# Example on Modal Analysis computation

Let's suppose to have a simple 3-dof system with the following characteristics:

where ki = 1.0 ×10 3 [ N m]
i = 1 ÷ 6 and m1 = 0.5[ kg] , m2 = 1.0 [ kg] and
m3 = 1.5[ kg] . The [ M ] and [ K ] are, respectively:

 m1

[M ] =  0
 0


0
m2
0

 k1 + k4 + k6
0 

0  and [ K ] = 
−k4

m3 
−k6


−k4
k2 + k4 + k5
−k5

−k5

k3 + k5 + k6 

−k6

A simple Matlab program may be useful for a numerical computation of the
eigensolutions of this 3-dof system:
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%% 3-DOF DISCRETE SYSTEM %%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
close all;
clear all;
clc;
tic;
% ---------- I N P U T ------------m(1)=0.5;
m(2)=1.0;
m(3)=1.5;
k(1)=1000;
k(2)=1000;
k(3)=1000;
k(4)=1000;
k(5)=1000;
k(6)=1000;
% ---------- COMPUTATION OF M and K Matrices --am=zeros(3);
am(1,1)=m(1);
am(2,2)=m(2);
am(3,3)=m(3);
ak(1,1)=k(1)+k(4)+k(6);
ak(2,2)=k(2)+k(4)+k(5);
ak(3,3)=k(3)+k(5)+k(6);
ak(1,2)=-k(4);

2) ava(3.Proportional Damping -------------% =============================================== ge=0.0000i 0.2296 .4874 . % ----------.1041 0.4874 -0.3)=-k(6). 6698] and for the eigenvectors -0. ak(1.2296 0. ak(3. ak(3. k(6)=1000*(1+ge).1) ava(2.ava]=eig(ad). ak(3.1)=ak(1. % ---------. 3352 (1 + 0.3)=-k(6).2) ava(3. ava(1.ak(1.5633 -0.1)=k(1)+k(4)+k(6). k(2)=1000*(1+ge).3)=-k(5).05i ).3) ave In this case the solutions change as: ω 2  =  950 (1+ 0. k(5)=1000*(1+ge).2)=ak(2.05i )  and the new eigenvectors are: 0. ak(3.0.1) ava(2. 6698 (1+ 0.1)=ak(1.Eigensolution -------ad=inv(am)*ak. [ave. k(3)=1000*(1+ge). ak(2.2)=k(2)+k(4)+k(5). [ave. ak(3.COMPUTATION OF M and K Matrices --ak(1. k(1)=1000*(1+ge).2)=-k(4).2333 0.3). ak(2. % ----------.0.3). 3352. ak(1.Eigensolution -------ad=inv(am)*ak. ak(2.3)=k(3)+k(5)+k(6).3) ave which gives the following solutions for the eigenvalues ω 2  = [ 950.2).6672 0.0000i .5192 The previous code may be modified for adding the proportional damping with the following instructions % =============================================== % ----------.ava]=eig(ad).8232 0.1)=ak(1.3)=-k(5).3).1)=ak(1.3).9668 0.2). k(4)=1000*(1+ge).9668 0. ak(2.05i.05i ). ak(2.2)=ak(2. ava(1.

4..0E3.22.4..2.MODALE TIME 5 \$ CPU TIME IN MINUTES SOL 103 \$ REAL MODAL ANALYSIS CEND TITLE = MODAL ANALYSIS OF DISCRETE SYSTEM SUBTI = THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM .0.0.0E3.2.2333 .5.1.0.0000i With the availability of the code.-0.. GRID.3..NO DAMPING ECHO = BOTH SPC = 2 \$ BOUNDARY CONDITIONS DISP = ALL \$ PRINT ALL DISPLACEMENTS METHOD=10 BEGIN BULK \$ EIGRL..0.2..5 CONM2..1.0.1.2.1...5.0...8232 -0.2.0.THRU.11..5 SPC1.0E3.1..0000i 0.. as well as damping (proportional or not).1..23.1 SPC1.0E3.1.24.3.0.MAX \$ GRID.1 CELAS2.4..0E3.5.10.0..0.5192 + 0..2.1.1.1 CELAS2.1 CELAS2.1041 .. GRID.0.0.5 CELAS2.0.1.0E3..3.1..6672 -0..25. CONM2.1..1.0000i 0. it is quite easy to try different values for both masses.4.1.23456.1 CELAS2.0.1.2.0..1..0.12. GRID.3.0 CONM2.0000i 0.3. let's write a finite element model of the beam and verify the validity of the model with these assumptions for the elastic properties: ID ANALISI.4.3.5 \$ ENDDATA Executive Control Deck Real Modal Analysis Case Control Deck Bulk Data EIGRL card for the Lanczos method GRID card do not need a definition of the coordinates CONM2 for the concentrated mass CELAS2 for the concentrated stiffness SPC1 for the boundary conditions .5633 .1 CELAS2..1.21..13.0..1. GRID.1.26.0. Similar results may be obtained from a finite element code prepared for the same 3dof system: First of all. stiffnesses.0.

.0 0.. 1 2 3 EIGENVALUE 1 2 9.0 Proportional damping may be implemented in NASTRAN as reported by the following cards: ID ANALISI.0..0. GRID.697939E+03 3 4 5 EIGENVECTOR 0. GRID.076633E-01 0.0.0.1.MAX.MAX EIGC.MODALE TIME 5 \$ CPU TIME IN MINUTES SOL 110 \$ COMPLEX MODAL ANALYSIS CEND TITLE = MODAL ANALYSIS OF DISCRETE SYSTEM SUBTI = THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM PROPORTIONAL DAMPING ECHO = BOTH SPC = 2 \$ BOUNDARY CONDITIONS DISP(PHASE) = ALL \$ PRINT ALL DISPLACEMENTS METHOD=10 CMETHOD=15 BEGIN BULK \$ EIGRL.000000E+00 -6...15.0 7..789000E-01 1..2.. GRID.0.0..3 \$ GRID..351810E+03 3 4 5 1 2 6.0.0 1.0 2.502505E+02 3 4 5 1 2 3..0. Executive Control Deck Complex Modal Analysis (using the modal approach) Case Control Deck Note the request for the Magnitude and Phase output for the diplacements Note the METHOD and CMETHOD card for the complex eigenvalue analysis using the modal approach Bulk Data EIGRL card for the Lanczos method EIGC card for the complex Lanczos GRID card do not need a definition of the coordinates CONM2 for the concentrated mass .0 0.The result of this Nastran file are: No.3....4.0.304158E-01 8.442084E-01 1.0...413065E-01 -1.307099E-01 0..0..0..000000E+00 0.CLAN....000000E+00 -2..3.10..

.1.22.1.0.1.0.0.704128E-01 3.0 180.0 2 2.413065E-01 Phase 0.0E3.1.0 . 3 Grid Magnitude 1 0.791290E+01 -2.1.1.5.1.1.0E3.446919E+00 5.1. 1 Grid Magnitude 1 0.1.1.0.0 0.0 0.0 CONM2.5.083576E+01 -1.045385E+00 8..0E3.1.0E3.1.186649E+01 Frequency Damping 4.1.5 SPC1.1.21.0 0.0 0.304158E-01 3 8.1.26.302946E+01 4.0.5 \$ ENDDATA CELAS2 for the concentrated stiffness including the damping SPC1 for the boundary conditions The result of this Nastran file are: COMPLEX EIGENVALUE SUMMARY 1 2 3 Eigenvalues Real Imaginary -7.05 CELAS2..1.23456.4.1.0. 2 Grid Magnitude 1 0.2.0 0.05 SPC1.12.0.907663E+00 9.1.000000E+00 4 6.2.0.05 CELAS2.0 C O M P L E X E I G E N V E C T O R NO.0 0.4.THRU.000000E+00 3 2.05 CELAS2.2.11.1.1.307099E-01 5 0.0 Phase 0.3.5.217123E+00 1.0 0.996879E-02 C O M P L E X E I G E N V E C T O R NO.0E3.3.5 CONM2.996879E-02 4.24.2.GRID.13.0 2 1.442084E-01 4 1.2..0.23.0 0..4.5 CELAS2.05 CELAS2.4.0E3.000000E+00 5 0.0.789000E-01 3 1.25.0 C O M P L E X E I G E N V E C T O R NO.3..0 2 7.05 CELAS2.0 Phase 0.3.1.0 180.1.2..1. CONM2.996879E-02 4.

Only CMETHOD card is necessary for the complex eigenvalue analysis using the direct approach Bulk Data EIGRL card may be left. It is simply not used.CLAN. .4 5 1.MAX EIGC.... Here the modification of the input file: ID ANALISI.0 0.3.0 Again modification and sensitivity analysis of these files becomes easy to accomplish.076633E-01 0.10.MODALE TIME 5 \$ CPU TIME IN MINUTES SOL 107 \$ COMPLEX MODAL ANALYSIS CEND TITLE = MODAL ANALYSIS OF DISCRETE SYSTEM SUBTI = THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM PROPORTIONAL DAMPING ECHO = BOTH SPC = 2 \$ BOUNDARY CONDITIONS DISP(PHASE) = ALL \$ PRINT ALL DISPLACEMENTS \$METHOD=10 CMETHOD=15 BEGIN BULK \$ EIGRL..3 \$ .0 180. ...MAX. Same results are obtained for the DIRECT complex eigenvalue solution. EIGC card for the complex Lanczos ..15. ENDDATA Executive Control Deck Complex Modal Analysis (using the direct approach) Case Control Deck Note the request for the Magnitude and Phase output for the diplacements No need for the METHOD card..