Clitoral Conventions and Transgressions: Graphic Representations in Anatomy Texts, c19001991 Author(s): Lisa Jean Moore and Adele

E. Clarke Reviewed work(s): Source: Feminist Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Summer, 1995), pp. 255-301 Published by: Feminist Studies, Inc. Stable URL: . Accessed: 21/02/2012 21:19
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The body is what it is perceived to be; it could be otherwise if perceptionwere different. -David Armstrong, "Bodiesof Knowledge:Foucault and the
Problem of Human Anatomy," in Sociological Theory and Medical Sociology, ed. Graham Scrambler

There is a regress involved in positing the anatomical body as the touchstone for cultural bodies since it is a particular culture which chooses to represent bodies anatomically. Another culture might take the clan totem as the essence or truth of particular bodies. The human body is always a signified body and as such cannot be understood as a "neutralobject"upon which science can construct "true"discourses. The human body and its history presuppose each other. -Moira Gatens, "Power,Bodies, and Difference,"in
Destabilizing Theory: Contemporary Feminist Debates,

ed. Michele Barrett and Anne Phillips Depictions, picturing and seeing are ubiquitous features of the process by which most human beings come to know the world as
it really is for them ... [Slocial change is at once a change in the regime of re-representation.

-Gordon Fyfe and John Law, "Editors' Introduction: On the Invisibility of the Visual,"in
Picturing Power: Visual Depiction and Social Relations

Anatomy is one of the key sites for the productionand maintenance of sex and gender as embodied dualities, as these excerpts imply. It offers an institutionalized discourse rife with vivid representations which claim the body for medicine and then insist on simplification and universalization. This discourse travels widely. Within feminisms, "the anatomy probFeminist Studies 21, no. 2 (summer 1995). ? 1995 by Feminist Studies, Inc. 255


Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. Clarke

lem" has been and continues to be highly charged and deeply consequential. In this essay, we take up the social construction of female genitalia by those claiming, via textbook publication in English, to do anatomy in the twentieth century.We examine how anatomists have represented, labeled, and narrated the various "femaleparts,"focusing especially on what (if anything) counts as "theclitoris." Anatomies matter to feminists and others because anatomies create shared images which become key elements in repertoires of bodily understanding toted around by all those who have seen them. Stefan Hirschauer has noted that "surgeons-like other medical students-learn the abstract body of anatomy from books with texts and illustrations. They swot it up-bone after bone and nerve after nerve-and they are examined on whether they know it by heart. They ... acquire ... in In their education ... the ingrained abstract body."' the West, it is not only surgeons but most people who, through scrutiny of anatomical representations,construct our own means of visualization, recognition, and interpretation of the bodies as "the anatomical body."That is, anatomies become accepted public and private images. And anatomies of "privateparts" are perhaps the most intently and minutely examined as they often provide us with some of the earliest available, "mostscientific," and supposedly, therefore, neutral knowledge of body parts least visually accessible in contemporaryWestern daily life. The feminist anatomy problem stands at the intersection of cultural, gender, and technoscience studies. One of the core tasks over the past decade for those who study gender, sciences, and technologies has been examination of the construction of sex/gender differences both within and across disciplines from the social sciences to the natural sciences and biomedicine, and from classical times to the present. Of all the biomedical sciences, basic or gross anatomy (rather than fine or microscopicor cellular anatomy) is often considered by scientists and many others to be a science that "hasbeen done,"is essentially accomplished-if not once and for all, many times In over.2 terms of the anatomy of the clitoris, two decades ago it was said that "the structure of the organ [is] perhaps the least controversial aspect of the subject."3 Precisely because anatois not cutting edge biomedical science and has supposedly my

Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. Clarke


been comparatively stable, we can see its (re)constructions more vividly. Yet in certain ways its very stability becomes our problematic. That is, anatomy has been naturalized and normalized in the Foucauldian sense. It has become a taken-forgranted idiom within discourses of difference(s),not only in the biomedical sciences but also in society much more generally.4 Central to the claimed stability of anatomy as discipline and practice and to its naturalization is the fundamental assumption that the body itself is natural, knowable, real, and essential. In sharp contrast, we instead assert that anatomies are socially constructed and diverse not only across historical time but within particular eras. Anatomy is a contested domain. Bodies are heterogeneously constructed by individuals and collectivities situated differently in terms of time, space, and commitments of many kinds.5But anatomical constructions of the body are extraordinarily complex precisely because of the kinds of realism and essentialism with which they are imbued, especially those bodily elements linked to sexualities. The difficult dualism of essentialism versus constructionismis nowhere more apparent. Carole S. Vance and Linda M. Blum, among many others, have addressed this and called for qualifications, for the specificities of constructionisms.6 The closely related dualism of nature versus society or natural versus social/culturalhas recently been taken up in an array of works in social studies of science. Here it is argued that not only is "the social" constructed but also "the natural."7These approaches assert the co-constructionof nature and culture/society. That is, this perspective assumes a material relativism in which elements construed as social and those construed as natural are each and all analyzed as are their interrelations. Conventionally termed "symmetricalanalysis" in science studies, this approach attempts to problematize both the natural and the social and in so doing to dissolve the dualism. In the elaborate dances of meaning making and action which take place between and among such elements, each offers particular constraints, opportunities, and resources for the other, becoming co-productive and, hence, co-constitutive. The processes and productsof co-constructionare empiricalphenomena. Brought to bear on twentieth-century anatomical texts on genitalia, co-constructionismpoints us toward examining the

focusing especially on the clitoris. prevailing anatomies are highly consequential not only for biomedicine but also for many other disciplines and for people's own understandings of . We are not interested here in distinguishing between various terms used for different parts of the female genitalia historically.10 examine the conventions of anatomical representation. What is it? Where is it? Where does it begin and end? When does it exist? By what criteria is the clitoris to be defined? By types of cells? By physiological processes of engorgement? By historical precedent or traditional anatomical claims? Who counts-or "should" count-as an anatomist? To whom? Under what conditions?We do not answer all of these questions in this article. and the heterogeneity of visual and textual representations.9Rather. comparisons between female and male genitalia." Because anatomies construct. and portray some of the supposed essentials of essentialism. including the deployment and referents of the nomenclature. We examine the construction. Clarke producers of these anatomies. we focus on visual representations of the clitoris in anatomy texts published in English during the twentieth century and their accompanyinglabels and narratives. preserve. We are not engaging the extennor sive and complex debates about orgasm. the nomenclature in these representaWe tions has become fairly standardized. By the twentieth century. What is at stake in the contestations we describe is the very definition of the clitoris. although we applaud recent works which address the complexities of the situations of the estimated 80 million women on this planet today whose clitorises have been excised. Ultimately. and maintenance of gender and sexual differences in genital anatomy in the twentieth century.reconstruction." are quite wonderful. such as the clitoris as a rod with the labia as its wings or the clitoris as the "frenzy of Venus.258 Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. but do attempt to map the terrain in which the contestation takes place. And it points us especially toward taking the diversities among anatomies very seriously. although many.a task which is central to this essay. and their users/consumers/audiencesfrom medical students to surgeons to lay publics. the anatomies themselves. the contestation is about whose anatomies will prevail and in which social worlds.8 are we examining clitoridectomy.

erotic..e. The complications emerged vividly when. and they require regular rearticulation and reframing to maintain their cutting (i."15 Wendy Brown has made similar points about deploying distinctively female body parts such as "the breast"for shock.Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. One discipline can rely upon another discias pline's "conclusions" foundational in building its own knowledge. We began this project for several reasons: as a vehicle through which we would engage the literatures on representation in cultural/feminist studies of sciences and technologies.'an objectof scrutiny in a society tainted by voyeurism and fantasies of control. perpetuates the concept of the female as 'other'or 'exotic. A recent book on women's bodies noted: "Atoo exclusive concentration on the female body . especially a "new"clitoris."confronted by all artists and others seeking to represent women. regardless of anatomical or other kinds of accuracy. Angela Davis. This is especially the case in terms of sex and gender as analytic categories in many disciplines.gynecology. Examining its instabilities as we do here can therefore be consequential because other disciplinary axes along which sex and gender are accomplished13 also intrinsically are unstable and changing. and very elaborate hand-drawnvisual representations. Clarke 259 their bodies. Sex and gender are not only constructed within disciplines..and sexology.and Donna Haraway have all discussed the dangers of addressing women's sexuality without addressing the heterogeneity of its racialization and the differences among women.17 The concept of di- . classificatory) edges. including anatomists. We hope to contribute to the disruption and redirection of that reframing..'4and not least because we anticipated some fascinating complications. a group of women called the Federation of Feminist Women'sHealth Centers published a book titled A New View of a Woman'sBody which offers a new feminist sexual anatomy. Yet we also knew we were about to go walking on eggs. and even seductive scholarly value.12 Anatomy has been relied upon as "stablescience"by many other disciplines and practices such as physiology. but they are also made robust via simultaneous alignments across multiple disciplinary axes. Hazel Carby. in 1981. because we knew that the history of the pre-twentieth-century clitoris had "beendone"and done well.'6These dangers are "dilemmas of visibility.

19 in the history of medicine. the clitoris. especially feminist and lesbian fiction and nonfiction.18 We begin by situating the clitoris in twentieth-century discourse more broadly."MedicalAnthropology5 (1991). a Current Contents title words search found 19 citations on the clitoris and 347 on the penis.20 That particularly female organ.sexology. We then introduce the conventions of anatomical representation of a device tomy exploredin literary criticism. including tensions between difference and sameness and between revelation and protection. and in feminist works. The online University of California Melvyl Library Catalog found 3 records of books on the clitoris and 35 on the penis. and what do or did they have to show and tell? Most of the several different literatures on the clitoris are relatively scant in relation to those on the penis. and a MedLine search found 78 articles with the clitoris as keyword. however. We do. pictorial pornography. Clarke lemmas of visibility makes clearer some of the potential costs incurred by representation per se. including both those who would seize and destroy it.we return to theoretical issues in the social/natural constructionof the clitoris. WHO CARES/CARED ABOUT THE CLITORIS? The female clitoris itself has had to navigate many rough seas in its long and embattled history to escape and elude the many hostile pirates and male bounty hunters on its path. in anthropology.260 Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. leading into our empirical study of clitoral imaging across the twentieth century."VirginTerritory:The Male Discovery of the Clitoris. echo Paula Bennett who notes how very little work has been done on the clitoris and how rarely it is taken up even by feminists-an intellectual absence she calls "criticalcli- . site of diverse pleasures and dangers appears textually most often in anatomy. Who cares or has cared about the clitoris. but continuities with pornography and feminist literatures abound. as well as those who would continually rediscover. In conclusion.reinvent. and in some other literatures. Yet as feminists we also know that the costs of silence and sins of omission are high. so we proceedwith due caution. We directly and primarily address anatomy.611 with There are also distinctive literatures on clitoridecthe penis. -Nancy Scheper-Hughes. and 1. and degrade it.

23 Over a decade later. Making the clitoris visible inside-or outside-the academy is a risky act.during. Diana Scully and Pauline Bart analyzed gynecology texts in terms of sexual "information" provided before. unsurprisingly. images. and fascinations. males were shown in 64 percent of the illustrations. in a classic early feminist study. however. . "Equalityof representation"was largely achieved. that "in illustrations. vocabularyand syntax. using both numerical content analysis and very thoughtful textual analyses." That is. Mita Giacomini and her colleagues looked at eight anatomy texts currently in use at a major Western medical school in terms of gendered representations. despite decades of public debates about gender representations. in the chapters and sections on urogenital anatomy. The clitoris was usually represented as a "small"or "diminutive" In homologue to the penis. and after the Kinsey era. in the most recent study of anatomies. Additional representational conventions included presenting material on males as "the x" with a subsection on "the female x." and more generally presenting the male material first and then asking readers to reconfigure their mental images to transform the male into the female version. these texts primarily depict male anatomy as the norm or standard against which female structures are compared.22 Particularly relevant for our purposes are three contemporary feminist studies of different types of medical texts which take up the clitoris in different but related ways.24 Finally. they found little or no textual change in anatomy. scholarly focus on the clitoris appears to be minimal. Susan Lawrence and Kae Bendixen examined how anatomy texts have presented female and male anatomy between 1890 and 1989. Depictions that were supposedly unsexed/ungendered were also often male rather than female without being labeled as such. Clarke 261 It toridectomy."21 seems that whether to address the clitoris is a dilemma for academic women across disciplines and regardless of the use of visual representations. They found.25 sum. relatively dwarfed by phallocentricnarratives.Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. crediting Kinsey with being the first to debunk the myth of the vaginal orgasm and to reassert the clitoris as the primary orgasmic site. They found that the male standard prevailed:in text sections dealing with standard nonsexual anatomy. First. females in 11 percent and neutral in 25 percent.

"27 we shall see. Nancy Mann Kulish.28 Although the anatomy of the clitoris is obviof concern to sexologists.6 Psychoanalytic discussions are largely engaged with Freud's 1905 distinction between vaginal and clitoral orgasm. In 1976 and 1978. it is important not to claim the feminist health movement as the origin of clitoral reconceptualization. such As is "underrepresentation" not uncommon. William Masters and Virginia Johnson's work on female orgasm appeared in 1966. and the early second wave of feminism. focusing particular attention on the politics of orgasm within the women's movement.30 Although feminist reinterpretations of the clitoris are one focus of this essay. Clarke Other scientific literatures such as evolutionary theory and genetics also address female genitalia. its physiology is the central foously cus. This profession/discipline's epistemologies were predicated on the centrality of the clitoral orgasm. also notes a lack of attention to "themental representations of the clitoris. Alfred Kinsey's book on female sexuality appeared in 1953. Here one feminist. Heterogenous social worlds construct and interpret the clitoris on multiple temporal planes.both centered on its importance to sexuality and sexual fulfillment and including comparative mammalian anatomy.and recent neurological studies of female genitalia. in so far as the mental life is the realm with which psychoanalysis deals. psychoanalysis.29 Darlaine Claire Gardetto has done a sociological study of the female orgasm as represented in different literatures.262 Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. five years after his book on male sexuality. Thomas Power Lowry and Thea Snyder Lowry published the only two book-length treatments of the clitoris listed in Melvyl today. Janice Irvine argues that the 1960s were a time of ideological and disciplinary struggles within emergent disciplines and practices of the second wave of sexology.history of terminology. For instance. including sexology. Perhaps the largest literature on the clitoris is that which has been drawn together in the field now known as sexology or sexuality studies.31 model as it served the continued emergence of sexology:(1) the alignment of the clitoral model with the cultural imperatives of . in direct conflict with Freudian psychiatric interpretations of mature female sexuality as based on vaginal orgasm since Freud's Irvine cites three key strengths of the clitoral paper of 1905.

although there has been some attention to the clithe heterogeneity of anatomies has not been a core focus. Rather. UNIVERSE 68 199 344 255 . . and textual analyses. 2. 1982 to present. physical therapeutic treatments. 1. (See fig. Chart of Anatomy Texts 1850 . toris. Third Series-Vol. (2) the ability to empirically observe and study the clitoris as an organ. 1. . 1900 to 1952. 1953 to 1981.) Fig. ANALYZED 14 12 18 - 12 . Washington DC: Government Printing Office. Clarke 263 the field of sexology toward short-term.Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. Since 1950s from: Melvyl Computer Database. including grounded theory.33 Library searches and retrievals were based on the following criteria of inclusion: (1) in English with an American or British publisher. We selected ten to twelve texts with the greatest range of variation in both visual representation and narrative for each of the following time periods: 1850 to 1900 (used only for comparative purposes). ._ _ __ _ -- EXAMINED (estimated) 30 40 50 40 _ . and (3) the preexisting acceptance of the clitoris as a site of orgasm among sexology's bourgeois clientele.32 Thus. . deconstruction.Present SOURCE 1850-1900 1900-1950 1950-1980 1980-present . Information to the 1950s taken from: United States Army. (1918/1961) Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office.. METIHODS Our research is intended to provide a descriptive analysis of anatomical representations of the clitoris throughout the twentieth century. 1/Fifth Series-Vol. (2) published 1850 to present. but it does not aim to be an exhaustive or comprehensive survey of all existing clitoral imaging in this time period. and (3) included diagrams or other visual images (narrative was secondarybut important). content. we emphasize the range of variation within eras by employing an eclectic blend of methodological strategies.

Becker has argued that conventions are products of pragmatic situations. and interactional networks. That is. and (large) private homes. "Onthe Art of Representation: Notes on the Politics of Visualization. most paintings done in the past century and a half since the development of an art market physically "fit"within the spaces of galleries. Sociologically. we did not pursue traditional content analysis34but instead have attempted to portray range of variation and diversities of representations.. and/ornarrative.37 examthe anatomies we examined were all in book form. and they are the representatives of endless awkward objects and processes. We also sought to determine whether the distinctively feminist clitoral imaging in the publication of A New View of a Woman's Body in 1981 was consequential for subsequent anatomical text imaging in terms of changes in definition.Howard S. few in the "oversized" category. with a ple. aesthetics.264 Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. Clarke In short.36 CONVENTIONS OF ANATOMICALREPRESENTATION OF GENITALIA [Visualizations] are the hinge which connects the intractable world with the docility of the printed page ."in Picturing Power:Visual Depictions and Social Relations. Bruno Latour has used the term "regimes of (re)presentation" to refer to paradigmatically different framings.. such as sacred compared with secular art. For and resources for certain genres of representations. conventions are sets of specific practices characteristicof particular eras. a historicization of practices. labeling. For example. In art history. which can be historical or .35Because so many of the texts placed the clitoral images and narratives in referential (and in most cases deferential) positions to the penis. we realized after considerable analysis that we needed to examine representations of the penis in order to assess the information on the clitoris. -John Law and John Whittaker. ed. museums. the medium and its intended sites of display offer distinct constraints. opportunities. GordonFyfe and John Law here in both the art historical We use the term "conventions" and sociological senses. and also aesthetically "fit"particular market niches.This medium obviously limits in certain ways such as size and dimensionalirepresentations ty.

a rhetoric of fundamental gender difference emerged. Clarke 265 There have been many such "regimes of contemporaneous.women and men were both viewed as human and as sharing. r surprise that more anatomists had . Fig. principally when they desire coitus and when their husbands want to approach them. more or less. which dominated biomedical ideas about the body from the classical Greeks to about the mid-seventeenth century.2. provided the following narrative of engorgement of the labia: "twoexcresences of muscular flesh which hang.42 (See fig. a French surgeon. reflected in (re)constructionsof gender across the sciences over the past two centuries.both Renaldus Columbusand Gabriel Fallopius described the clitoris as a "female penis" and debate ensued about who was the first to discover and conquer this strange land. there was also a fundamental shift in the ways in which sex/gender were represented. and in some women. . Both Londa Scheibinger and Thomas Laqueur have argued that this shift was from a predominantrhetoric of hierarchy to one of categorical difference.Plate III _ ."43 Kobelt himself expressed Not until the 1840s and the work of George Ludwig Kobelt do the clitoral representations echo strongly ReprintedfromKobelt(1844).41In the hierarchical system. Laqueur notes that "Kobelt's book was by far the most detailed account of the clitoris ever published but it did not radically revise established views.38 in (re)presentation" genital anatomy. Ambroise Pare.. Let us turn more directly now to representations of the clitoris before 1900 to contextualize our own study. 2.) The Kobelt image shown here remains among the best done in the tradition of representational realism.8 r 1 with those of this century.39 Around 1579."40 Soon after. lengthen and shorten as does the comb of a turkey. seenfromleft. the same basic anatomy and physiology.Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E. fall outside the neck of the womb. In the sixteenth century. Subsequently. Thehumanclitoris. anatomical representations of genitalia were obviously gendered but not highly detailed. enlarged. they grow erect like the male rod. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Analogous here means an agreement or correspondence between things in certain respects which are otherwise different.266 Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. Is it likely that only the clitoris. we now turn to our study of the twentieth-century clitoris.."And most assuredly! If our physiological textbooks were in the hands of as many women as they are of men.. should be exempted from Plazzonus had already said: ". Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud The period covered in this section extends from the turn of the century. Clarke not addressed the question of clitoral erection: this [erection]? . the genital anatomies done over the last century which we sampled (N=15) offered a wide range of images from simple to complex.4 After Kobelt. in contrast. if it was even mentioned. of how the body is forged into a shape valuable to civilization despite."46 our purposes. . to 1952. smiling countenance.. Wanton women them- selves . On that positive note. homologous means originating from the same cells during embryological Most viewed the penis as active and dynamic. Savage demonFor strates the nonmonolithic and heterogeneous nature of the anatomy texts.. so rich in nerves. the clitoris had been labeled in some complexity by anatomists like Kobelt and Savage. affirm that something in their private parts stiffens and stands out when they are involved in lascivious activity. 1900-1952: DECONSTRUCTING THE ANATOMICAL SUBTEXTS 'MINE IS BIGGER THAN YOURS"AND 'MIENHAVE SEX. WOMEN HAVE BABIES" The tale of the clitoris is a parable of culture.48 Anatomical conventions . was viewed as passive and unimportant.""cometogether. ."and "sudden turn forward. just before the publication of Kinsey's book on female sexuality. itself. not because of.47 the era before the turn of the cenIn tury.just when Freud published his paper on the vaginal orgasm in 1905. -Thomas Laqueur. Henry Savage's text of 1880 which focused on the female went the furthest. we could come upon many a disbelieving. CLITORAL IMAGING. Most described the clitoris as analogous and/orhomologousto the penis. and a wide range in the labeling parts from simple to elaborate. describing the clitoris with active verb phrases like "extends.45 and the clitoris. development.

52 the viewer compares the two organ systems. constructed and drawn in this way. These representations appear stri: kingly similar to cut-out. Three books surveyed included "peel away" ^^'^Cii In of anatomy.) The images. the anatomy Hickman includes two visual representations of the female and male reproductive systems with uncanny resemblance. were transformed in the first decades of the twentieth cen~~'~ '[ t ttury.50 The convention of homologous organs is sustained throughout this time period.%E '- ~ * males as pregnant was con- sistent in all the anatomy texts examined. All the "dolls" are thin. 3. this book is also a superb example of narrative and image working together to create a united (masculine) front of bodily interpretation. can be viewed as an almost As strategic rendering of the body for comparative purposes. Clarke 267 Fig. 7. white.Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. the penis is predominant in size. 6). In addition..I fig. There is a section Funeaux (1904) text by Cleveland Pendleton . 5. turning each page reveals new organs. All but two of the texts labeled the clitoris in their representations. 4 and fig. culminating in the reproductive system with a visible pregnancy. For example. Two examples are featured here (see .49 this ~versions _~ -" act of stripping A"peel away" layers of bodily systems. The images from 1900 ?to1952 varied from simple to ~::'^l : complex. . The *^^>^3^^3^i -. i! IL skinned young women. dress-up dolls. muscular. 3 .51(See fig.

268 Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E. Clarke Fig. 4 Furneaux (1904) .

Female Pelvic Organs. Western Publishing House called the "Homology of the Sex Organ" which states: "For every structure in the male system. Hickman goes on to state that "a structure may be quite well developed in one sex."53 this time period. 6. the penis and the clitoris are represented as a homologous pair. Clarke 269 Fig. there is a homologous one in the female. 5.Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E. but In quite rudimentary in the other.Western Publishing House Physician'sAnatomicalAid f Fig."As you can see. it is difficult to discuss the agency of the clitoris as discussion of clitoral .

P iO R s? r % F ?.? C r.: I i i0 ?.n .

it is important to survey how this text has changed. In this case low the historicaltrendof not labelingthe clitoris. we This time period cannot be closed without mentioning the This time periodcannotbe closedwithout mentioningthe contributions of RobertLatou Dickinson's contributions Robert LatouDickinson's HumanSex AnatoHuman AnatoHe introduces us to his normalizing models actually my. 9) changes to fol8 . we ative prominenceof the clitoris. not even in comparisonwith the penis..56 named Norma and Normman.54 Because Gray'sAnatomy is often viewed as the staple anatomy textbook and was published continuously in a series of editions throughout our historical parameters. 9 Gray'sAnatomy (1901) Gray's Anatomy(1901) Gray'sAnatomy(1948) Gray's Anatomy (1948) low the historical trend of not labeling the clitoris.the Gray's 1948 text (see fig. Only Jesse Feiring Williams discusses the fact that the clitoris is richly supplied with blood and nervesbut he does not discuss possible reasons or pleasurable consequences. Notice the labeled clitoris in figure 8. Fig.. a strikingdifference from1901 wherethe clifrom 1901 where clirepresentations. ative prominence of the clitoris. his female and male embodi- .Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. witness rupture the conventions drawing bodymaps.In this case the labels of the clitoris have been actively deleted from the the labels the clitorishave been actively deleted from the representations.55 However. This representation from 1901 is a rare phenomenon. relwitness a rupture in the conventions of drawingbody maps. noticingdifferences representation. striking difference toris is not only labeledbut in some respectsis also featured toris not only labeled but some respects also featured prominently. Clarke 271 functions is so rare. the prominently.By noticing differences in representation.. and labeling strategies. and labeling strategies.

*.us to~ traseu. ?w . also Fig.o.Lnrc': \ is hig.. 10 'eride clitcris dibtoncc m. t' . It' ^^^ \iqrh~t ftf^^1 r^M^~~ :Mi Fit*It ._. * ~~~~~~iu?~:~& Dickinson 1949 . ** . e uerf "uU o. Clitoris 'cwl ornOw _1i sr.272 Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E.tus w -e. . 10). a bit ahead of his colleagues in his my (see fig.n cv CijA in 'o.57 deep commitment to sex education for healthy marital life.' K 'I- Sm eirect o.rgns. _ * '' .. Clarke ments of "perfectmeasurements"as opposed to deviant anatoDickinson. _ .

Dickinson posits that it does not matter what size the clitoris is. Dickinson'sbook (see fig. instead he creates narratives of nerves that effect powerful orgasms. 11) features hundreds of images of clitorises which he drew based on Fig. Orgasm is orgasm however achieved. 11 Dickinson (1949).Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E." (Gertrude Stein would have been pleased.) Moreover. Clarke 273 discusses clitoral agency and challenges Freud's positioning of female orgasm: "Exalting vaginal orgasm while decrying clitoris satisfaction is found to beget much frustration. Figure 77c .

and Ronan O'Rahilly.59(See fig. Donald Gray.6 In most of these texts. their social construction as inventions that embody authority as systematized. Dickinson takes women's sexuality very seriously as he discusses the clitoris's potential for erection and its role in orgasm. Many of his images have seemingly arbitrary biographical notes on the individual models: some stress the marital status.also repeated in their 1969 edition. virginal status. or harmfully imaged"through picturing. physical size. number of children. 12. The absence of a labeled clitoris in the era 1953 to 1971 is especially noteworthy in that Kinsey's work attacking Freud's vaginal orgasm as myth and reasserting clitoral orgasm as central in women's sexual satisfaction was published in 1953. unlabeled part of the body which we assume to be the clitoris. they omitted it. multiple parts of the clitoris were beginning to be labeled again but not extensively discussed. there is either no clitoris represented in the female cross-sectional anatomy or something that could be a clitoris is there but not labeled."in Picturing Power: Visual Depiction and Social Relations Body maps appear to be different from the mid-1950s through the 1960s and up to feminist works beginning in 1971. 1953-1971: FROM KINSEY TO THE FEMINISTS. range of variation was a major focus of his work. "Editors' Introduction: On the Invisibility of the Visual. and Masters and Johnson'swork in 1966.61 From 1973 to 1978. invited. and/or presence of hair on legs. rather than what is done to individuals in the name of power.274 Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. FIRST YOU SEE IT NOW YOU DON'T If we are to address the question of those depictions that are dominant then we need to recover their invention. includes a wormlike. For instance. -Gordon Fyfe and John Law. the first eight texts surveyed varied little in their treatment of the clitoris. In con- . standardized and normalized.) This crosssectional representation of female anatomy from Ernest Gardner. race. Here the question concerns which "subjectivitiesare encouraged. age. the usual method of orgasm. OR. Clarke his gynecological patients.58 CLITORAL IMAGING.

limited to penis-vagina inAn tercourse. David Sinclair. albeit a sexuality defined in heterosexual terms.Gray. and inherently linked to reproductivefunction. Simultaneous with this relative absence of clitoral attention. penile narratives and visual representations in the same texts are dense and active.62Where there is a recognized clitoris. anatomists of the 1970s appear to be more comfortablediscussing human sexuality.Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E.63 examination of the reading practices of this generation of anatomists might reveal how narrative anatomy was influenced by self-help sex advice books such as Alex Comfort's of Sex. does not display a clitoris but does show an orgasming penis. and O'Rahilly(1963).for example. the homology convention is present in this time period as well.64 Joy . Clarke 275 t Fig. 609 trast. 12 Gardner.

musc"le' c cygcu mus ' N FLOOR PELVIC ways in which biomedicine had been naturalized.. and retrieving "lost" The impact of the women's health movement generally on Fig. began in the early 1970s as "womenbegan to do vaginal self-examinations and to feel for the size and position of each other's uterus.. pfoc'' ' ":'' .geu . Introduction:On the -Gordon Fyfe and John Law.~ .27 BostonWomen's terpret the clitoris began to surface in the early 1970s.. reinterpretations of the body . 3 Many groups of feminists began to focus on issues in women's health in the late 1960s. vel DulcedonAppeletur. ano f.. these women were questioning the received wisdom of biomedicine. and prevalent definitions of women's bodies and selves. the clitoris is the organ of sexual pleasure in women.. "Editors' Invisibility of the Visual"in Picturing Power: Visual Depiction and Social Relations On the one hand.65One movement strand. Pt.. nsorylig lig ." The self-help women's health movement was extensively attacked by the medical establishment during these years.. : '.--'~--.: .66 gesting the insertion of yogurt. Clarke FEMINIST GENITAL AND CLITORAL IMAGING. its easy responsiveness to touch makes it difficult to domesticatefor reproductive... . On the other.. in short...o' . -Thomas Laqueur. ~ ~'~ .. includingpolice raids and the arrest of CarolDowner and Colleen Wilson at the Feminist Women'sHealth Center in Los Angeles in 1972 for practicingmedicinewithout a license. the thinking-as-usual. was remedying vaginal yeast infections by sugTheir "crime" tampons. . In 1971."in Fragmentsfor a History of the Human Body. :.SUzpensory : cannot be underestimated. "Amor Veneris.13 :. Feminist aspirations to rein- .heterosexual intercourse.67 Health BookCollective(1976).276 Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E.. rebelling against a medical hegemony which mystified and alienated their own bodily functions from them. They were.sgand' th. in the first edition of Our Bodies.. the feminist self-help health movement. ' fundamentally contesting the . 1971-1981: PARTS" MORE BLANK SPACES AND UNLABELTED 'NqO What is at stake here is the declaring of difference that is not measured against some norm.

in three parts.9 most all "traditional" Carol Horos's Vaginal Health defined the clitoris as the Fig. Although their sexual anatomy diagrams are quite simple (see fig. as shown in fig. the shaft. like Gaul or the Holy Trinity. This is not an act of revealing. which taken togethercreate the whole clitoris. 14 Boston Women'sHealth Book Collective(1976).Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E. 13). 14. the clitoris itself is redefined. These labels are the fresh intervention here.the Boston Women'sHealth Book Collective explicitly refuted the distinction between clitoral and vaginal orgasms. the glans. the narrative seriously challenged reigning anatomical conventions. 26 . the collective also exploded biomedical pictorial conventions by showing a woman looking at her own vulva and clitoris in a mirror-and This image of a woman looking at herallowing us to look too!68 less while we look at her) dramatically challenges self (much the subject/object distinction so rigorously constructed in alanatomies since the Renaissance. Clarke 277 Ourselves. radically expanding what had been commonly designated as the clitoris. If that were not enough. In the 1975 edition. they continued their revisionist anatomy through expanding the range of possible visual representations of the clitoris by labeling it. and the crura.

15 Federationof Feminist Women'sHealth Centers (1981).k.a stunning exemplar of how oped the taken-for-granted has been challenged by the women's health movement.71They set out to investigate women's bodies for the purposes of illustrating them in a new textbook. In 1981.278 Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E. the illustrator of A commissure Front Hood of the clitoris Glans of the : ' ! '' clitoris Frenulumiof theclitoris Inner of lip theclitoris .labia minora.. To create new images of the clitoris. i. . and crura. Clarke "most sexually sensitive organ in the female reproductive system. including the labia majora. Suzann Gage. A New Viewof a Woman's Body offereda fully develalternative feminist anatomy. Fig. 35 . The bookwas producedthrough the cooperative efforts of women who had formed a feminist self-help health group."70 of the clitoris are simpler than subsequent renderings. clitoral orgasms are constructed narratively as events requiring the cooperation of several anatomical organs. an extensive search of existing representations was undertaken. prepuce." which "gets hard"and may "expandto two times its size Although Horos'svisual representations during stimulation.

The prescriptive view has its roots in the patriarchyand the sexist attitudes of the time. Perhaps . noted of their literature review: "Whenwe were doing our book.The New Viewof a Woman's of Health Centers.and aboutwomen(see fig."In biomedicine..women'sbodies.homogenous. m iVulygnal (e u aginl gland Urethra surroundedby urethral sponge Fig.The collectivealso masturmain character-front batedin frontof one anotherand drewand createdthe narrahands-onexpetives of engorgement fromtheir observations-a riencein the fullest sense of scientificpracticebut with an exceptional mutualityandreflexivity72 The bookis a trainingmanual-a "howto know your body" forwomen. Clarke 279 New View of a Woman'sBody. Pelvic Pubicbone Suspensory ligament and Artery vein Shaft ' \ \e diaphragm andvein Artery hnter muscle Anus Hood _ Legs Paraurethral gland l 's diaphragm Urogenital Perinealsponge l ip b wOuter the Clitoral n opening to ceptio lip w . 15. (See fig. not least the clitoris. functionless.. 16 Federationof Feminist Women'sHealth Centers (1981).t Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E.we came up with the terms 'descriptive' and 'prescriptive'view of women's bodies. the Federation FeministWomen's is a radicalstory of women'sbodieswhere the clitorisis the and center. are a battleground. 41 this stunning feminist revision.) It is difficult to replicate for readers the radical experienceof looking through hundreds of pages of diminutive. 16). gland l .by women..and uninteresting interpretations of the clitoris and suddenly seeing Eog be Urethra surrounded ure sponreter by Roundligament Vagina Rectum Fa .

We used the same aggressive. self-conscious effort is made to present the clitoris as a "functioning integrated unit. Here."The homology convention which asserts the shared cellular embryonic origins of the clitoris and penis is evident in this book as well. Finally. the label states "crosssection of the clitoris."In Suzann Gage's words. A few years after what might be termed "the feminist clitoris" was represented. And how can you argue with anatomy? It is all the same. .) One of the most important aspects of this book. the glans of the clitoris looks similar to a large brain-we joked about it as mission control. [it] shows us once and for all the interior of the penis via microcamera: the inside walls are virtually the same as those of the vagina. the clitoris is capable of erection. Moreover. the female parallel to WoodyAllen's spermatic guidance system in Everything You Always Wantedto Know about Sex. editor Robin Morgan wrote TheAnatomy of Freedom:Feminism. what is a good narrative of homology for the gander is a good narrative of homology for the goose! (See fig. found also in a few others across the century. for example. The erectile tissue of the clitoris functions the same as the penis.all the visual representations are labeled vis-avis the clitoris. activist and Ms. instead of cross section of the pelvis. 18).A New Viewof a Woman'sBody is a radical reinterpretationindeed. From minor homologue it is transfigured into the raison d'etre of other organs. "Ithink that we were revealing the truth.280 Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E. In figure 19.the agency of the clitoris is addressed with a pictorial narrative about orgasm. active and deliberate way the penis was describedand applied all the same terms. illustrated in these before-and-after pictures. 17 and note the dotted lines indicating the expansion of the organs during erection. Deliberate. Clarke most radically. .is the fact that it does not present a normative representation or narrative of the clitoris or women's bodies (see fig. for example. a step-by-step account-a guide for "howto have an orgasm."The centrality of the clitoris is pervasive. Some of the drawn images are very inventive."Or. . there are many kinds of clitorises represented in the visuals and narratives which stress both the range of experiences and range of bodies women have. Physics. and Global Politics in which she states: Recent medical research also had made clear the illusion of difference and separateness . Rather.

Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. 48-49 . Clarke 281 Fig. 17 Federation of Feminist Women'sHealth Centers (1981).

thecutruns inner herfourchette mem(the lips. narrowing together thefourchette. of variationsthesize. outer enfold hood lips andinner lips. of color of This woman's area rosy color pink 29-year-old lips is visible the at and out Her flare widely. Clarke Fig.) near At bottomtheperineum the the of anus. where inner meet) still lips often (Women self-examination doing has find anepisiotomy completely that the ofthe altered structure fourchette. ofthebody. andtexture thefeatures theclitoris. Thiswoman's hoodis rather long. inner arecovered a smooth. pubic Federation of Feminist Women'sHealth Centers (1981). with lips hairless membrane theouter and lips are with more the covered skin like rest and hair. flare from pink tively They out a hood areparted that can and so you almost pastthelight hymen see pink into vagina. 18 normal of This series photos thevulva clitoris of and shows some themany of healthy. is 19and forms flat She hasnever pregnant.thefleshis verybunched up Adwhere cutwassewn the together. cansee you of that runs thelower it past portionthe the across perlip right andextends the outside Since ineum.shape. her has in Thewoman thisphotograph it hada recent Although episiotomy. easytosee inthis It's how photo theskinon theinner lips from on differs that theouter The lips. glans clearly to opens topandtheclitoral opening thevagina She one and slightly. 128 . This woman's inner ar reladark lips small. the Her completely covering glans.282 Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. hashad birth oneabortion. from a This of shows wellprofiletheclitoris defined with inner widenhood the lips surround clitoral the openingas they then tojoin at ing. inner seemtoberolled and lips together have crinkly a texture. fourchette Her baseoftheinner is well de(the lips) fined theperineal above and area the anus a plane. a proditionally. into extends thevagina. the which stretches across area brane the is intact.smallhemorrhoid trudes theanus. been Thelower oftheinner ofthis half lips clitoris itsmost is woman's prominent the The feature.

in A New View of a Woman'sBody. a glans. new research has resulted in the first accurate illustration of the clitoris. .Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. Clarke 283 Fig.73 Here we see again feminist truth claims being made. and an engorgement process during arousal which results in an anatomical analysis of the clitoris. 46 . showing that organ as having a shaft. Both A New View of a Woman's Body and Robin Morgan make the homology argument but deploy this argument to subvert the original intent of diminution of the female. What we've known for some time-that all males have remnants of female anatomy and all females remnants of male anatomy (both stemming from the literally bisexed state of the embryo up until the fifth week of gestation)-is now an objectiveproofthat we can see with our eyes. as highly similar to the penis. by the Feminist Women'sHealth Centers. 19 Glans(greatly magnified) nerve Pudendal of the clitoris 3-15 Thenervesof the clitoris Federation of Feminist Women'sHealth Centers (1981). As different repre- . both relaxed and erect. Complimentarily.

. 1981-1991 . Although narratives centered on discussing female sexual experience are now acceptable. and "implant"representations of gender. Technologiesof Gender: Essays on Theory.the diagrams of the clitoris in the texts since 1981 are very simple. But the terms of a different construction of gender also exists.284 Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. The fact that these feminist "truths" are different interpretations of women's bodies than traditional (and usually male) biomedical "truths"illustrates the contested.Film. -Gordon Fyfe and John Law. In addition. and Fiction Did the feminist reinterpretationof the clitoris have an impact on the dominant anatomy image makers? If there has been an impact. it appears to be a backlash of clitoral deletion-visual clitoridectomy after a few decades of minimalist inclusion. generally with only one part of the clitoris labeled. and inscribed in the micro political practices.75 Overwhelmingly. and often strategic claims-making activities which are bolstered by supposedly "objective" proofs of the body. there are more explicit narratives of heterosexuality and evolutionary theory than there had been. in and their effects are rather at the "local" subjectivity and self-representation. these sexual experiences are depicted as limited. -Teresa de Lauretis. Posed from the outside of the heterosexual social contract. both of which appear to be deployed to reinforce and bolster traditional gender constructions and norms. promote. these terms can also have a part in the construction of gender. the work that leads to preparation of images reflects one of the traditional objects of art-that of perfecting nature by removing imperfectionand obscurity. levels of resistances. . Clarke sentations demonstrate. "Editors' Introduction: On the Invisibility of the Visual."in Picturing Power:Visual Depiction and Social Relations The construction of gender goes on today through the various technologies of gender and institutional discourse of power to control the field of social meaning and produce. in the margins of hegemonic discourse. the "truth" changes depending on who makes the claims.74 SE'TING THE ANATOMICALRECORD STRAIGHT (AND NARROW): CLITORAL BACKLASH C. socially constructed.

"Last but far from least Silverstein situates the clitoris in a political movement:"the clitoris is one of the most important regions of sexual stimulation in the female and has become something of a cause celebre for feminists rebelling against the 'myth of the vaginal orgasm. "Withthe current emphasis on sexual pleasure and the controversyover the role of women (and men) as sex objects. Silverstein continues."Moreover. bearing and nurturing children. discussing female sexual response. Rod Seely. Here external female genitalia are "fullyexposed." Reinserting women into woman's properplace. 20). state: "These secretions provide lubrication to allow easy entry of the penis into the vagina and easy movement of the penis during sexual intercourse. feminists were reasserting. which fits neatly into a suitably adapted sheath within the body of the female. For example. Trent Stephens. Although these are real bodies. In sharp contrast with these "realerthan real"visual representations of female bodies are the computer-generatedgraph- .78 In addition to textual assertions about female anatomy. by far the best exemplar of sexstereotyped representations of the body. his choice of where to find the ideal female body image seems to be a direct and hostile response to feminists: "Acomparison of the opulent nudes of a century or two ago with the latest Playboy centerfolds. they are dead bodies."represented with the first layer of skin pulled away.'"77 In fact. along with sexologists. Figure 21 is the diagram based on the cadaver picture.discusses the penis as "a rod shaped copulatory organ. and Philip Tate."76 Whose lubrication is it anyway? The Alvin Silverstein text. the mythic status of vagina-only orgasms and (re)proclaimingthe clitoris as the fundamental site of orgasm. the visual representations of this time period change through the use of photographyof cadavers as anatomy specimens. woman was created as a receptacle for male desire. The resulting new vivid realism of some 1980s' anatomy texts can be quite jarring (see is often easy to lose sight of the fact that a large part of woman's body is adapted specifically for functions of conceiving. Clarke 285 We learn first that the vagina was designed to fit the penis. for example.Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. In full-blown evolutionary functionalist theory. indicates that the current ideal is somewhat thinner than her great-great grandmother.

20 Inferior aspect of the female perineal musculature rrI a R rN I Vidic & Suarez (1984). Clarke Fig. 369 .286 Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E.

Clarke 287 Fig. 369 . 21 Inferioraspectof the femaleperincal musculature I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ =_ Vidic & Suarez (1984).Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E.

Clarke Fig.288 Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. 22 Glans(greatly magnified) 3-15 Thenervesof the clitoris Stern (1988). 242 .

ERRATUM in the that Weregret error appeared LisaJeanMooreandAdeleClarke's Conventions Transgressions: and in "Clitoral Graphic Representations volume21. Fig. and Ourapologies the author ourreaders. 22. 19 Anatomy twiceas bothFig. 19 andFig. Thefollowingshouldhave was reproduced as into appeared Fig. to PubicSymph lae AnWl Thang Gap Between Arcuate Pubic Ugament and AnteriorEdgc of PerlnealMembra Hole forVagina and Urelhra Extenal Anal SpMncte Ichorwctal Fossa FIGURE 22 1988:242 Stemrn . Pleaseinsertthiscorrection thatissue.c1900-1991. number (summer 2 Texts. 22 on page288." 1995).

and cultured-with each of these characteristics The creation of this universal anatomical clearly embodied. either with sexuality in service to reproduction or discounted. According to Thomas Laqueur. For example.82 Sustained across a whole century are linkages between female reproductive function and sexual function.particularlywhen comparedwith some of the representations we saw earlier of the body as sexed."83 These late-twentieth-centuorgasm ry genital anatomy interpretations are in diametric opposition to interpretations of the late nineteenth century and earlier. Alexander Spence and Elliott Mason assert: "certainly.79 Are we witnessing a new convention of anatomical representation emerging?How will these seemingly engineered representations inform our relationships to our bodies? Not only is the computerizedversion difficult to translate into an embodied state. The computer images also make the older style of illustration seem comparatively-and potentially dangerously-old-fashioned.84 women's sexual response as inextricably linked with reproductive function. raced. classed. cultured. Clarke 289 ics images of Jack Stern's text in figure 22.Although representations of the body as raced. Women's bodies have also been dematerializing the body. shared by anatomists and society at large. This computer-generated universal anatomy negates any sense of corporeality. specifically TheAnatomical Record (a key journal in the field). Many of the representations and narratives of this time period suggest that the dominant and primarily male anatomists are trying to set the record straight.80 model body introduces complicated theoretical and political considerations.Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. classed. . universal computerized representations seem to delete the body itself. is not necessary for a female to experience an it for fertilization to occur. that women reBoth arguments construct quired orgasm in order to conceive.81 quite routinely disappearing in reproductive discourses. and gendered have often been articulated within existing hegemonic discourses of inequities (certain types of bodies are consistently represented as ideal). but its intense universalizing effects also thoroughly delete the range of variation so well illustrated in the feminist A New View of a Woman's Body and even by Dickinson much earlier. not a good omen. gendered. as late as 1987. it was then a common belief.

ed.1500-1800. "nature" here facilitates an elaborated clitoral politics. First.86 CONCLUSIONS It takes all sorts to make a sex. In conclusion. Clarke In sum. In a sense.New and classically modernist feminist anatomies seem to have been either inconsequential or to have Groupswhich have taken up provokeda backlash of deletion. and to more than a few intellectuals once they stopped talking esthetics. as con- ."New YorkTimes Book Review [On Rodin's 1890 sculpture Iris] To anyone not versed in the elaborate terminology and sophistication of the art world."in Significant Others:Creativityand Intimate Partnerships. in. to computer-generatedabstractions. a seemingly wider range of constructions has been made. and over female bodies through anatomy. anatomies are socially constructed. intellectual. limbless woman with her legs splayed was nothing but a cunt. -Anne Higonnet. political. and we found considerable range of variation in constructions of the clitoris among texts within time periods in the twentieth century. the figure of a headless. "'TheGoodParts":Review of Lynn Hunt. From tiny wormlike unlabeled structures to baroque fluidities of process.85 the new feminist views of anatomy appear to be those involved with sexology and sexuality studies. Probably in part because of the comparative embeddedness of clitorises in flesh vis-a-vis the extrusion of penises. groups also quite marginalized although rather differentlythan feminists have been. we return to several themes regarding the social construction of the clitoris which are evident in our research. The Invention of Pornography:Obscenityand the Origins of Modernity. and discursive battles that have been and continue to be fought on.290 Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. clitorises vary in anatomy both in representation and criteria of definition. We found that by and large female sexual anatomy was given short shrift comparedwith that of the male both literally and figuratively. -Eugen Weber. Whitney Chadwickand Isabelle de Courtivron We have sought here to provide insight into the multiple scientific. we have examined an array of twentieth-century anatomy texts seeking both representativeness and range of variation. "Claudeland Rodin.

providing an anatomical version of liberal "equality" feminism. are To produced as knowledge.We can hear echoes of the pre-eighteenth-century "one body" model as discussed earlier. adapting. theorists can construct female sexuality in such a way that women become sexual subjects in their own right.genital anatomies construct and maintain sex/gender differences. it has constructed standard. universalization. social. creative. sameness. and simplification strategies lodge naturalness in the sexed/genderedbody per se. Second and fundamentally.However. they are also more forthcomingthan other participants about the political nature of the anatomized body as turf. They are quite aware that.88 Although the feminists involved in these debates sometimes claim that they are presenting "thetruth of the body"and take what might be termed a "realist"or "essentialist" biological stance.92 Representations too are politics by other means.for women. genital anatomy has by and large remained relatively stable and insulated from the challenges posed by feminists and sexologists over the past half-century. normalizedclitorises for all.7But here it is distinctively modifiedto both delete hierarchy and assert a new equality. like other sciences.or resource depending upon who is doing the construction. As science is politics by other means. opportunity. Normalization. as Bennett notes: "Withthe clitoris. Clarke 291 straint. and similarities of the sexes are intent upon diminishing differencespredicatedon female inferiority.91 Latour has argued.Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E.90 us the explicit backlash against feminist anatomies dramaticallyillustrates the continuous battles waged on the anatomical terrain. Feminists have challenged and resisted such constructions of difference by adopting. Further-and more contemporary-research is needed to determine whether feminists and others have seriously ruptured that stability and . and political power into their own hands. Third. the elaborate discussions by Suzann Gage and by Robin Morgan of the overlaps. and reasserting the idea that female and male bodies are not "really"that different. For example. taking their sexual.Anatomy as discipline constructs men's penises to vary individually."89 These feminists are considerably more reflexive about the anatomy they offer and its claims and consequencesin the competitive market in which anatomies.

Bennett's recent assertion that the place of the clitoris can be radically outside the reproductiveeconomy and that exchange of/traffic in women is obviously supported by our research. young and white. an exceptional group of differently radical anatomies over the past century have emphasized range of variation of the clitoris and sexual organs/genitalia more generally: Robert Latou Dickinson's A TopographicalHome Atlas: Human Sex Anatomy. Ourselves. or reproductiveanatomy. Last. gender. we plan to deconstruct and comseriously? pare their representations and narratives of sex. and race.Yet anatomy can and has changed its mind. rather. Thomas and Thea Lowry's The Clitoris. In fact. is highly consequential. but this seems beyond lag and quite political. sexual. or some combination thereof. anatomy (Freudian)psychiatry here but. and/orrace is anatomically inconsequential. it is as though everyone is Western. it has only been in these volumes that racialized differences have been presented. reinserting woman into her place in the reproductive economy.95 In another article. and the Federation of Feminist Women's Health Centers' A New What has it meant to take women View of a Woman'sBody.93 as a discipline does not seem to be deferring to ly.94 Fourth.regardless of whether they are also viewed as sexual. labels hold power:whether the area of the body where the clitoris lies is labeled genital. Can these strategies be interpreted as sexism and heterosexism? How has anatomy maintained its insularity? The lag of texts behind practices and cultural visions is well known in social studies of Certainscience.96 Throughout the twentieth century it has been feminists and certain sexologists who have cared and still care in a positive sense about the clitoris as a nonreproductivefemale body part.292 Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. In this performative view. In all the other volumes. gender is seen to require constant and assiduous reenactment to be sus- . serve as yet another way to discipline and naturalize women both in a Foucauldian sense and in terms of the performativeelements of female gender as defined by reproductive capacity. physically similar. the Boston Women's Health Book Collective's Our Bodies. Anatomical "explanations"of the female body which insist on the genitals as reproductive. Clarke what disciplinarystrategies have been used to reestablish what in our analysis was classic 1950s' anatomy.

and Sally Shuttleworth. and Shari Colburn. for special efforts on our behalf. it is not merely being one kind of body but automatically being inscribed with particular social functions because of having that kind of body that constructs gender. Clarke 293 tained-or refuted and renegotiated in anatomy as elsewhere. Tia DeNora. Gender itself may be understood in this model not only as the effect of ideology or cultural values but as the way in which power takes hold of and constructs bodies in particular ways. We would also like to thank the following individuals for their helpful comments: Susan Bell.. In addition.9 Anatomies thus frame ways of being/enacting "female"and "male. Monica Casper. 1990). Donna Penn."Social Studies of Science 21 (May 1991): 309. the sexed body can no longer be conceived as the unproblematic biological and factual base upon which gender is inscribed. eds. Susan Leigh Star. it is the ways in which most anatomies themselves have been and continue to be accomplished that have made anatomy destiny. Peter Taylor.and Scholarship Group at the University of Illinois/Urbana-Champaign in March 1994. We have learned much from "dissecting"classical anatomy. Ariadne Sacharoff. InformationTechnology. 147-71. We greatly appreciate the feedback given by these groups. ed. 1. Stefan Hirschauer. Thomas Laqueur.. 2.Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. in particular University Archivist Nancy Zinn.Sexual Visions:Images of Genderin Science and Medicine between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Madison:University of Wisconsin Press. 1988). 1990). For instance. Finally. Body/ Politics: Womenand the Discourses of Science (New York:Routledge. Feminism and Science (Bloomington:Indiana University Press. Thinking through the Body (New York: Columbia University Press.Jennifer Thomas helped producethe illustrations. but must itself be recognized as constructed by discourses and practices that take the body both as their target and as their vehicle of expression. domination and sexual difference intersect in the lived experience of men and women. 1989). "The Manufacture of Bodies in Surgery.99 In short. we would like to thank the University of California. NOTES An earlier version of this essay was presented at the University of California Systemwide Council on Women's Programs Conference at Lake Arrowhead in November 1993 and at a meeting of the Women. and Londa Schiebinger. 1989). Significantly. The Mind Has No Sex? Womenin the Origins of Modern Science (Cambridge:Harvard . San Francisco Library Historical Archives staff.97 This view offers us a way to give an account of how power. Matt Schmidt. It need not remain so. Evelyn Fox Keller. see Nancy Tuana. See Mary Jacobus. and Jane Gallop. Making Sex: Body and Genderfrom the Greeksto Freud (Cambridge:Harvard University Press. Ludmilla Jordanova." That is. we appreciate the comments provided by the anonymous reviewers fromFeminist Studies.

J. 1990). 3 (1990): 317-39. and Flexible Bodies: Tracking Immunity in American Culture from the Days of Polio to the Age of AIDS (Boston:Beacon Press. "Biologists and the Promotion of Birth Control Research. On physiology. 1 (1987): 57-87. "TheMedical Constructionof Gender:Case Management of Intersexed Infants. no. Louis:W."Isis 77 (June 1986): 261-77. Beyond the Natural Body: An Archeology of Sex Hormones (London and New York: Routledge. 2 (emphasis added). of course."Feminist Studies 14 (fall 1988): 575-99. John B. "TheObjectiveReality of Perspectives. . MarjorieGarber." Camera Obscura 28 (January 1992): 207-38. Clarke University Press."Journal of Sex Research 27. George Herbert Mead." in Incorporations. Sandy Stone. "Situated Knowledges:The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective.J. 1989). Reproductive anatomy and sexual physiology have.University of Melbourne. 4. 1993). Inscribing the Future: Sex. Anne Balsamo. 1994). 1 (1991): 1949. "The Acceptance of Scientific Theories and Images of Masculinity and Femininity: 1959c1985. 1980). Thomas Power Lowryand Thea Snyder Lowry." Sociological Perspectives 38 (summer 1995): 311-33. 42-43. "Controversyand the Development of American Reproductive Sciences. and Adele E."Dualismin Biology:The Case of Sex Hormones."SpareParts: The Surgical Construction of Gender. For neurology. Allucquere Roseanne Stone. see Sally Shuttleworth." Social Problems 37 (February 1990): 18-37. Clarke. Nature's Body: Genderin the Making of Modern Sciences (Boston:Beacon Press..H. N. Secrets of Life. ed. Michel Foucault. no. For space biology. Marianne van den Wijngaard. and Ruth Hubbard. see Anne Fausto-Sterling. forthcoming 1996). and the "Problem of Sex" (Berkeley: University of California Press. Blake. 189-213.Gender." Signs 16 (summer 1991): 485-501. 5 (1991): 459-71."in GeorgeHerbert Mead on Social Psychology."Differences (summer 1989): 137-59. see Monica J. 1976). Julia Epstein and Kristina Straub (New York:Routledge.June 1993). been especially rich sites for the construction of embodied differences. "TheEmpire Strikes Back: A Posttransexual Manifesto. and Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison of American Physicians: Historical Essays. and Women (New York: Routledge. "InscribingBodies. 5." in Body Guards: The Cultural Politics of Gender Ambiguity. American Life Sciences. see Nancy Stepan. 1977). 1992). 47-68. see Joan Fujimura. "Female Circulation:Medical Discourse and Popular Advertising in the Mid-VictorianEra. 608-25. and Reproduction on the Final Frontier. 1973). Nelly Oudshoorn. "Virtual Systems."in The (Berkeley:University of CaliforniaPress. 1991). "On the Cutting Edge: Cosmetic Surgery and the TechnologicalProductionof the Gendered Body. no. Jonathan Crary and Sanford Kwinter (New York:Zone. Disciplining Reproduction: Modernity.see Nelly Oudshoornand Marianne van den Wijngaard.294 Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E. ed.The Politics of Women'sBiology (New Brunswick." Journal of the History of Biology 24. Clarke. For genetics. The Birth of the Clinic: An Archeology of Medical Perception (New York: Pantheon. Green. and Donna Haraway. On endocrinology. ed. Casper and Lisa Jean Moore. "Race."Signs 16 (autumn 1990): 3-26. Merriley Borell.: Rutgers University Press. 3. reprinted in her Simians. Emily Martin. ed. Cyborgs. Secrets of Death (New York:Routledge. "Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science. "The Five Sexes." Journal of the History of Biology 19. 1992). Numbers Education (New York:Vintage Books. Londa Scheibinger. eds. Jennifer Terry. 1994). For the rhetorical and other practices of many sciences. Kessler. 1964). Gender. no.Adele E." The Sciences (March/April 1993): 20-25. "Lesbiansunder the Medical Gaze: Scientists Search for Remarkable Differences. See S. Jordanova. and Evelyn Fox Keller."Women'sStudies International Forum 14." in Body/Politics. 1918-1938. and Science: A Situational Perspective"(Paper presented at the "Sex/Genderin Techno-ScienceWorlds" conference. Anselm Strauss (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. "Anatomy. Ronald L. The Clitoris (St. "The Egg and the Sperm:How Science Has Constructeda RomanceBased on Stereotyped Male-Female Constructed Roles.

1993).M. ed. Vance. "Mothers. ed.Lisa Jean Mooreand Adele E. Olayinka Koso-Thomas.D.Adele E. See Donna Haraway. and William Cronon. See Shannon Brownlee and Jennifer Seter with Betsy Streisand and Louise Tunbridge. 1995). Judith Butler. in which she discusses the materialization of bodies and instructs us to investigate which bodies come to matter and why. ed. and Esther K. and Nature in the Worldof Modern Science (New York:Routledge. were historically performed in Western medicine as a supposed cure for a wide variety of "female ailments. vel Dulcedo Appeletur. See.: Transaction Books. Hicks. See Alice Walker and Pratibha Parmar. Thomas W. 3." 1866. Although she is focused on their manifestations in lesbian and gay studies. Dennis Altman et al.Engendered Sensations: Social Construction of the Clitoris and Female Orgasm. already pregnant with a theory of sexual difference or sameness. for example. 13-34. and ."U. 1982). Sheila Jeffreys (New York:Routledge & Kegan Paul. 8. vel Dulcedo Appeletur. 1987). Darlaine Claire Gardetto. 1994. Clarke and Joan H."in Homosexuality. N. N. 6. Which Homosexuality? International Conference on Gay and Lesbian Studies. 1992). since the eighteenth century. Rosenthal is covering the attempt at federal legislation introduced in Congress by Patricia Schroederand Barbara Rose Collins. 56-58. 183-202. The Right Tools for the Job: At Work in Twentieth-CenturyLife Sciences (Princeton: Princeton University Press. Clarke 295 1992). See Carole S. 1989). A15. We Have Never Been Modern (Cambridge:Harvard University Press. see John Farley. The boundaries of organs themselves and what could be known about them constrained and were constrained by the openness of the language in which they could be thought. "SocialConstructionTheory:Problems in the History of Sexuality.J. 10. 7. Primate Visions: Gender. Bodies That Matter (New York: Routledge. 11. ReinventingNature (New York:Norton. 1993). Infibulation:Female Mutilation in Islamic Northeastern Africa (New Brunswick. 1993). A. Bruno Latour.Race. deportationcase was recently fought and won by a Nigerian woman on the basis of the threat of clitoridectomyof her daughters if she was forced to return to Nigeria.J.M. 1987). to make clitoridectomyillegal in the United States. University of California. Michel Feher with Ramona Nadaff and Nadia Tazi (New York:Zone. 9. eds. 1990). WarriorMarks:Female Genital Mutilation and the Sexual Blinding of Women(New York: Harcourt Brace.. Fujimura. 7 Feb. 1650-1975 (Ph.CircumA cision of Women: Strategy for Eradication (Atlantic Highlands. Clitoridectomies.removal of parts of the female genitalia. (London: GMP Publishers. "OnSome Diseases of Woman Admitting Surgical Treatment."in Fragments for a History of the Human Body. On triangulation. and Linda M. 1993).: Zed Books.. be temporary:"A web of words. Pt."Inthe Name of Ritual. The figure of 80 million "living with the scars of their bodies and minds"was given in an Op-Edpiece by A. In addition."See Laqueur. This standardization may.Babies. of course. 12."New YorkTimes."108. diss."Feminist Studies 19 (summer 1993): 292-311. 27-41. and Breast-Feeding in Late Capitalist America: The Shifting Contexts of Feminist Theory. "Amor Veneris.. "Amor Veneris. Rosenthal. There were no terms in the Renaissance for what. a key U." See Isaac Baker-Brown. Blum. 27 July 1993. News and WorldReport. 1750-1914 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 1992). have been construed as essential signs in the body of incommensurabledifference. ed. Carole Vance provides one of the clearest available discussions of the essentialist versus constructionist debates. "TheTorture Continues. her points are much more broadly applicable. thus limited how genital organs would be seen and discussed. reprinted in The Sexuality Debates.S.S. Laqueur.Davis. Gametes and Spores: Ideas about Sexual Reproduction. 1989). 109-10.

ed. 212-35. all in Medical AnthropologyQuarterly5 Advocacyin MedicalAnthropology" (November 1991). Soheir A. 37-41. Candace West and Don Zimmerman. John Duffy. Paul Gilroy/TheRace and Politics Group (London:Century Hutchinson.Primate Visions."Journal of Social History 15 (autumn 1982): 467-84. "WhatDo Women Want: Feminist AnthropologyConfronts Clitoridectomy" (17-19). and Class (London: Women's Press. Hazel Carby. Making Sex. Instead. and Haraway. Kal Austin (1994. "The Clitoridectomy Craze. Styles. Barker-Benfield. "TheRise and Fall of Battey's Operation:A Fashion in Surgery. See Laurence Goldstein. Blum. 242. 1994. Morsey. 22. Corinne. girls' breasts and their agonies over breast size are highlighted.669.G. ed. paralleling boys' agonies over penis size."Signs 18 (winter 1993): 235-59. Personal communication with Wendy Brown. Race. "Virgin Territory: The Male Discovery of the Clitoris. GenderTrouble:Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (New York:Routledge. 1982). vel Dulcedo Appeletur". Ann Koedt."Feminist Studies 19 (summer 1993): 369-76. ed. "Dilemmas of Visibility: Contemporary Women Artists' Representations of Female Bodies. October 1993. 18. See Laqueur. 1970).929 articles from 1 July 1989 to 13 July 1994. London. and compareLawrence D. and Judith Butler." in The Female Body. Paula Bennett. The Current Contents catalog tracks 6. 1990 to 9 Aug. The Horrors of the Half-Known America (New Life: Attitudes toward Womenand Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century York:Harper & Row." Social Research 33 (summer 1986): 243-60. "White Woman Listen! Black Women and the Boundaries of Sisterhood. 14." Journal of the American Medical Association 186 (1963): 246-48.296 Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E.919." Gender and Society 1 (April 1987): 125-51.800 holdings in the University of California and California State University Libraries. Darcy Grimaldo Grigsby. Speculations (Ann Arbor:University of Michigan Press.583. 1991). personal communication)of the Department of Education at the University of Illinois Urbana/Champaignhas recently been studying sex education materials used in public schools and found that the clitoris is often totally missing or its function is not discussed. Tee A.986 articles from 1 Jan. "Doing Gender. x. 15. 83-102. Melvyl as of that date contained approximately 7. Daniel Gordon. "TriangulatingClinical and Basic Research:British Localizationists. Wendy Mitchinson. Faye Ginsberg. and "AmorVeneris.324 titles representing 12. The Female Body: Figures."Liberation Now: Notes from the Second Year. 16. 21. 17. 19. "GynecologicalOperations on Insane Women."History of Science 24 (March 1986): 29-48. 1895-1901.500 journals and on the date searched held 5. Isaac Baker-Brown. and Gardetto. "BodyPolitics: Continuing the Anti-CircumcisionCrusade"(15-17). 13.. "SafeguardingWomen's Bodies: The White Man's Burden Medicalized" (19-24). Clarke Susan Leigh Star."Medical AnthropologyQuarterly 5 (November 1991): 25.J. Shulamith Firestone (New York:Radical Feminists. "Critical Clitoridectomy:Female Sexual Imagery and Feminist PsychoanalyticTheory."Bulletin of the History of Medicine 53 (summer 1979): 244-67. Ontario. 20.000 journals and listed 1. and Carolyn Sargent. MedLine tracks 4. "ArtEssay: Artist's Statement on Sexual Art. Women. The searches were all undertaken on 20 July 1994. "Masturbationand Clitoridectomy:A Nineteenth-Century View. 1982). Also. Andrew Scull and Diane Favreau." in The Empire Strikes Back. See also . 1990). "FemaleCircumcisionand Genital Operations in Egypt and the Sudan: A Dilemma for Medical Anthropology" (3-14) and see commentaries on Gordonby Janice Boddy.213. Nancy Scheper-Hughes. 1976). Longo. "ConfrontingPatriarchy:The Potential for (24-25). Angela Davis. Bennett. "TheMyth of the Vaginal Orgasm. 1870-1906.

Laqueur. Elisabeth Lloyd. But evolutionary theory largely ignores reproduction. 30."PsychoanalyticInquiry (summer 1991): 511. Evolutionarytheory concernedwith sexuality and reproductionoccasionally enrolls the clitoris as an actor."American Journal of Sociology 78 (October 1973): 1048. Lowry and Lowry. and physical anthropology (Susan Lawrence.Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E. The Classic Clitoris (Chicago: Welson Hall. Therefore." Biology and Philosophy 2 (1987): 73-86. N. 1993). personal communication. 24. 1994). 31. 162-65. See James Griesemer. Susan Lawrence and Kae Bendixen."Gender Bias in Human Anatomy TextbookIllustrations. "AFunny Thing Happened on the Way to the Orifice:Women in GynecologicalTexts. 23. for example. see some of the feminist science studies literature that criticizes evolutionAssumpary theory on several different grounds: Elisabeth Lloyd. 1871-1914 (Ithaca. Medical Students. Rozee-Koker.Y. Bullough. ed. There has been a medical school at the site since 1864. Disorders of Desire: Sex and Gender in Modern American Sexology (Philadelphia:Temple University Press. Priand mate Visions. 33. Lloyd. also Thomas Power Lowry. Clarke 297 Grigsby. and Lawrence Birken. "His and Hers: Female Anatomy in Anatomy Texts for U.San Francisco.All About Eve: Bias in EvolutionaryExplanations of Women's Sexuality (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1988). Although content analysis offers a way to systematically organize manifest data analysis. See Sandra Mitchell. 1890-1989. obsteand "abnormal" structions of the female pelvis in "normal" trics. Diana Scully and Pauline Bart. distinct female sexual response just disappears"(209). See Nancy Mann Kulish. P. "Pre-Theoretical tions in Evolutionary Explanations of Female Sexuality. we have combined these approaches. Jones (Amsterdam:Rodopi Press. Autonomous. See Janice Irvine. 1993).S. 12 Mar.: Cornell University Press. 29. In examining the recent genetics of sex. Irvine. 25. "Reproduction the Central Project of Evolutionary Theory. vel Dulcedo Appeletur. Mita Giacomini. Additionally. 1978).has extensive historical holdings which made this research possible. Vern L."Psychologyof WomenQuarterly10 (summer 1986):413-20. 1995)."Social Science and Medicine 35. it cannot yield the rich analytic categories developedthrough using grounded theory. 28."Philosophical Studies 69 (1993): 201-15. 7 (1992): 925-34.and how it manages to do so and pass for adequate science is now itself a topic of inquiry in philosophy of biology. there is no mention of femaleness except in relation to "themale"-and femaleness is generally characterized as a genomic lack or absence of something. The Libraryof the University of California." in Varieties of Idealization: Poznan Studies. 27. Nancy Cartwright and M. Gardetto. "OnPluralism and Competitionin Evolutionary Explanations. Consuming Desire: Sexual Science and the Emergence of a Culture of Abundance. Haraway. These researchers will next study the appearance and conforms in anatomy. "TheMental Representation of the Clitoris:The Fear of Female Sexuality."American Zoologist 32 (February 1992): 135-44. emphasizing range of ." 32. and F. 1990). found that "socialagendas appear in these stories [of evolution] through the obliteration of any female response that is independent from her function as a reproducer. Pepitone-Arreola-Rockwell. Science in the Bedroom:A History of Sex Research (New York: Basic Books. "Amor Veneris. "TheInformationalGene and the Substantial Body: On the Generalization of Evolutionary Theory by Abstraction. no. 26. and Evelyn Fox Keller. Fujimura notes that although there are extended discussions of what is maleness and how it is determined.

Lawrence Grossberg. trans." in The Making of the Modern Body.: Wadsworth. Calif. (Belmont. 1-40. Generation. See also Lawrence and Bendixen. A Note on Some Religious Paintings. We grew increasingly appreciative of the insights of Lata Mani regardingpartialities and colonizingvisions. 19-68. Colonial Texts: Reading Eye Witness Accounts of Widow Burning. Howard S. ed.Cary Nelson. Ambroise Pare. and Paula Treichler(New York:Routledge. 6th ed. not listed in the program.: SociologyPress. "Skeletonsin the Closet: The First Illustrations of the Female Skeleton in Eighteenth-Century Anatomy. see Earl Babbie. Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss. Henrika Kuklick and Elizabeth Long (Greenwich. see Anselm Strauss. 188. Thomas Laqueur. 1990). 1992). .: JAI Press. 1982). the illustrator of the Federation of Feminist Women'sHealth Centers publication." in Picturing Power:Visual Depictions and Social Relations.also presented on the history of the clitoris. n 35. Michael Lynch and Steve Woolgar(Cambridge: 39. and Barney Glaser. On content analysis. 1987)."in Representation in Scientific PracMIT Press. "AnEnduring Master of Anatomy:The Female Sex Organs in Humans and Some Mammals. Catherine Gallagher and Thomas Laqueur (Berkeley: University of California Press. Anselm Strauss and Juliet Corbin. Schiebinger. Efforts were made to constantly compare data both within and between time periods while also trying to situate and analyze outlying cases-those representations or texts which clearly did not fit into the roughly standard conventions of the time period. by Bruno Latour: "Visualization and Social Reproduction:Opening One Eye while Closing the Other . 1982). 64-66.ed. 1988). 37.. and "Amor 42. 1987). "CulturalTheory. 1978). 1-41. 19-56. On grounded theory. The programlisted Lorraine Rothman as presenter. 35. ed." in Cultural Studies.: Sage. and RebeccaChalker. and "DrawingThings Together. 392-408. 34."in The Classic Clitoris. See Lawrence and Bendixen. 42-82. Janis Pallister (Chicago:University of ChicagoPress. 15-38."in Knowledgeand Society:Studies in the Sociologyof CulturePast and Present. Laqueur. and presence or absence of narratives of engorgement. and using the constant comparativemethod. Becker. Suzann Gage. ed. Thomas Laqueur. tice. GordonFyfe and John Law (New York:Routledge. in order to enrich our understanding of this book's development and emergence on the anatomical scene. ed. 1992). Calif. 1986). See Lata Mani.Making Sex. Conn. 41. 38. See. Rozee-Koker. she did not attend. 26 Oct."in The Making of the Modern Body: Sexuality and Society in the Nineteenth Century. vel DulcedoAppeletur." Making Sex. 40. 1990). Analytic concepts developedfrom the data include complexityof visual representations. The Discovery of Grounded Theory (Chicago: Aldine. and Pepitone-Arreola-Rockwell. 1993 in San Francisco. the use of the homologue/analogue comparisons with the penis. and Veneris. George Ludwig Kobelt. The Mind Has No Sex. "Orgasm. and the Politics of Reproductive Biology.A New View of a Woman'sBody (New York:Simon & Schuster."including presentations by Carol Downer. 36. We also attended the American Public Health Association annual meeting's session "FemaleOrgasm and Redefinitions of the Clitoris.Art Worlds(Berkeley:University of CaliforniaPress.. and Giacomini. Instead. Calif. This componentof our investigation included interviewing Suzann Gage. See Londa Schiebinger.Basics of QualitativeResearch:GroundedTheory Procedures and Techniques (Beverly Hills. On Monstersand Marvels.298 Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E. Clarke variation of data and interpretations. 1981). 1967). "Visualization and Cognition:Thinking with Eyes and Hands. Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists (New York:Cambridge University Press. diversificationof the clitoris. The Practice of Social Research. Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the Methodologyof Grounded Theory(Mill Valley. as well as the need for analysts to be reflexive in process.

and Ronan O'Rahilly. Alfred Kinsey et al. Dickinson was a major activist and perhaps the major physician activist in the American birth control as well as sexology movements. 58. 52. Katherine Armstrong. Hickman. it is important to acknowledgethe many ways communities (scientific and otherwise) construct and constrain the environments in which anatomy is done.Anatomy: A Regional Study of Human Structure. As suggested by historian Donna Penn. Handbookof Obstetricsand Gynecology(Los Altos. C.: . Giles. n. Anatomy:Descriptive and Surgical (Philadelphia:Lea Brothers & Co. Saunders.must be taken in historical context.. 2d. and Cynthia Eagle Russett. Saunders. anthropometry. Woman'sBody. See Furneaux. 273300. Ernest Gardner. 1952). "Amor Veneris. William Furneaux. 1990). The Surgery. 1983). Although not within the scope of this study.d. James Reed. Jesse Feiring Williams. vel DulcedoAppeletur.Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E. (London: Baillere. ed.F. Davis & Co. 4th ed. 1983). 53. Ellen Chessler. Chambers Twentieth-Century Dictionary (Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press. Woman'sRight: Birth Control in America. See Kobelt. 57. and Surgical Anatomy of the Female Pelvic Organs (in a series of plates taken from nature with commentaries.. Davis Parke.. Arthur Giles. 50. ed. 2d. Sexual Science: The Victorian Construction of Womanhood(Cambridge:Harvard University Press. Several scientists were involved in the examination and interpretation of specific body parts for the purpose of quantifying deviance. and Ralph Benson. (Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications. Terry. See.M. 1026. Henry Gray. 1901). 1910). Clarke 299 43. and cases) 3d. Basic Anatomy and Physiology (London: Edward Arnold. Philips' Anatomical Model of the Female Human Body (London: George Philip & Son.B. 1963). 1992). 21. (Philadelphia: W. Baillere's Atlas of Female Anatomy. ed. 2d. See Linda Gordon. 1940). (Princeton:Princeton University Press. 1948). The Birth Control Movement and American Society:From Private Vice to Public Virtue. Dickinson. 1904). Kobelt. ed. 230. A Textbookof Anatomy and Physiology (Philadelphia: W.Savage. 1953). Laqueur. Saunders. An Introduction to Functional Anatomy. (Baltimore:Williams & Wilkins. this early-twentieth-centuryfascination with measuring specific parts of the body.. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (Philadelphia:W. 47. for example. [1920s]). Co. 1989). Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Generative Organs and of Pregnancy (New York:Paul Hoeber. Physician's Anatomical Aid (Chicago:Western Publishing House. ed. Tindall & Cox. notes. 45. (New York:William WoodCo. and Anatomy of the Human Body (Philadelphia:Lea & Febiger.B. A Topographical Hand Atlas: Human Sex Anatomy. 55. 1949). Smout. 2d. 44. 1961).B.V. 1962). 56. Donald Gray. 51. Robert Latou Dickinson. E. ed.Kirkpatrick. 1880). and Western Publishing House."99. 49. 59. Calif. and Bullough. Terry. vi-b. 222. 54. 1923). Cleveland Pendleton Hickman. Anatomical Chromographsof the Human Male and the Human Female (Detroit: Parke. Dickinson's theme of deviance and taking women seriously will be the subject of a subsequent paper. 44-45. 41. Henry Savage. 48. 46.2d. Womanof Valor:Margaret Sanger and the Birth ControlMovementin America (New York:Simon & Schuster. David Sinclair. Functional Human Anatomy (New York: Prentice-Hall. ed. (New York:Penguin. Surgical Pathology.. 1958).

These were major cultural and scientific events. Gray's Anatomy. Alex Comfort. Anatomy and Physiology. Louis: Times Mirror/Mosby College Publishing. 1973). Trent Stephens. Later quotations are from this interview. Brown & Co. Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students (Boston: Little. eds. 1977). 1993). which funneled Rockefeller Foundation monies into sex and reproductive research. See Sophie Aberle and George W. Boston Women'sHealth Book Collective. Co. Physics. 1-30. Moreover.: Ablex. 1991). 69. 65. 742. Kitsuse (Norwood.B. 78. 34). 1984). The New Our Bodies. 1988). Saunders. Suzann Gage.The Joy of Sex (New York:Simon & Schuster. 26 Sept. 79. 64. 1985). Kobelt'swork had surfaced in the library research they undertook and was significant in their redefinition of the clitoris (interview. and Rebecca Chalker. and O'Rahilly.N. 80. "Scienceas a Claims-MakingActivity: Implications for Social Problems Research. The Anatomy of Freedom:Feminism. 1988). Rod Seely." Studies in the Sociology of Social Problems. See Richard Snell. 861. Vaginal Health (New Canaan.. ed. is from RebeccaChalker (see n. and through presentations by and conversations with Carol Downer. Women. 1973). Kinsey had a Ph. Aspects of the history of this book were discussed in an interview with Suzann Gage. 1975). Henry Gray." the quotation in the subhead above. Naomi Aronson. 1989). This is not the first elaborated labeling of the clitoris. See Barbara Maria Stafford. Davis. 1963). 1964). Robin Morgan. Ourselves:A Book by and for Women(New York:Simon & Schuster. The Women'sHealth Movement: Feminist Alternatives to Medical Control(New York:Praeger. 219-27. (New York:Macmillan. and A New View of a Woman'sBody. Schneider and John I. that research was sponsored by a major funding source. Twenty-Five Years of Sex Research: History of the National Research Council Committeefor Research on Problems of Sex. 67. RobinMorgan(New York:Vintage. Jack Stern. See Koedt. See the Boston Women's Health Book Collective's Our Bodies Ourselves (New York:Simon & Schuster. Anatomy and Physiology (St. mentArt and Medicine (Cambridge: 70. 61. 71. (Philadelphia: W. 77."Sisterhood Is Powerful. 66. 1975. A New View of a Woman'sBody. 17th ed. 26. 63. 1984 and 1992). 1972). 1978). ed.Health. 62. merely that there were not any in the texts we found produced .A. Clarke Lange Medical Publications..:Tobey Publishing Co. 1922-1947 (Philadelphia:W. Downer. in zoology.. 73. having specialized in the study of gall wasps prior to his human sexuality research. Sheryl Burt Ruzek. 734. Anna Drakontides. and Heaing: Toward a New Perspective(New York:Tavistock.D. Saunders.609. 76. 35th ed. 74. Alvin Silverstein. "No more blank spaces and unlabeled parts. 211. Gardner. We are not asserting that more cultured images cannot be producedby computer graphic methods. 60. and Lutie Leavell.Gray.Body Criticism:Imaging the Unseen in EnlightenMIT Press. Joseph W. 740. and Ellen Lewin and Virginia Olesen. 1971 and 1975). Essentials of GrossAnatomy (Philadelphia:F. "ThePolitics of Orgasm.J. 72. 1984). 75. the National Research Council's Committee for Research on Problems of Sex. Corner. Special thanks to MonicaCasper for this term. and Philip Tate.B. the illustrator. and Susan Lydon. 68. and Global Politics (New York:Anchor/Doubleday. Sinclair. 18. Human Anatomy and Physiology (New York:John Wiley & Sons. Conn.300 Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E.. Carol Horos. Downer. 1970). 70-71. and MarjorieMiller.

. 256-57. Alexander Spence and Elliott Mason. "Power. Lowry and Lowry. 1985. "Fetal Images: The Power of Visual Culture in Feminist Studies 13 (summer 1987): 263-92. 255. 92. Blum.Texts. 1976.Disciplining Reproduction.: Stanford University Press. 132." 93. 89.and Butler. Steven Mentor. almost their exclusive activity other than cooking in the dioramas."Configurations1 (winter 1992): 147-70. 83. 1993). "TheMateriality of Informatics. 81. 99. 88. 97. 1992 editions. 1978). Which Way to the Carnival?" The CyborgHandbook. See Troelsm Kardel. Schiebinger. A superb deconstruction of women's "positions"in recent dioramas of "Early Man" by Gifford-Gonzalesprovides a vivid account of the contradictions between textual conclusions based on research and pictorial representational conventions regarding gender which must be (re)asserted constantly to be maintained. and Heidi Figueroa Sarriera (New York:Routledge." in Destabilizing Theory: ContemporaryFeminist Debates. Casper and Moore. Moira Gatens. The Mind Has No Sex. Barbara the Politics of Reproduction.. Calif. Katherine Hayles. See Rosalind Pollack Petchesky. 1994). ed. 95."YouCan Hide but You Can't Run: Representations of Women'sWork in Illustrations of Paleolithic Life. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 84 (1994). Clarke 301 up to 1991. Aronson. The title is based on women being allowed to squat or kneel and bend while tanning hides. and Monica Casper." Duden.:Benjamin/CummingsPublishing Co. and Difference. 87. 90. 840. "Visualizationand Social Reproduction. ed. Disembodying Women:Perspectives on Pregnancy and the Unborn (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 91. Bennett. Bodies. 84. Laqueur. 82. 85. See Diane Gifford-Gonzales. 86. Backlash: The Undeclared War against American Women(New York:CrownPublishers. and Paul Maquet. Bennett.Making Sex. Ourselves. Human Anatomy and Physiology (Menlo Park. and A New View of a Woman'sBody. Dickinson. 1991). West and Zimmerman. 1992). Our Bodies. 94. 1971. 96. "Steno on Muscles: Introduction. Susan Faludi. N. 98."pt. Chris Hables Gray. Calif. "Fetal Cyborgs and in Technomomson the ReproductiveFrontier:Or. Michele Barrett and Anne Phillips (Stanford.Making Sex. and Translation. Laqueur. 1. Sister Emmanuel Collins.Lisa Jean Moore and Adele E. Irvine. but never being portrayed as running."Visual AnthropologyReview 9 (spring 1993): 22-41. GenderTrouble. Clarke. Latour.

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