May 23 ϕ

➡Socrates : being human entails the moral responsibility of improving your life ➡Plato was only 30 when socrates was put to death; in addition to dialogues Plato wrote several letters. In the VII leeter of plato was written when he was on his death bed ad he reflects upon his youth ➡Plato devotes his life to finding a correct state of government to govern rightly / and this could not be readily found Leaves Athens after Socrates dies and returns to athens on 387 > buys some land and starts The Academy ➡The Academy is the first European university, bringing scholars from different disciplines to one place ➡Most of the dialogues were written at the time that Plato taught at the academy ➡It was a school for the future leaders of Athens, to get the best education, and part of that education was that before they discuss any moral issues they had to take 10 years of mathematics ➡The fundamental goal of plato was to rove the error in relativism and skepticism ➡He must clarify the difference between opinion and knowledge ➡The first distinction is that we can believe something is false, but we cannot KNOW something falsely ➡Opinions, if they are true are good; the problem wih opinions though is that they do not stayput, knowledge, however, is fixed and anchored by reason ➡Opinions can be overcome by persuasion and the knowledge cant; knowledge is implanted by instruction ➡And he must show hat we do have knowledge, despite waht the skeptics say ➡In the dialogue “meno” plato presents a geometrical problem, he draws a square with a stick in the sand ➡And we must find out what this knowledge that we have is about ➡It is not about the square in the sand> we canot draw a square because we do not have the instruments to draw precisely four sides and four perfect right angles the knowledge we have apply to all squares ➡The knowledge we have is abut the square itself , the conept of the square is something that we can only grasp with our mind, not with our senses ➡Nor perceiveed through the senses, only through te intellect, it something that we canot see or touch , but it still is a reality

May 23 ϕ
➡Being perceived by the senses is not a criterion of reality ➡Knowledge is about what is (not about nothingness) what is real ➡It is public same for everoyone ➡It is unchanging, it does not die ➡Square itself= the form of a square ➡It is something that is shared by all squares, so what we know is that the objects of knowledge are forms ; knowledge= knowledge of forms ➡Plato is suggesting that there is a world where we live every day and there is another world, a world of forms / reality is divided by the sensible world and the intelegible world knowledge is about things that are unchanged ➡Knowledge doesnot change it is enduring and immortal , rational, we use the intellect, it is true , anchored by instruction ➡This knowledge that we have cannt be about the world that is revelead through the senses ➡And this is the orld of forms ➡The epistemological argument is aimed at proving that the forms are real