Bluebook format for citing legal sources
PRIMARY SOURCES UN Documents UN Resolutions: For the purpose of citing U.N. resolutions, refer first to the nature and resolution number, followed by a comma, then by the document number, date and year of the resolution in parentheses. For e.g., 25S.C. Res. 1701, U.N. Doc S/RES/1701 (Aug. 11, 2006); G.A. Res. 41/38, U.N. Doc. A/RES/41/38 (Nov. 20, 1986). Specific articles and paragraphs within these resolutions may also be pointed out. E.g. S.C. Res. 1701, supra note 25, ¶ 14. See also ¶¶6; 11(d), (e); 12. Here supra note refers to previously cited footnote. For the purpose of citing articles within international instruments first indicate the name of the instrument, followed by comma and Art. (for article), comma again and document series. E.g. G.A. Res. 3314 (XXIX), Art. 3(g), U.N. Doc. A/RES/3314; Draft Articles on Responsibility of States, supra note 28, commentary to Art. 11, at 119. Reports: Cite the name of the authority or organization being referred to with appropriate abbreviation, followed by a comma and then the name of the report, followed again by a comma and the document series, number and year within parentheses. E.g. Int’l Law Comm’n, Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of Its Fifty-third Session, U.N. Doc. A/56/10 (2001). Case Law For international decisions, indicate the name of the case, in normal font and show the parties to the case within parentheses. Method of citation must include the year of the case, name of the reporter, page where the case begins, followed by exact point of reference. E.g. Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nic. v. U.S.), 1986 ICJ 14, 122. Paragraph(s) may be denoted by the symbol¶. Date Use the year the case was decided as presented in the reporter. E.g. United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran (U.S. v. Iran), 1980 I.C.J. 3, at 16–34, ¶¶ 27–68. If using a case not cited in a reporter, include the full date. E.g. Prosecutor v. Tadic, Case No. IT-94-1-A, ¶¶ 120, 122, 123, 131 (July 15, 1999).


include the editor’s names and copyright date). Patricia F. and 4. the title of the book in SMALL AND LARGE CAPS. AND LAW 56-64 (2003). GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS: EMERGING LAW AND POLICY IN INDIA 65 (2007). COMPARATIVE NEGLIGENCE 22 (2002). Cole et al.SECONDARY SOURCES Books 1. SCHWARTZ & EVELYN F. Children Affected by Domestic Violence: Safety at School and School Restraining Orders. last name) in SMALL AND LARGE CAPS. E. Examples: One author: RAJU KD. and a pinpoint page cite. COOK et al. Articles in periodicals: 2 . The name of the author (first name. a comma.g. middle initial. ROWE.. 35-39 (Susan F.. Pinpoint page cites. Collection of separately authored articles or chapters in book: Where the book is a collection of separately authored articles or chapters. In case of two authors. 2003). a comma. The title of the book in SMALL AND LARGE CAPS. list both (connected with an &) in SMALL AND LARGE CAPS in the order in which they appear. The copyright date of treatise. the word in (italicized). Three or more authors: REBECCA J. 3. Two authors: VICTOR E. In parentheses following the citation. 2. Julianelle. the title of the chapter or article in italics. ETHICS. eds. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND HUMAN RIGHTS: INTEGRATING MEDICINE. in PROTECTING CHILDREN IN A CHANGING WORLD: ADVOCACY STRATEGIES FOR CHILDREN'S RIGHTS 32. the page number where the chapter begins. cite the name of the author of the chapter in plain text.

REV. Diversity. L.. • Newspaper article: 3 . include both names joined by an ampersand (&). • Student-Authored Law Review article (unsigned) Case Comment. Fortney. For newspaper articles only include the first page (but indicate the subdivision of the newspaper if necessary). etc.g. except add a comma. • • • • • • If citing a student law journal. Inc.103 COLUM. begin with type of article (e. the date and year of publication of the article online. follow the same rules of citation as for non-student articles. L. etc. followed by the type of article (e. Comment. 610 (2003). follow the same rules of citation as for non-student articles. 81 TEX. follow the same rules of citation for non-student articles. Thinking Outside the "Black Box": Tailored Enforcement in Environmental Criminal Law. .) If student-authored. and the World Outside. however any words which would be in italics in the text (e. etc. • Magazine article: Gene Epstein. L. case names) should be in regular type. except add a comma. followed by “available at” (also italicized) and the complete internet link to the cited article.D's in Common Sense?. REV. v. Note. Note. The title of an article should be italicized.).g. If there are two authors.g. For non-consecutively paged magazines and newspapers. Note. • Student-Authored Law Review article (signed): David C. Examples: • Non-Student Law Review article: Jack Greenberg.408 (1979). For magazines a pinpoint cite can also be included following a comma and the first page. If citing a student law journal. If non-student article. Note." or similar title. and the beginning page. Barron's. 1609 (2003). REV. In the School of Life When Will We See Ph. Antitrust Scrutiny of Monopolists' Innovations: Berkey Photo. followed by the type of article (e. Cite the volume number. the University.g. begin with the title of the article. Comment. an abbreviation for the periodical in SMALL AND LARGE CAPS. Eastman Kodak Co. • For online articles. use "at" before the first page number.) in regular type. except add a comma. Comment. 93 HARV. A newspaper piece published as a "Letter to the Editor. is now to be designated as such in its citation.Include the first and last name of the author.

638 N. 449. and insurers reap a windfall. M. 462 ("Studies in jurisdictions across the nation. Sometimes only a short description of the material cited is necessary. Post. Many administrative matters have been found to be merely internal and therefore not a basis for application of the public policy exception to employment-at-will. 2006).g. 43 HARV.Law Curbing U. Remember the Alamo: The Seventh Amendment of the United States Constitution. ASIL INSIGHT (Aug.-Funded Attorneys is Rejected. James L. Matthew Williams. at A4. Wright & M.g. L. 83. a case in a reporter.E. a chapter in a book that is a collection of articles). This is particularly the case where multiple citations follow an e. 101 (2002). cite the page on which the article or case begins.html.asil. 1. 1994) (participation in shareholder derivative action). for example. Wright v. For e. INT’L L. Parentheticals always come before later case history.2d 1004 (Mass. 779 N. App. King v.E. 45 S.. 2001. then give the specific page(s) on which the cited material appears. Beginning page: If citing material that is part of a serial publication (e. an article in a law review. Burlington Ob-Gyn Assocs. Legal Control of International Terrorism. 1992) (critical responses to internal survey).2d 488 (Mass. • • See Groh v."). 2002) (wage and hour irregularities). 1284 (2004) (holding that a search warrant that does not adequately describe the things or persons to be seized is invalid). Use of Parentheticals Parentheticals after a citation may be explanatory.24 24 See e. Wash. the Doctrine of Incorporation. Cherif Bassiouni. indicate that rates do not decline with the passage of damage caps. TEX. • • It is not necessary to do this for a treatise. however. available at http://www. Agati v. E. Quotations of a full sentence should begin with a capital letter and end with punctuation. 4 . Mar.g. • Online article: Frederic Kirgis. Shriners Hosp.. Pinpoint cites: After a starting page. insert a comma. J. An explanatory parenthetical starts with an -ing verb that is not capitalized. 124 S.E. Some Proportionality Issues Raised by Israel’s Use of Armed Force in Lebanon.g. 17.2d 1241 (Mass. REV. and State Caps on Jury Awards. 589 N. because a treatise does not start on a specific page in a compilation. for Crippled Children. Ramirez.S. descriptive or quotations. Ct.

¶121 as the case may be. additional reference or broad general references.. at 15. 2007).C. 5 . In order to repeat reference which is immediately above and where only one reference has been used. use "at" to clarify. see also.. see. when citing a slip opinion that has numbers). ¶¶ 27–68 (May 24). pinpoint cite to the Westlaw or Lexis pagination using a comma followed by "at" and the vendor's star pagination (e.S. 91. INT’L L. See also Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v.If a starting page is unnecessary because you are citing a complete work. If the page on which material begins and the page where the specific cited material is located are the same. 130 or Id.g.g. e. 5 INDIAN J. the researcher must employ the use of Id. 23 (1965). UN Resolutions on Outer Space: “Instant” International Customary Law?. simply include the page number. E.. followed by comma (where referring to paragraphs) and point of reference.g.g. See United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran (U. Serbia and Montenegro). See. Electronic cites: Where cases have a Westlaw or Lexis citation. Iran). (abbreviation of Ibid. e. 3. 534. the next reference to it immediately will be written as Id. or see generally. 26. repeat the page number (e.J.g.g. Each of these would be cited as follows: See.. v. Please note the placement of commas in each case. Bin Cheng. while referring to the above-cited book by Bassiouni. at 16–34.J.) in italics. at *6) Direct and supplementary citation references: References to primary and secondary sources can be made either directly or by way of examples. If it may be unclear that the pages are not part of the citation (e. For e. 1980 I. ¶¶ 377-415 (Feb.C.g. 21. 2007 I. 534).

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