Q. How do you classify radio –active radiatations experimentally? Ans ; classification of radiation from a radioactive substance 1.

Place a small quantity of radioactive material in a deep cavity of a think block of lead. 2. When a strong magnetic field is applied at right angles to the plane of the paper ,the beam splits into three distinct components as shown in figure 3. Those which are deflected to the left in the magnetic field are positively charged particles are called alpha particles 4. Those which are deflected to the right in the magnetic field are negatively charged particles are called alpha particles 5. Those which pass undefleated are obviously uncharged or neutral radiation and are called gamma rays. 6. Similarly, when an electric field is applied, alpha & alpha particles are found to bend towards negative and positive plates respectively. The gamma rays are found to go undeviated Q.. Mention any eight uses of laser light in the field of medicine, industry and in space science and defence. Ans ; Laser in medicine: 1. 2. 3. 4. lasers are used for bloodless surgery. The liver lung diseases could be treated by lasers. Laser are used in fiber-optic endoscope to detect ulcers in the intestines. Laser are used extensively in the treatment of eye-diseases, particularly to reattach a detached retina.

Lasers in industry: 1. Laser are used now for cutting, drilling and welding of metals and other matrial. 2. Laser light is used to collect the information about the prefixed price of various products in shop and business prefixed prices of various products in shops and business. Lasers in defence and space science: 1. Lasers are used in various guided missiles and also for detection of enemy targets. 2. Lasers are also used in space communication, in radars and in satellites.

Q. Describe an experiment to determine acceleration due to gravity by simple pendulum? Ans. Determination of "g" by simple pendulum: 1. See the figure of simple pendulum. 2. Note the length 'l' of the simple pendulum. 3. Place a pointer at the mean position "O" in front of the bob. Pull the bob aside slightly and release it. It begins to execute SHM.

40. Amplitudes of different particles in the medium are different at different points. Distance between successive nodes or antinodes λ/2 6. It varies from a minimum at nodes to a maximum at antinodes. 7.4. 1.e. When the bob comes from left and is about to move to right crossing the pointer at 'O' switch on the watch. Energy is carried continuously by forward moving waves through out the medium 7. 6. T and g at a place is given by Q. These waves travel in the form of crests and troughs through the medium in all directions. 50. 2. Determine this "t" value by second and third trials. 7. Every particle undergoes the maximum displacement at one time or the other. 5. 9. . These waves are produced by vibrating source and continuously travel forward in the medium. 3. Like this. Note the time "t" for 20 oscillations. 2. Stationary waves 1. All the particles have same amplitude and frequency everywhere in the medium. from left to right. The counting of atoms in a substance became possible because of laser. Q. The vibration of all the points within a loop are in phase and are out of phase with respect to he points in the adjacent loop. what are the important applications of laser in science and technology? Ans. Distance between successive crests or troughs is λ 6. Take average (ta) of three t values and hence determine time period. 3. 2. count 20 oscillations and switch off the stop-watch exactly at the end of the 20th oscillation. These waves are confined to a fixed region of the medium where they form node and antinodes. T = ta / 20 8. Distinguish between progressive and stationary waves? Ans :Progressive waves 1. The phase of vibration changes far different points along the wave at any particular instant different particles have different phases. Repeat this procedure for different lengths say 30. Keep a stopwatch ready in your hand. Laser helped in studying the Brownian motion of particles. count it as one oscillation. while at antinodes they undergo only maximum displacement. 60. Every particle undergoes maximum displacement at one time or other. The particle at nodes undergoes only minimum displacement. 4. 4. 70 and 80 cm and find in each case the time period T. Continue to observe the motion of the bob and when it is about to move again in the same direction i. These are formed when two waves of equal frequency and equal frequency and equal amplitude travel in opposite directions along the same path. 5.. Tabulate the results in the table given below. The relation between l. Energy is trapped in a fixed region of medium. 5.

7.3. It predicts that the velocity of light in a denser medium is greater than that in a rarer medium Huygens’s wave theory of light 1. Properties of a Junction transistor: 1. A reverse biased junction offers a high resistance to the current flow. 4. It is the development of lasers which helped in establishing a new revolutionary method of communication called ‘fiber optic communication’. The reflection and refraction of light are explained by the repulsion and attraction of the corpuscles by the medium. It assumes that light travels in the form of a wave 2. Ans. The forward biased junction offers less resistance to the current flow. 5. 6. Lasers are employed in a special three dimensional photography called ‘holography’. The colours of light are due to difference in the sizes of corpuscles 4. Give a comparison between Newton’s corpuscular theory of light and Huygens’s wave theory of light Ans: Newton’s corpuscular theory of light. The rectilinear propagation of light is explained by the advancement of wavefront along the direction of normals drawn to it 3. The reflection and refraction are explained by the construction of secondary wavefronts applying Huygen’s principle. It assumes that light consists of a stream of extremely small particles called corpuscles. The rectilinear propagation of light is explained by the straight line motion of corpuscles 3. The colours of light are due to differences in the wavelengths. 5. 4. one junction of the transistor is forward biased and the other is reverse biased. An electronic device which can raise the magnitude of current or of voltage input signals is called as amplifier. 3. Lasers have been used successfully to separate isotopic species in a substance containing mixture of isotopes of an element. Transistors form important components of micro electronic systems called ICs (Integrated Circuits) or ‘Chips’. Q. Q. diffraction and polarization of light 6. It can explain the phenomena of interference. 2. These properties of a Junction transistor are used in various applications. . Transistors are used in electronic circuits called ‘oscillators’. Transistors are also used in stabilized power supplies. 2. 5. diffraction and polarization of light. It correctly proves that the velocity of light in a denser medium is less than that in a rarer medium. In a circuit. A new branch called ‘Atmospheric Optics’ uses lasers to measure pollutant gases and other Contaminants of the atmosphere. In computers lasers are used to retrieve stored information from a compact disc (CD) 6. 4. It cannot explain the phenomena of interference. Junction transistor has two p-n junctions. write the properties and uses of junction transistor. 1. 5. 2. 4. Transistor acts as an amplifier. 3. Uses: 1.

active substance. Similarly. explain with a neat diagram. Place a small quantity of radioactive material in a deep cavity of think block of lead. Those which pass undefleated are obviously uncharged or neutral radiation and are called gamma rays. The gamma rays are found to go undeviated . Those which are deflected to the right in the magnetic field are negatively charged particles are called alpha particles 5. 3. 2. Classification of radiation from a radioactive substance: 1. when an electric field is applied. alpha & alpha particles are found to bend towards negative and positive plates respectively. Ans. the emission of radiations from a radio. When strong magnetic field is applied at right angles to the plane of the paper the beam split distinct components as into three. Those which are deflected to the left in the magnetic field are positively charged particles are called alpha particles 4.Q. 6.

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