phrases). Some phrasal coordinates are obtained from sentence coordination by means of transformation rules which basicaly delete identical constituents from each component. Here are the following frequent deletion rules: 1. Conjunction reduction. Is defined as a rule which rises an identical constituent on the left and deletes all other repetitions of the same constituent. Eg. The article was ambigous and the article was missunderstood by everyone. ( whatever is identical can be deleted) Peter must have broken in and he must have stolen the papers. 2. Gapping. A rule that deletes identical verb components in coordinated sentences. This rule applies if the clauses are connected by 'and'. Eg. Max will buy flowers for his mother and Bill will buy flowers for his wife.

3. Right node raising. This rule deletes clause final constituents and goes backwards. Eg. Bill drinks havily and Bob smokes havily. According to this rule we can delete the first 'havily' and we leave a pause in speaking. Mary spoke and John answered rudely. ~ Mary spoke and John answered rudely. Coordinators Clauses can be linked by coordinating conjunctions or adverbs. Classifications of conjunctions: 1. Copulative conjunctions, denote addition: and, than, furthermore, besides, likewise, moreover, again, in addition, not only...but aldo, neither...nor. Many are basicaly adverbs but have the function of coordinators. 2. Disjunctive coordinators, indicating choice: or, either, or....else, otherwise 3. Adversative coordinators, denote contradiction or contrast: but, yet, still, however, never the less, all the same, whereas... 4. Resultative coordinators, denote consequence, conclusion, infierence: so, therefore, than, thus, hence, accordingly, consequently. Eg. They broke the rules consequently they had to leave. If no coordinators are present the relationship between clauses is called juxtaposition. Eg. The moon went down, the stars.... Subordination relations: -embedding -dependency An embedded clause is a clause functioning as a constituent of another clause. Eg. Why he resigned, was never discovered. 'why he resigned'=embedded She explained that the machine was out of order. What did she explained? There are other situations however in which the relation between the main clause and the subordinate clause is looser. Eg. While Mary was parking the car John bought the tickets and went back to the car. The subordinate clause 'while M' is sintacticaly and semanticaly ancillary to the main clauses. The relationship is of dependency and not of embeding. Subordinate clauses can be classified according to their structure and according to semantic criteria. According to their structure we may have: -subordinated clauses introduced by 'that', by relayive pronouns or adverbs like 'who, whoever, when, which' and by subordinating conjunctions 'although, if, as' According to the semantic criteria we may have subordinate functions that display various sintactic functions simillar to the functions expressed by phrases. We may have

thus: -complement clauses, relative clauses and adverbial clauses. Complement clauses Are subordinate clauses replacing noun phrases and expressing their functions. They are introduced by complementizers such as 'that, for to, as'. The head of a complement clause can be a verb, a noun or an adjective. Eg. They asumed thay Bob was a fool. 'that B was a fool'=compl cause. 'asumed'=the head. He was charged with having comited a crime. 'having comited a crime'=prep noun phrase instead of 'with the fact of havinh....' Compl clauses usually complete the meaning relationship of an associated verb or adjective. Compl clauses are sometimes called nominal clauses because they tipically function as a noun phrase. There are four major types of complement clauses. In point of structure: -'that' clauses -'wh' clauses -infinitive clauses -'ing' clauses 'That' and 'wh' clauses are finite clauses. The other two are nonfinite clauses. Functions of 'that' clauses and of 'wh' clauses. This clauses can be subject, do, predicative and prepositional object clauses. 'that' clauses do not occur after prepositions however some of the simple verbs followed by 'that' clauses vorrespond to verbs plus prep noun phrases. Eg. I agree that. ~ I agree to the solution. I advice that ~ I advice my student about their final exam. In conversation the complementizer 'that' is very frequently omitted. Eg. He was afraid he might miss the train. In academic proze 'that' is always present. The sintactic functions of complement clauses. 1. The subject clause. Def. It functions as a subject to the predicator of the main clause and the characteristic question is 'who?' and ' what?' Eg. That my sister led a double life never dawned on me. 'that my sister....'=subject clause, it is the subject of the predicator 'dawned' Besides that the subject clause can be introduced by 'whether', 'wh' relative adverbs. Eg. Why he did it remains a mistery.

The predication of the main clause may consist of a lexical verb or of a nominal predication with an adjective as a predicative. In this case the subject clause is usually placed at the end or after the main clause and is replaced in the frontal position by 'it'. Eg. It is unlikely that he should come. It is likely, certainly, possible...etc The sequence of tenses in the subject clause. If the main clause has a verb in the present tense, the subject clause will have the following tenses: -indicative present or analytical subjonctive in order to express simultaneous action: Eg. It is natural that the children go/should go to bed early. -present perfect indicative or past subjonctive to express anterior action: Eg. It is gratifying that he has waited/should have waited until her arrival. If the predication in the main clause is in the past tense we may have the following cases in the subject clause: -past tense or analitical subjonctive for simultaneous action: Eg. It was surprising that Mary studied/should study until midnight. -to express anterior action we use past perfect or analitical past subjonctive in the subject clause: Eg. It was unlikely that they had arrived. It was unlikely that they should have arrived. The direct object clause. It has the function of do for the predicator or for an infinitive verb of the main clause. The questions used to identify it are 'whom?' and 'what?' . It can be introduced by 'that'. ' wh' connecters and 'if ' or ' wether'. Eg. She asked where you worked. What did she asked?....where you work. I couldn't imagine that she wanted a job with your company. 'with your company' =d o clause. The passive voice freely applies to a do clause and the sentence obtained after the transformation will contain a subject clause. Eg. The police already know that Oliver is a spy. That O is a spy is known by the police. =>do clause turned in subject clause. Verbs that take do clauses are: -verbs expressing mental activity:like, think, know, believe, remember -communication verbs: say, tell, signal, aknowledge. The same rules of the sequence of tenses as in the case of the subject clause apply for the do clause.

The predicative clause. It usually functions as a predicative in complex sentences where the subject is an abstract noun phrase like 'facr, ideea, reason, claim, trouble' or even a subject clause. Eg. Indications where [that the two countries had come close to an agreement] My second fear was [that I was in possesion of a terrible secret]. The sequence of tenses in the predicative clause. If the main clause has a present tense predicator the predicative clause may take any tense. Eg. The important fact is that he was born in this town/ he has writen about thos town/ his book will be soon published. If the verb in the main clause is in the past tense, we may have in the predicative clause past perfect, past or future in the past in order to indicate that the action is anerior, simultaneous or posterior to the action in the main clause. Eg. The problem was that they had not phoned/ they were at the police station/ they would be released the next day. Trecutul cere neaparat un would + infinitive. The prepositional object clause It has the function of a prep object for a verb or adjective from the main clause. It can be introduced by prepositions, 'wh' connectors or by 'that' . Eg. Look [at who has come]. She reminded me (of the fact that) that she could not go. With verbs like 'agree, depend, count, rely', the prep obj clause can be anticipated by the pronoun 'it'. Eg. You may count on it [that he will keep his promise] Verbele care au prep toate vor primi o astfel de propozitie...prep object clause.