COLLECTIONS

PRIVATE

THESIS BY KATHARINE GREIM WITH THE ADVISEMENT OF MAX ZAHNISER JANUARY 2012

COLLECTIONS ACQUISITION
FILLING A VOID THROUGH
THESIS BY KATHARINE GREIM WITH THE ADVISEMENT OF MAX ZAHNISER JANUARY 2012

PRIVATE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION SECTION ONE SELF IDENTIFYING AND TRANSFORMING NOSTALGIA COMMUNICATION SUBSEQUENT SYMPTOMS SECTION TWO PROPOSING A CAUSE CLOSING THOUGHTS REFERENCES STATEMENT OF INTENT PROGRAM CLIENT ISSUES & ATTITUDES SITE ANALYSIS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY APPENDIX A APPENDIX B 49 52 55 61 63 65 67 69 71 BOARDS SITE PLAN 17 21 27 35 9

Private collections are one of the strongest subconscious expressions of communication and personal re-creation. Assembled with a rudimentary motive and message, the collected objects are precious in the eye of the beholder. A collection becomes external stack of the internal self, inadvertently manifesting as a tangible mass of emotion. Previous studies examine the relationship between the object and the collector as well as the underlying aspirations for accumulation. This research develops a perspective on private collecting by examining the need to possess, the superficial value obtained, and the unacknowledged drive behind it. Existing findings support and further illustrate the various motivations for collecting but do not all go as far as to suggest a common root or single, universal void. This research is interested in the possibility of a collective, impalpable absence which collectors are attempting to fill through acquisition.

“Collections are about objects, but more importantly, they’re about putting objects together to make them speak.” – Luna 2003

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INTRODUCTION

Fig. 1

When an object is referred to as a possession, ownership over it is affirmed, and a more intimate relationship between the object and the owner is made known. Because of this acknowledgment, the object can no longer be viewed as a mundane, utilitarian tool; a greater sense of value within it has been established and affirmed. More than ever before, society is consumed by objects and the compulsion to claim them; a drive, ultimately, stemming from the notion that we are what we have. According to Belk, the notion of self is comprised of not only that which is seen as me, but also that which is seen as mine; and the greater the control we exercise, the more closely allied with self the object becomes (Belk, 1988, p.140). Collections are not formed out of necessity for survival but more so as an attempt to self medicate and compensate. The overall consensus (see, e.g. Belk, 1988; Ahuvia, 2005; Richins, 1994b; Tuan 1980) is that collections are the result of identity seeking and developing. Through the acquisition of objects, there is an investment in the self taking place; and due to this, whether intentionally or not, a compiled collection forms a physical narrative. In an environment overwhelmed with choices, each decision made helps to define an individual, and these decisions of what and how much we need to possess begin to represent the self – both to oneself and to others (Ahuvia, 2005, p. 172). This research will investigate the psychological reasons linked to collecting as well as the sense value found in it. Emphasis has been placed on the power of possession and its ability to influence and alter perceptions of the past, present, and future (see e.g., Belk 1988, Benjamin 1982, Kiendl 2004). Consumers own objects because of the value they provide (Richins, 1994a); but at what point do the objects go beyond, becoming invaluable to the individual? In his major work, Being and Nothingness, psychologist and philosopher Jean-Paul Sarte suggests that when an object becomes a possession, what were once self and not-self are synthesized and having and being merge. Thus, according to Sartre, possessions are all-important to knowing who we are (Belk, 1988, p. 146). This research aims to examine the relationship between traditional collecting and the underlying absence. It is based on the premises that by acknowledging and understanding our compulsion to collect; we may expose the root of our insatiable

desire. Collecting has the ability to bring only temporary happiness, because the self, its needs, and its desires are continuously transforming. The craving to acquire will remain unquenchable until the fundamental issue is identified and addressed. Research Proposition This research aims to reveal the rudimentary message collections tell. It is an effort to expose the reasons for collecting so that we may understands where our desires and compulsions derive from. An exploratory, surveying approach is adopted for this research, in an attempt to dismantle the multifaceted motivations and theories for collecting suggested by authors such as Richard Belk, Anthony Kiendl, Marsha Richins, Werner Muensterberger's and countless others. Secondly, a more in-depth analysis of propositions explaining a universal inner void will be undertaken in search of a linkage to our collecting tendencies. This research will include Paul Martin, PhD and Richard Louv; two notable authors in varying backgrounds so also acknowledge a rudimentary absence in which society is attempting to coping with. In Popular Collecting and the Everyday Self (1999), Martin proposes that contemporary collecting has grown as a result of a widespread, underlying social anxiety. Richard Louv, author of Last Child in the Woods (2005) and The Nature Principle (2011), coins the term natural-deficit disorder, and discusses how disconnect with natural has caused a void within ourselves and our children linking it to not only psychological but physical health issues. In conclusion, the purpose of this research is an attempt to extend earlier argumentative and historical research on traditional collecting, the psyche of the collector, and the depths of consumer fixation by analytically linking these issues with a greater crisis in which collecting may merely be a symptom of.

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The Nature of Modern Collecting
As explained in the Introduction, more than ever before, society is consumed by objects and the compulsion to claim them; a drive ultimately, stemming from the notion that we are what we have. There is a vast spectrum which collectors may fall under ranging from: materialists, commercial consumers, traditional collectors, and hoarders. This needs to be noted because each of these labels represents an offshoot of consumerists, something individuals inherently are by nature. Each label falls along the same line, representing the different severities of consumerists. Therefore, many attributes will overlap as well as fluctuate between and within the realms of each. Commercial consumers and materialists are more so concerned with status and ownership of what is more than necessary. Through their wealth they are able to gain a superficial sense of self for egotistical or narcissistic purposes and embedded within consumerism one will find social, ethical, and political issues (Micheletti, 2003, IV). Commercial consumerists and materialists do not tend to fixate on the organization, cataloging, and care of one particular type of object like traditional collectors do. Alternatively, at the other end of the spectrum, one can find hoarding; which has come to be a recognized, psychological ailment. It can be derogatorily named the most severe form of consumerism but also can be positively seen as the best lead on the psychological understandings of traditional collecting; and therefore, it cannot be disregarded entirely from this research. The diagram (Fig. 1) shown is a basic attempt at understanding the nature of traditional collecting and will be built upon throughout this reading to help clarify the complexity of it.

This thesis is concentrating on traditional collectors and the methods of gathering for the sense of self fulfillment, pleasure, and/or enlightenment on a whole. Collecting is an incredibly unique habit because of the personal investment of time, wealth, and attention; and therefore, it is recognized that having personal bias for or against collecting is only natural. For this reason, readers need to look beyond any emotional need to justify one’s own behavior in order to allow for genuine consideration of these theories; otherwise, without this stripping away, self-corruption of the thought process can be expected. This thesis will attempt to look at collecting through both lenses for a genuine research strategy because it would be comforting to think collecting is altruistic in nature and beneficial for both the self and society on a whole. In some ways, this conversation on traditional collecting is an attempt to understand impulse in its purest form. As suggested by Kiendl in his book Obsession, Compulsion, and Collection, to look at how we collect is to look at how and why we select, accumulate, and order things (2004, p.9). Within the first section of this paper, Layer One will address three hypothesized motivations for collecting: self identifying and/or transforming, nostalgia, and communication. Rather than argue any of these motivations against one another, they need to be viewed as an overlapping and interwoven system of layers and through an understanding of each, a greater truth maybe revealed. Possible flaws of each motivation will also be investigated within Layer Two, as well as the possibility of the underlying void addressed in the Section II of this thesis titled, The Core. Previous research on collecting from the disciplines of museology, psychoanalytical, consumer studies and others will be incorporated throughout for a well rounded approach in investigating traditional collecting. In Possessions and the Extended Self (1988), Richard Belk explores the many ways in which our possessions are deeply intertwined with our sense of self; or what he refers to as the extended self. He acknowledges the ritualistic ways in which possessions are treated in life and death; provides evidence that a diminished sense of self is present with the loss of cherished possessions, and addresses the functions of possessions in four stages of human development. Through an ongoing case and point method, Belk explores the notion that we are what

we have and that it is the most basic and powerful fact of consumer behavior (Belk, 1988, p. 139). Belk does categorize collections under special cases but much of the information throughout his writings is applicable and supportive to this research and theorizing on traditional collecting; and therefore is noted throughout. Another theorist that will be referenced frequently is Abraham Maslow and his Hierarchy of Needs. In the first four components of his pyramid deficit needs are addressed and a hierarchy of human necessity is established. The fifth component, titled self actualization, is independent of these deficit needs and instead addresses being needs. According to Maslow, self actualization is concerned with the internal dialogue and definition of one’s own place in the universe (Poston, 2009, p.352). The Hierarchy of Needs and its individual components are relevant to consumerism and its branch of traditional collecting; and therefore, will be further explored and entwined at significant points throughout this thesis.

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
SELF ACTUALIZATION ESTEEM
ACHIEVING ONE’S FULL POTENTIAL DEFINING ONE’S PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE

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Consumerism’s

PRESTIGE AND FEELING OF ACCOMPLISHMENT

BELONGING AND LOVE SAFETY PHYSIOLOGICAL
SECURITY AND SAFETY FOOD, WATER, WARMTH, REST

INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHERS

Fig. 3

Fig. 2

SECTION I

LAYER ONE

SELFTRANSFORMING IDENTIFYING
AND
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Collections are not formed out of necessity for survival but more so speculated to be motivated by an attempt to self identify and/or self transform. The first major hypothesis addressed by many (see, e.g. Belk 1988, Ahuvia 2005, Richins 1994, Tuan 1980) is that collections are the result of identity seeking and developing. Through the acquisition of objects, there is an investment in the self taking place. Whether it is the result of a transformation or identification motive can only ultimately be determined by the collector. The answer will reflect the collectors’ belief and understanding of the notion of self. It begs the question of whether a searching for the true self is taking place or whether the collector is attempting to transform and alter the true self. Without a doubt this is a complex question, due to the more conceptual nature of the matter. The concept of self is one that individuals define and deconstruct differently dependent upon their own person belief system. An explanation of the metaphor of the self and its romantic notion of a true or authentic self is offered by Aaron Ahuvia in Beyond the Extended Self: “In this romantic view, each person has a true or authentic inner core self that was given to him or her from an external source, be that genetics, socialization, or God. The individual must then discover his true self, often referred to as ‘finding yourself,’ and if you live authentically in accordance with his given nature (2005, p. 180).”

Fig. 4

It is the belief of many that one cannot change who they truly are, so for those who share this outlook, a collection could reflect an individual attempting to move toward their authentic self.

Alternatively, in an environment overwhelmed with choices, others may argue that each decision made helps define an individual and these decisions of what and how much we need to possess begins to represent the self – both to oneself and to others (Ahuvia, 2005). For those who believe an identity is something formed throughout life, and not inherently given to us, identity and the self is ever transforming. Our most prized possessions become the props in our personal narratives, supporting our self-developed script of life and our journey of self transformation to who we want to be. This view is more akin with the attitude of Phillip Cushman (1990) who theorizes that: “Humans do not have a basic, fundamental, pure human nature that is transhistorical and transcultural. Humans are incomplete and therefore unable to function adequately unless embedded in a specific cultural matrix…Culture infuses individuals, fundamentally shaping and forming them and how they conceive of themselves and the world, how they see others, how they engage in structures of mutual obligation, and how they make choices in the everyday world” (601). If this is the case, then, a collection would reflect a constantly developing definition of oneself. The concern here would be that constant self transformation and shaping could imply that the existence of distrust of one’s personal taste is ever present. This would seem likely due to a lack of fundamental grounding as well as sense of security and stability existing within constant change. However, distrust in oneself and similar attributes such as believing in oneself would not be humanly possible, because according to Cushman’s theory, this mind-set claims that an original authentic self never existed. It ultimately implies, an inner true ‘spiritual’ core is nonexistent and humans are therefore are nothing more that soulless, man-made and culturally manipulated creatures, or more bluntly, robots programmed retrospectively in our society (Cushman, 1990). Regardless of these two opposing theories, the hypotheses can be boiled down to the question of how identities are pre designed and developed as well as what people individually believe. Belk proposes that we use our possessions to extend, expand, and strengthen our sense of self (Ahuvia, 2005, p.171). Whether it is

for self identification or transformation, intentionally or not, a compiled collection forms a physical narrative of this process for others to witness and study. Communication becomes a subsequent result of the initial intent, demonstrating how collecting is multifaceted in both motivation and outcome. This will be revisited under the Communication portion of this paper. Further research deciphering the difference between identifying and transforming, as well as a true, authentic self or the non existence of one, may be a point of interest at a later date; however, for the purpose of this paper the acknowledgment of the complexity of interpretation and differing views is enough. Whether identifying or transforming, Ahuvia presents two major risks in attempting identity construction and transformation through acquisition: post-modern fragmented multiple selves and the empty self (2005, p. 172). A constant attempt at controlling others action and perception through personal possession will quickly become an exhausting charade in an uncontrollable, constantly evolving world. This is often seen in the fashion industry where keeping up with the Jones’s requires endless investments, or more so, was misapprehended in the controversial case of Albert C., his foundation, and will. Ahuvia (2005) addresses how this exhausting effort can result in the notion of fragmented multiple selves with identity contradictions and a weak core sense of self. Some, such as Firat and Venkatesh, prefer to see this as a positive and feel that it represents the “freedom from… having to seek centered connections or an authentic self” (Ahuvia, 1995, p. 203). There is some truth that can be found in this idea of freedom. Collectors can form and create to their liking without dealing with the same level of scrutiny subjected to public museums (Kiendl, 2004). This was exemplified in the collection, organization and presentation by Albert Barnes. However, it is the responsibility of the viewer and interpreter to remember that the collectors own values and beliefs are not purposely, but unavoidably embedded within the collection. The empty self identity theory described, by Cushman (1990); occurs when the self is soothed and made cohesive by becoming ‘filled’ up with the accoutrements, values, and manners of figures and things which the self idealizes (p.599). Cushman explains that individuals experience a sense of emptiness “interiorly, as a lack of personal conviction and worth, and it

embodies the absences as a chronic, undifferentiated, emotional hunger” (1990, p. 600). His writings argue that, “cultural conceptualizations and configurations of self are formed by the economies and politics of their respective eras“(1990, p.599). In his theory, the empty self refers to post-World War II individuals who have been shaped by a terrain that experiences a significant absence of community, tradition, and shared meaning. Although Cushman is writing in regards to post-World War II consumerist and not strictly collectors, his theory acknowledges the psychological effects of an underlying absence and suggests that an attempt at compensation for something lost is occurring. In similar opinion, Ahuvia (2005) expresses that a unified, coherent identity will be unlikely due to financial and lifestyle circumstances with competing norms and symbolic systems (2005, p. 182), something seen frequently within our own societal complexity. Curator and author, Melanie Townsend, featured author of Conspicuous Consumption, within Obsession, Compulsion, Collection (Kiendl, 2004), states, “the obvious connection between compulsive collecting (ownership) and colonialism is grounded in the significant and widespread economic shift ushered by the Industrial Revolution, the rise of the middle class and the obsessive consumerist drive of capitalism that followed (Townsend, 2004, p.18). The significance of Cushman and Townsend’s theories is that both are both alluding to the proposed idea that an

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underlying societal issue
is driving the desire to collect and consume.

NOSTALGIA
“Every passion boarders on the chaotic, but the collectors passions boarders on the chaos of memories…” – Benjamin, 1931
Another widely argued motive for collecting is nostalgia. As explained by Belk, possessions are a convenient means of storing the memories and feelings that attach our sense of past (Belk, 1988, p. 148). A collection based on nostalgia symbolizes there is a desire to identity or directly link the self with a person, place, or era of the past. A tremendously current example, demonstrating the popularity of nostalgic collecting, could be witnessed at Christie’s, December 2011, Elizabeth Taylor Jewelry Collection auction. Reality star, Kim Kardashian, made a $65,000 purchase at the sale for a set of three gold and jade Lorraine Schwartz bangles once owned by the late actress. Kardashian, who has already reached high levels of success and fame herself, she is quoted saying to Taylor in a March 2011 interview, “You are my idol. But I'm six husbands and some big jewels behind.” Kardashian rationalized her purchase by explaining, "It's not just a piece of jewelry…She wore them constantly during the final years of her life and I believe they carry her spirit" (Hogan, 2011). Kardashian also posed as Cleopatra, a role played by Taylor in the 1963 film, on the cover of Harper’s Bazaar Magazine in March 2011. After the releasing of the March issue, she wrote on her personal blog, “Elizabeth Taylor is one of my all time favorite Hollywood style icons. She epitomizes Hollywood glamour and beauty…” In a video produced by Christie’s titled The Making of an Action, Rahul Kadakia, Head of the Jewelry Department, Christie’s Americas, is quoted speaking fondly of the collection:
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Fig. 5

“This is not just a jewelry auction. It is the auction of Elizabeth Taylor.
It is one of the most beautiful collections of jewelry… and then there is the romance behind every piece… There was so much pleasure in the way she received every jewel, …there is much emotion in each and every one of them…jewelry was a way of life for her.”

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Fig. 6

According to The Hollywood Reporter, Elizabeth Taylor's entire jewelry collection brought in a record-breaking $116 million dollars when it was auctioned off by Christie's New York in December 2011. Nostalgic purchases such as this, made by Kardashian and others, as well as our own personal accumulation of possessions clearly provide a sense of past. In Kardashian’s case the theory of self identifying and transforming, as well as the possibility of an empty self become plausible grounds for acquisition. Quoted from Belk’s Possession’s and the Extended Self: It seems an inescapable fact of modern life that we learn, define, and remind ourselves of whom we are by our processions… They allow us to define who we are, where we are going, where we have come from, and perhaps where we are going (1988, p. 160). It is important to note, however, that nostalgia tends to be an idealized form of earlier periods. Fred Davis, in Yearning for Yesterday, de constructs and redefines our notion of the past it in an attempt to explain to our societal infatuation with it: “Nostalgia (like long-term memory, like reminiscence, like daydreaming) is deeply implicated in our sense of who we are, what we are about, and (though possibly with much less inner clarity) whither we go. In short, nostalgia is… a readily accessible psychological lens…for the never ending work of constructing, maintaining, and reconstructing our identities” (1979, p.31). Under this definition, collecting with initial nostalgic reasoning, would eventually cycle back and fall under the umbrella of identity seeking and transforming. Furthermore, collecting with a reflective mind-set allows the collector to showcase that which they see as a success or sense of pride. Regrettably, it allows for a personal editing process of any negative truths and/or failures; ultimately shifting the story line to be most beneficial to the collector’s intent and, in due course, manipulates the perceptions of others through communication. Ahuvia suggest that loved objects are a subset of things that make up a consumers identity (2005, p. 182). In Beyond the Extended Self it is stated that, “Loved objects serve as indexical mementos to key events or relationship in the life narrative, help resolve

identity conflicts, and tend to be tightly embedded in a rich symbolic network of associations” (Ahuvia, 2005, p. 179). This thesis proposes that loved and nostalgic objects can be categorized as one in the same because the objects which we tend to cherish most hold memories, moments of pride, or symbolize some sort of significant linkage to a past person, place, or moment. Therefore, more similarly than not, they are one in the same. Ahuvia (2005) alludes to the idea that loved objects subsequently fill the spaces of our flaws, those pieces of ourselves that we are not content with; and that they help to relieve inner tension and conflict resulting for a conflicted identity narrative. This article appreciates this romantic notion that through love or nostalgic objects, we can overlook and endeavor on despite our own inner conflicts due to the missing love and fulfillment being compensated elsewhere. Undoubtedly, humans are adaptable, complex creatures with an instinct for survival. Therefore, if compensation and other means of relief can be utilized, it will be taken. However, in the end, it is only logical to assume and assert that loved and nostalgic objects will never be enough; eventually the inner issue will outlast and overgrow. Self compensation and elevation for deficit relief also occurs through nostalgic collecting when the collector finds the action to be pleasing and beneficial to the ego in the present as well as the future. Morality is an unavoidable fate and in Western society it seems anyone can be remembered if they have or had a collection worth living on. McCracken (1986) describes how individuals and cultures, through idealized and nostalgic visions of a misty past, use the past to maintain values that never existed (Belk, 1988, p. 150). Collections are the illustrations that go hand in hand with the collectors self identity story. This commonly occurs when societies give attention to idealized portions of the past and not the whole truth of the era. Most recently it is seen in media’s idealized portrayal of the 1950’s through marketing and entertainment. If McCracken’s theory is applied to the collector, it would suggest that collector has the capability of manipulating and structuring, or at the very least infiltrate, a future value system which he or she will no longer be physically apart of. This is another theory that could be suspected of Albert C. Barnes which he attempted through the creation of his foundation. The

collector’s legacy will live on through their personally crafted, three dimensional obituaries or collection, a collection that within only moments after fatality has the potential to become a nostalgic portrait of the collector for future generations. We witness this occurring in innumerable ways regarding various natures: iconic popular culture memorabilia destinations such as Graceland, decorative fine art and antiques house museums such as DuPont’s Winterthur, as well as more disturbingly, in the perpetual notoriety serial killing collectors such as Jeffery Dahmer. Thus, these examples show varying extremes of severity, but all exemplify the idea that the creation of a collection can involve creating, enhancing, and preserving a sense of identity and collecting as a strategy of living forever begins to happen.

In summary, as La Branch (1973) noted, we are our own historians (Belk, 1988, p.159). Whether a nostalgic collection is formed as a linkage to the past or gateway to the future, acknowledgement of an absence in the context of nostalgia is unavoidable and a yearning for that which is no longer present is undoubtedly occurring. With this rationale, it seems logical to dub nostalgic collections as the most obvious attempt at compensation, as well as the most transparent in revealing of an underlying void that will continuously

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haunt.

COMMUNICATION
“Collections are about objects, but more importantly, they’re about putting objects together to make them speak.” – Luna 2003
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The third hypothesized motivation for collecting is communication. According to Marsha Richins (1994a), the objects someone values become windows into their inner self (p. 522). In the case of communication, a collector has shaped a physical message for viewers, whether it is of the collector’s values, emotions, or point of view on life, a picture is being painted for the purpose of interpretation by others. As noted earlier, self transformation also falls under the umbrella of communication. This is due to the fact that it involves altering others perceptions of oneself. Martin’s book, Popular Collecting and the Everyday Self (1999), purports that, “objects are a language, collecting is a dialect of that language, and like any language, it can be used to make many meanings” (p.2). By using a collection to symbolize who or what an individual wants to be perceived as, a collector is able to redefine themselves and redirect future dialog and relations with others. The earlier example of Kardashian’s nostalgic purchase could also be seen as an attempt to communicate through this method. If a collection is meant to represent a message, it can also be argued, through an alternative lens, that collections can instead indicate a more confident sense of self in an individual. This contradicts the theory of the empty self, because it instead suggests that the collector has a strong, authentic self awareness and that they are choosing to project their values on others in society instead of conforming to what others perceive as valuable. This type of collector may appear to have a coherent identity narrative and instead of dealing with lack of personal conviction and worth, appear to have developed an over abundant amount of it. Similarly, it may suggest that the collector has reached the point where they are able to focus on their being needs, addressed in Maslow’s Self Actualization component. According to Maslow, self actualization is an inner dialogue that occurs once there has been some sort of establishment or satisfaction of the prior needs… once those needs have been met an individual can direct their focus toward a true calling (Poston, 2009, p. 352).

Fig. 7

For an individual that claims they have found their true self and subsequently have chosen to form a collection to further physically represent and define who they are, the collection would be perceived as a method of sharing, communicating and self portraying. It would not be formed for the sake of knowing the inner self but instead publicly boasting it. The catch here is that a collection, intended to represents a self-actualizer, an individual who focuses on what matters most in defining who they are, could also become derogatorily reflective of a materialist; therefore, opening a new realm of underlying problem theories relevant to materialists. Richins defines a materialist as, “a person who is expected to place emphasis on items that are consumed publicly rather than privately, material belongings are more likely denote a material achievement, and additionally, materialists tend to be less concerned with interpersonal relationships” (Richins, 1994a, p.523). Along with Dawson, (1990, 1992) she offers three themes of Materialism: 1. Acquisition is fundamental to the lives of materialists. 2 acquisition and possessions of goods are essential to the satisfaction and feeling of well being. And 3. Materialists employ possessions to indicate success or status (Hunt, 1996, p.66). Belk (1995) actually defines, “collecting as a form of materialistic luxury consumption par excellence” (p. 479) where as this thesis has chosen to view materialism and collecting as siblings with alike attributes. Intriguing this can be exemplified through Richins and Dawson’s themes which appear applicable to a collector as well. This third theme is most interesting because self-actualizers could use this same justification toward collecting to represent their true self. It seems oxymoronic to simultaneously carry the titles of collector, self-actualizer, and materialist but this demonstrates the complexity of the overlapping and intertwining consumerist characteristics. As previously mentioned, fluctuation between the levels and severities of consumerism and Maslow’s pyramid occurs continuously for humans. Within a week, day, or even hour an individual can be a collector, materialist, and self-actualizer; however, it is in the act of collecting one cannot be self actualizing or vice versa. Furthermore, the idea of permanence within any component, specifically self-actualization, is idealistic aspiration.

If a collector claims oneself to truly be a self-actualizer, and by no means a materialist, whose sole purpose is on bettering and expanding oneself, the idea of this thesis calling out its falsehood can be seen as enormously offensive; hence, why a collector may be so defensive of the theories explored throughout this research. Yet flaws in this alternative lens of altruistic collecting cannot help but to be suspected and it is difficult not to suppose that a collector, denying the arguments made, is simply self justifying and rationalizing themselves out of acknowledging an underlying issue. A overlay of Maslow’s pyramid is offered as an attempt to exemplify how collecting can superficially fit the mold, and appear to fulfill the being needs as well as the top two components of deficit needs of Maslow’s hierarchy, distracting a collector from recognizing an internal deficit.

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS I collect, therefore I am. Self actualization
through defining ones place in the universe

Success, status, expertise and

Esteem

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Sense of purpose achieved through

Belonging and Love
Fig. 8

knowledge through acquisition

investments of time, wealth, dedication, contemplation and endless care of the collection

In any case, the impression implied that collecting for means of communication is done by a collector in touch with his authentic self is an overzealous attempt at concealing a lack of confidence. Collecting to present a message about oneself, suggest a defensive lifestyle or low self esteem. Objects do not help an individual fulfill their needs and they do not help elevate to higher levels of self awareness in Maslow’s sense. Concrete objects do nothing for spiritual self understanding and satisfying. The question asked by Fromm, “If I am what I have and what I have is lost, who then am I?” (1976, p. 76), provokes the question of how a materialistic luxury consumer or self actualizing collector would react to the loss of his most prized collection. How severe would his grievances be, and would his true and authentic sense of self remain strongly intact without the physically visible counterpart to it? By asking this question, a collector may become self enlightened to which level of needs their deficit lies in and more so what they are attempting to compensate for. This paper proposes that collecting as communication may be the strongest method for camouflaging an underlying void. When stripped of the collection would the collector feel robbed of their sense of self? If so, then it is safe to assume that the individual invested more into the objects as a security blanket then themselves, and at the loss of it they understandably feel they have lost themselves. Goffman (1961), observed this sentiment of loss in individuals occur within institutions that inflicted standardization, such as: mental hospitals, prisons, concentration camps, boarding schools, and monasteries. This forcing of standardization became what Snyder and Fromkin (1981) called “an intentional elimination of uniqueness and traumatic lessening on the individual’ sense of self“(Belk, 1988, p.142). Within Belk’s (1988) concentration in the area of Loss of Possessions, Belk only speaks of grief, morning, anger, and violation with the loss of our objects due to the parallels of loss of self. However, it has been proclaimed by some, that in circumstances where loss of possessions occurs unexpectedly and uncontrollably that they finally feel free. If this sense of freedom is experienced by a collector in a case such as this, and a sense of peace is obtained at the relinquishing of their collection, it could be presume they have fact reached the level of self actualization. Belk (1988) recognizes that, “We may speculate that the stronger the individual’s unextented or

core self, the less the need to acquire, save, and care for a number of possessions forming a part of the extended self” (p. 159). The collector may become at one with their authentic self that through the stripping away; and come to see the collection for what it truly is – an external buffer and superfluous material mass incapable of ever representing the spiritual true self. With this debate on earthy collections it must be noted that this is what the religions of the world have always proclaimed to be true. Christianity, Buddhism, Taoism and so many others get directly to this point: that finding yourself, or being in the state of self actualization, happens when a stripping away of worldly possessions occurs. Therefore, to clarify and conclude, for this reason and all the others argued above, to claim to be both a collector and self-actualizer simultaneously, appears to be an implausible case. A final dimension of this Communication portion is to address passive collecting. Passive collecting occurs when alike gifts are bestowed by loved ones. Because the gift-givers are individuals that we identify fondly with, nostalgia tends to reign, and these objects become keepsakes endlessly looked after. A passive collector may have expressed a sudden liking and identified momentarily with a readily accessible symbol or object; and are now suffering from being evermore associated with it by others, despite it being an authentic reflection of the individuals true self of not. As a result, mass accumulation begins to occurs, driven by the good intention of the giver and nostalgic reasoning of the recipient. The combination of these actions results in a false identity or perception being imposed upon the recipient, which is more commonly seen as constructed stereotypes. Additionally, the recipient, or passive collector, may begin to suffer from esteem issues to do the continuous lack of control over their own self identity and image (Belk, 1988, p.150). With this reasoning, it can be presumed that self actualization and sense of freedom will occur for a passive collector with the loss of their objects. It also exposes a major flaw in the notion that we are what we have. As mentioned by Mason (1981), “Collecting has become a significant activity in the consumer society as it has become more widely available through the discretionary time and money available to the general popula-

tion rather than just the elite” (Belk, 1988, p. 154). With this wide opportunity to collect, we often see passive collections formed from more common bric-a-brac than fine art or fine decorative arts, for example tea pots, ceramic or stuffed animals, snow globes, ect. To steer of course for only a moment, it is interesting to mention that Satre identifies gift giving with a special form on control, “a gift continues to be associated with the giver so that the giver’s identity is extended to include the recipient” (Belk, 1988, p. 150); whether you believe in altruism or not, this is an unpleasant speculation for both the gift giver and receiver.

In closing Layer One, within all motivations for collecting, self identifying/transforming, nostalgia, and communication, an underlying deficit undeniably shines through. Devil’s advocate has been attested for both lenses on collecting and bias’s have been acknowledged and, with effort, put aside; yet, the argument for a larger issue is seemly victorious. Collectors that are communicating, self identifying, or linking themselves to the past, through material objects are only doctoring the symptoms of a greater societal problem to which they may not be fully aware of… the underlying void.
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Layer One concludes by supporting the notion that collecting is a symptom of this underlying issue and for that reason can be defined as an effort to self medicate. At last, it can be concluded that society is coping with a deficit that needs to be addressed.

LAYER TWO

SUBSEQUENT SYMPTOMS
“Hollow hands clasp ludicrous possessions because they are links in the chain of life. If it breaks, they are truly lost.” – Dichter 1964
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After discussing the nature of traditional collecting, one needs to ask whether it can ultimately be considered healthy or dysfunctional. Each individual’s initial answer may be different, dependent upon the objects being collected, as well as the method and manner in which they are dealt with. However; if the compulsion to collect stems from a universal root, which this thesis proposes, then the answer will ultimately be the same, despite how vastly different each case may be. As mentioned earlier, collecting is personal act; and therefore, it is understandable that it could be difficult to see the dysfunction in such a self-fulfilling, pleasurable activity. Sigrid Dahle’s piece, featured in Kiendl’s Obsession, Compulsion, Collection (2004), titled Negative Space offers an excellent example of how one can choose to see the initial good in the pastime but also brings to light the fundamental negativity. “Naming and collecting are first cousins…[Adam’s accessing of the creaturely kingdom] could be generously interpreted as a desire to know and understand, as a celebration and honoring of the diverse life forms that make for a richly vibrant universe…also could be regarded as a template for imperial expansion and colonial acquisitiveness, a means of establishing dominance by seizing for oneself the right to name another into and out of existence.”

Here Dahle uses Adam as the model but it does not seem unreasonable to impose this same idea upon the intellectual structure of early collectors, those who created the encyclopedic cabinets of curiosity in the age of Enlightenment as well as collectors who are claiming scientific motivations today. Belk (1991) finds that collecting, in the name of art or science, allows a collector to legitimizes their need to acquire (1995, p. 480). Suddenly, we have a response to those who argue that traditional collecting can occur purely for the sake of knowledge and the benefit of others. A payoff, in some regard, will always exist in the discovery of new; and therefore, in the case of the traditional collector, untainted creations are nonexistent. Townsend comments on the ‘goodness’ of colonialism and argues that it cannot be denied that it comes along with the exploitation of people and cultures in order to enrich foreign shores (Kiendl, 2004, p.19), or in the case of collections, the exploitation of objects for self enrichment. It could be argued that purity, in the sake of knowledge and benefitting others, occurs within museums but reviewing this possibility could require another thesis unto itself and for that reason we will not delve into it. Nonetheless, it seems we have once again encountered the question of altruism existing within collecting. Can it truly exist if an emotional reward is inherently present? Layer Two proceeds to theorizes that there are three off-putting yet emotionally rewarding traits that are inevitable within collecting:

David McClelland, author of Personality (1951), address’s the fact that free will is non-existent in objects, allowing individuals to have power over them. A collector unavoidably establishes dominance and hierarchy over his collected objects. In a similar view, Satre (1943) feels that a primary method in which an object becomes part of self is through appropriating or controlling an object for personal use (Belk, 1988, p.150). Dominance and control as a drive to collect is also discussed by Treas and Brannen (1976) whom suggest that the specialization of each collection allows the collector an ability to gain control and uniqueness within self-prescribed boundaries (Belk, 1988, p. 154). It could be considered that hierarchy, dominance, and control are instinctual to our human nature and not inherently bad. However, when witnessed within the constricting and methodical nature of collecting the balance in severity is off kilter. Power is exclusive to collector and a dictatorship over an alternative world is made possible and acceptable through this collector/ collected relationship, in a world where it otherwise would not be. In society, a primitive infliction of these traits upon others is not appropriate, but upon collected objects it can be overlooked. Of course, hierarchy exist within family, corporate, and government structure but it is not, or should not be, paired so tightly with control and dominance in the same manner that it is over a collection. It needs to remain appropriateness within the context of the social structure. Therefore, this thesis speculates that the act of collecting is a failing to transcend our primal instincts as suggested in Maslow’s pyramid; hence, collecting maybe not destructing our sense of self but it is certainly not enlightening it. Suppressing cannot lead to transcending. Unavoidable repetition of this dominance and power is experienced in collecting no matter how simplistic the intent may have been. It exemplifies how the innocent appearance of collecting conceals an underlying dysfunction unaddressed by the collector and is acting as a band aid to a suffering wellbeing. Based on interviews with 200 collectors, Collecting as a Luxury Consumption assesses both the positives and negative effects of collecting for the individual collector, the collector’s household, and society (Belk, 1995, p. 477) Belk’s abstract states that, “while extreme and dysfunctional cases are encountered, collecting is more com-

monly found to be beneficial, at least for the collector” (1995, p. 477). This thesis argues that while there are different severities of collecting, as Belk suggest, the underlying issue is fundamentally the same. There cannot be some beneficial and some dysfunctional cases. They are all ultimately dysfunctional, due to their primary conceal and compensate purpose; they simply differ severity. The ‘benefits’ presented by Belk (1995) are to be taken at surface value given that he fails to press any deeper questions as to why you may need them to begin with. Collections allow for a controlled environment, enabling the collector to find a moment of stability for further development of the original motive. In the quest for knowledge, domination and strategies of immobilization are forced upon the collected objects (Kiendl, 2004).Best said by Belk, “We may not be able to control much of the world about us, but the collection, whether of dolls, “depression glass,” or automobiles, allows us total control of a ‘little world.’ Furthermore, collecting legitimizes acquisitiveness” (1988, p. 154). Martin describes collecting as a way to justify and make sense of the world (1999, p.2). This hypothesis is ultimately the same as the one applied to Ahuvia’s (2005) comments on loved objects; they merely offer a false sense of security and allow the underlying void to be momentarily tuned out. Through this dominance, a security in oneself is gained. This sense of security was categorized by Belk’s (199) as one of the benefits of collecting. This thesis fails to the good in a false sense of security; if an individuals’ basic need for security and safety is being achieved through objects and not the internal self it must be realized that when the materials seize to exist so will the security. In a contrasting conjecture to that of McClelland and Satre, Cskitszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton (1981), theorize that the addictive nature of collecting does not come from the sense of power obtained in it but instead is the result of a cultivation process. It is this cultivation process, the repetitive process of desiring and acquiring, continuously seeking gratification for the longing, which consequently results in the addiction. Belk (1995) does acknowledge addiction as a possible setback within collecting but chooses to see the process as a benefit which “provides a collector a sense of purpose and meaning in life” (p. 486) Belk also ac-

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hierarchy, dominance, and compulsion.

Consumerism’s
Fig. 9

knowledges that collections possibly provide a sense of mastery, expertise, and accomplishment that is lacking elsewhere….a collector is a knowledgeable person with an expertise, no matter how narrow or esoteric (Belk, 1995). Cskitszentmihalyi and Rochber-Halton provide a more psychological explanation and suggest that we invest psychic energy into our objects. This brings the addiction to a new level of intimacy as it moves from a physical action to mental investment. Their theory rationalizes that we have directed our efforts, time, and attention into them, increasing the objects personal value, resulting in the objects being regarded as a part of self because they have grown or emerged from the self (Belk, 1988, p. 144). The development of private meaning for an object requires this repeated process of purposeful interaction and contemplation, actions underwent in an approach consistent with their personal values (Richins, 1994a., p. 523).To conclude this thesis concurs with the statement, offered by Belk, in his conclusion of Collecting as Luxury Consumption: “…Other than articulating socially valued traits and consumption values, there is little difference between spending money on a collection and spending it on gambling or drugs. Each may be pursued with equal diligence and produce comparable emotion highs” (p. 487)

and superficial romance attempt to sidetrack the pivot quest of this thesis; which is to discover the true reasons for collecting. Within his book, Martin explores other works by Pearce within Popular Collecting and the Everyday Self, and states that Pearce list no fewer than sixteen motivations for collecting which can ultimately be repackaged into three basic codings: fetishes, souvenirs and systematics. These three basic codings are a different approach to identifying the three true motivations proposed by the thesis: identity seeking and identifying, nostalgia and communication. Yet, they are more similar in nature then different and should be considered comparable, cousin’s theories. Martin identifies Pearce method and uses aesthetics as a leveling device to which to enter the collectors psyche versus that of Muensterberger who attempted to prove and reinforce preconceived condemnations for it (1999, p.8). Pearce, Danet, and Kiatriel (1994, p. 36) define five metaphors for collecting: collecting as hunting, collecting as therapy, collecting as passion and desire, as a disease, and as a supernatural experience (Martin, 1999, p. 9). As done previously, an overlay of Maslow’s pyramid is offered as an attempt to exemplify how the metaphors for collecting can also superficially fit the mold of Maslow’s hierarchy, distracting a collector from recognizing an internal deficit.

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
SELF ACTUALIZATION
ACHIEVING ONE’S FULL POTENTIAL DEFINING ONE’S PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE

ESTEEM

BELONGING AND LOVE SAFETY

PRESTIGE AND FEELING OF ACCOMPLISHMENT INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHERS

PHYSIOLOGICAL

SECURITY AND SAFETY FOOD, WATER, WARMTH, REST

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“Only when an object is known passionately does it become subject rather than object” – Belk, 1988
In Collecting in Contemporary Practice (1998), S.M. Pearce addresses the idea of addiction by referring to it as the kiss of possession; she illustrates that there is sweetness in the act of collecting which gives pleasure but like a kiss it needs to be repeated in order to be recaptured (Martin, 1999). Ahuvia (2005) also touches on intimate relationship between the collector and the collected by stating, “they were [the collected objects], as cliché would have it, labors of love…pleasure could be bought but love was made” (p. 182). Here, are two enchanting examples of how one is distracted by the idealistic notions of collecting. These metaphors of love

SELF ACTUALIZATION
1. COLLECTING AS A SUPERNATURAL “SPIRITUAL” EXPERIENCE

ESTEEM, BELONGING, AND LOVE
2. COLLECTING AS PASSION AND DESIRE

SAFETY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL
3. COLLECTING AS THERAPY 4. COLLECTING AS HUNTING

5. COLLECTING AS A DISEASE OR DYSFUNCTION
...IN AN ATTEMPT AT SELF COMPENSATION ...
Fig. 10

“The foundation of our economy is based on collecting, and much of our culture is based on consumption – where more is always better and seldom ever enough.” - Townsend, 2004
As mentioned earlier, a more extremist explanation is offered by psychoanalyst W. Muensterberger, author of Collecting: An Unruly Passion: Psychological Perspective. He is known for “following the classic Freudian line that collecting in adults (at least beyond a certain point) is an analy retentive characteristic and reaction to childhood trauma, an ego defense mechanism” (Martin, 1999, p. 7). In Why the Collect: Collectors Reveal their Motivations, Formanek (1991) explains that early contributions to motivations for collecting derive from Freud’s biological drive model (1963) (Pearce, 1994, p. 327). Martin does point out that conforming to this Freudian theory is largely outdated, however, in Toward a New Understanding of Collecting, Kiendl (2004) can also be found associating extreme collecting or exceeding the ‘normal boundaries’ with bordering on the pathological as well, except for in the case of our cultural containers: the library, museum, or archive (Kiendl, 2004, p.14). In another swift side note, it must be acknowledged that, to metaphorically diagnose mass collecting as a reflection of a dysfunction, except within our cultural containers, raises an eyebrow of suspicion. It seems illogical to argue collecting on a private, traditional scale is a sign of an underlying issue but society doing it collectively and publicly at a large scale is not. It could be alternatively argued that society’s universal need for acquisition is an even louder collective cry for help. Nonetheless, Muensterberger’s theory framework is described by Pete Bears (1995), in his review of Collecting: An Unruly Passion: Psychological Perspective: “to develop his themes, he first discusses the essential elements of collecting as a human activity, exploring its complex functions, such as a reaction to uncertainties and traumas experienced during childhood, an impoverished form of companionship, a competitive hunting instinct, a pleasurable respite from everyday life, the continuance of a family tradition, or confirmation of a superhuman power expressed through” (p.3).

Stated by Kevin Melchionne, “cultural theorist often say that collecting is dominated by neurotic, fetishistic, compulsive, or obsessional desires” (1996, p.1). Clearly, this is the attitude of Muensterberger's as well as Pearce to a degree, which is undoubtedly an intriguing yet extreme theory. Melchionne quotes Muensterberger’s claim that, “the acquisitive bent of the collector is derivative of the “grasping and clinging” of the infant (Muensterberger, 1995, p.18-19). Ultimately, Muensterberger's’ book and theories received mixed reviews due to his intensely passionate Freudian viewpoint, but general consensus appears to be that his theories made for an engaging and dramatic interpretation of the collector. Although, Muensterberger’s approach is extreme, it does hint at another very possible purpose for collecting, our primal hunter and gatherer instinct. Formanek (1991) notes the commonality between hunting and collecting and discusses how the collection like prey becomes a trophy— a symbol of one’s aggression and prowess (Pearce, 1994, p. 329). It could be theorized that individuals collect, or gather, in an attempt to fill at deficit and the most fundamental level suggested in Maslow’s pyramid, our physiological needs. Under this category, Maslow’s describes our basic need for food, water, warmth and rest. In today’s Western society food and water is, for the most part, more readily accessible than ever before. Our environment and landscape on the other hand has changed drastically from era to era as pointed out earlier by Cushman and Townsend. Could traditional collecting be a downward-reaching attempt to fill to fill a current physiological void within our most basic self? This theory will be further investigated within The Core portion of this paper. Returning back to the ideas proposed by Pearce, Cskitszentmihalyi and Rochber-Halton, on addiction and cultivation, it is reasonable to believe that after such a personal investment, a strong attachment and sense of pride is only natural. However, such a personal investment can be unhealthy when it becomes emotionally consuming, causing separation or strain on human relationships and becomes prioritized over other more purposeful activities. In Money and Madness, Goldberg and Lewis 1978, imply that, “Many collectors who are inhibited and uncomfortable with social interaction, surround themselves with favored objects upon which they project humanlike qualities. They practically talk

to these objects; they find comfort in being with them and regard them as friends.” This is a point made earlier, that collections can distract an individual from social anxieties and belonging and need deficits; likewise it can create these create these issues by straining already existing relationships. In case as extreme as this, one can most definitely categorize collecting as a dysfunction, disabling an individual from much needed emotional growth and support and enabling them to hid behind objects.

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"Living with and studying good paintings offers greater interest, variety and satisfaction than any other pleasure known to man." – Barnes, Albert C.
Before concluding Layer Two, a contemporary example of hierarchy, dominance, and compulsion intrinsically existing through traditional collecting should be offered. This thesis will proffer a close-to-home collection, currently wound tightly in controversy, The Barnes Collection and Foundation. The Barnes Collection is the most fitting example because it was never created to be a museum, despite that becoming its current fate as of May 2012. In 1925, the Barnes Foundation opened its doors as an educational institution. Taken from the foundation’s website, it is explained that the Barnes Foundation was established for the purpose of "promote[ing] the advancement of education and the appreciation of the fine arts." Unfortunately, the power which Albert Barnes attained through hierarchy, dominance, and compulsion of controlling his collections was something he could not fathom surrendering even after death; and ultimately, it has sabotaged the good will and intentions of his gathering for future generations. All that he had strived to avoid is now becoming the collections reality due to cynicism in others and an unwillingness to relinquish these attributes even after his death. In an attempt to live forever and impose personal ideals upon future generations, Barnes obsession with living on and maintaining control suffocated his initial intent for the greater good of art education by creating a static versus advancing establishment. In the opinion of Philanthropy Magazine’s author James Panero: “The precision of the Barnes collection—the arrangement of art on the walls—made the collection great. The over-precision of Barnes’ indenture—the many stipulations meant to keep that precise arrangement intact—rendered the foundation brittle. Barnes was accustomed to enjoying total control over his foundation. Perhaps he could not imagine it entrusted to the hands of others. In any event, the indenture was over-engineered, lacking operational flexibility and strong board succession mechanisms that might have allowed it to survive into the far future” (2011). The subsequent analysis is an attempt to exemplify that despite the greater good a collection contributes to both the collector and public, it is the fundamentally the materialized spew of an individual coping with underlying issues, no matter how alluring, intellectual, or pleasurable the collected outcome appears to be.

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Fig. 11

Upon opening, Barnes orchestrated the entire entity, the collection, the building, and its site, to be an educational institution. This definition allowed Barnes to keep his collection under rigid attendance and viewing restriction while simultaneously keeping the label of the ‘Barnes’s Museum’ from originating. As an educational institution, Barnes was able to justify keeping his collections tightly tucked away from the general public. Purposely provoking his adversaries, the doors would occasionally open to the middle class workers and struggling artist; however, entrance was endlessly denied for any visits requested by the powerful socialites, journalists and critics of the art world in Philadelphia and elsewhere (Collin, 1994, 450). It is important to note that it was this group who negatively reviewed his exhibit in 1923 at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and deeply bruised Barnes ego as a novice in art history and collecting. In an interesting twist of fate, Barnes, a self-made success, from the Philadelphia neighborhood of Kensington; found himself in a position desired by the wealthiest, most powerful families of Philadelphia, sole owner of a collection worthy of rivaling the great museums of the world. Barnes unforgiving attitude and ruthless rejection of his adversaries could be regarded as the first display of hierarchy and dominance. As told in the journal article Public Collection Private Collector, the Barnes Collection could be described an iron-curtained collection; and it was not until ten years after Barnes’s death that the public won limited weekend access to view the paintings (Collin, 1994, 450). In the summer 2011 article, titled Outsmarting Albert Barnes, Panero describes the Lower Merion building designed for the Barnes by Paul-Phillippe Cret and quotes the Saturday Evening Post’s reference to it as, “a walled-in little universe.” This wording is ironically similar to that of Belk’s who claimed collections allow us total control of a ‘little world’ (1988, p. 154). The cataloguing and arranging of paintings done by Albert was a system all his own, he did not separate works by artist, date, or style but instead by the appearance of color and shape. Sole ownership of the works allowed him the supremacy and freedom to control the display and design to his liking as well as to direct the dialogue and viewing methods in which others saw his collected works:

Nothing in the collection was left to chance. Every work of art connected to the next. “Barnes’ interest was in the living nature of artworks,” writes the critic Lance Esplund. “He set up dialogues among works of various periods and diverse styles to emphasize similarities where most museums emphasize the distinctions. Barnes understood that the ancient Greeks, Titian, Rubens, Renoir, and Matisse, far from disconnected, are links in the chain” (Panero, 2011). Best put by Panero (2011), “in creating his collection, Barnes outsmarted the world. In crafting his foundation, Barnes outsmarted himself.” Had the subsequent symptoms of hierarchy, dominance, and compulsion not been so tightly latched to his habit, the Barnes Collection may have been able to live on as Albert saw fit. Yet, his intensity and determination led to his legacy’s destruction as well as his reputation’s slander. In an attempt to predict and control an uncontainable future, a world that has changed more drastically than Albert Barnes could have ever possibly envisioned, Barnes failed his own mission. He made powerful and relentless enemies in life that would conquer him and his visions only in death. To conclude Layer Two, and Section I entirely, a final point that needs to be made clear is that the great collections of the world such as Barnes are of immeasurable worth to the civilizations of the past, present, and future. Despite the turmoil, internal deficits, and unknowingly selfish motivations that they may have arisen from, collections are to be considered an invaluable gift to others at the great expense of the collector. As understood by Collins (1994), by moving [focus] to the collection, we can dispense with motive and move from biography to cultural history. With that said, by no mean does this thesis argue the significance of collections; it is merely meant to provoke the collector to look deeper into oneself and ask why they have created them. With the cases and theories surveyed, the proposed motivations of self identifying and transforming, nostalgia, and communication for traditional collecting seem more than logical. And through them, the more severe symptoms of dominance, hierarchy, and compulsion are exposed and dissected, ultimately supporting the greater case of an underlying societal issue.

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Fig. 12

SECTION II

THE C ORE

INVESTIGATING THE VOID PROPOSING A CAUSE
“There is a tactile thrill, embroidered by imagination. This imagination requires certain literacy…an accumulation of references, dreams, and stories unleashed by contact with the object. In this sense, the object is just a trigger to the real collection, which is totally internal.” – Kraus, 2004
Physically and metaphorically, a collection allows an individual to constantly fill a void; as well as relieve inner anxiety and tension (Muensterberger, 1994, p.253). A collector will always find justification in acquiring a missing a piece of their collection. It allows for a triumphal moment of inner calmness, a symbolic step toward self completion or restoration. However, as previously stated throughout Section I, it is only fleeting. A greater issue will renew the urge to acquire and once again the collector will need his fix. Until the greater issue is resolved, the cycle is continuous. Ultimately, the objects we collect are the victims of our subconscious. The need to identify, transform, communicate and reminisce drives the action that is “collecting” and in the process creates an external stack of the internal self, inadvertently manifesting as a tangible mass of emotion. It needs to be recognized that it is not the physical collection we are holding so dearly; it is the physical, symbolic representation of our inner self released from the depths of our unexplored core. Because of this phenomenon, almost too complex to mentally grasp, we physically cling to it.

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As discussed by Cushman, broad historical forces such as industrialization, urbanization, and secularism have shaped the modern era and influenced the psychology of our time (Cushman, 1990, p.600).This thesis agrees with this notion that a struggle is taking place in order to deal with the growing alienation and fragmentation today. This is described by Paul Martin, author of Popular Collecting and the Everyday Self: “Much of the writing on collecting attributes its instigation to serendipity. I argue that in the contemporary sense, social anxieties contribute to its manifestation. I propose that contemporary popular collecting can be read as a covert signal. It comes very often from those who have traditionally felt themselves to be an integral part of society, but who have been increasingly disfranchised or alienated from it” (1999, p.9) He theorizes that, “collecting, it is proffered, acts as a means by which self-assurance and social equilibrium are reinforced when socioeconomic forces threaten to destabilize them” (Martin, 1999, p.1). He does acknowledge that it could also be perceived controversially as “an expression of renewed confidence in society and as a sign of affluence (Martin, 1999, p.1). However, this was an idea explored earlier in this thesis after analyzing a lens which opposed the empty self theory, and was cycled back to the larger hypothesis of an underlying issue. If scholars of multiple backgrounds detect a deficit within our society then an investigation on what it could be needs to take place. Many have acknowledged the absence (see, e.g. Cushman (1990), Townsend (2004), Martin (1999) but Richard Louv, author of Last Child in the Woods: Saving our Children from Nature Deficit Disorder (2005) and The Nature Principal: Human Restoration and the End of Nature-Deficit Disorder (2011) pinpoints a natural deficit disorder theory and analyzes exactly what he feels this absence is, within his two books. He defines natural deficit disorder as: “By its broadest interpretation…it is an atrophied awareness, a diminished ability to find meaning in the life that surrounds us, whatever forms it takes. This shrinkage of our lives has a direct impact on our physical, mental and social health. However, not

only can natural-deficit disorder be reversed, but our lives can be vastly enriched through our relationship” (2011, p.1). Louv explains and demonstrates how the restorative powers of the natural world can boost mental acuity and creativity, promote health and wellness, and strengthen human bonds. Within The Nature Principle, Louv offers new visions of the future, in which our lives are as immersed in nature as they are technology; The Nature Principle is "about the power of living in nature—not with it, but in it" (Louv, 2011). This thesis has continuously asked the question as we traveled down the rabbit hole, that has been a journey in understanding collecting; yet, in the end we arrived at a hollow core. This absence within our core only leaves us wondering further

American Dream points out, “While everything is growing bigger…we have less of the things we really care about” (Connors, 2008). Psychologist, James Hillman describes the situation as he sees it:

why

what is truly missing?
And undoubtedly, within our journey clues have been found. Cushman (1990), Townsend (2004), Martin (1999) all hint to them without connecting the final dots. Their references to the Industrial Revolution and urbanization, within their theories on collecting, are the pivotal links that this thesis was searching for. Within the Research Strategy, it is stated, a more in-depth analysis of propositions explaining a universal inner void will be undertaken in search of a linkage to our collecting tendencies…. Industrialization, endless expansion and urbanization have become this missing connection, now bridging the theories on collecting to the human disconnect with nature. It was during the times of the industrial revolution that our world most rapidly changed physically, economically, socially, and culturally. In speaking about all of these changes and our world, post the age of industrialization, the documentary titled The 11th Hour states, the evidence is now clear, industrial civilization has caused in reputable damage (Connors, 2008). The idealistic dream of endless growth has led to endless consumption within today’s society, distracting, disconnecting, and off balancing humanity with our most basic but necessary ecosystem, the natural world. Guest speaker, Betsy Taylor, founder for Center of the New

“We are psychically numb, we numb our senses from morning to night… so nobody sees the beauty and if we have lost the feeling, of this beauty of the world, then we are looking for substitutes. Eric Hoffer said you can never get enough of what you didn’t really want, meaning we rush around, permanently needy but the loss is that we didn’t really know what we have lost. What we have lost is the beauty of the world; and we make up for it by attempting to conquer the world, or own the world,or possess the world” - Hillman, 2008
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CLOSING THOUGHTS
WHAT SHOULD WE DO?
This thesis has been an endeavor to guide and enlighten a new perspective on collecting by analyzing and examining our impulse to collect, layer by layer. As a result of continuously asking why, we have concluded within the hollow core and taken a stab at understanding that which has been found to be missing. However, this thesis does not wish to stop there; one cannot point out all the flaws and misunderstandings of an individual and their happy habit without offering some sort of optimistic solution. These closing thoughts wish to do just that. One answer is proposed by philosopher Karl Marx. Marx suggests that doing and working is central to our sense of self, sense of existence, and sense of worth. In Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, he proposes that the problem with having is that it produces a false path to happiness through commodity fetishism (Belk, 1988, p. 146). Commodity fetishism is the root of the provoking and pervasive ongoing expectation that happiness lies in the next acquisition. This paper has illustrated that the problem with collecting is that it produces a false path to the fulfillment of needs. Instead of giving into our impulses and urges, Marx suggests real happiness is achieved through doing meaningful, rewarding work. In some ways, traditional collecting touches on this aspect. Because time is invested and care is taken for a collection, a sense of worth and value begins to develop symbolically in the self as well as the objects; this investment of energy into the loved object helps make it existentially meaningful (Ahuvia, 2005, p. 182). However, as acknowledged repeatedly ultimately one cannot rely on material goods to resolve their complex psychological needs, but it may be possible that through meaningful, rewarding work one may gain esteem and a sense of belonging and love by doing good works for the benefit of self but more importantly, others. An alternative option is offered by Erich Fromm, who again is a theorist who disapproves in self identifying through acquiring. Fromm speculates that the we are what we have mentality pessimistically promotes the idea that time, experiences, and life itself are items to be acquired and retained (Belk, 1988, p. 146.) It suggest that collecting may begin as something private and manageable but manifest and poisons ones outlook on

life. The compulsion to collect has the potential to be entirely consuming. With this trepidation in mind, Fromm recommends a life focused on of sharing, giving, and sacrificing; though which one can realize their identity without the threat of ever losing it. And lastly, there are the thoughts of Richard Louv, who believes that the thrival and survival of mankind as we know it will require a transformative framework for a relationship and reunion of humanity and the rest of nature. Louv communicates that the enhancement of human capabilities through the power of nature have yet to be fully realized and only once we start to study it will we become a more healthy, holistic self and world. Within the message of The Nature Principle, Louv predicts:

“The future will belong to the nature-smart-those individuals, families, businesses and political leaders who develop a deeper understanding of the transformative power of the natural world, and who balance the virtual with the real. The more high-tech we become, the more nature we need“ - Louv, 2011

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“Understand that things are thieves of time.” - Nathan Gardels, editor of New Perspectives Quarterly

REFERENCES
Ahuvia, A. (2005). Beyond the extended self: Loved objects and consumers’ identity narratives. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(1), pp. 171-184. Belk, R. W. (1984). Three scales to measure constructs related to materialism: Reliability, validity, and relationships to measures of happiness. Advances in Consumer Research, 11, 291-297. Belk, R. W. (1988). Possessions and the Extended Self. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(2), pp. 139-168. Belk, R. W. (1995). Collecting as Luxury Consumption: Effects on individuals and households. Journal of Economic Psychology, 16(3), 477-490. Benjamin, W., & Arendt, H. (1968). Illuminations (1st ed.). New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. Brears, P. (1995). Beyond bricolage: Muensterberger "Collecting, an unruly passion: Psychological perspectives" (book review)
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Chen, Y. (2009). Possession and access: Consumer desires and value perceptions regarding contemporary art collection and exhibit visits. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(6), pp. 925-940. The Making of an Action. Christie's Inc. (Director). (2011).[Video/DVD] Collin, R. H. (1994). Public collections and private collectors. American Quarterly, 46(3), pp. 448-461. The 11th Hour. Conners, N., Petersen, L. C., Castleberry, C., Gerber, B., DiCaprio, L., Warner Home Video (Firm), Appian Way (Firm) (Directors). (2008).[Video/DVD] United States: Warner Home Video. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Rochberg-Halton, E. (1981). The meaning of things: Domestic symbols and the self. New York: Cambridge University Press. Cushman, P. (1990). Why the self is empty. The American Psychologist, 45(5), 599. Davis, F. (1979). Yearning for Yesterday: A sociology of nostalgia. New York: Free Press. Demo, D. H. (1992). The self-concept over time: Research issues and directions. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, pp. 303-326.

Dubin, S. C. (1999). Displays of power: Memory and amnesia in the American museum. New York: New York University Press. Fromm, E. (1976). To have or to be? New York: Harper & Row. Goldberg, H., & Lewis, R. T. (1978). Money Madness: The psychology of saving, spending, loving, and hating money. New York: Morrow. Hogan, K. (2011), The Elizabeth Taylor action: What the stars bought. People Magazine, Retrieved from http://stylenews.peoplestylewatch.com/2011/12/16/elizabeth-taylor-auction-jewelry-clothing/?cnn=yes Hunt, J. M., Kernan, J. B., & Mitchell, D. J. (1996). Materialism as social cognition: People, possessions, and perception. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 5(1), pp. 65-83. Kiendl, A., Banff Centre for the Arts, Walter Phillips Gallery, & Banff International Curatorial Institute. (2004). Obsession, compulsion, collection: On objects, display culture and interpretation. Banff, Alta.: Banff Centre Press. Larson, H. M. (1944). Business men as collectors. Bulletin of the Business Historical Society, 18(6), pp. 162-170. Lastovicka, J., & Fernandez, K. (2005). Three paths to disposition: The movement of meaningful possessions to strangers. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), pp. 813-823. Louv, R. (2008). Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder (Updat a expa ed.). Chapel Hill, N.C.: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill. Louv, R. (2010). About Richard Louv. Retrieved 12/3, 2012, from http://richardlouv.com/about/ Louv, R. (2011). The Nature Principle: Human restoration and the end to natural-deficit disorder. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill. Martin, P. (1999). Popular collecting and the everyday self: The reinvention of museums?. London; New York: Leicester University Press. Marx, K. (2001). Communist Manifesto ElecBook. Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and Personality (2d ed.). New York: Harper & Row. Mayor, A. H. (1957). Collectors at home. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 16(3), pp. 108-116. McClelland, D. C. (1956). Personality. Annual Review of Psychology, 7(1), 39-62. McCracken, G. (1986). Culture and consumption: A theoretical account of the structure and movement of the cultural meaning of consumer goods. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(1), 71-84. Melchionne, K. (1996). Collecting: An unruly passion: Psychological perspectives. (book review)

Micheletti, M. (2003). Political virtue and shopping :Individuals, consumerism, and collective action (1st ed.). Houndmills England; New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Panero, J. (2011). Outsmarting Albert Barnes. Philanthropy Magazine, Philanthropy Roundtable 2011 Pearce, S. M. (1998). Collecting in Contemporary Practice. University of Leicester, U.K.: SAGE Publications Ltd. Pearce, S. M., & ebrary, I. (1994). Interpreting objects and collections. London; New York: Routledge. Poston, B. C. (2009). An exercise in personal exploration: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Association of Surgical Technologist Richins, M. L. (1994a). Special possessions and the expression of material values. The Journal of Consumer Research, 21(3), 522-533. Richins, M. L. (1994b). Valuing things: The public and private meanings of possessions. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(3), pp. 504-521. Richins, M., & Dawson, S. (1992). A consumer values orientation for materialism and its measurement: Scale development and validation. The Journal of Consumer Research, 19(3), 303-316. Sartre, J. (1943). Being and nothingness: A phenomenological essay on ontogoly. Schutte, L. (2011). Kim Kardashian pays $65,000 for Elizabeth Taylor’s bracelets at auction. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrived 12/14 from: http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/kim-kardashian-elizabeth-taylor-auctionjewelry-273827 Snyder, C.R.: Howard L. Fromkin. (1981). Uniqueness: Human pursuit of difference. New York: Plenum Press. Snyder, K. (1994). Psychology -- collecting: An unruly passion: Psychological perspectives by Werner Muensterberger. Wilson Library Bulletin, 68(9), 90. The Barnes Foundation. (2011). Dr. Albert C. Barnes. Retrieved 12/29 from http://www.barnesfoundation.org/about/history/albert Tian, K., & Belk, R. (2005). Extended self and possessions in the workplace. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(2), pp. 297-310. Venkatesh, A., & Firat, A. F. (1995). Liberatory postmodernism and the reenchantment of consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(3), 239-267. doi:10.1086/209448
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IMAGES
Fig 1.
Charles Wilson Peale. (American Painter, Naturalist). Self Portrait of the Artist in His Museum [Oil on Canvas].1822. Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Mauriès, P. (2002). Cabinets of Curiosities. London; New York: Thames & Hudson.

Fig 6.
The Elizabeth Taylor Jewelry Action. [Screen Shot]. Dec. 2011. The Making of an Action. from Christie’s Inc. (Director). (2011).[Video/DVD]

Fig 7.
The Elizabeth Taylor Jewelry Action. [Screen Shot]. Dec. 2011. The Making of an Action. from Christie’s Inc. (Director). (2011).[Video/DVD]

Fig 11. Fig 2 | 3 | 8 | 9 | 10.
Hand sketches and thoughts by author, Kate Greim. Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs imagert adapted from pyramid image provided by Poston, B. C. (2009). An exercise in personal exploration: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Association of Surgical Technologist Albert C. Barnes. [Photography] The Barnes Foundation Archives. Retrieved December 8, 2011, from: URL http://tolucantimes.info/section/entertainment/the-art-of-the-steal/

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Fig 4.
Angelo Pinto. (Photographer). Albert C. Barnes (detail). [Photography] 1946. The Barnes Foundation Archives. Retrieved December 8, 2011, from: URL http://tolucantimes.info/section/entertainment/the-art-of-the-steal/

Fig 12.
Albert C. Barnes. [Photography] The Barnes Foundation Archives. Retrieved December 8, 2011, from: URL http://tolucantimes.info/section/entertainment/the-art-of-the-steal/

Fig 5.
The Elizabeth Taylor Jewelry Action. [Screen Shot]. Dec. 2011. The Making of an Action. from Christie’s Inc. (Director). (2011).[Video/DVD]

Section Imagery
Onion Sketch [Digital Imagery]. Retrieved Janurary 3, 2011, from: URL http://sethares.engr.wisc.edu/telebreak.html Paired with hand sketch of revealed layers by author, Kate Greim.

STATEMENT OF INTENT
It is the design intent that through the reintroduction and balance of the natural environment with today’s technology we will holistically restore the absence ourselves and better our world. My design project will be a model promoting this mind-set.

“The future will belong to the nature-smart-those individuals, families, businesses and political leaders who develop a deeper understanding of the transformative power of the natural world, and who balance the virtual with the real. The more high-tech we become, the more nature we need.” -Richard Louv, author of Last Child in the Woods and The Nature Principle
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PROGRAM
SPACE 1ST FLOOR HOSTESS AREA BAR BAR SEATING SERVICE STATION GUEST FACILITIES INDOOR ELEVATOR/STAIR BACK OF HOUSE RECEIVING AREA SM. KITCHEN WITH STORAGE PREP AREA AND SERVICE WINDOW TOTAL SQ.2 W/ C. CUT OUT FOR SYSTEMS VIEWING SECOND LEVEL DECOMPRESSION ENTRY DINING AREA SERVICE STATION INDOOR ELEVATOR/STAIR BACK OF HOUSE KITCHEN TOTAL SQ.2 WITH CENTER CUT OUT FOR SYSTEMS VIEWING

SQUARE FOOTAGE 60 220 1038 30 375 1038 450 600 3881
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(EST. SEATING FOR 8) (UNISEX)

(EXISTING GARAGE)

426 1050 30 1038 1337 3881

(EST. SEATING FOR 50)

BASEMENT ADDITIONAL STORAGE FOR KITCHEN EQUIPMENT AND AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS RAINWATER COLLECTION & CLEANSING SYSTEMS BIOREMEDIATION/PERMACULTURE SYSTEMS ALL LOCATED WITHIN BUILDING CORE TOTAL SQUARE FOOTAGE ESTIMATE

3881

11643 23,286

CLIENT
The proposed client is the Garces Management Group, lead by Ecuadorian American chef, restaurant owner, and Iron Chef Jose Garces. Garces currently owns seven restaurants in Philadelphia, and foresees this project to be his eighth. In addition to his successful restaurant ventures, Chef Garces is the owner of Luna Farm, a 40-acre oasis of sustainable agriculture located just outside of Philadelphia. Serving as both a country retreat for the chef and his family and a source of produce for his restaurants, the farm is home to an herb garden, a foraging trail stocked with indigenous edibles, a variety of fruits and vegetables, and even nuts and mushrooms. The farm allows him to get back to basics—family, farm, food “The fresh air, the natural beauty, the quiet return to nature, Philly is busy and urban. Being able to remove ourselves from that, to disconnect and restore and refresh—it’s priceless. This is a dream.” - Garces, Philadelphia Magazine, Oct. 2011 His new restaurant will be an effort at giving this same, back to basics, hiatus to his customers, while never leaving Center City East. The project will promote and educate on urban agriculture through a visual explanation and experience with permaculture, the same method of farming he uses at Luna Farms to grow produce for his restaurants. This restaurant will attempt do as much as possible of it on location. It like his other locations will also continue partnership with Buck County Freedom Fuel, where they recycle waste vegetable (fryer) oil into biodiesel- a biodegradable alternative to diesel fuel that can be used in diesel engines and for home heating oil. Currently, Garces is using this fuel to maintain Luna Farms equipment.
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ISSUES & ATTITUDES
The design approach taken needs to be focused on the idea of • GENERATING A SENTIMENT OF STILLNESS

GENERATION.

More so than ever before, society is consumed by objects and the compulsion to claim them. We are so fixated on rapidly attending to our needs that we often fail to remember to pause, reflect, and mentally process our actions. My research has made me more aware of this disconnect and misunderstanding within ourselves. Generating an environment which promotes this type of reflection and reconnection is essential because without the opportunity to decelerate, finding a place of balance within ourselves is unlikely.

GENERATING LIFE

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The building selected for this project sits on the site of one of Philadelphia’s oldest forgotten streams. Through day-lighting that which we have neglected and forgotten environmentally we will begin to physically reintroduce nature back into our lives. My research observed that this detachment has lead to the acquisition of weak substitutions and a waning of sense of serenity within individuals. Through the cultivation and generation of new life in our environment, a holistic approach to nurturing a healthier being can be provided.

GENERATING A HYBRID FRAMEWORK

Through cradle to cradled design considerations a sustainable model will be generated that is considerate of life in the past, present and future. The awareness, utilization and fusion of our most powerful assets, nature and technology, will promote a high standard of living, thinking, and experiencing.

SITE ANALYSIS
The proposed site is located at 2nd & Dock Street, within Society Hill section of Philadelphia. Dock St. is one of the few curving, non grid-like streets in Philadelphia because it was originally a large stream. The mouth, now piped underground, was the original landing spot of William Penn in 1682. This street was an area busy with merchants, seamen, and travelers in the 1700s, and then home to the food processing and distribution companies in the 20th century before they were moved farther south. Garces restaurants are strategically placed along a distinct line in Center City moving West to East along Walnut, Chestnut, and Market Streets. This proposed location works with that strategy. The two story building is roughly 23,250 sq. 2 (including the basement). It has an existing loading dock on the east side. Currently the second floor is being used as a restaurant while the first floor is occupied by the management office and has other available open store fronts.
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Map of Philadelphia’s Original Streams

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
ABSTRACT Understanding Our Impulse to Collect This research develops a perspective on private collecting by examining the need to possess, the superficial value obtained, and the unacknowledged drive behind it. It ultimately suggests that self identifying, nostalgia, and communication are the driving forces behind collecting and it is this ethos that begins to explain our material mass. It is not the collected objects that we find ourselves so attached to; a collection allows us to have an external stack of our inner selves. Collectors may be attempting to physically fulfill their spiritual needs, which is ultimately a counterproductive quest. The purpose of this research is to extend earlier argumentative and historical research on traditional collecting, the psyche of the collector, and the depths of consumer fixation by analytically linking these issues with a greater, collective crisis in which collecting may merely be a symptom of. RESEARCH SUMMARY To understand the complexity as to why we collect, this thesis looks at the question like a metaphorical onion. It also uses Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs as a template throughout to examine what needs collecting fulfills. Within Layer One, the three most hypothesized motivations for collecting are addressed: self identifying and/or transforming, nostalgia, and communication. Within these motivations one theory in particular stood out: the theory of the empty self. It was the first to allude to an underlying societal issue as the motivation driving the desire to collect and consume. This thesis proposed that collectors attempting to communicate, self identifying, or link themselves to the past, through material objects are only doctoring the symptoms of a greater societal problem, the underlying void, and for that reason collecting can be defined as an effort to self medicate. Although it may seem like a harmless and pleasurable method of coping, subsequent symptoms inherently occur in the process which suggest otherwise. These symptoms are the enforcement and display of hierarchy, dominance, and control. All which are instinctual to our human nature and not inherently bad. However, when witnessed within the constricting and methodical nature of collecting and treatment of objects, the balance in severity is clearly off kilter. It is speculated that the collecting is a failing to transcend our primal instincts; hence, collecting maybe not self destructive but it is certainly not self enlightening. Suppressing cannot lead to transcending. Ultimately this thesis does not argue the significance of collections; it is merely meant to provoke the collector to look deeper into oneself and ask why they have created them. In our world today we have more of everything; yet we have less of that which we truly care about. It is my design intent that through the reintroduction and balance of the natural environment with today’s technology we will holistically restore the absence ourselves and better our world. My design project will be a model promoting this mind-set.
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CLIENT PROFILE The client proposed is the Garces Management Group, lead by Ecuadorian American chef, restaurant owner, and Iron Chef Jose Garces. Garces currently owns seven restaurants in Philadelphia as well as Luna Farm, a 40-acre oasis of sustainable agriculture located just outside of Philadelphia, in Bucks County. Serving as both a country retreat for the chef and his family and a source of produce for his restaurants, the farm allows him to get back to basics—family, farm, food. This new restaurant will give this same, back to basics, hiatus to his customers, while never leaving Center City East. It will promote and educate on urban agriculture through a visual explanation and experience with permaculture, attempting to grow as much as possible on location. It like his other locations will also continue partnership with Buck County Freedom Fuel, where they recycle waste vegetable (fryer) oil into biodiesel. PROGRAM

ISSUES & ATTITUDES The design approach taken for this project needs to be focused on the idea of GENERATION. GENERATING A SENTIMENT OF STILLNESS : More so than ever before, society is consumed by objects and the compulsion to claim them. We are so fixated on rapidly attending to our needs that we often fail to remember to pause, reflect, and mentally process our actions. My research has made me more aware of this disconnect and misunderstanding within ourselves. Generating an environment which promotes this type of reflection and reconnection is essential because without the opportunity to decelerate, finding a place of balance within ourselves is unlikely. GENERATING LIFE: The building selected for this project sits on the site of one of Philadelphia’s oldest forgotten streams. Through day-lighting that which we have neglected and forgotten environmentally we will begin to physically reintroduce nature back into our lives. My research observed that this detachment has lead to the acquisition of weak substitutions and a waning of sense of serenity within individuals. Through the cultivation and generation of new life in our environment, a holistic approach to nurturing a healthier being can be provided. GENERATING A HYBRID FRAMEWORK: Through cradle to cradle design considerations a sustainable model will be generated that is considerate of life in the past, present and future. The awareness, utilization and fusion of our most powerful assets, nature and technology, will promote a high standard of living, thinking, and experiencing. PRESENTATION REQUIREMENTS Visual Concept Board & Design Statement Revit Floor and Ceiling Plans (3) Full Building Sections (2) Rendering: Exterior Renovations, Decompression Area, Restaurant and Bar areas. (4) All renderings should incorporate views of the vertical urban agriculture and permaculture systems interacting with these spaces. Detail of Vertical Wall and Permaculture Systems (2) Finishes and Furnishings: Dining area, Bar, and Waiting Areas, possibly exterior renovation materials. Work Plan Concept Images and Adjacencies with 3 Dimensional Considerations Revit Base Plans and Sections Space Planning Design Development Walk through Jury: Design Development Refining Space Planning and Design Considerations Finalize Space Planning and Begin Sections Development Begin Perspective Rendering Finishes and Furnishings Gathering Walk through Jury: Final Design Review Continue Perspective Rendering Development and Section Rendering Advisor Meeting Advisor Meeting Walk through Jury: Presentation Focus Finalize any last minute revisions, Advisor Meeting Submit Final Thesis Presentation Prepare Oral Presentation Final Thesis Presentation Week of Feb. 13th Week of Feb. 20th Week of Feb. 27th Week of March 5th Week of March 12th Week of March 19th Week of March 26th Week of April 2nd Week of April 9th Week of April 16th Week of April 23rd Week of April 30th Week of May 7th Thurs. May 17th Friday, May 18th Saturday, May 19th

1ST FLOOR SPACE HOSTESS AREA BAR BAR SEATING SERVICE STATION GUEST FACILITIES ELEVATOR/STAIR

SQUARE FOOTAGE 60 220 1038 30 375 1038 450 600 3881

SECOND LEVEL DECOMPRESSION ENTRY DINING AREA SERVICE STATION INDOOR ELEVATOR/STAIR BACK OF HOUSE KITCHEN TOTAL SQ.2 W/ C. CUT OUT FOR SYSTEMS VIEWING BASEMENT STORAGE FOR KITCHEN EQUIPMENT AND AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS

SQUARE FOOTAGE 426 1050 30 1038 1337 3881

BACK OF HOUSE RECEIVING AREA SM. KITCHEN WITH STORAGE/ PREP AREA AND SERVICE WINDOW TOTAL SQ.2 W/ C. CUT OUT FOR SYSTEMS VIEWING

3881

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RAINWATER COLLECTION & CLEANSING SYSTEMS/ BIOREMEDIATION/PERMACULTURE SYSTEMS ALL LOCATED WITHIN BUILDING CORE TOTAL SQUARE FOOTAGE ESTIMATE

11643 23,286

SITE ANALYSIS The proposed site is located at 2nd & Dock Street, within Society Hill section of Philadelphia. Dock St. is one of the few curving, non grid-like streets in Philadelphia because it was originally a large stream. The mouth, now piped underground, was the original landing spot of William Penn in 1682. This street was an area busy with merchants, seamen, and travelers in the 1700s, and then home to the food processing and distribution companies in the 20th century before they were moved farther south. Garces restaurants are strategically placed along a distinct line in Center City moving West to East along Walnut, Chestnut, and Market Streets. This proposed location works with that strategy. The two story building is roughly 23,250 sq. 2 (including the basement). It has an existing loading dock on the east side. Currently the second floor is being used as a restaurant while the first floor is occupied by the management office and has other available open store fronts.

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